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ADANI POWER LIMITED

PROJECT CARRIED OUT BY:
CHINMAY SHAH
PRAKHAR RAWAT
PROJECT CARRIED OUT UNDER GUIDELINES OF:
INSTITUTIONAL GUIDE /FACULTY:
MR. JAY THAKAR
INDUSTRIAL GUIDE/ENGINEER:
MR. S.K MALL (GM-ELECTRICAL)
MR. VASANT PATEL (SR. MANAGER)


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KALOL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
RESEARCH CENTRE
ADDRESS: B/H. OLD JANPATH HOTEL,
AHMEDABAD MEHSANA HIGHWAY,
KALOL(N.G)-382721
ADDRESS OF THE INDUSTRY WHERE PROJECT/TRAINING BEING CARRIED OUT:
ADANI POWER LIMITED,
TUNDA & SIRACHA VILLAGE
MUNDRA,
KUTCH-370435

BRANCH:
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF PROJECT BEING DONE: PROJECT PLANT











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ABOUT ADANI POWER LIMITED
Adani, a conglomerate with a formidable presence in multiple businesses across the
globe, has entered the power sector to harbinger a power full India, by generating
20,000 MW of power by 2020. Our comprehension of the criticality in meeting the
power requirement and its crucial role in ensuring the energy security of India, spurs
us to build Indias largest and one of the worlds top 5 single location thermal power
plant in Mundra.
Along with thermal power generation, Adani power has made a paradigm shift by
venturing into Solar power generation in Gujarat. It is Adanis endeavour to
empower one and all with clean, green power that is accessible and affordable for a
faster and higher socio-economic development. We are achieving it with our out-of-
the-box thinking, pioneering operational procedures, motivated team and a yen for
trendsetting. Our enthusiasm and energy has earned us accomplishments that make
us the FIRST, FASTEST AND LARGEST power company in many aspects.
Adani Power Limited has commissioned the first supercritical 660 MW unit in the
country. Mundra is also the WORLDS FIRST supercritical technology project to have
received CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) Project certification from
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Adani power has the FASTEST turnaround time of projects in the industry.
Poised to be the LARGEST private power generating company in India.
To ascertain a potent presence across the value chain within the industry, Adani has
also forayed into power transmission. The first power transmission project of 400KV
Double Circuit Transmission System from the Mundra plant to Dehgam (430 kms)
has been realised with two more in the implementation stage. We are currently
implementing nearly 1000 km long high voltage DC double circuit line connecting
Mundra power station to Northern India. This will be commissioned by March 2011.
This is the first private sector HVDC transmission project in the country ensuring free
flow of power between Western India and the Northern Hinterland.
The advantageous edge Adani has, is the national and international coal mining
rights with its promoter Company Adani Enterprises Limited which ensures fuel
security. Vertical integration within the Adani group shall provide synergies to the
power business and catapult it to electrifying heights of success.






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History says:

Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the
18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt.

The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in the Pearl Street
Station, New York and the Holborn Viaduct power station, London, in 1882, also used
reciprocating steam engines.

The development of the steam turbine allowed larger and more efficient central
generating stations to be built. By 1892 it was considered as an alternative to
reciprocating engines.

Turbines offered higher speeds, more compact machinery, and stable speed regulation
allowing for parallel synchronous operation of generators on a common bus. Turbines
entirely replaced reciprocating engines in large central stations after about 1905.

The largest reciprocating engine-generator sets ever built were completed in 1901 for
the Manhattan Elevated Railway. Each of seventeen units weighed about 500 tons and
was rated 6000 kilowatts; a contemporary turbine-set of similar rating would have
weighed about 20% as much.



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Existing technology: status in India
The Thermal Power Stations in the country are mostly based on the following
technologies:
i) Steam Power Plants
ii) Gas Turbine Power Plants

Steam power plants
The Steam Power Plants are mostly coal-based power plants having maximum
unit size of 660 MW. (Adani power limited is the first in India to own 5 units
having capacity of 660mw each).
One Mega Private Power Project at Hirma is proposed with unit size of 720 MW.
Sub critical, super critical and ultra-critical refer to the design of boilers and its
different parameters.
All the Steam Power Plants in the country are having sub-critical steam
parameters except the 5units of 660mw at adani power limited, mundra.
At adani power limited the super- critical technology is under practice which
increases the overall efficiency to about 2 to 3%.
Indigenous manufacturers are capable of offering steam power up to 660 MW
unit size and are quite competitive compared to the World leading
manufacturers.


Gas turbine power plants
The present installed capacity of gas turbine power plants is about 9000 MW,
which is 13 % of the total thermal power plant capacity.
Govt. of India has permitted installation of additional 12000 MW of liquid fuel
based power plants, mostly gas turbine plants, as a short term measure to bridge
the gap between demand & supply.
The major gas turbine power plants are combined cycle plants and few small
capacity plants are on open cycle mode.
The gas turbine power plants are having varying unit sizes and makes. Recently
M/s ENRON has set up a combined cycle power plant at Dabhol in Maharashtra
having gas turbines of advance class technology with unit size of 250 MW.

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Other common technology

The other common technology is Diesel Engine Power Plants based on Liquid
fuel. But diesel engine based units are mostly installed by the Industries for their
captive use.
On the utility side, some small diesel engine power plants are located in few
states and certain isolated areas like in Andaman Island.
Recently one 200 MW diesel engine based power plant has been commissioned
in Tamil Nadu.
This plant is having four units of slow speed engines each of 50 MW
capacities. Few more diesel engine power plants proposed in capacity range of
100-120 MW have been given clearance.

