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A Complete Parametric Cycle Analysis for Ideal

TurboFan Engine with Interstage Turbine Burner


S.L. Yang, Y.K. Siow, K.H. Liew, and E. Urip
Mechanical Engineering Engineering Mechanics Department
Michigan Technological University
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931-1295
906/487-2624
906/487-2822 (Fax)
slyang@mtu.edu
C. J. Marek
Combustion Technology Branch, MS 5-10
NASA Glenn Research Center
21000 Brookpark Road
Cleveland, OH 44135
216/433-3584
216/433-3000 (Fax)
Cecil.J.Marek@grc.nasa.gov
October 23, 2002
ABSTRACT
Today modern aircraft is based on air-breathing jet propulsion systems, which uses
moving fluids as substances to transform energy carried by the fluids into output power.
Throughout aero-vehicle evolution, improvements have been made on the engine
efficiency and pollutants reduction. This parametric study focuses on a complete
parametric cycle analysis of a turbofan engine with an Interstage Turbine Burner (ITB).
The major advantages associated with the addition of an ITB are the improvement of
thermal efficiency and reduction in !" emission. #ower temperature pea$s in the main
combustor results in lower thermal !" emission and a lower amount of cooling air
re%uired.
The objective of this study is to ma$e use of the engine component parameters, namely
compressor or turbine polytropic efficiency, burner efficiency, pressure drop across the
engine components, design limitation (burner e"it temperature), and flight environment
as inputs to calculate engine performance, specific thrust and thrust specific fuel
consumption. This relation can provide guidance in identifying the characteristics of the
engine&s components. The $nowledge can subse%uently be used to develop and optimi'e
the performance and integration of each component.
In this study, each component in the engine is treated individually. The first-law energy
e%uation, second-law, and conservation of momentum are then applied.
(isual Basic program, )"cel macrocode, and )"cel neuron code are used to facilitate
)"cel software to plot engine performance versus engine design parameters. This
ii
program computes and plots the data se%uentially without forcing users to open other
types of plotting programs. * user&s manual on how to use the program is also included in
this report.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This project on evaluating the improvement in performance of an aircraft gas turbine by
adding an Interstage turbine burner (ITB) is really challenging and would have not been
accomplished without the technical assistance and suggestion given from our graduate
advisor, +r. ,.#. (-ason) .ang.
!ur sincere gratitude ne"t goes to +r. /ecil -ohn 0are$, for giving us this opportunity to
employ our limited $nowledge in engineering mechanics in solving such an interesting
and practical problem related to gas turbine propulsion li$e this.
The authors would li$e to than$ +r. 1aul 1en$o for being the grant monitor on this
project. *ppreciation also goes to +r. ,cott -ohn at *,* 2lenn 3esearch /enter for
providing us the listing data for a two-spool high bypass turbofan engine with and
without ITB, and suggesting some valuable improvement that can be done to the code.
,pecial than$ is due to 0r. -effrey 3. 4erbon from 5illiams International for carefully
reviewing and test-driving the code. Based on his e"perience and e"pertise in cycle
analysis, he has given us many valuable suggestions on how the program could be
enhanced for increased usefulness in the future.
iii
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 666..66666666666666666666666.. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 66666666666666666666... iii
LIST OF FIGURES 66666666666666666666666... v
LIST OF TABLES 66.6666666666666666666666 vi
NOMENCLATURE 666666666666666666.66666.. vii
1. INTRODUCTION 66666666666666....6...666..6.6... 7
2. ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS66666666666.6 8
3. TURBOFAN with ITB CYCLE ANALYSIS666666666666.. 77
4. SUMMARY o E!UATIONS666666666666666666... 9:
". USER MANUAL 66666666666666666666.666.. 9;
#. DATA $ALIDATION666666666666666666666... 89
%. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS66666666666666.666. 8<
APPENDI&
A1 ' E&CEL MACRO $ISUAL BASIC CODE 6666666666.. ;;
A2 = FORTRAN %% CODE 666666..666666666...666 <9

REFERENCES6666666666666666666666666.. >?
v
LIST OF FIGURES
@igure 7.7 = * 2as 2enerator propulsion system666666666666666.. 7
@igure 7.9 = * Turbo-et )ngine66666666666666666666.66 7
@igure 7.8 = * Turbo@an )ngine66666666666666666666.6.. 9
@igure 8.7 = Turbofan with Interstage Turbine Burner6666666666666 77
@igure <.7 = )"cel Input sheet screenshot66666666666666666.... 9<
@igure A.7 = Turbofan )ngine with ITBB specific thrust vs flight 0ach number
(both @ortran>> and )"cel) 66666666666666.6666. 89
@igure A.9 = Turbofan )ngine with ITBB specific thrust vs flight 0ach number
(both @ortran>> and )"cel) 66666666666666666.6. 88
@igure A.8 = Turbofan )ngine with ITBB specific thrust vs flight 0ach number
(both @ortran>> and )"cel) 666.666...66666666666.. 88
@igure A.; = Turbofan )ngine ITBB specific thrust vs flight 0ach number
(both @ortran>> and )"cel) 666.666...66666666666.. 8;
@igure >.7 = Turbofan )ngineB specific thrust vs flight 0ach number666666.6 8A
@igure >.9 = Turbofan )ngineB thrust specific fuel consumption vs flight 0ach
number 66666666666666666666666666. 8>
@igure >.8 = Turbofan )ngineB specific thrust vs compressor pressure ratio 6666.. 8?
@igure >.; = Turbofan )ngineB thrust specific fuel consumption vs compressor pressure
ratio 666666666666666666666666..66... 8?
@igure >.< = Turbofan )ngineB fuel/air ratio vs flight 0ach number 6666..66... 8C
@igure >.A = Turbofan )ngineB specific thrust vs fan pressure ratio 66666.66.. ;:
@igure >.> = Turbofan )ngineB thrust specific fuel consumption vs fan pressure
ratio 666666666666666666666..666.66. ;:
@igure >.? = Turbofan )ngineB specific thrust vs bypass ratio 66666666..6.. ;7
@igure >.C = Turbofan )ngineB thrust specific fuel consumption vs bypass pressure
ratio 66666666666666666666.666666... ;9
vi
LIST OF TABLES
Table >.7 = Input +ata for )ngine 1arameters (,I unit) 6666666666... 8<
Table >.9 = Input +ata for !ption 7 (,I unit) 66666666666666... 8A
Table >.8 = Input +ata for !ption 9 (,I unit) 66666666666666... 8>
Table >.; = Input +ata for !ption 8 (,I unit) 66666666666666... 8C
Table >.< = Input +ata for !ption ; (,I unit) 66666666666666... ;7
Table *.7 = +escription of variables in 0, )"cel 0acro (isual Basic code 66..;;
Table B.7 = +escription of Input (ariables in Dinput& file ()nglish and ,I unit)6.. <<
vii
NOMENCLATURE
* cross-sectional area
a sound speed
/
1
specific heat at constant pressure
+ drag force
e polytropic efficiency
@ force uninstalled thrust
f fuelEair ratio
g
c
ewton&s constant
h enthalpy
h
13
low heating value of fuel
0 mach number
m

mass flow rate


1 pressure
1
t
total pressure
Q

rate of thermal energy released or absorbed


3 universal gas constant
, uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumption
T temperature or installed thrust
T,@/ installed specific fuel consumption
T
t
total temperature
( absolute velocity
W

power
viii
F bypass ratio
G ratio of specific heats,
v
p
c
c
m

mechanical )fficiency
H
O
overall )fficiency
H
P
propulsive )fficiency
H
T
thermal )fficiency
I ratio of total pressure
I
r
(e"ception) ratio between total pressure and static pressure due
to the ram effect,
P
P
t
J ratio of total temperature

r
(e"ception) ratio between total temperature and static
temperature due to the ram effect,
T
T
t
J
K
ratio between total enthalpy and enthalpy at ambient condition
i"
SUBSCRIPTS
b
main burner or properties between main burner e"it and ITB
c
properties between upstream and main burner or engine core
d
diffuser
e
e"it
f
fan
fn
fan-no''le
41/
high pressure compressor
41T
high pressure turbine
ITB
interstage turbine combustors
#1/
low pressure compressor
#1T
low pressure turbine
O
inlet
n
no''le
r
ram
t
properties between ITB e"it and downstream or totalEstagnation
values of properties (i.e. temperature, pressure or enthalpy)
"
1. I(t)o*+,tio(
This program is designed to give a complete parametric cycle analysis of an ideal Turbo
@an air-breathing propulsion system. In most common air-breathing propulsion engines,
the LheartM of a gas turbine is the gas generator. It consists of three major components
namely, compressor, combustor, and turbine as shown schematically in Fi-+). 1.1.
Fi-+). 1.1 ' A G/0 G.(.)/to) P)o1+20io( S30t.4
The idea behind a gas generator is to convert inta$e air mi"ed with fuel into high
temperature and high pressure gas. +epending on the applications of the gas turbine, the
energy provided is e"tracted and used for different applications (turbojet, turbofan, turbo-
shaft, turboprop, and ramjet) through different mechanisms. * turbojet engine can be
constructed by adding an inlet and a no''le as shown in Fi-+). 1.2.
Fi-+). 1.2 ' A T+)5o 6.t E(-i(.
"i
The no''le converts the internal energy of the hot gas into $inetic energy or thrust. The
wor$ e"tracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. In the case of a turbofan,
turboprop, and turbo-shaft engine, the wor$ from the turbine is re%uired to drive a shaft
for the turbo-shaft, a fan for the turbofan, and a propeller for the turboprop in addition to
driving the compressor. The ramjet engine consists of an inlet, a combustor, with a no''le
at the e"it. It does not re%uire the compressor because the inlet already uses a ram air-
compressing mechanism such that inta$e air has sufficient $inetic energy to increase its
pressure.
The main objective of this analysis is to determine the relationships between engine
performance (primarily specific thrust
m
F
, thrust specific fuel consumption) to design
parameters (compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, bypass ratio, etc), to design
constraints (burner e"it temperature, compressor e"it pressure, etc), and to flight
environment (0ach number, ambient temperature, ambient pressure, etc).
Fi-+). 1.3 ' A T+)5o F/( E(-i(.
"ii
2. Ai),)/t E(-i(. P.)o)4/(,. P/)/4.t.)0
Th)+0t
Thrust is the force used to sustain the flight (thrust N drag), accelerated flight (thrust O
drag), deceleration (thrust P drag). Qsing @igure 7.8 for the control volume, we can apply
a momentum balance to the control volume. Uninstalled thrust F of a jet engine (single
inlet and single e"haust) is given by
)
( )
A P P
g
V m V m
m
e o e
c
o e
o
fuel
o
F +
+

(9.7)
where
m
m fuel
o
.
.
,
are mass flow rates of air and fuel respectively

V V
e o
,
are velocities at inlet and e"it respectively

P P e o
,
are pressure at inlet and e"it respectively
@or the ideal case, the hot gas is e"panded to the ambient pressure which gives 1e N 1o.
)%uation (9.7) then becomes
)
g
V m V m
m
c
o e
o
fuel
o
F

(9.9)
The installed thrust T is given by
D D
F T
nozzle inlet

(9.8)
"iii
where Dinlet and Dnozzle are the drag force from the inlet and the no''le.
S1.,ii, F+.2 Co(0+41tio(0
The specific fuel consumption is the rate of fuel use by the propulsion system per unit of
thrust produced. The installed specific fuel consumptions, TSF, and the uninstalled
specific fuel consumptions, S, are given by
T
m
TSF
fuel


(9.;)
F
m
S
fuel

(9.<)
Ei,i.(,3 o /( E(-i(.
,ome of the following parameters will be used widely in this program namely, thermal
efficiency, propulsive efficiency, and overall efficiency
The thermal efficiency characteri'es the net energy output e"tracted (shaft wor$) from
the engine divided by the available thermal energy (fuel).
Q
W
in
out
T


(9.A)
"iv
where,

,
_

h m
released energ! thermal of rate Q
engine of out po"er net
W
efficienc! thermal
P#
out
T
f
in

The propulsive efficienc! defines the ratio between the engine power output and the
power being used to run the aircraft.
W
V T
out
P

(9.>)
where,
engine of out po"er net
W
aircraft of velocit!
V
s!stem propulsion of thrust T
engine of efficienc! propulsive
out
P

*n overall performance of a propulsion system is given by the combination between


thermal and propulsive efficiencies.