Advanced technologies: status in India

Energy extraction from coal
o The two fundamental processes for extraction of energy from coal are :
I. Direct Solid Combustion such as conventional Pulverised Coal (PC)
Combustion or the emerging Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) ,
II. Indirect combustion through Coal Gasification followed by coal gas
combustion.
o Fluidised Bed Combustor is a three-in-one device characterised by highly
desirable features of multi-fuel capability, pollution control, and energy
conservation.
o All the four members of this family, namely :
I. Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustor (AFBC),
II. Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustor (CFBC),
III. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC) and
IV. Pressurised Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustor (PCFBC) have the
potential for clean power generation.
o Additionally, PFBC and PCFCB systems operating in a combined cycle mode
(Rankine and Brayton) have the potential for overall plant efficiencies of the
order of 40-45% compared to 33-37% efficiencies offered by power plants based
on Conventional PC firing, AFBC and CFBC operating on a single (Rankine) cycle.
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o Coal gasification, at pressures up to 40 atm and suitable temperatures, results in
a low calorific value, gas mixture of CO and H2, which can be burnt and expanded
in a gas turbine for power generation.
o In an Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, this is supplemented by
steam turbine power generation using steam generated from the gas turbine
exhaust gases.
o Three types of coal gasifiers are in different stages of demonstration and
commercialisation in the world:
I. Fixed Bed (Moving Bed) Gasifier (e.g. the LURGI Dry Ash System),
II. Fluidised Bed Gasifier (e.g. KRW system and 21 Entrained Bed Gasifier
(e.g. Shell and Texaco Systems).
o Each of these technologies is suited to a particular type of coal, and under
specific operating conditions gives the desired quality of product coal gas.


Coal utilisation technology

I. Clean coal utilisation technologies
o A number of technologies based on coal combustion/coal
gasification/combination of coal combustion and coal gasification aimed at
environmental acceptability and high efficiency have been under development
for almost three decades

Other advanced technology
o Supercritical Boiler Technology is commercialised in several countries with
overall plant efficiencies of 43 45%.
o There is negligible interest in India in the technology at present.
o Slagging combustion technology has the special feature of burning high ash coal
at very high temperatures in a primary chamber where molten ash slag can be
removed before allowing almost ash -free hot gases to enter a secondary
chamber to generate steam.

Coal beneficiation
o Coal Beneficiation has been identified as essential for Indian high ash noncaking
(power grade) coals to improve the power plant performance and reduce overall
costs.
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o Coal washeries to supply clean coal to power plants more than 1000 km from the
coal mines have been made mandatory from June 2001.
o Three coal washeries were proposed at Piparwar, Bina and Kalinga. One is in
operation.
o Standard beneficiation technology is available. However technology
improvements are needed to increase the amount of ash removal. Pre-
combustion physical cleaning of coal to reduce sulphur is not practised, as it is
not essential at present.
Types of power plant
1. Steam power stations (thermal station).
2. Hydroelectric power stations.
3. Diesel power stations.
4. Nuclear power stations.

A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion into
electrical energy is known as a steam power station.
A generating station which utilises the potential energy of water at a high level
for the generation of electrical energy is known as hydroelectric power station.
A generating station in which diesel engine is being used as prime mover for the
generation of electrical energy is known as diesel power station.
A generating station in which nuclear energy is converted into electrical energy is
known as a nuclear power station.



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THERMAL POWER PLANT

The thermal power plant is...

A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam
driven.
Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an
electrical generator.
After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and
recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankin cycle.
In the Rankin cycle, high pressure and high temperature steam raised in a boiler
is expanded through a steam turbine that drives an electric generator.
So shortly in a thermal power plant, the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels
such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas is converted successively into thermal energy,
mechanical energy and finally electrical energy for continuous use and
distribution across a wide geographic area.
Thermal Power plants have very high availability and can operate for more than a
year between shutdowns for maintenance and inspections
This type of power plant is suitable where coal and water are available in
abundance and large amount of electric power is to be generated.

Necessity of thermal power plant

Now a day the power has become the first requirement. Increasing civil
development also demands a growth in power generation sector.
Since coal based power plants are mostly known and adopted in India, it will be
in trend for next coming year.
As the technology empowers and growth enhances the electric power demand
will always be there.
The need of thermal power plant is always there. In future the importance of
thermal power plant will definitely gain boost.


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Advantages
The coal used is quite cheap.
Less initial cost as compared to other generating stations.
It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal since the coal
can be transported with the help of rails or road.
It requires less space as compared to the hydro-electric power stations.
The cost of generation is lesser than that of the diesel power plant.

Disadvantages
It pollutes the atmosphere due to the production of large amount of smoke and
fumes. (Now a days new technologies are being implemented for reducing the
amount of toxic compounds in exhaust gas).
It is costlier in running cost as compared to hydro-electric plant.







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GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF PLANT
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Process components as per the above diagram

i. Coal handling.
Coal handling is process which includes transportation of coal within the plant, primary
crushing, magnetic separation and feeding to pulveriser.

TRANSPORTATION OF COAL
The coals are first of all unloaded with the help of unloading equipments such as car shakers,
rotary car dampers, unloading towers and bridges, lifts truck, cranes, buckets, etc.
With the help of all the equipments the coals are stored at the coal storage part of the plant.
Further carrying of coal from storing point to the site is carried out. The different technologies
being employed are:
1. Belt conveyers
2. Screw conveyers
3. Bucket conveyers
4. Grab bucket elevators
5. Skip hoists
6. Flight conveyers

Screw conveyers:
It consists of an endless helicoid screw fitted to a shaft. The screw
while rotating in a trough transfers coal from one end to the other in enclosed ball bearing.
The speed varies from 70 to 120 r. p.m. The maximum capacity is 125 tonnes per hour.





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Bucket elevators:
It is used for vertical lifts. It consists of buckets fixed to a chain
which moves over two wheels. The coal is carried by the buckets from the bottom and
discharged at the top.
There are two of such types.
1. Centrifugal
2.Continuous.

Belt conveyers:
This is very suitable means of transporting large quantities of coal over large distances.
Belt conveyer consists of endless belt made of rubber, canvas or balata running over a pair of
end drums or pulleys and supported by a series of rollers provided at regular intervals.
The return idler (rollers) which supports the empty belt is plain roller and is spaced wide
apart.
The initial cost of this coal carrying system is not high and power consumption is also low.
The belt conveyers are successfully used on inclination up to 20degree to the horizontal.
An average speed of conveyer is 60 to 100 m per minute.
The load carrying capacity of the belt varies from 50 to 100 tonnes per hour and it can be
easily transferred through 400 metres.

The picture shows a conveyer belt supported by rollers.

Now when this system is employed for larger distance the belt is driven through a hanging
weight with the help of roller to create required tension in the belt.



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Advantages
This is the most economical method of coal transportation in medium as well as large
capacity plants.
The rate of coal transfer can be easily varied by just varying the speed of the belt.
The repair and maintenance cost is minimum.
The coal over belt can easily be protected from wind and rain just by providing overhead
covers.
The power consumption is less as compared to other system.

Disadvantages
It is not suitable for short distances and greater heights.
Inclination is limited to only 20 degree.

Here at adani power ltd.
Here belt conveyer system is employed.
For phase-1 there are two conveyer belts. Which are further divided as two from one type
scheme.
For phase-2, 3, 4 same systems are being employed.
For longer distance or changing directions, towers are installed with different mechanisms as
per requirement.
Further for security purpose alarms and shut off buttons are provided at regular
intervals.
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Shutoff button at regular intervals
Primary crushing of coal

Here a 6.6kv crusher is installed at the intermediate stage of conveyer.
The coals generally are not all of same size. Some are bigger in size than the normal ones
and so their crushing is necessary and crushing of coals helps in further processes also
(pulverising).
In this stage the coals are crushed and made smaller in size (not in powder form).
Here 2 such machines are installed with a hopper mounted on it.
The coals are made to fall in the hopper where further it gets crushed; the crushed part then
again is carried away by the conveyer belt.
Now at some point above the conveyer belt magnetic separator is hanged. It removes the
magnetic particles from the crushed part of coals.
.
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Again the filtered part is carried away by conveyer belt to the pulverizing unit.

Pulverizing unit

Here the filtered coal with the help of conveyer belt enters the mill.
The function of mill is to crush the coals into powder form.
Here again 6.6kv motors are being used for crushing purpose.
After crushing the coals are converted into powder form.
Now the powder form is feed to the furnaces.
In short pulverizing unit is a mill converting coals to power form.

In emergency

When the conveyer belt is in motion and the coal bunkers are full at that time the coals are
redirecting to an open area which when conveyer belt is not in motion is used as
emergency.
Now when the main conveyer system because of any reason stops the supply of
coals, than the zero point conveyer system is employed which drives coals from the
storage made at emergency storage yard.















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Boiler

As per Indian Boiler Act, a Boiler is a closed pressure vessel with capacity exceeding 22.75
litres.
Boiler circulations are of three types 1. Forced circulation 2.natural circulation 3.combined
circulations.
Natural circulation: The fluid circulates by virtue of its density difference caused by temp.
difference.

BASIC DIAGRAM


Here natural type circulation is used in 330 mw (phase 1).

Different technologies used

Total 3 technologies are used globally.
1.) Sub critical
2.) Super critical
3.) Ultra super critical

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Sub critical
In sub critical technology the mixture exists in the evaporator part of the boiler.
It is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance where there
is clear distinction between liquid and gaseous phase.
This technology is not as efficient as super critical one.
In this type the carbon emissions are high.
The pressure built up is up to 190 bars.
In this case drum type boiler is used because the steam needs to be separated
from water in the drum of boiler before it is super heater and led into the
turbine.
Super critical
Now an operating pressure of 221 bar in the evaporator part of the boiler, the cycle
is super critical.
Fluid heated in the super critical state undergoes a continuous transition from a
liquid like state to a vapour like state.
There is no such distinct temperature such as boiling point in the super critical state.
Word boiler should not be used for super critical pressure and is rather known as
steam generator as not boiling actually occurs in this type.
Year wise definition of pressure and temp.
1) 1960- 245 bar 540 c.
2) 1970-250 bar 565 c.
3) 1980-250 bar 565 c.
4) 1990-285 bar 585 c.



Advantages of Supercritical Thermal Cycle:

1) Improvement in power plant efficiency is more than 2%
2) Reduction in coal consumption
3) Reduction in Greenhouse gases
4) Overall reduction in Auxiliary Power Consumption
5) Reduction in requirement of Ash dyke land & Consumptive water.
6) Sliding pressure operation due to once through system.
7) Uniform distribution of heat due to spiral wall arrangement leading to less
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Boiler tube failure, thereby improving system continuity and availability of
the station.
8) Low thermal stress in turbine.
9) Less start up time of the boiler.
Disadvantages of Supercritical Thermal Cycle:

1) Power consumption of Boiler Feed Water Pump is high.
2) High Quality feed water is required
3) More complex supporting and framing in Boiler due to spiral wall tubes.
4) Slight higher capital cost.

Ultra super critical
But in new projects high pressure and temperature up to 600c and 620c with 300 bar.
This is referred to as ultra-super critical technology which is still not employed in India.
Critical pressure 350 bar
Critical temperature 760 c
These parameters can be achieved from this USC which can increase the efficiency up to 4
to 5 % and can decrease the coal combustion by 30 %.


Here at Adani

Here there are 4 phases. In 4
th
phase super critical technology is being used.
And in 1
st
phase, 2
nd
phase and 3
rd
phase sub critical technology is being used.