T P $
(9.?)
"v
where,
efficienc! overall
$

Not/tio(0
,ome useful %uantity notations for compressible flow will be used in this report namely,
stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, and 0ach number.
Stagnation temperature or total temperature Tt is defined as the temperature obtained
when steadily flowing fluid is brought to rest adiabatically without e"traction of wor$.
*pplying the first law of thermodynamic to a calorically perfect gas givesB
9
9
V
h h
t
+ (9.C)
where,
h % static enthalp!
h
t
% enthalp! at stagnation condition
V % velocit!
5ith the assumptions of constant specific heat coefficient, the above e%uation can be
written asB
"vi

V
T
T
P
t
9
9
+

,
_


+
&
T
Tt
9
9
7
7

(9.7:)
where,
heats specific of ratio
num'er &ach &
e temperatur static T
e temperatur stagnation
Tt

"vii
Stagnation pressure or total pressure Pt is defined as the pressure reached when a steady
flowing fluid is brought to rest adiabatically and reversibly. Qsing the isentropic relation,
the total pressure is given by

,
_


+

&
P
Pt
9
9
7
7
7

(9.77)
The ratio of total temperatures ( and the ratio of total pressure ) across a component is
denoted by the subscriptB d for diffuser, *P for low pressure compressor, +P for high
pressure compressor, ' for main burner, ,T- for inter-stage turbine burner, *PT for low
pressure turbine, +PT for high pressure turbine, n for no''le, and f for fan.
@or e"ampleB
diffuser entering pressure total
diffuser leaving pressure total
d

diffuser entering e temperatur total


diffuser leaving e temperatur total
d

E7,.1tio(0
@or the free stream, ram, we define (
r
as a ratio of total temperatureEstatic temperature
and )
r
as a ratio of total pressureEstatic pressure.
&
T
Tt
r
:
9
:
:
9
7
7

+

(9.79)
( )

,
_

&
P
Pt
r
:
9
9
7
7
7
:
:


(9.78)
* ratio between total enthalpy of the burner e"it and ambient enthalpy, denoted by (
.
,
is defined such that it will be one of the input parameters.
( )
( ) T

T
p
t p
am'ient for
e/it 'urner
'
, :


(9.7;)
( )
( ) T

T
p
t p
am'ient for
e/it 'urner stage ,nter
,T-
, :



(9.7<)
Co41o(.(t P.)o)4/(,.
In this analysis it is acceptable to assume that the wor$ing fluid in the engine can be
ideali'ed as a perfect gas. 1roperties of an ideal gas strongly depend on the temperature.
This cycle allows fluid properties variation across the engine which assumes constant
fluid properties from the main burner entrance upstream (/pc, Gc), from ITB entrance to
the main burner e"it (/pb, Gb), and from ITB e"it downstream (/pt, Gt).
I(2.t /(* Di+0.)
1ressure losses occur due to the friction with the inlet wall. The total pressure ratio, Id, is
always less than 7.
In supersonic flight, the pressure losses cause shoc$ waves which produce greater
pressure losses. The inlet total pressure is defined as the product of the ram pressure ratio
and the diffuser pressure ratio. Therefore the portion of the pressure loss due to the shoc$
waves and wall friction is defined byB


r
d d ma"

(9.7A)
@rom the 0ilitary ,pecification <::?B (3ef. 9), the following relation is obtainedB
( )

'

<
+
<

&
&
& &
&
r
:
;
:
8< . 7
:
<
C8<
?::
< 7 7 :>< . : 7
7 7
:
:

(9.7>a,b,c)
Co41).00o) /(* T+)5i(.
The compressor is measured through two type of efficiencies namely, isentropic
efficiency and poly-tropic efficiency. The ,sentropic efficienc! is defined by
( )
7
7
7


c
c
c
c
c
c
given for n compressio of "or0 actual
given for n compressio of "or0 ideal
(9.7?)
The pol!1tropic efficienc! is defined as
change pressure al differenti a for n compressio of "or0 actual
change pressure al differenti a for n compressio of "or0 ideal
ec

(9.7C)
5ith the assumption of constant ec, we can obtain the relation between Jc and IcB
( ) ( )


c
e
c
c c
c
7

(9.9:)
2oing through a similar procedure as the compressor, we obtain turbine isentropic
efficiency, turbine poly-tropic efficiency and the relationship between Jt and It as followsB
( )


t
t
t
t
t
t
given for "or0 tur'ine actual
given for "or0 tu'ine ideal
7
7
7

(9.97)
( ) [ ]


t t
e
t
7

(9.99)
3. T+)5oF/(8S.1.)/t. E7h/+0t St)./40 with ITB C3,2.
A(/230i0
Fi-+). 3.1 ' T+)5oF/( with I(t.)0t/-. T+)5i(. B+)(.) 9ITB:
*ssumptionsB
7. 1erfect gas upstream of main burner with constant properties Gc, 3c, /pc.
9. 1erfect gas between station four and five with constant properties Gb, 3b, /pb.
8. 1erfect gas downstream of inter-stage burner with constant properties Gt, 3t,
/pt.
;. *ll components are adiabatic, no heat loss.
<. The efficiencies of the compressor-41/, compressor-#1/, fan, turbine-41T,
and turbine-#1T are described through the use of polytropic efficiencies e41/,
e#1/, ef, e41T2 and e#1T, respectively.
F/( St)./4
Step 34
Qninstalled thrust of the fan stream Ff is given by
( ) ( )
P P A V V
g
m
F
c
f
f : 7C 7C : 7C
+

(8.7)
rearranging givesB

,
_

c c
f
f
P
P
a
V
T
T
&
a
V
g
a
m
F
7C
:
:
7C
:
7C
:
:
7C :
7
.
(8.9)
Step 54
&
T
T
a
& a
a
V
9
9
9 9
7C
:
7C
:
7C 7C
9
:
7C

,
_

(8.8)
Step 64
( )
1
1
]
1


,
_

7
7
9
7
7C
7C
7C
9

c c
P
P
&
t
c
(8.;a)
where

fn f d r
t
P
P
P
P
7C
:
7C
7C

(8.;b)
Step 74
( )

c c
P
P
T T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t
t
t
t
7
7C
7C
: 7C
7C
7C
:
7C
:
7C

,
_


(8.<a)
where

f r
t
T
T

:
7C
(8.<b)
E(-i(. Co). St)./4
Step 34
Qninstalled thrust
( )
P P A V
m
V
m
g
F
c
c
c : 7: 7: : 7:
7:
7
+

,
_

(8.A)
rearranging givesB

,
_

,
_

P
P
m
P A
&
a
V
m
m
g
a
m
F
c c
c
c
c
7:
: 7: 7:
:
:
7: 7: :
7
(8.>)
Step 54
f
m
m
c
+

7
7:
(8.?a)
where
m m m m
,T- ' c

+ +
7:
(8.?b)
f f f
,T- '
+
(8.?c)
m
m
f
c
'
'


(8.?d)
m
m
f
c
,T-
,T-

(8.?e)
Step 64

,
_

P
P
m
P A
c
7:
: 7: 7:
7
.
multiplied by
T #
a a
V A
m
c
c
:
: :
7: 7:
7:
7:

(8.C)
rearranging givesB
( )
1
1
1
]
1

+
,
_

c c
c
t
c
P
P
g
a
a
V
T
T
#
#
f
P
P
m
P A
7:
:
:
:
7:
:
7:
7:
: 7: 7:
7
7 7
(8.7:)
Step 74
Qninstalled thrust for the engine core becomesB
( ) ( )
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+ + +

c
c
t
c
c
c
P
P
a
V
T
T
#
#
f
&
a
V
f
g
a
m
F
7
7 7 7
7:
:
:
7:
:
7:
:
:
7: :
(8.77)
Step 84
T #
T #
&
a
V
c
c
t
t
:
7:
7:
9
9
:
7:

1
]
1

(8.79)
@rom the total pressure and mach number relation
( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

7
7
9
7
7:
7:
7:
9

t t
P
P
&
t
t
(8.78)
( )

,
_

P
P
T T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t
t t
t
t
t
7:
7:
7
: 7:
7:
7:
:
7:
:
7:

(8.7;a)
where

n *PT ,T- +PT ' +P *P d r
t
P
P
P
P
7:
:
7:
7:

(8.7;b)

n *PT ,T- +PT ' +P *P d r
t
T
T

:
7:
(8.7;c)
7
d

(isentropic) (8.7;d)
7
n

(isentropic) (8.7;e)
*P +P r
t
'
T
T

:
;

(8.7;f)
Step 94
*pplying the @irst #aw of Thermodynamics and ideal gas relation to the main
burner, neglecting $inetic and potential energy changesB
T
m
h
m
T
m
t p' ' P#
'
'
t pc
c
;
;
8

+

(8.7<)
0ultiplying the above e%uation with
T T
m
T
t pc
c
t
9 :
:

, and re-arranging
givesB
( )

'
'
pc
'
' P#
'
r c
f
T
f
h

+ + 7
:

(8.7A)
,olving for f'
T
h
f
pc
' P#
'
'
' r c
'
:


(8.7>a)
where
T
T

t
pc
p'
'
:
;


R
T T t t 9 :
for the case
adiabatic (8.7>b)
*P +P c

(8.7>c)
Step :4
*pplying the @irst #aw of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas relation to the ITB,
neglecting $inetic and potential energy changesB
T
m
h
m
T
m
t pt ,T- P#
,T-
,T-
t p' A
A
<
;

+

(8.7?)
0ultiplying the above e%uation with
T T
m
T
t p'
t
> :
;
7:

, and re-arranging
givesB

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

f
f
T
h
'
p'
pc
,T-
'
,T-
p'
,T- P#
,T-
' c d r
f
7
7
7
:



(8.7C)
,olving for f,T-
[ ] f
T
h

f
'
p'
,T- P#
,T-
,T-
p'
pc
,T-
p'
pc
' c d r
,T-
+

,
_

,
_

7
:

(8.9:a)
where
T
T

t
pc
pt
,T-
:
A


R
T T t t > 7:
for the case
adiabatic (8.9:b)
*P +P c

(8.9:c)
*P +P r
t
'
T
T

:
;

(8.9:d)
7
d

(8.9:e)
Step ;4
*pplying the first law to each individual compressor and turbine, neglecting
$inetic and potential energy changesB
1ower balance for #1/B ( )
T T
m W
t t pc
c *P
9 < . 9
. .

(8.97)
1ower balance for 41/B ( )
T T
m W
t t pc
c +P
< . 9 8
. .

(8.99)
1ower balance for 41TB
( )
T T
m W
t t
+PT m
p'
+PT
< ;
;
. .

(8.98)
1ower balance for #1TB
( )
T T
m W
t t
*PT m
pt
*PT
> A
A
. .