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Super heater

The stream produced in the boiler is wet and is passed through a super heater where it is
dried and superheated (the temperature increases above the boiling point of water) by the
flue gases on their way to chimney.
In brief, the function of the super heater in the thermal power plant is to remove the last
traces of moisture (1 to 3%) from the saturated steam coming out of boiler and to increase
its temperature sufficiently above saturation temperature.
The heat of combustion gases from furnace is utilised for the removal of moisture from
steam and superheat the steam.
Super heaters usually have several tube circuits in parallel with one or more return bends,
connected between headers.

Now superheating provides two principal benefits
1) The overall efficiency is increased
2) Too much condensation in the last stages of turbine is avoided.
The superheated steam from the super heater is fed to steam turbine through the main
valve.

Economiser

An economiser is essentially a feed water heater and derives heat from the flue gases for
this purpose.
The feed water is fed to the economiser before supplying to the boiler.
The economiser extracts a part of heat of flue gases to increase the feed water
temperature.
Approximately for 6c rise in the temperature almost 1 % of the fuel costs can be saved.
Generally in most of the economizers the feed water is not heated higher than 25c of the
temperature of steam in the boiler thus preventing steam formations in the economiser.

Air pre heater

The heat carried with the flue gases coming out of the economiser are further utilized for
preheating the air before supplying to the combustion chamber.
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It has been observed that an increase of 20c in the air temperature increases the boiler
efficiency by 1%.
The air pre heater in modern power plant is not only considered in terms of boiler efficiency
but also for the supply of hot air for drying the coal in pulverised system and satisfactorily
combustion of fuel in furnace.
The functioning diagram of aph is shown below. It uses the principle of heat exchange.



Air preheaters are usually not installed on gas or oil fired units. They are mostly on units with
solid fuels. In case of steam generators aph is not necessary but study indicates that it helps
increasing efficiency and thus money.
The main benefits of preheating the air are
1) Improved combustion.
2) Successful use of low grade fuel.
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3) Increased thermal efficiency.
4) Saving in fuel consumption.
5) Increased steam generation capacity of the boiler.
Generally two types of preheater are there:
1) Recuperative
2) Regenerative
Here regenerative type is used. This is made to rotate at 0.9 revolutions per minute.

Regenerative type

It consists of slowly moving drum made of corrugated metal plates.
The flue gases flow continuously on one side of the drum and air on the other side.
This action permits the transfer of heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the furnace for
coal combustion.

Air pre heater is designed in such a way that the maximum possible energy is recovered but the
materials of construction are selected for resistance to acid corrosion.
This can reduce the operating cost but increase the capital cost.

Forced draught fan is employed to pull atmosphere air into the combustion chamber through
air pre heater.
Now the flue gases at last are passed through ash removal and are thrown away by induced fan
to chimney and into the atmosphere.

An ESP is

An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device
that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced
electrostatic charge.

Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow
of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and
smoke from the air stream.
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Precipitators function by electrostatically charging the dust particles in the gas stream.

The charged particles are then attracted to and deposited on plates or other collection
devices.

When enough dust has accumulated, the collectors are shaken to dislodge the dust, causing it
to fall with the force of gravity to hoppers below.

The dust is then removed by a conveyor system for disposal or recycling.

Rappers - Variable intensity gravity impact rappers are roof mounted outside the gas
Stream. On-line adjustment of rapping intensity and frequency is available.


Suspension Insulators - 2-point or 4-point suspension designs available
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Collecting Plates - complete shop assembled panels designed for wide or narrow spacing


Rigid Discharge Electrode (RDE) - available in different designs and spike spacing
arrangements to suit various process requirements

Casings - compact casing. No moving parts in the gas stream
gas Distribution Devices
Six basic processes of ESP

1) Ionization - Charging of particles.

2) Migration - Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces.


3) Collection - Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces.

4) Charge Dissipation - Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces.


5) Particle Dislodging - Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper.

6) Particle Removal - Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point.

The major precipitator components that
accomplish these activities are as follows

1. Discharge Electrodes
2. Collecting plates
3. Power Supply and controls
4. Rapping Systems
5. Hoppers and Dust Handling
6. Flue Gas Conditioning

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Steam Turbine

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam,
and converts it into useful mechanical work.
It is mainly classified into two types.
1) Impulse turbine
2) Reaction turbine
Impulse turbine is also classified into two types.
Pressure compounded
Velocity compounded
IMPULSE TURBINES
An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft.
Steam expands as it passes through the nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity
increases. As the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but
its velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades.






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VELOCITY COMPOUNDED

PRESSURE COMPOUNDED



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REACTION TURBINE
In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent
nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam
accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor.

























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SIMPLE RANKINE CYCLE


LOW INITIAL COST
LOW CYCLE EFFICIENCY
HIGH MOISTURE AT TURBINE OUTLET
LIMITATION ON MAXIMUM PRESSURE
LIMITATION ON CONDENSER PRESSURE
MODIFIED RANKINE CYCLE

HIGHER CYCLE EFFICIENCY
LOW MOISTURE AT TURBINE OUTLET
NO LIMITATION ON MAXIMUM PRESSURE
NO LIMITATION ON CONDENSER PRESSURE
HIGHER INITIAL COST
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Three steam turbines.

HP - High pressure turbine
LP-Low pressure turbine
IP-Intermediate pressure turbine


Here 1 HP ,1 LP, and 2 LP mechanically coupled on a same shaft with the alternator and
exciter.

Turbine Rotor

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Alternator

Alternator has main two parts.
1) Stator
2) Rotor

STATOR



In stator winding is done according to the requirement.
It may be Lap or WAVE winding.
This winding is insulated by the insulators.
The winding is made hollow , in which water circulates and maintain the winding temp.
To circulate the water, a circulating pipe provided outside the stator.
The conductivity of water is 0.2 siemens.



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ROTOR

The rotor of the alternator is mechanically coupled on the same shaft with the turbine.
On the shaft slip rings and brushes are mounted from that the winding of rotor brought out
and connected to the DC supply.
Here 500V DC supply is given to the rotor.
Rotor rotates at 3000 RPM and EMF produced in the rotor.
So mechanical energy of alternator is converted into the electrical energy.
Alternator is connected to the Exciter.
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Connection..

Three terminals of the alternator R, Y and B are connected to the generator
transformer.
From that same terminals R, Y, B are given a same neutral point.
Delta to Star connection is done on the GT. (YNd11)
Here at Adani ratings of the LV and HV side is
LV = 220 kV
HV = 400kV
Transformers

Generally three types of mainly used transformers in any thermal power plant are:
1) Station transformer.
2) Generator transformer.
3) Unit auxiliary transformer.


Station transformers
Station transformers, the name itself describes its purpose i.e. it feeds the station from
incoming line.
Station transformers are step down transformers.
The incoming line is stepped down to 6.6 and 11 kv.
The station transformer has two feeder ends one of 6.6kv and 11kv .
These are carried in a special non segregated type ducts.
This power supply is used to run main loads of power plant.
Especially the motors whose ratings are 11kv can run only on the supply given by station
transformers.
These ducts taken out of transformers are connected a station switch gear room from where
further distribution is done.


Here at adani

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Here as discussed before there are 4 phases.
Here we have two station transformers per phase.
Phase one, two and three have station transformers of same ratio. Both the ducts coming
out of transformers are of 6.6kv.
While in phase 4 the ducts coming out are of 6.6 and 11kv.




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Generator transformers

The power generated from the alternator cannot be given to the line directly since the kv
rating is small for long distance transmission.
The voltage needs to be stepped up for transmission purpose.
So the alternators three terminals are connected to generator in 3 different ducts because of
high ratings.
In short the main purpose of generator transformer is to step up and feed line.


The above shown is a generator transformer for R phase.
Same type of transformers is employed for y and B phase.





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Unit auxiliary transformer

Unit auxiliary transformer, the name itself describes its purpose i.e. it feeds the 6.6 loads of
unit.
UAT takes supply from the Generator transformer.
The tapping are taken from the bus ducts towards GT and connected to the UAT.
From UAT the bus is taken in a non segregated bus ducts.
Here at adani for the every unit, two UATs are present further connected to unit switch gear.







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High tension switch gear room:
The switch gear room consists of control panels which are responsible for the distribution
of power to different machines.
The ducts coming out of the station transformer is bought to the station switch gear
room.
The ducts coming out of the unit auxiliary transformer is bought to the unit switch gear
room.
Both station and unit switch gear comes under high tension distribution.

Station switch gear
Two station bus either of (6.6kv and 6.6kv) and (6.6kv and 11kv). Are bought to the
station switchgear room depending upon the ratings of station transformer.
Now this switch room contains different control panels to on-off the motors being feed.
The panel generally contains line pt, incomer pt, transformer bus pt, feeder, tie, bus
coupler, etc. as per the requirement.
The panel works on 22o v dc supply.

Unit switch gear
The two ducts out of two uats are bought to unit switch gear room. (6.6kv).
Now the unit room contains different control panels to on off the different machines
being feed.
Generally panels of line pt, incomer pt, transformer bus pt, feeder, tie, bus coupler, etc.
as per the requirement.
The panels work on 220v dc supply.





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Single line diagram of high tension distribution is
shown next


The single line diagram is shown above. From the unit auxiliary transformer supply given to
the feeder.
Feeder feeds the same rated loads. Also there is a tie between two same rating UAT
feeders.
That tie is shown in the figure.
Here at Adani total 9 units contain 2 UAT each.
First two units called phase 1. In which 4 UATs are tie to each other. Similarly phase 2 ,unit
3 & 4. Phase 3 , unit 5 & 6. Phase 4 , unit 7,8,& 9. In all the units UAT is tie.
In case of fault occurs in UAT tie is used to feed the faulted UATs feeder.
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SWITCHYARD


Functions of substation equipments

1. Bus-Bar: Incoming & outgoing ckts. Connected to bus-bar
2. Circuit Breaker: Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions
3. Isolators: Disconnection under no-load condition for safety, isolation and maintenance.
4. Earthing switch: To discharge the voltage on deadlines to earth
5. Current Transformer: to step-down currents for measurement, control& protection
6. Voltage Transformer: to step-down voltages for measurement, control& protection
7. Lightning Arrester: To discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to
Earth
8. Shunt reactor: To control over voltages by providing reactive power compensation
9. Neutral-Grounding resistor: To limit earth fault current
10. Coupling capacitor: To provide connection between high voltage line & PLCC
Equipment
11. Line Trap: To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones.
12. Shunt capacitors: To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors
13. Power Transformer: To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from
one
a.c. voltage another a.c. voltage at the same frequency.
14. Series Capacitor Compensation of long lines.



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Circuit Breaker

Isolator

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Current Transformer

CVT

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Surge Arrester

Shunt Reactor & NGR

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Auto Transformer

Bus Post Insulator


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Wave Trap

Functions of Associated system in substation
1. Substation Earthing system: Earth mat--Earthing spikes--Earthing risers To provide an
earth mat for connecting neural points, equipment body, support structures to earth. For
safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection. To provide the path for
discharging the earth currents from neutrals, faults, Surge Arresters, overheads shielding
wires etc. with safe step-potential and touch potential.
2. Overhead earth wire shielding or Lightning masts: To protect the outdoor
substation equipment from lightning strokes.
3. Illumination system (lighting):for switchyard--buildings--roads etc.
4. Protection system: protection relay panels--control cables--circuit breakers--CTs, VTs etc.
To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimize
damage to faulty equipment and associated system.
5. Control cable: For Protective circuits, control circuits, metering circuits, communication
circuits.
6. Power cable: To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines.
7. PLCC system: power line carries communication system--line trap--coupling capacitor --
PLCC panels For communication, telemetry, tele-control, power line carrier protection etc.
8. Fire Fighting system: Sensors, detection system--water spray system--fire protection
Panels, alarm systemwater tank and spray system To sense the occurrence of fire by
sensors and to initiate water spray ,to disconnect power supply to affected region to pin-
point location of fire by indication in control room.
9. Auxiliary standby power system: diesel generator sets--switchgear --distribution
system. For supplying starting power, standby power for auxiliaries.
10. Telephone, telex, microwave, OPFF or internal and external communication.