(8.9;)
1ower balance for @anB ( )
T T
m W
t t pc
F f
9 78
. .

(8.9<)
It is chosen that the 41T and 41/ are connected by a single shaftR therefore for an ideal
turbofan the wor$ relation is given byB
+PT +P
W W

(8.9A)
0ultiplying both sides by
T
m
t pc
c
< . 9
.
7
givesB
( ) ( ) ( )
+PT +PT m
' +P
'
pc
p'
+P
f



+

7 7 7
(8.9>)
,olving for (+PTB
( )

+PT m
' +P
pc
p'
'
+P
+PT

f

+

+
7
7
7
(8.9?a)
where
c r
t
'
T
T

:
;

(8.9?b)
#1T, #1/, and the fan are connected by a single shaftR therefore for an ideal turbofan, the
wor$ relation is given byB
W W W *PT f *P
. . .
+
(8.9C)
multiplying both sides by
T
m
t pc
c
9
.
7
givesB
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

*PT
*PT m
t
t
pc
pt
f *P
T
T
f

+ +

7 7 7 7
9
A
(8.8:)
,olving for (*PTB
( )
( )

*PT m
t
t
pc
pt
f *P
*PT
T
T

f

+
+
+
9
A
7
7 7
7
(8.87a)
where

,T- +PT ' +P *P
t
t
T
T

9
A
(8.87b)
+PT ' c r
t
,T-
T
T

:
A

(8.87c)
Step <4
The total uninstalled thrust per unit mass flow rate inta$e is given byB
( )

+
+

7
. .
.
:
m
F
m
F
m
F
F
F
c
c
(8.89)
Step 3=2
The thrust specific fuel consumption , is give byB
( )
( )
m
F
f f
S
,T- '
.
:
7 +
+

(8.88)
4. S+44/)3 o E;+/tio(0<
I1QT,B 0:, T:, Gc, /pc, Gb, /pb, Gt, /pt, h13-b, h13-ITB, Id ma", Ib, IITB, In, Ifn, e41/,
e#1/, ef, e41T, e#1T, Hb, HITB, Hm-41T, Hm-#1T, 1:E17:, 1:E17C, Tt;, TtA, I41/,
I#1/, If, F
!QT1QT,B
f S
m
F
, ,
.
:
)SQ*TI!,B
# pc
c
c
c

(;.7)
# p'
'
'
'

(;.9)
# pt
t
t
t

(;.8)
T # a c
c
: :

(;.;)
& a V : : :

(;.<)
&
c
r
:
9
9
7
7

+

(;.A)
( )


r
c c
r
7

(;.>)
( )

'

>
+
<

<
C8<
?::
< 7 7 :>< . : 7
7 7
:
;
:
:
8< . 7
:
:
& for
&
& for
&
&
for
r

(;.?)


r
d d ma"

(;.C)
T
T

t
pc
p'
'
:
;


(;.7:)
T
T

t
pc
pt
,T-
:
A

(;.77)
( ) ( )


+P
e
+P
c c
+P
7

(;.79)
( ) ( )


*P
e
*P
c c
*P
7

(;.78)
( ) ( )


f
e
f
c c
f
7

(;.7;)
*P +P c
(;.7<)
c r
t
'
T
T

:
;

(;.7A)
7
7

+P
+P
+P
e
+P
(;.7>)
7
7

*P
*P
*P
e
*P
(;.7?)
7
7

f
f
f
e
f
(;.7C)
T
h
f
pc
' P#
'
-
' r c
'
:

(;.9:)
( )

+PT m
' +P
pc
p'
'
+P
+PT

f

+

+
7
7
7
(;.97)
[ ] f
T
h

f
'
p'
,T- P#
,T-
,T-
p'
pc
,T-
p'
pc
+PT ' c r
,T-
+

,
_

,
_

7
:

(;.99)
f f f
,T- '
+
(;.98)
+PT ' c r
t
,T-
T
T

:
A

(;.9;)

,T- +PT ' +P *P
t
t
T
T

9
A
(;.9<)
( )
( )

*PT m
t
t
pc
pt
f *P
*PT
T
T

f

+
+
+
9
A
7
7 7
7
(;.9A)
( ) [ ]


+PT
e
+PT
t t
+PT
7

(;.9>)
( ) [ ]


*PT
e
*PT
t t
*PT
7

(;.9?)

+PT
e
+PT
+PT
+PT 7
7
7

(;.9C)

*PT
e
*PT
*PT
*PT 7
7
7

(;.8:)
n *PT ,T- +PT ' +P *P d r
t
P
P
P
P
7:
:
7:
7:

(;.87)
*PT ,T- +PT ' c r
t
T
T

:
7:
(;.89)
( )

,
_

P
P
T T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t
t t
t
t
t
7:
7:
7
: 7:
7:
7:
:
7:
:
7:

(;.88)
( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

7
7
9
7
7:
7:
7:

t t
P
P
&
t
t
(;.8;)
T #
T #
&
a
V
c
c
t
t
:
7:
7:
:
7:

(;.8<)
fn f d r
t
P
P
P
P
7C
:
7C
7C

(;.8A)
( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

7
7
9
7
7C
7C
7C

c c
P
P
&
t
c
(;.8>)
f r
t
T
T

:
7C
(;.8?)
( )

c c
P
P
T T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t
t
t
t
7
7C
7C
: 7C
7C
7C
:
7C
:
7C

,
_


(;.8C)
&
T
T
a
& a
a
V
7C
:
7C
:
7C 7C
:
7C

(;.;:)
( ) ( )
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+ + +

c c
t
c
c
P
P
a
V
T
T
#
#
f &
a
V
f
g
a
m
F
c

7
7 7 7
7:
:
:
7:
:
7:
:
:
7: :
(;.;7)

,
_

c c
f
f
P
P
a
V
T
T
&
a
V
g
a
m
F
7C
:
:
7C
:
7C
:
:
7C :
7
(;.;9)
) 7 (

+
+

f
f
c
c
m
F
m
F
m
F
(;.;8)
( )
( )

+
+

:
7
m
F
S
f f
,T- '