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Working of water system in Thermal power plant.



Water system diagram
For the use of thermal power plant water is taken from the sea. Sea water is taken to the
sea reservoir.

Sea water pump house
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In the sea reservoir sea water get purified by screening process. In the above picture
motor used in the screening process is shown. The screen which is used for the cleaning
sea water is shown below. This screen rotates and removes the fishes and other big
particles.

Screen used in sea water cleaning process
Sea water intake reservoir where vertical turbine pump is present.
Through the pump water taken to the mechanical accelerated clarifier in which according
to the sea water quality ,chemical dose such as aluminum sulfate & polyacry lamide (PAM)
will be added to the clarifier in order to effectually remove the suspended solids.
The chlorinator equipment will be used for disinfection.

Mechanical accelerated clarifier
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LDO PUMP, Oil SEPERATOR















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HVDC SYSTEM AT ADANI POWER LIMITED

HVAC SYSTEM
The first electric generator was direct current (DC) generator &hence, the first electric
power transmission line was constructed with DC.
All the basic discoveries were in the DC field.
Despite the initial supremacy of the DC, the alternating current (AC) supplanted the DC
for greater uses.
This is because of the availability of the transformers, the induction motor and poly phase
circuits.
The transformer is very simple & easy to change the voltage level for the transmission,
distribution and use.
That is why AC becomes very useful for the commercial and domestic uses.
But for the long transmission DC is more favourable than AC because of its economical,
technical, & environmental advantages.


Fig.1Transmission line HVAC
DISADVANTAGES OF HVAC SYSTEM
The AC resistance of a conductor is higher than its DC resistance because of skin effect.
HVAC has more corona and radio interference.
HVAC overhead lines consume and produce the reactive power.
Poor stability
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Distance limitation
Reactance problem
High cost
Environmental problems
HISTORY OF HVDC SYSTEM
It has been widely documented in the history of the electricity industry, that the first
commercial electricitygenerated (by Thomas Alva Edison) was direct current (DC)
electrical power.
The first electricitytransmission systems were also direct current system.
However, DC power at low voltage could not betransmitted over long distances, thus
giving rise to high voltage alternating current (AC) electrical systems.
Nevertheless, with the development of high voltage valves, it was possible to once again
transmit DCpower at high voltages and over long distances, giving rise to HVDC
transmission systems.
Important milestones in HVDC system.
1. Hewitts mercury-vapour rectifier, which appeared in 1901.
2. Experiments with thyratrons in America and mercury arc valves in Europe before 1940.
3. First commercial HVDC transmission, Gotland 1 in Sweden in 1954.
4. First solid state semiconductor valves in 1970.
5. First microcomputer based control equipment for HVDC in 1979.
6. Highest DC transmission voltage (+/- 600 kV) in Itaip, Brazil, 1984.
7. First active DC filters for outstanding filtering performance in 1994.
8. First Capacitor Commutated Converter (CCC) in Argentina-Brazil interconnection, 1998.
9. First Voltage Source Converter for transmission in Gotland, Sweden ,1999.

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Fig.2 Transmission line HVDC

HVDC SYSTEM
The HVDC technology is used to transmit electricity over long distances by overhead
transmission lines or submarine cables. It is also used to interconnect separate power
systems, where traditional alternating current (AC) connections cannot be used.
High voltage DC (HVDC) system converts electrical current from AC to DC at the
transmitting end and from DC to AC at the receiving end.
It consist three basic parts.
Converter station AC to DC
Transmission line
Converter station DC to AC
The number of HVDC projects committed or under consideration globally has increased in
recent years reflecting a renewed interest in this mature technology.

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC SYSTEM
Greater power per conductor.
Simpler line construction.
Ground return can be used.
Hence each conductor can be operated as an independent circuit.
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No charging current.
No Skin effect.
Cables can be worked at a higher voltage gradient.
Line power factor is always unity: line does not require reactive compensation.
Less corona loss and radio interference, especially in foul weather, for a certain conductor
diameter and rms voltage.
Synchronous operation is not required.
Hence distance is not limited by stability.
May interconnect A.C systems of different frequencies.
Low short-circuit current on D.C line.

DISADVANTAGES OF HVDC SYSTEM
Converters are expensive.
Converters require much reactive power.
Converters generate harmonic, require filters.
Multi terminal or network operation is not easy.

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC OVER HVAC
1. Undersea cables, where high capacitance causes additional AC losses. (e.g. 250 km Baltic
cable between Sweden and Germany).
2. Endpoint-to-endpoint long-haul bulk power transmission without intermediate taps, for
example, in remote areas.
3. Increasing the capacity of an existing power grid In situations where additional wires are
difficult or expensive to install.
4. Allowing power transmission between unsynchronized AC distribution systems.
5. Reducing the profile of wiring and pylons for a given power transmission capacity.
6. Connecting remote generating plant to the distribution grid, for Example Nelson river plant.
7. Stabilizing a predominantly AC power- grid, without increasing maximum prospective short
circuit current.
8. Reducing Corona discharge (due to higher voltage peaks) for HVAC transmission lines of
similar power.
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9. Reducing line cost since HVDC transmission requires fewer conductors (i.e. 2 conductors;
one is positive another is negative).
10. Long undersea cables have a high capacitance. While this has minimal effect for DC
transmission.