(;.;;)
". U0.)=0 M/(+/2
The e"cel program is written in combination between spreadsheet neuron cells, (isual
Basic, and macro code. These three combinations provide user-friendly software such
that compilation and preprocessing are no longer necessary. The user obtains result plots
right a way just by clic$ing some simple buttons.
The program is mainly comprised of si" sheets namely overPage, ,nstruction, ,nput,
plot sheet, data sheet, and $tape>Test.
CoverPage 0h..t
The overPage sheet contains the authors of this program. *ny %uestions regarding the
program can be addressed to us through email or phone.
Instruction 0h..t
@irst time users are strongly recommended to read this sheet before running the program.
,ince there are always possibilities of getting error computations such as division by
'ero, s%uare root of a negative %uantity, or over floating = under floating number, the
program is written such that it will not crash if those errors are encountered during the
computation. It will instead tell the user where the computation encounters those errors.
In this sheet, you will find details of how to run the program and how to fi" a problem if
something goes wrong.
This sheet also e"plains several assumptions made in the e%uations so that the users are
aware of some cases in the e%uations that have been ideali'ed to simplify the problems.
Fi-+). ".1 ' E7,.2 I(1+t Sh..t S,)..(0hot
Input 0h..t
This sheet is where most of the inputs are specified. The program will chec$ input value
in this sheet to ma$e sure that all of the inputs are specified. It will tell the user if there
are inputs that are not specified. There are three om'o -o/ in the ,nput sheet (om'o
-o/ is a list bo" that displays a list of values and lets the users select one of the values in
the list) namely ,T-, Units, and hoose a Plot as shown in Fi-+). ".1. .ou need first to
specify the value in combo bo" ,T- and combo bo" Units before moving on to combo
bo" hoose a Plot. /ombo Bo" Units lets you specify the input and output unit system.
/urrently, the program can handle only two units systems, which are )nglish or ,I.
/ombo Bo" ,T- lets you turn ! or !@@ the Interstage Burner (ITB) feature. This
feature provides a fle"ibility to choose two types of engine and they are engine with ITB
- ! and engine with ITB - !@@. 5ith this feature, you will be able to see how much
additional engine performance you can get with ITB-! or with ITB-!@@. ote that the
e%uations used for ITB-!@@ are not the same as the e%uations from the reference boo$,
?lements of @as Tur'ine Propulsion. This is because the cycle analysis in this program is
based on two shafts engine, and the one in the reference boo$ is based on one shaft
engine.
5hen ITB-!@@ is chosen, the program will e"ecute as if there is no ITB added to the
Turbofan engine. *ccordingly, the following variables will be changed internally and
automaticallyB
7. /pt N /pc
9. t N c
8. fit' N :
;. itb N 7.:
<. itb N 7.:
!nce all the inputs values are specified and combo bo" values on both ,T- and Units are
specified, you can specify a value in combo bo" hoose a Plot. This combo bo" provides
several option lists to choose from, and they areB
7. ,pecific Thrust and T,@/ (s /ompressor 1ressure 3atio
9. ,pecific Thrust (s @light /ondition 0ach umber
8. T,@/ (s @light /ondition 0ach umber
;. ,pecific Thrust (s @an 1ressure 3atio
<. T,@/ (s @an 1ressure 3atio
A. ,pecific Thrust (s By1ass 3atio
>. T,@/ (s By1ass 3atio
!nce you select one of them, you will be directed to a new sheet. Basically once the
value of the combo bo" changed, it will e"ecute a certain macro code. The macro code
associated with this combo bo" will open hidden plot sheets and hidden data sheets
depending on the selection you made.
The following discussion describes the instruction of how to run the program for each
different option.
,pecific Thrust and T,@/ (s /ompressor 1ressure 3atio
5hen this option is chosen, the program opens four sheets namely STAVSAP,c,
SFAVSAP,c, DataSTP,c, and DataSFP,c. .ou will be directed from ,nput sheet to
STAVSAP,c sheet. STAVSAP,c plots specific thrust and fuel1air mass fraction versus
compressor pressure ratio, and SFAVSAP,c plots thrust fuel specific consumption versus
compressor pressure ratio.
ST>$S>PI,
.ou e"pect to see result profiles similar to @igure >-78a
7
and @igure >-78b
7
. .ou need to
complete all the inputs parameters indicated in green cells of the ,nput sheet and
STAVSAP,c sheet. /lic$ the combo bo" to select number of plots for different &s,
bypass ratio. ew input parameters for different bypass ratio will be created indicated in
green cells. !nce all the green cells are filled, you will need to specify the relation
between high total pressure compressor and low total pressure compressor ratios. To do
this you need to clic$ on the ?nter #elation. !nce the relation between the two
compressors has been established, you need to clic$ @enerate to generate a table for
compressor pressure ratio. *t this point you are ready to run the program and generate the
plots, simply by clic$ing alculate button. +ata computed will be stored in the
DataSTP,c sheet.
SF>$S>PI,
.ou e"pect to see results profiles similar to @igure >-78c
7
. 0ost of the inputs are ta$en
from the ,nput sheet and STAVSAP,c sheet e"cept for the bypass ratio. .ou need to
specify number of bypass ratio you want to plot, then you can clic$ alculate to perform
computation and to plot the results. +ata computed will be stored in the DataSFP,c sheet.
,pecific Thrust (s @light /ondition 0ach umber or T,@/ (s @light /ondition 0ach
umber
5hen you choose this option, the program closes the plot sheets and data sheets from the
previous use and opens one plot sheet and one data sheet, STAVSA&o and DataST&o or
SFAVSA&o and DataSF&o. .ou will then be directed from ,nput sheet to STAVSA&o or
SFAVSA&o. This sheet is used to plot specific thrust or thrust specific fuel consumption
versus flight condition &ach num'er with different bypass ratio.
ST>$S>Mo o) SF>$S>Mo
.ou e"pect to see result profiles similar to @igure >-7;a
7
or @igure >-7;b
7
. .ou need to
complete all the input parameters indicate in the green cells of this sheet. Then you can
clic$ alculate to run the program and plot the results. +ata computed associated with
this sheet will be stored in the DataST&o sheet.
,pecific Thrust (s @an 1ressure 3atio or T,@/ (s @an 1ressure 3atio
,imilar to @light /ondition 0ach umber, this option opens STAVSAP,f and DataSTP,f
or SFAVSAP,f and DataSTP,f. It plots specific thrust or thrust specific fuel consumption
vs fan pressure ratio with different bypass ratio. The steps to run the program in this
sheet are the same from option two or three of the hoose a Plot combo bo".
,pecific Thrust (s By1ass 3atio or T,@/ (s By1ass 3atio
This option opens STAVSAAlp and DataSTAlp or SFAVSAAlp and DataSFAlp. It plots
specific thrust or thrust specific fuel consumption vs '!pass ratio with different fan total
pressure ratio, f. The steps to run the program in this sheet are the same from option two
or three of the hoose a Plot combo bo".
In summary you need to do the followings to run the programB
7. 2o to the ,nput sheet
9. ,pecify the Unit system (,I or )nglish)
8. ,pecify the ,T- switch. Is the computation for engine with ITB-! or for
engine with ITB-!@@T
;. )nter all the input parameters indicated in green cells (do not modify or
change the value indicated in cyan).
<. ,pecify hoose a Plot. .ou will be directed to a new sheet depending on the
selection.
If you select to engine performance (,pecific Thrust and T,@/) (s /ompressor 1ressure
3atio, do the followingsB
,TU(,U1IcB
a. ,pecify number of bypass ratio (new green cells will be created).
b. /lic$ ?nter #elation ()nter relation).
c. ,pecify all input parameters indicated in green.
d. /lic$ @enerate to generate compressor total pressure ratio.
e. /lic$ alculate to compute and plot the results.
f. 3epeat the above steps for different input parameters. If you want to
change the input parameters in the ,nput sheet, you need to go to the
,nput sheet.
,@U(,U1IcB
a4 ,pecify number of bypass ratio (new green cells will be created).
'4 ,pecify all input parameters indicated in green.
c4 /lic$ alculate4
d4 3epeat the above steps for different bypass ratio. If you want to change
the input parameters in the ,nput sheet or in the STAVSAP,c sheet, you
need to go bac$ to one of those sheets and change the input
parameters.
,TU(,U0o, ,@U(,U0o, ,TU(,U1If, and ,@U(,U1IfB
a4 ,pecify number of bypass ratio (new green cells will be created).
'4 ,pecify all input parameters indicated in green.
c4 /lic$ alculate4
d4 3epeat the above steps for different input parameters. If you want to
change the input parameters in the ,nput sheet, you need to go to the
,nput sheet.
,TU(,U*lp and ,@U(,U*lpB
a4 ,pecify number of fan total pressure ratio (new green cells will be
created).
'4 ,pecify all input parameters indicated in green.
c4 /lic$ alculate4
d4 3epeat the above steps for different input parameters. If you want to
change the input parameters in the ,nput sheet, you need to go to the
,nput sheet.
Di0,+00io(0
The last sheet in the program is the $tape>TestR this is where the user can chec$ a single
%uantity namely Specific Thrust or Thrust Specific Fuel onsumption. 0ost of the input
parameters are from the ,nput sheetR additional inputs are inputs parameters that you see
in the plot sheets. By clic$ing the Test, you will obtain ,pecific Thrust and Thrust
,pecific @uel /onsumption stored in cyan cells.
This program has been debugged several times. Therefore whenever you encounter
computation errors due to either 'ero division or s%uare root of a negative %uantity, you
will be notified by a pop up window indicating where the computation problem is. It will
indicate which e%uation that the computational error is encountered. If you have any
comments or bug problems you encounter in the program, you can report them to us for
further improvement. +etail about the contact number can be found in the overPage
sheet of the program.
It is also predicted that the plotting macro can encounter some problems in the future if
the users are not fully understand the program. Therefore I have set up a way how to fi"
the problem. In case the plot starts giving problem, you need to do the followings (apply
to all plot sheetsB ,TU(,U1Ic, ,@U(,U1Ic, ,TU(,U1If, ,@U(,U1If, ,TU(,U0o,
,@U(,U0o, ,TU(,U*lp, and ,@U(,U*lpp)B
a. 2o to the plot sheet (e. ,TU(,U0o)
b. 2o to cell D"
c. ote that you will not be able to clic$ on that cell because it is lying on the
bac$ of the plot chart. .ou may want to use cursor button from your $eyboard.
d. In that cell it reads L,Q//),,M. /hange the value to any other type of
character, L@*I#M for e"ample.
e. /lear the series in the chart plot by clic$ing right mouse button on the chart
plot.
f. /hoose Source Data
g. ,elect Series and remove all the series. @or the case ,TU(,U1Ic, you need to
clear the series on both charts.
Qsers are not e"pected to understand macro code in the program. 4owever the part that
ta$es care the computation can be found in 0odule7 ,ub Itb( ). In order to open it, you
need to open )"cel (isual Basic by pressing *lt V @77. *ny modification can be made in
subroutine Itb ( ). Do (ot /** (.w ?/)i/52.0 i(to th. 1)o-)/4@
#. D/t/ $/2i*/tio(
,ince there is no e"perimental data for this application, a @ortran >> code is written for
the comparison between results computed by )"cel and @ortran >>. *ll the e%uations
used are the same in both codes and can be found in section ; of D,ummary of e%uations&.
Qnder the same turbofan engine operating conditions with ITB-!, specific thrust (i.e.

m
F
, ,I unitB
s 0g
B
E
) is computed using both codes and plotted versus various design
parameters, namely flight 0ach number (0:), compressor pressure ratio (c), fan
pressure ratio (f), and bypass ratio (). *ll the plots are in Tecplot C.: format as shown
below.
@igure A.7 = Turbofan engine with ITBB Specific thrust vs flight 0ach number
@igure A.9 = Turbofan engine with ITBB Specific thrust vs compressor pressure
ratio
@igure A.8 = Turbofan engine with ITBB Specific thrust vs fan pressure ratio
@igure A.; = Turbofan engine with ITBB Specific thrust vs bypass ratio
%. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Qsing data provided in engAit'4dat (a sample listing data file for a two-spool high bypass
turbofan provided by ,cott -ones, currently at 1ropulsion ,ystems *nalysis !ffice,
*,* 2lenn 3esearch /enter), results at different operating conditions are plotted using
Tecplot C.: and shown as below.
T/52. %.1 'I(1+t */t/ o) E(-i(. 1/)/4.t.)0 9SI +(it:
Pressure drop ratio
engine-core
1:E17: N :.C T: N 97A.AAA>K
engine - fan
1:E17C N :.C
Total pressure ratio
0a"imum diffuser total pressure ratio d ma" N :.CC 1roperties of air and fuel
main burner total pressure ratio b N :.CA
Specifc heat at constant pressure
ITB - burner total pressure ratio ITB N :.CA region : --O 8 /pc N 7.:::A;<KJ/Kg-K
engine no''le total pressure ratio n N 7.888 region ; --O < /p' N 7.7<C>;8KJ/Kg-K
fan no''le total pressure ratio fn N 7.9>; region A --O7: /pt N 7.7;>7?8KJ/Kg-K
Polytropic eficiency Ratio of specifc heat
e41/ N :.C:AA region : --O 8 c N 7.8CCCC
e#1/ N :.C:8A region ; --O < ' N 7.9>9?;
e41T N :.C:9C region A --O7: t N 7.9>??9
e#1T N :.C7>;
Low heating value of fuel
ef N :.?CA7 Burner h13-' N >C7>.79KJ/Kg
Burner eficiency
ITB h13-,T- N >C7>.79KJ/Kg
b N :.CCC
ITB N :.CCC
Turbine mechanical eficiency
m-41T N :.C9
m-#1T N :.C8
Burner exit temperature
main-burner Tt; N 7>?<.<C;K
ITB - burner TtA N 7<A8.?;;K
Table >.9 - The input data for !ption 7B
@igure >.7 - ,pecific thrust vs flight 0:
@igure >.9 - T,@/ vs flight 0:
0o N : To 8 7 N :.<
0o N :.7 9 N 9
41/ N 9<
#1/ N 7.8
f N 7.8
@igure >.7 = Turbofan engineB Specific thrust vs flight &ach num'er
@igure >.9 = Turbofan engineB thrust specific fuel consumption vs flight &ach
num'er
Table >.8 - The input data for !ption 9B
@igure >.8 - ,pecific thrust vs compressor pressure ratio
@igure >.; - T,@/ vs compressor pressure ratio
@igure >.< - @uelEair ratio vs compressor pressure ratio
,calec N 7C.98
#1/ N 7.:7 c N 7C.A9 to <:
41/ N 7C.;9 c N 7
f N 7.8 7 N :.<
:.C 9 N 9
@igure >.8 = Turbofan engineB Specific thrust vs compressor pressure ratio
@igure >.; = Turbofan engineB thrust specific fuel consumption
vs compressor pressure ratio
@igure >.< = Turbofan engineB fuel/air ratio vs compressor pressure ratioC
Table >.; - The input data for !ption 8B
@igure >.A - ,pecific thrust vs fan pressure ratio
@igure >.> - T,@/ vs fan pressure ratio
f N 7.:7 To 7:
f N :.9<
7 N 8
41/ N 9< 9 N <
#1/ N 7.8 8 N 7:
:.C
@igure >.A = Turbofan engineB Specific thrust vs fan pressure ratio
@igure >.> = Turbofan engineB thrust specific fuel consumption
vs fan pressure ratio
Table >.< - The input data for !ption ;B
@igure >.? - ,pecific thrust vs bypass ratio
@igure >.C - T,@/ vs bypass ratio
N : To 7:
N :.7
41/ N 9< f7 N 7.<
#1/ N 7.8 f9 N 8.<
:.C
@igure >.? = Turbofan engineB Specific thrust vs '!pass ratio
@igure >.C = Turbofan engineB thrust specific fuel consumption
vs '!pass ratio
Di0,+00io(0
The computations are successful in providing an estimation of how the turbofan
performance is improved by adding an Inter-,tage Turbine Burner. *s e"pected, the
specific thrust is increased at four different engine design parameters, namely 0ach
number, compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio and bypass ratio with the addition
of ITB. evertheless, the specific fuel consumption is relatively increased.
Typical ranges for each engine design parameter is based on /hapter > of D?lements of
@as Tur'ine PropulsionD by +r. -ac$ 0attingly
7
.
In addition, more plots will be added in the future if necessary. @or convenience purpose,
a (isual-Basic code may be developed to act as an interface between fortran>> data file
and 0, )"cel plot function. Then, user can plot the result data computed using @ortran>>
on 0, )"cel without $nowing how to use Tecplot C.: or any other e%uivalent post-
processing software.
A11.(*i7
A 8 MACRO $ISUAL BASIC CODE i( MS E&CEL
VB code variable VB code variable VB code variable
a0 a0 gamab b T10_T0 T10/T0
alpha gamac c T19_T0 T19/T0
Cpb Cpb gamat t tau_alp_itb
-b
Cpc Cpc hPRb h13-b tau_alp_itb
-ITB
Cpt Cpt hPRitb h13-ITB tau_b b
ef ef M10 07: tau_c c
eff_hpc HPC M19 M7C tau_f f
eff_hpt HPT pi_d d tau_hpc HPC
eff_lpc LPC pi_f f tau_hpt HPT
eff_lpt LPT pi_hpc 41/ tau_itb ITB
eff_r r pi_hpt 41T tau_lpc LPC
effm_hpt m-HPT pi_lpc #1/ tau_lpt LPT
effm_lpt m-LPT pi_lpt #1T tau_r r
ehpc eHPC pi_r r Tt10_T0 Tt10/T0
elpc eLPC Pt10_P10 Pt10/P10 Tt19_T0 Tt19/T0
fb fb Pt19_P19 Pt19/P19 Tt6_Tt Tt6/Tt
fc_mc rb Rb !0 !0
ff_mf rc Rc !10_a0 !10/a0
fitb fITB rt Rt !19_a0 !19/a0
f_m" # $
T/52. A.1 ' D.0,)i1tio( o ?/)i/52.0 i( MS E7,.2 M/,)o $i0+/2 B/0i, ,o*.
c
c
m
F

f
f
m
F

m
F
,ub itb()
+im rc, rb, rt, a:, v:, tauUr, piUr, effUr, piUd, tauUalpUb, tauUalpUitb, tauUhpc, tauUlpc,
tauUf
+im tauUc, tauUb, effUhpc, effUlpc, effUf, fb, tauUhpt, fitb, tauUitb, TtAUTt9, tauUlpt
+im piUhpt, piUlpt, effUhpt, effUlpt, 1t7:U17:, Tt7:UT:, 07:, v7:Ua:, 1t7CU17C, 07C,
Tt7CUT:
+im T7CUT:, v7CUa:, fcUmc, ffUmf, T7:UT:

W'ero-ing internal variables
rc N :XB rb N :XB rt N :XB a: N :XB v: N :XB tauUr N :XB piUr N :XB effUr N :XB piUd N :X
tauUalpUb N :XB tauUalpUitb N :XB tauUhpc N :XB tauUlpc N :XB tauUf N :X
tauUc N :XB tauUb N :XB effUhpc N :XB effUlpc N :XB effUf N :XB fb N :X
tauUhpt N :XB fitb N :XB tauUitb N :XB TtAUTt9 N :XB tauUlpt N :X
piUhpt N :XB piUlpt N :XB effUhpt N :XB effUlpt N :XB 1t7:U17: N :XB Tt7:UT: N :X
07: N :XB v7:Ua: N :XB 1t7CU17C N :XB 07C N :XB Tt7CUT: N :X
T7CUT: N :XB v7CUa: N :XB fcUmc N :XB ffUmf N :X

Wempty-ing output variables
@Umo N )mptyB s N )mptyB f N )mpty

,tyle N vb.es
Title N YITB /ycle *nalysisY

,tyle7 N vb.eso
0sg N Y+o you want to jump to the ne"t alphaTY

0sg7 N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uations 7, 9, 8Y
0sg9 N Y,%uare root of a negative %uantity NNO 3efer to e%uation ;Y
0sg8 N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uation >Y
0sg; N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uations 7:, 77, 79, 78, 7;Y
0sg< N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uation 7AY
0sgA N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uations 7>, 7?, 7CY
0sg> N Y+ivision by 'ero NNO 3efer to e%uation 9:Y
0sg? N Y,%uare root of a negative %uantity NNO 3efer to e%uation 8;Y
0sgC N Y,%uare root of a negative %uantity NNO 3efer to e%uation 8>Y


If gamac N :X !r gamab N :X !r gamat N :X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg7, ,ytle, Title)
0sg7 N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg7, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg7, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
rc N (gamac - 7X) [ /pc E gamac W(7)
rb N (gamab - 7X) [ /pb E gamab W(9)
rt N (gamat - 7X) [ /pt E gamat W(8)

If gamac P :X !r rc P :X !r TUo P :X !r gc P :X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg9, ,tyle, Title)
0sg9 N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg9, ,ytle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
a: N (gamac [ rc [ TUo [ gc) \ :.< W(;)
v: N a: [ 0: W(<)

If gamac N 7X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg8, ,ytle, Title)
0sg8 N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg8, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
tauUr N (gamac - 7X) [ (:.< [ 0: \ 9) V 7X W(A)
piUr N tauUr \ (gamac E (gamac - 7)) W(>)

If 0: PN 7X Then W(?)
effUr N 7X
)lse
effUr N 7X - :.:>< [ (0: - 7X) \ 7.8<
)nd If

piUd N piUdma" [ effUr W(C)

If /pc N :X !r TUo N :X !r gamac N :X !r ehpc N :X !r elpc N :X !r ef N :X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg;, ,ytle, Title)
0sg; N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg;, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
tauUalpUb N /pb [ Tt; E (/pc [ TUo) W(7:)
tauUalpUitb N /pt [ TtA E (/pc [ TUo) W(77)
tauUhpc N piUhpc \ ((gamac - 7X) E (gamac [ ehpc)) W(79)
tauUlpc N piUlpc \ ((gamac - 7X) E (gamac [ elpc)) W(78)
tauUf N piUf \ ((gamac - 7X) E (gamac [ ef)) W(7;)

tauUc N tauUhpc [ tauUlpc W(7<)

If TUo N :X !r tauUr N :X !r tauUc N :X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg<, ,tyle, Title)
0sg< N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg<, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
tauUb N Tt; E (TUo [ tauUr [ tauUc) W(7A)

If tauUhpc N 7X !r tauUlpc N 7X !r tauUf N 7X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sgA, ,tyle, Title)
0sgA N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sgA, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
effUhpc N ((tauUhpc \ ehpc) - 7X) E (tauUhpc - 7X) W(7>)
effUlpc N ((tauUlpc \ elpc) - 7X) E (tauUlpc - 7X) W(7?)
effUf N ((tauUf \ ef) - 7X) E (tauUf - 7X) W(7C)

If tauUalpUb N effUb [ h13b E (/pc [ TUo) Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg>, ,tyle, Title)
0sg> N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg>, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
fb N (tauUc [ tauUr - tauUalpUb) E (tauUalpUb - (effUb [ h13b E (/pc [ TUo)))
W(9:)

tauUhpt N 7X V (7X - tauUhpc) E ((7X V fb) [ (/pb E /pc) [ tauUhpc [ tauUb [ effmUhpt)
W(97)

If ,heets(YInputY)./omboBo"9.(alue N Y!Y Then W(99)
fitb N (7X V fb) [ (tauUr [ tauUc [ tauUb [ tauUhpt - (/pc E /pb) [ tauUalpUitb) E ((/pc E
/pb) [ tauUalpUitb - effUitb [ h13itb E (/pb [ TUo))
)lse
fitb N :X
)nd If

f N fb V fitb W(98)

If ,heets(YInputY)./omboBo"9.(alue N Y!Y Then
W(9;)
tauUitb N TtA E (TUo [ tauUr [ tauUc [ tauUb [ tauUhpt)
)lse
tauUitb N 7X
)nd If

TtAUTt9 N tauUc [ tauUb [ tauUhpt [ tauUitb W(9<)

tauUlpt N 7X V (7X - tauUlpc V alpha [ (7X - tauUf)) E ((7X V f) [ (/pt E /pc) [ TtAUTt9 [
effmUlpt) W(9A)

piUhpt N tauUhpt \ (gamat E ((gamat - 7X) [ ehpt)) W(9>)
piUlpt N tauUlpt \ (gamat E ((gamat - 7X) [ elpt)) W(9?)

effUhpt N (7X - tauUhpt) E (7X - tauUhpt \ (7X E ehpt)) W(9C)
effUlpt N (7X - tauUlpt) E (7X - tauUlpt \ (7X E elpt)) W(8:)

1t7:U17: N 1:U17: [ piUr [ piUd [ piUlpc [ piUhpc [ piUb [ piUhpt [ piUitb [ piUlpt [
piUn W(87)
Tt7:UT: N tauUr [ tauUc [ tauUb [ tauUhpt [ tauUitb [ tauUlpt
W(89)

T7:UT: N Tt7:UT: E 1t7:U17: \ ((gamat - 7X) E gamat)
W(88)

If gamat P 7X !r 1t7:U17: \ ((gamat - 7X) E gamat) P 7X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sg?, ,tyle, Title)
0sg? N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sg?, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
07: N (((1t7:U17: \ ((gamat - 7X) E gamat)) - 7X) [ 9X E (gamat - 7X)) \ :.<
W(8;)

v7:Ua: N 07: [ (gamat [ rt [ T7:UT: E (gamac [ rc)) \ :.<
W(8<)

1t7CU17C N 1:U17C [ piUr [ piUd [ piUf [ piUfn W(8A)

If gamac P 7X !r 1t7CU17C \ ((gamac - 7X) E gamac) P 7X Then
response N 0sgBo"(0sgC, ,tyle, Title)
0sgC N Y!ccurs at Y Z Y1Ic,1If,0o,By1ass N Y Z piUhpc [ piUlpc Z Y,Y Z piUf Z Y,Y
Z 0: Z Y,Y Z alpha
response N 0sgBo"(0sgC, ,tyle, Title)
jump N 0sgBo"(0sg, ,tyle7, Title)
2oTo 7:
)nd If
07C N (((1t7CU17C \ ((gamac - 7X) E gamac)) - 7X) [ 9X E (gamac - 7X)) \ :.<
W(8>)

Tt7CUT: N tauUr [ tauUf W(8?)

T7CUT: N Tt7CUT: E 1t7CU17C \ ((gamac - 7X) E gamac)
W(8C)

v7CUa: N 07C [ T7CUT: \ :.< W(;:)

fcUmc N (a: E gc) [ ((7X V f) [ v7:Ua: - 0: V (7X V f) [ (rt E rc) [ (T7:UT: E v7:Ua:) [
(7X - 1:U17:) [ (7X E gamac)) W(;7)

ffUmf N (a: E gc) [ (v7CUa: - 0: V (T7CUT: E v7CUa:) [ (7X - 1:U17C) E gamac)
W(;9)

@Umo N (fcUmc V alpha [ ffUmf) E (7X V alpha)
W(;8)

s N f E ((7X V alpha) [ @Umo)
W(;;)
7:
)nd ,ub
B 8 FORTRAN %% ,o*.
Three separate files are needed to e"ecute this code, namely it'4f, comit'4i, and
input. *ll the e%uations used in this code are summari'ed in the section ; - D,ummary of
e%uations&.
9A: M/i( 1)o-)/4< itb.f
it'4f is the main program for this application. It comprises of a main driver and
nine subroutines. )ach subroutine has its own specific function and is described in detail
below.
1: S+5)o+ti(. START
STA#T is the first subroutine called by main driver it'. It ensures that the Dinput& file
e"ists, and then the program will carry on. !r else, the program will terminate.
2: S+5)o+ti(. RINPUT
!nce the file input is provided at the same directory as itb.f is located, #,BPUT will
then be called and read in the data file.
3: S+5)o+ti(. CONSTANT
*ll the constants will be initiali'ed in this subroutine. This subroutine is called only
once before performing necessary computation.
4: S+5)o+ti(. SELECT
,)#)/T allows user to specify which plot they desire to get. Qp to this point, there
are only four options to choose, which includeB
!ption 7B
(a). ,pecific Thrust vs 0ach umber (,TU0:.dat)
(b). T,@/ vs 0ach umber (T,@/U0:.dat)
!ption 9B
(a). ,pecific Thrust vs /ompressor 1ressure 3atio (,TU1Ic.dat)
(b). T,@/ vs /ompressor 1ressure 3atio (T,@/U1Ic.dat)
(c). @uel-air 3atio vs /ompressor 1ressure 3atio (fU1Ic.dat)
!ption 8B
(a). ,pecific Thrust vs @an 1ressure 3atio (,TU1If.dat)
(b). T,@/ vs @an 1ressure 3atio (T,@/U1If.dat)
!ption ;B
(a). ,pecific Thrust vs Bypass 3atio (,TU*lpha.dat)
(b). T,@/ vs Bypass 3atio (T,@/U*lpha.dat)
The selected plots will be plotted and stored in the same directory where the program
is e"ecuted.
": S+5)o+ti(. MACA
0*/4 is called to plot engine performance parameters (for instance, specific thrust
or thrust specific fuel consumption) vs flight mach num'er.
#: S+5)o+ti(. COMPR
/!013 is called to plot engine performance parameters vs compressor pressure
ratio.
%: S+5)o+ti(. FANPR
@*13 is called to plot engine performance parameters vs fan pressure ratio.
B: S+5)o+ti(. BYPASS
B.1*,, is called to plot engine performance parameters vs '!pass ratio.
C: S+5)o+ti(. E!UATION
)SQ*TI! is called to perform all necessary computations. It includes all
e%uations here.
9B: $/)i/52. i(iti/2iD/tio(< comitb.i
*ll variables will be declared and initiali'ed before running main program and all
subroutines. (ariables are grouped into five common bloc$s, i.e. inputs, outputs,
eEuations, constants, and chardat.
9C: D/t/ i2.< input
,ince two types of unit system will be used for computation, namely ,I and
)nglish unit, user needs to specify the input parameter Dunitsys& to be either D0.0&
()nglish unit) or D1.0& (,I unit).
*nother important input parameter is Ditbsw&. 5hen Ditbsw& is set to be D1.0&,
ITB will be turned on and vice versa (i.e. Ditbsw& is set to be D0.0&).
Table shown below is the brief descriptions of input variables in Dinput& fileB
Input (ariables U(it
program literature )nglish ,I
unitsys - - -
itbsw - - -
T: T: 3 ]
gamac Gc - -
cpc cpc
# l'm
-tu