COST STRUCTURE OF HVAC AND HVDC


FAULTS OCCURRING IN HVDC SYSTEM
1. DC CABLE FAULTS
Cable faults are very rare. They are as a rule caused by mechanical damage.
Therefore submarine DC cables are often buried (except in deep waters) to prevent
damage from anchors and trawls.
When a DC cable fault occurs, this is detected, the converters are blocked and the
transmission is disconnected from the AC grid at both ends.


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2. AC NETWORK FAULTS
When a temporary fault occurs in the AC system (on the rectifier or the inverter side), the
HVDC Light transmission may suffer a power loss depending on the fault impedance and
severity.
As soon as the fault is cleared, power is restored to the pre-fault value.
At a permanent AC fault the converter will be blocked and disconnected from its AC grid.
The other converter will stay connected and can continue to stabilize the AC voltage using
the inherent reactive power capability.

3. CONVERTER STATION FAULTS
Most of the HVDC converter station equipment is located inside a building - a fact that
provides the station with a good protection against flashovers.
HVDC converter stations are provided with an elaborate protection system that is designed
to detect fault conditions or other abnormal conditions that might expose equipment to
hazard and/or cause unacceptable disturbances.
The converter will be blocked and disconnected from its AC grid.
The other converter will stay connected and can continue to stabilize the AC voltage using
the inherent reactive power capability.

4. COMMUTATION FAULT
Commutation failures in HVDC systems are mainly caused by voltage dips due to ac
system faults.
Voltage dips may cause both voltage magnitude reduction and phase angle shift.

COMMUTATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HVDC...
The fundamental process that occurs in an HVDC system is the conversion of electrical
current from AC to DC (rectifier) at the transmitting end and from DC to AC (inverter) at
the receiving end.
There are three ways of achieving conversion:
1. NATURAL COMMUTATED CONVERTERS.
Natural commutated converters are most used in the HVDC systems as of today.
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The component that enables this conversion process is the thyristor, which is a
controllable semiconductor that can carry very high currents (4000 A) and is able to block
very high voltages (up to 10 kV).
By means of connecting the thyristors in series it is possible to build up a thyristor valve,
which is able to operate at very high voltages (several hundred of kV).
The thyristor valve is operated at net frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) and by means of a
control angle it is possible to change the DC voltage level of the bridge.
This ability is the way by which the transmitted power is controlled rapidly and efficiently.

2. CAPACITOR COMMUTATED CONVERTERS (CCC).
An improvement in the thyristor-based commutation, the CCC concept is characterised by
the use of commutation capacitors inserted in series between the converter transformers
and the thyristor valves.
The commutation capacitors improve the commutation failure performance of the
converters when connected to weak networks.

3. FORCED COMMUTATED CONVERTERS.
This type of converters introduces a spectrum of advantages, e.g. feed of passive networks
(without generation), independent control of active and reactive power, power quality.
The valves of these converters are built up with semiconductors with the ability not only to
turn-on but also to turn-off.
They are known as VSC (Voltage Source Converters).
Two types of semiconductors are normally used in the voltage source converters: the GTO
(Gate Turn-Off Thyristor) or the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor).
Both of them have been in frequent use in industrial applications since early eighties.
The VSC commutates with high frequency (not with the net frequency).
The operation of the converter is achieved by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). With
PWM it is possible to create any phase angle and/or amplitude (up to a certain limit) by
changing the PWM pattern, which can be done almost instantaneously. Thus, PWM offers
the possibility to control both active and reactive power independently.
This makes the PWM Voltage Source Converter a close to ideal component in the
transmission network. From a transmission network viewpoint, it acts as a motor or
generator without mass that can control active and reactive power almost instantaneously.
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HVDC SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Fig.3 HVDC system component


NATURAL COMMUTATED CONVERTER
Natural commutated converter is Thyristor.
It is a thyristor based commutation.
Thyristor have only TURN ON capability.
The basic principle of operation of an HVDC system is based on the conversion of AC to
DC and vice-versa by means of converter valves comprising power thyristors, which are
the heart of a converter station.

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Fig.4 Block diagram
The HVDC transmission system is point-to-point configurations where a large amount of
energy is transmitted between two regions.
The traditional HVDC system is built with line commutated current source converters,
based on thyristor valves.
The operation of this converter requires a voltage source like synchronous generators or
synchronous condensers in the AC networks at both ends.
The thyristor valves can be build-up in different ways depending on theapplication and
manufacturer.
However, the most common way of arranging the thyristor valves isin a twelve-pulse
group with three quadruple valves.
Each single thyristor valve consists of acertain amount of series connected thyristors with
their auxiliary circuits.
All communicationbetween the control equipment at earth potential and each thyristor at
high potential is done withfibre optics.

Fig.5 HVDC CSC

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DISADVANTAGES OF THYRISTOR BASED COMMUTATION
The need for reactive power support and in particularvariable reactive support which
increases costs.
Even modest (around 10%) voltage decrease at theinverter AC terminals will cause
commutation failure.
Commutation failure causes a short-circuit on DCvoltage and thus power transfer is
interrupted.
The inability to operate with weak inverter AC systems,which is indirectly caused by poor
control capabilitiesat the inverter side and the above two issues.
Thyristor has not TURN OFF capability.
The fundamental limitation of a Natural commutated converter is its dependence on an
adequate stiff ac voltage source for commutation purposes.
Power systems are subject to disturbances, voltage regulation difficulties and harmonic
pollution which cause commutation problems for such converters. As a result, natural
commutated converters have difficulties to feed into weak ac systems and may take
prohibitively long times to recover from disturbances.
The ability of the natural commutated converter to control reactive power is limited.
More power losses
Dependent on active and reactive power.