F 0g
0G

gamab Gb - -
cpb cpb
# l'm
-tu

F 0g
0G

gamat Gt - -
cpt cpt
# l'm
-tu

F 0g
0G

hprb h13-b
l'm
-tu
0g
0G
hpritb h13-itb
l'm
-tu
0g
0G
pidma" Id ma" - -
pib Ib - -
piitb Iitb - -
pin In - -
pifn Ifn - -
ehpc e41/ - -
elpc e#1/ - -
ef ef - -
ehpt e41T - -
elpt e#1T - -
effb Hb - -
effitb Hitb -
effmhpt Hhpt -
effmlpt Hlpt -
p:op7:
7:
:
P
P -
p:op7C
7C
:
P
P -
Tt; Tt; 3 ]
TtA TtA 3 ]
Table B.7 = +escription of input variables in Dinput& file in @ortran>> code (both ,I
and )nglish units)
M/i( 1)o-)/4< it5.
*deck itb
program itb
c
c +++
c
c===========================================================
c
c ITB is the main driver.
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
c +++
call start
c +++
call rinput
c +++
call constant
c
call select
c +++
i# $plot.e%.1& call mach
c
i# $plot.e%.'& call compr
c
i# $plot.e%.(& call #anpr
c
i# $plot.e%.)& call bypass
c +++
end
c
*deck bypass
subroutine bypass
c
c===========================================================
c
c B*+,-- determines the range #or bypass ratio #or
c plotting.
c
c B*+,-- is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
write$(/*& -ubroutine B*+,--
c
open$unit=10/#ile=-T1,lpha.dat&
open$unit=12/#ile=T-341,lpha.dat&
c
56IT7$10/*& Title=8/-peci#ic Thrust 9- ,lpha8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$10/*& 9ariables = 8:a8/8-p. thrust ;lb#!$lbm!sec&<8
else
56IT7$10/*& 9ariables = 8:a8/8-peci#ic thrust ;=!$kg!s&<8
endi#
c
56IT7$12/*& Title=8/T-34 9- ,lpha8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$12/*& 9ariables = 8:a8/8T-34 ;$lbm!hr&!lb#<8
else
56IT7$12/*& 9ariables = 8:a8/8T-34 ;mg!$=>sec&<8
endi#
c
i# $npi#.gt.0& then
do 20 i=1/npi#
pi#=pi1#$i&
write$*/*& pi#$/i/&=/pi#
c
i# $itbsw.e%.0.& then
write$10/(1)&?one T=8:p1# = /pi#/$no itb&8
write$12/(1)&?one T=8:p1# = /pi#/$no itb&8
else
write$10/(1)&?one T=8:p1# = /pi#/$itb&8
write$12/(1)&?one T=8:p1# = /pi#/$itb&8
endi#
c
do 100 alpha = ialp/#alp/dalp
c
alpp1 = alpha+1.0
ralpp1 = 1.0!alpp1
c
call e%uation
i# $error.e%.1.0& then
write$*/*& error
go to 20
endi#
write$10/(1(& alpha/st
write$12/(1(& alpha/ts#c
100 continue
20 continue
endi#
c
close$10&
close$12&
return
(1( #ormat$#10.@/'A/#1(.0&
(1) #ormat$a1@/#@.'/a2&
end
c
*deck compr
subroutine compr
c
c===========================================================
c
c 4BC+6 determines the range #or compressor pressure
c ratio #or plotting.
c
c 4BC+6 is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
write$(/*& -ubroutine 4BC+6
c
open$unit=1@/#ile=-T1+Ic.dat&
open$unit=1D/#ile=T-341+Ic.dat&
open$unit=1E/#ile=#1+Ic.dat&
c
56IT7$1@/*& Title=8/-peci#ic Thrust 9- +i 4omp8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$1@/*&9ariables =8:p1c8/8-p.thrust ;lb#!$lbm!sec&<8
else
56IT7$1@/*&9ariables =8:p1c8/8-p.thrust ;=!$kg!s&<8
endi#
c
56IT7$1D/*& Title=8/T-34 9- +i 4omp8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$1D/*&9ariables = 8:p1c8/8T-34 ;$lbm!hr&!lb#<8
else
56IT7$1D/*&9ariables = 8:p1c8/8T-34 ;mg!$=>sec&<8
endi#
c
56IT7$1E/*& Title=8/# 9- +i 4omp8
56IT7$1E/*& 9ariables = 8:p1c8/8#8
c
ipic = scalec*pilpc*pilpc
k=1
do D0 pic = ipic/#pic/dpic
term = pic!scalec
tpilpc$k& = s%rt$term&
tpihpc$k& = pic!tpilpc$k&
k=k+1
D0 continue
write$(/*& pilpc/pihpc/pic
write$(/*& ipic/#pic/dpic
c
i# $nalpha.gt.0& then
do E0 i=1/nalpha
alpha=alp$i&
write$*/*& alpha$/i/&=/alpha
i# $itbsw.e%.0.& then
write$1@/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$no itb&8
write$1D/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$no itb&8
write$1E/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$no itb&8
else
write$1@/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$itb&8
write$1D/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$itb&8
write$1E/1'&?one T=8:a =/alpha/$itb&8
endi#
c
alpp1 = alpha+1.0
ralpp1 = 1.0!alpp1
c write$(/*& alpp1=/alpp1
c write$(/*& ralpp1=/ralpp1
c
F=1
write$(/*& pilpc/pihpc/pic
write$(/*& ipic/#pic/dpic
do 00 pic = ipic/#pic/dpic
pilpc = tpilpc$F&
pihpc = tpihpc$F&
write$(/*& pilpc/pihpc/pic
c
call e%uation
i# $error.e%.1.0& then
write$*/*& error
go to E0
endi#
write$1@/11& pic/st
write$1D/11& pic/ts#c
write$1E/11& pic/#
c count=count+1
F=F+1
00 continue
E0 continue
endi#
c
close $1@&
close $1D&
close $1E&
return
11 #ormat$#10.@/'A/#1(.2&
1' #ormat$a1(/#@.'/a2&
end
c
*deck constant
subroutine constant
c
c===========================================================
c
c 7GH,TIB= per#orms all necessary computations.
c
c 7GH,TIB= is called by. mach/compr/#anpr/bypass
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
write$(/*&
write$(/*& *******4heck constant beginsII******
c
gc=('.1E)
i# $unitsys.e%.1.0& gc = 1.0
c
ecvrn = EE0.1)
i# $unitsys.e%.1.0& ecvrn = 1000.0
c
rgc = 1.0!gc
write$(/*& gc=/gc
write$(/*& rgc=/rgc
c
rgamac = 1.0!gamac
rgamat = 1.0!gamat
rgamab = 1.0!gamab
write$(/*& rgamac=/rgamac
write$(/*& rgamat=/rgamat
write$(/*& rgamab=/rgamab
c
gcm1ogc = $gamac>1.0&*rgamac
gtm1ogt = $gamat>1.0&*rgamat
gbm1ogb = $gamab>1.0&*rgamab
write$(/*& gcm1ogc=/gcm1ogc
write$(/*& gtm1ogt=/gtm1ogt
write$(/*& gbm1ogb=/gbm1ogb
c
rgcm1ogc = 1.0!gcm1ogc
rgtm1ogt = 1.0!gtm1ogt
rgtm1 = 1.0!$gamat>1.0&
rgcm1 = 1.0!$gamac>1.0&
write$(/*& rgcm1ogc=/rgcm1ogc
write$(/*& rgtm1ogt=/rgtm1ogt
write$(/*& rgcm1=/rgcm1
write$(/*& rgtm1=/rgtm1
c
Tt)oT0 = Tt)!T0
TtDoT0 = TtD!T0
write$(/*& Tt)oT0=/Tt)oT0
write$(/*& TtDoT0=/TtDoT0
c
cpbocpc = cpb!cpc
cptocpc = cpt!cpc
cpcocpb = 1.0!cpbocpc
write$(/*& cpbocpc=/cpbocpc
write$(/*& cptocpc=/cptocpc
write$(/*& cpcocpb=/cpcocpb
c
rehpc = 1.0!ehpc
relpc = 1.0!elpc
write$(/*& rehpc=/rehpc
write$(/*& relpc=/relpc
c
rehpt = 1.0!ehpt
relpt = 1.0!elpt
write$(/*& rehpt=/rehpt
write$(/*& relpt=/relpt
c
taud = 1.0
c
write$(/*& ******constant check 7=JsII******
write$(/*&
c
return
end
c
*deck e%uation
subroutine e%uation
c
c===========================================================
c
c 7GH,TIB= per#orms all necessary computations.
c
c 7GH,TIB= is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
I=T7K76 e%n
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
error=0.
e%n = 0
write$(/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
write$(/*& -ubroutine 7GH,TIB=
write$(/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
c
c >>> e%uation 1/'/(
c
rc = gcm1ogc*cpc*ecvrn
rb = gbm1ogb*cpb*ecvrn
rt = gtm1ogt*cpt*ecvrn
write$(/*& 6c=/rc
write$(/*& 6t=/rt
write$(/*& 6b=/rb
c
rtorc = rt!rc
write$(/*& rtorc=/rtorc
c
c >>> e%uation ) L @
c
term = gamac*rc*gc*T0
i# $term.lt.0& then
e%n = )
write$(/'01& e%n
endi#
c
a0 = s%rt$term&
v0 = a0*C0
write$(/*& a0=/a0
write$(/*& v0=/v0
c
c >>> e%uation D/E/0
c
taur = 1.0+$gamac>1.0&!'*C0*C0
pir = taur**rgcm1ogc
e##r = 1.
i# $C0.gt.@.0& then
e##r = 000!$C0**)+2(@.0&
else i# $C0.gt.1.0& then
e##r = 1.0>0.0E@*$C0>1&**1.(@
endi#
c
write$(/*& taur=/taur
write$(/*& pir=/pir
write$(/*& e##r=/e##r
c
c >>> e%uation 2/10/11
c
pid = pidmaA*e##r
taulb = cpbocpc*Tt)oT0
taulitb = cptocpc*TtDoT0
write$(/*& pid=/pid
write$(/*& taulb=/taulb
write$(/*& taulitb=/taulitb
c
c
c >>> e%uation 1' L 1(
c
tauhpc = pihpc**$gcm1ogc*rehpc&
taulpc = pilpc**$gcm1ogc*relpc&
write$(/*& tauhpc=/tauhpc
write$(/*& taulpc=/taulpc
c
c >>> e%uation 1)/1@/1D
c
i# $e#.lt.0& then
e%n = 1)
write$(/'01& e%n
endi#
c
tau# = pi#**$gcm1ogc!e#&
tauc = tauhpc*taulpc
c
term = taur*tauc*taud
i# $term.lt.0& then
e%n = 1D
write$(/'01& e%n
endi#
c
taub = Tt)oT0!$term&
c
write$(/*& tau#=/tau#
write$(/*& tauc=/tauc
write$(/*& taub=/taub
c
c >>> e%uation 1E/10/12
c
i# $tauhpc.e%.1.0& then
e%n = 1E
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
e##hpc = $tauhpc**ehpc>1.0&!$tauhpc>1.0&
write$(/*& e##hpc=/e##hpc
c
i# $taulpc.e%.1.0& then
e%n = 10
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
e##lpc = $taulpc**elpc>1.0&!$taulpc>1.0&
write$(/*& e##lpc=/e##lpc
c
i# $tau#.e%.1.0& then
e%n = 12
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
e### = $tau#**e#>1.0&!$tau#>1.0&
write$(/*& e###=/e###
c
c >>> e%uation '0
c
num = tauc*taur>taulb
denom = taulb>$e##b*hprb&!$cpc*T0&
write$(/*& num=/num
write$(/*& denom=/denom
c
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = '0
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
#b = num!denom
write$(/*& #b=/#b
c
c >>> e%uation '1
c
denom = $1.0+#b&*cpbocpc*tauhpc*taub*e##mhpt
write$(/*& denom=/denom
c
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = '1
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
tauhpt = 1.0+$1.0>tauhpc&!denom
write$(/*& tauhpt=/tauhpt
c
c >>> e%uation '' L '(
c
i# $itbsw.e%.1.0& then
denom1 = cpcocpb*taulitb
denom' = $e##itb*hpritb&!$cpb*T0&
denom = denom1>denom'
num = taur*taud*tauc*taub*tauhpt>cpcocpb*taulitb
write$(/*& denom1=/denom1
write$(/*& denom'=/denom'
write$(/*& denom=/denom
write$(/*& num=/num
c
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = ''
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
#itb = num!denom*$1.0+#b&
else
#itb = 0.0
endi#
c
# = #b+#itb
write$(/*& #itb=/#itb
write$(/*& #=/#
c
c >>> e%uation ') L '@
c
i# $itbsw.e%.1.0& then
num=taur*tauc*taub*tauhpt
write$(/*& num=/num
i# $num.e%.0& then
e%n = ')
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
tauitb = TtDoT0!num
else
tauitb = 1.0
endi#
c
TtDoTt' = tauitb*taulpc*tauhpc*taub*tauhpt
write$(/*& tauitb=/tauitb
write$(/*& TtDoTt'=/TtDoTt'
c
c >>> e%uation 'D/'E/'0/'2/(0
c
#p1 = #+1.0
num = 1.0>taulpc+alpha*$1.0>tau#&
denom = #p1*cptocpc*TtDoTt'*e##mlpt
write$(/*& num=/num
write$(/*& denom=/denom
c
c
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = 'D
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
taulpt = 1.0+num!denom
write$(/*& taulpt=/taulpt
c
pihpt = tauhpt**$rgtm1ogt*rehpt&
pilpt = taulpt**$rgtm1ogt*relpt&
write$(/*& pihpt=/pihpt
write$(/*& pilpt=/pilpt
c
denom = 1.0>tauhpt**rehpt
write$(/*& denom=/denom
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = '2
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
e##hpt = $1.0>tauhpt&!denom
write$(/*& e##hpt=/e##hpt
c
denom = 1.0>taulpt**relpt
write$(/*& denom=/denom
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = (0
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
e##lpt = $1.0>taulpt&!denom
write$(/*& e##lpt=/e##lpt
c
c >>> e%aution (1/('/((/()/(@
c
pt10op10 = p0op10*pir*pid*pilpc*pihpc*pib
pt10op10 = pt10op10*pihpt*piitb*pilpt*pin
write$(/*& pt10op10=/pt10op10
c
Tt10oT0 = taur*tauc*taub*tauhpt*taulpt*tauitb
denom = pt10op10**gtm1ogt
write$(/*& Tt10oT0=/Tt10oT0
write$(/*& denom=/denom
i# $denom.e%.0& then
e%n = ((
write$(/'01& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
T10oT0 = Tt10oT0!denom
write$(/*& T10oT0=/T10oT0
c
term = denom
i# $term.lt.1.0& then
e%n = ()
write$(/'00& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
C10 = s%rt$'.0*$term>1.0&!$gamat>1.0&&
c
term = rtorc*T10oT0*gamat!gamac
write$(/*& term=/term
c
i# $term.lt.0.0& then
e%n = (@
write$(/'00& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
v10oa0 = C10*s%rt$term&
write$(/*& C10=/C10
write$(/*& v10oa0=/v10oa0
c
c >>> e%uation (D/(E/(0/(2/)0
c
pt12op12 = p0op12*pir*pid*pi#*pi#n
c
term = pt12op12**gcm1ogc
write$(/*& pt12op12=/pt12op12
write$(/*& term=/term
i# $term.lt.1.0& then
e%n = (E
write$(/'00& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
C12 = s%rt$'.0*$term>1.0&!$gamac>1.0&&
write$(/*& C12=/C12
c
Tt12oT0 = taur*tau#
c
denom = term
T12oT0 = Tt12oT0!denom
write$(/*& Tt12oT0=/Tt12oT0
write$(/*& T12oT0=/T12oT0
c
i# $T12oT0.lt.0& then
e%n = )0
write$(/'00& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
v12oa0 = s%rt$T12oT0&*C12
write$(/*& v12oa0=/v12oa0
c
c >>> e%uation )1 L )'
c
term = #p1*rtorc*T10oT0*$1.0>p0op10&*rgamac!v10oa0
write$(/*& term=/term
write$(/*& a0=/a0
write$(/*& rgc=/rgc
write$(/*& #p1=/#p1
write$(/*& v10oa0=/v10oa0
write$(/*& C0=/C0
#comc = a0*rgc*$#p1*v10oa0>C0+term&
i# $#comc.lt.0& then
e%n = )1
write$(/'0'& e%n
go to '22
endi#
c
write$(/*& term=/term
write$(/*& #comc=/#comc
c
term = T12oT0*$1.0>p0op12&*rgamac!v12oa0
##om# = a0*rgc*$v12oa0>C0+term&
write$(/*& term=/term
write$(/*& ##om#=/##om#
c
c >>> e%uation )( L ))
c
st = $#comc+##om#*alpha&*ralpp1
c
ts#c = $$1.0>unitsys&*(D00+unitsys*1eD&*$#*ralpp1!st&
write$(/*& st=/st
write$(/*& ts#c=/ts#c
write$(/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
c >>>
'22 i# $e%n.gt.0& error=1.0
return
c
'00 #ormat$ 7rror. -%uare root o# a negative numberI 4heck
L e%uation/i(&
'01 #ormat$ 7rror. Jivision by Mero II 4heck e%uation/ i(&
'0' #ormat$ 7rror. =egative 3c!mcdot II 4heck e%uation/i(&
end
c
*deck #anpr
subroutine #anpr
c
c===========================================================
c
c 3,=+6 determine the range o# 3an pressure ratio #or
c plotting.
c
c 3,=+6 is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
write$(/*& -ubroutine 3,=+6
c
open$unit=1(/#ile=-T1+I#.dat&
open$unit=1)/#ile=T-341+I#.dat&
c
56IT7$1(/*& Title=8/-peci#ic Thrust 9- +i 3an8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$1(/*&9ariables = 8:p1#8/8-p. thrust ;lb#!$lbm!sec&<8
else
56IT7$1(/*&9ariables = 8:p1#8/8-p. thrust ;=!$kg!s&<8
endi#
c
56IT7$1)/*& Title=8/T-34 9- +i 3an8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$1)/*&9ariables = 8:p1#8/8T-34 ;$lbm!hr&!lb#<8
else
56IT7$1)/*&9ariables = 8:p1#8/8T-34 ;$mg!$=>sec&<8
endi#
c
i# $nalpha.gt.0& then
do )0 i=1/nalpha
alpha=alp$i&
write$*/*& alpha$/i/&=/alpha
c
i# $itbsw.e%.0.& then
write$1(/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$no itb&8
write$1)/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$no itb&8
else
write$1(/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$itb&8
write$1)/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$itb&8
endi#
c
alpp1 = alpha+1.0
ralpp1 = 1.0!alpp1
write$(/*& alpp1=/alpp1
write$(/*& ralpp1=/ralpp1
c
do @0 pi# = ipi#/#pi#/dpi#
call e%uation
i# $error.e%.1.0& then
c write$*/*& error
go to )0
endi#
write$1(/11& pi#/st
write$1)/11& pi#/ts#c
c count=count+1
@0 continue
)0 continue
endi#
c
close $1(&
close $1)&
return
11 #ormat$#10.@/'A/#1(.2&
1' #ormat$a1(/#@.'/a2&
end
c
*deck mach
subroutine mach
c
c===========================================================
c
c C,4N determine the range o# Cach number #or plotting.
c
c C,4N is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
write$(/*& -ubroutine C,4N
c
open$unit=11/#ile=-T1C0.dat&
open$unit=1'/#ile=T-341C0.dat&
c
56IT7$11/*& Title=8/-peci#ic Thrust 9- Cach O8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$11/*&9ariables = 8C108/8-p. thrust ;lb#!$lbm!sec&<8
else
56IT7$11/*&9ariables = 8C108/8-p. thrust ;=!$kg!s&<8
endi#
c
56IT7$1'/*& Title=8/T-34 9- Cach O8
i# $unitsys.e%.0.0& then
56IT7$1'/*&9ariables = 8C108/8T-34 ;$lbm!hr&!lb#<8
else
56IT7$1'/*&9ariables = 8C108/8T-34 ;mg!$=>sec&<8
endi#
c
i# $nalpha.gt.0& then
do '0 i=1/nalpha
alpha=alp$i&
write$*/*& alpha$/i/&=/alpha
c count=0
i# $itbsw.e%.0.& then
write$11/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$no itb&8
write$1'/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$no itb&8
else
write$11/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$itb&8
write$1'/1'&?one T=8:a = /alpha/$itb&8
endi#
c
alpp1 = alpha+1.0
ralpp1 = 1.0!alpp1
write$(/*& alpp1=/alpp1
write$(/*& ralpp1=/ralpp1
c
do 10 C0 = iC0/#C0/dC0
call e%uation
i# $error.e%.1.0& then
write$*/*& IIerrorII
go to '0
endi#
write$11/11& C0/st
write$1'/11& C0/ts#c
10 continue
'0 continue
endi#
c
close$11&
close$1'&
return
11 #ormat$#10.@/'A/#1(.E&
1' #ormat$a1(/#@.'/a2&
end
c
*deck rinput
subroutine rinput
c
c===========================================================
c
c 6I=+HT reads the input data #ile.
c
c 6I=+HT is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
character *10 id$)&
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/unitsys
write$(/(10& unitsys/unitsys
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/itbsw
write$(/(10& itbsw /itbsw
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/T0
write$(/(10& T0 /T0
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/gamac/id$'&/cpc
write$(/(10& gamac /gamac/ cpc /cpc
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/gamab/id$'&/cpb
write$(/(10& gamab /gamab/ cpb /cpb
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/gamat/id$'&/cpt
i# $itbsw.e%.0.0& then
cpt = cpb
gamat = gamab
endi#
write$(/(10& gamat /gamat/ cpt /cpt
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/hprb/id$'&/hpritb
write$(/(10& hprb /hprb/ hpritb /hpritb
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/pidmaA/id$'&/pib/id$(&/piitb
i# $itbsw.e%.0.0& piitb = 1.0
write$(/(10& pidmaA /pidmaA/ pib /pib/
L piitb /piitb
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/pin/id$'&/pi#n
write$(/(10& pin /pin/ pi#n /pi#n
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/ehpc/id$'&/elpc/id$(&/e#
write$(/(10& ehpc /ehpc/ elpc /elpc/
L e# /e#
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/ehpt/id$'&/elpt
write$(/(10& ehpt /ehpt/ elpt /elpt
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/e##b/id$'&/e##itb
write$(/(10& e##b /e##b/ e##itb /e##itb
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/e##mhpt/id$'&/e##mlpt
write$(/(10& e##mhpt/e##mhpt/ e##mlpt/e##mlpt
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/p0op10/id$'&/p0op12
write$(/(10& p0op10 /p0op10/ p0op12 /p0op12
c
read $1/(10& id$1&/Tt)/id$'&/TtD
write$(/(10& Tt) /Tt)/ TtD /TtD
c
return
(10 #ormat$a0/#1).0&
(11 #ormat$a0/i@&
end
c
*deck select
subroutine select
c===========================================================
c
c -7P74T allows user to speci#y the desired plots.
c
c -7P74T is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
4N,6,4T76 *' try
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
1 write$*/*&
write$*/*& +lease choose a plot.
write$*/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
write$*/*& $1&
write$*/*& a. -peci#ic Thrust vs Cach =umber
write$*/*& b. T-34 vs Cach =umber
write$*/*& $'&
write$*/*& a. -peci#ic Thrust vs 4ompressor +res.6atio
write$*/*& b. T-34 vs 4ompressor +res.6atio
write$*/*& c. 3uel>air 6atio vs 4ompressor +res.6atio
write$*/*& $(&
write$*/*& a. -peci#ic Thrust vs 3an +res.6atio
write$*/*& b. T-34 vs 3an +res.6atio
write$*/*& $)&
write$*/*& a. -peci#ic Thrust vs Bypass 6atio
write$*/*& b. T-34 vs Bypass 6atio
write$*/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
write$*/*& $1Q)&R
read $*/*& plot
c
i# $plot.lt.1.or.plot.gt.)& then
write$*/*& IIInvalid selction numberII
write$*/*& Try again $y!n&R
read $*/*& try
i# $try.e%.y.or.try.e%.*& go to 1
endi#
c
c +++ +lot 1
c
i# $plot.e%.1& then
write$*/*& Initial C0 $iC0&.
read $*/*& iC0
' write$*/*& 3inal C0 $#C0&.
read $*/*& #C0
c
i# $#C0.le.iC0& then
write$*/*& SS7rror. iC0 S= #C0 II
go to '
endi#
c
write$*/*& Jelta C0 $dC0&.
read $*/*& dC0
write$*/*& N+4 +ressure 6atio $pihpc&.
read $*/*& pihpc
write$*/*& P+4 +ressure 6atio $pilpc&.
read $*/*& pilpc
write$*/*& 3an +ressure 6atio $pi#&.
read $*/*& pi#
endi#
c
c +++ +lot '
c
i# $plot.e%.'& then
write$*/*& P+4 +ressure 6atio $pilpc&.
read $*/*& pilpc
write$*/*& 4onstant between P+4 L N+4 $scalec&.
write$*/*& i.e. N+4 = scalec*P+4
read $*/*& scalec
c
pihpc = scalec*pilpc
ipic = scalec*pilpc*pilpc
write$*/$aD/#D.'&& N+4 =/pihpc
write$*/$a'1/#D.'&& Initial pic $ipic& =/ipic
( write$*/*& 3inal pic $#pic&.
read $*/*& #pic
c
i# $#pic.le.ipic& then
write$*/*& SS7rror. ipic S= #pic
go to (
endi#
c
write$*/*& Jelta pic $dpic&.
read $*/*& dpic
write$*/*& 3an +ressure 6atio $pi#&.
read $*/*& pi#
write$*/*& Cach =umber $C0&.
read $*/*& C0
endi#
c
c +++ +lot (
c
i# $plot.e%.(& then
) write$*/*& Initial pi# $ipi#&.
read $*/*& ipi#
c
i# $ipi#.le.1.0& then
write$*/*&SS7rror. 8ipi#8 has to be greater than 1.0
go to )
endi#
c
@ write$*/*& 3inal pi# $#pi#&.
read $*/*& #pi#
c
i# $#pi#.le.ipi#& then
write$*/*& SS7rror. ipi# S= #pi#
go to @
endi#
c
write$*/*& Jelta pi# $dpi#&.
read $*/*& dpi#
write$*/*& N+4 +ressure 6atio $pihpc&.
read $*/*& pihpc
write$*/*& P+4 +ressure 6atio $pilpc&.
read $*/*& pilpc
write$*/*& Cach number $C0&.
read $*/*& C0
endi#
c
c +++ +lot )
c
i# $plot.e%.)& then
write$*/*& Initial alpha $ialp&.
read $*/*& ialp
D write$*/*& 3inal alpha $#alp&.
read $*/*& #alp
c
i# $#alp.le.ialp& then
write$*/*& SS7rror. ialp S= #alp
go to D
endi#
c
write$*/*& Jelta alpha $dalp&.
read $*/*& dalp
write$*/*& N+4 +ressure 6atio $pihpc&.
read $*/*& pihpc
write$*/*& P+4 +ressure 6atio $pilpc&.
read $*/*& pilpc
write$*/*& Cach number $C0&.
read $*/*& C0
write$*/*&
write$*/*& +lot at di##erent #an pres. ratio $pi#&
write$*/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
write$*/*& =umber o# pi# $npi#&.
read $*/*& npi#
write$*/*& +lease input/npi#/ pi#$s&.
do E i=1/npi#
write$*/*& pi#/i/ >S
read $*/*& pi1#$i&
E continue
endi#
c
i# $plot.le.(& then
write$*/*&
write$*/*& +lot at di##erent bypass ratio $alpha&
write$*/*& >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
write$*/*& =umber o# alpha $nalpha&.
read $*/*& nalpha
write$*/*& +lease input/nalpha/ alpha$s&.
do 0 i=1/nalpha
write$*/*& alpha/i/ >S
read $*/*& alp$i&
0 continue
endi#
c
return
end
c
*deck start
subroutine start
c===========================================================
c
c -T,6T per#orms initialiMation #or itb run.
c
c -T,6T is the #irst subroutine called by the driver.
c
c -T,6T is called by. itb
c
c===========================================================
c
include comitb.i
logical present
c
c!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
c
open$unit=(/#ile=check&
c +++
c +++ ensure that input #ile eAists
c +++
in%uire$#ile=input/eAist=present&
i#$.not.present& then
write$*/(00&
write$(/(00&
call eAit$0&
endi#
c
open$unit=1/#ile=input&
read $1/(01& name
write$(/(01& name
(00 #ormat$ data #ile input is missing. run aborted&
(01 #ormat$a00&
return
end
$/)i/52. i(iti/2iD/tio(< ,o4it5.i
*deck comitb
c
c implicit double precision $a>h/o>M&
parameter $na=10/ncomp=1000&
c na = maAimum number o# di##erent alpha values
c
67,P C0/iC0/C10/C12/num/ipic/ialp/ipi#/itbsw
4N,6,4T76 *00 name
c
common !inputs! unitsys/itbsw/T0/gamac/cpc/gamab/cpb/
1 gamat/cpt/hprb/hpritb/pidmaA/pib/piitb/pin/pi#n/ehpc/
' elpc/e#/ehpt/elpt/e##b/e##itb/e##mhpt/e##mlpt/p0op10/
( p0op12/Tt)/TtD/C0/iC0/dC0/#C0/pihpc/pilpc/pic/ipic/
) dpic/#pic/tpilpc$ncomp&/tpihpc$ncomp&/scalec/pi#/ipi#/
@ dpi#/#pi#/npi#/pi1#$na&/ialp/dalp/#alp/nalpha/alpha/
D alp$na&/taud/plot
c
common !outputs! #/st/ts#c
c
common !e%uations! rc/rb/rt/a0/v0/taur/pir/e##r/pid/taulb/
1 taulitb/tauhpc/taulpc/tau#/tauc/taub/e##hpc/e##lpc/e###/
' #b/tauhpt/#itb/tauitb/TtDoTt'/taulpt/pihpt/pilpt/e##hpt/
( e##lpt/pt10op10/Tt10oT0/t10oT0/C10/v10oa0/pt12op12/C12/
) Tt12oT0/T12oT10/v12oa0/#comc/##om#
c
common !constants! gc/rgc/ecvrn/gcm1ogc/gbm1ogb/gtm1ogt/
1 rgcm1ogc/denom/#p1/rgtm1ogt/rehpt/relpt/num/pt10rgt/
' rgtm1/term/rgcm1/pt12rgc/rgamac/alpp1/ralpp1/rgamat/
( rgamab/Tt)oT0/TtDoT0/cpbocpc/cptocpc/cpcocpb/rehpc/
) relpc/denom1/denom'/rtorc/error
c
common !chardat! name
c
I(1+t */t/ i2.< i(1+t
/062302/ ITB
unitsys 0.0
itbsw 1.0
T0 390.0
gamac 1.39999
cpc 0.239
gamab 1.27284
cpb 0.277
gamat 1.27882
cpt 0.274
hprb 18400.0
hpritb 18400.0
pidma 0.99
pib 0.96
piitb 0.96
pin 0.99
pi!n 1.3
"hpc 0.9066
"#pc 0.9036
"! 0.8961
"hpt 0.9029
"#pt 0.9174
"$b 0.999
"%tb 0.999
"$mhpt 0.92
"$m#pt 0.93
p0&p10 0.9
p0&p19 0.9
Tt4 3214.07
Tt6 2814.92
R..).(,.0
7. 0attingly, -. +., ?lements of @as Tur'ine Propulsion, 0c2raw-4ill series in
mechanical engineering, 0c2raw 4ill, Inc. ,ingapore 7CCA.
9. &odel Specification for ?ngines2 Aircraft2 Tur'oHet, 0ilitary ,pecification 0I#-)-
<::?B, +epartment of +efense. -anuary 7C<C
8. @. #iu, 5.*. ,irignano, LTurbojet and Turbofan )ngine 1erformance Increases
Through Turbine Burners,M Gournal of Propulsion and Po"er, (ol. 7>, o. 8, 0ay--une
9::7, pp AC<->:<.