FORCED COMMUTATED CONVERTER (VSC BASED)
VSC based HVDC is an Innovation in the field of HVDC transmission systems and opens
up new fields of the proven HVDC technology.
Its innovative design allows technical as well as economic advantages.
Via implementation of a new concept of modular multilevel voltage-sourced converters,
HVDC is the preferred solution where shortage of space is a criterion.
It is ideal for connection of remote offshore platforms and wind farms to the onshore grid
as well as for power supply high-density areas such as mega cities. HVDC improves the
performance of the transmission grid with regard to system security.
Power electronics with self-commutated converters can cope with the limitations
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mentioned above and provide additional technical features.
In DC transmission, an independent control of active and reactive power, the capability to
supply weak or even passive networks and lower space requirements are some of the
advantages.
In many applications, the VSC has become a standard of self-commutated converters and
will be used more often in transmission and distribution systems in the future.
Voltage-Sourced Converters do not require any driving system voltage; they can build
up a 3-phase AC voltage using the DC voltage.
This kind of converter uses power semiconductors with turn-off capability such as IGBTs
(Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors).


Fig.6 HVDC VSC



Fig.7 HVDC VSC
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ADVANTAGES OF VSC BASED COMMUTATION
It can be operated in AC grids with extremely low short-circuit levels or with passive loads.
It has independent control of active and reactive power (full four quadrant operation).
It can be connected to blacked-out networks and re-energize them.
It can be operated in an unsymmetrical network (e.g. during AC network faults) and it
provides unbalance control to compensate unsymmetrical loads.
It is flexible with respect to reactive power and offers voltage control for weak AC grids.
It is robust with respect to AC network faults, fault-ride through capability and it serves as
firewall for limitation of spread of system disturbances.
It is fully suitable for Back-to-Back application as well as for long-distance-transmission
with DC cables or with DC overhead-line.
Economical
The VSC technology provides a straight forward AC side connection. The modular
multilevel converter principle renders AC harmonic filters superfluous.
A standard transformer design can be used without special requirements to withstand DC
voltage or harmonic currents.
The converter does not produce any significant high frequency noise, so outdoor installation
of AC- and DC reactors (if necessary) and switchgear is feasible.
The modular rack-type converter arrangement provides flexibility with respect to building
height versus -length. It allows to lower building height compared to conventional HVDC
converters.
The converter modules are operated with a low switching frequency resulting in low
converter losses.
The converter and the control equipment is designed with a high level of component
redundancy.
Low space requirements
Low height of the installation
Short installation and commissioning period
Lower losses in comparison with 2 and 3-level converters
High Reliability
Reduce losses
Ability to recover rapidly from distribution system (within 1 cycle)
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DISADVANTAGES OF VSC BASED COMMUTATION
The cost of this technology is high.
Ratings are limited.

ULTRA HVDC SYSTEM


Fig.8 Ultra HVDC system
Throughout the world, the demand for power keeps growing at a scale and speed never
imagined in the past.
For various reasons we also witness a strong push for renewable energy sources (RES) with
power generation becoming increasingly distributed and a growing number of generation
facilities located far away from load centers.
At the same time, demanding economic objectives as well as obligations to reduce
greenhouse gases have to be met.
The country has planned capacity additions of around 75,000 MW during the next five year
plan (2012-17) from conventional energy sources, such as coal, gas, and large hydro
projects.
In addition, around 13,000 MW of capacity addition is also planned from renewable energy
sources.
Supporting these massive expansion plans calls for improvements in transmission &
distribution (T&D) infrastructure and in other grid related infrastructure.
Usually some plants, especially hydropower plants, are constructed very far from the
populated areas, requiring long distance transmission.
Hence, there are high power losses in transmission and distribution.
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The T&D losses, amounting close to 30 percent, are one of the biggest challenges for the
country.
Thanks to Siemens Ultra HVDC (UHV DC) long-distance power transmission at a voltage
level of 800 kV providing power capacities of up to seven gigawatts and more has now
become technically as well as economically feasible for the first time ever.
BENEFITS OF USING UHVDC
The most economical solution for long-distance bulk power transmission, due to lower
losses, is transmission with High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC).
A basic rule of thumb: for every 1,000 kilometers the DC line losses are less than 3% (e.g.
for 5,000 MW at a voltage of 800 kV).
Typically, DC line losses are 3040% less than with AC lines, at the same voltage levels,
and for long-distance cable transmission DC is the only solution, technically and
economically.
Siemens UHV DC is a newly developed system that provides the key to increased
performance and robustness of the transmission grid, to keeping pace with thesteadily
growing energy demand, and to a highly economical way of CO2 emissions reduction.
Single bipolar power transmission capacity of more than 7 gigawatts at a voltage of 800
kV
60 % reduction in transmission losses and CO2 emissions with UHV DC compared with
standard 500 kV HVDC
Significantly smaller footprint and lower OHL costs compared with 800 kV AC solutions
daily suited for bulk power transmission over very long distances of 2,000 km and more for
infrastructure upratingscapable of interconnecting large grids and of stabilizing parallel AC
systemsadvanced high-speed system control with Win TDC.


Fig.9 UHVDC transmission system
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UHV DC More than 50 % Reduction in Right-of-Way Requirements.
Siemens UHV DC will be the bulk power energy highway and security backbone of the
future power grids.
The next level of HVDC technology, Siemens UHV DC, is characterized by its innovative
800 kV voltage level, its transmission capacity of up to 7,200 Megawatts, and a substantial
loss reduction.
Thanks to thorough R&D efforts, Siemens is able to produce the entire range of components
required for 800 kV DC power transmission itself and supply complete UHV DC systems
from a single source.
An example of the station Layout and the converter arrangement with two 400 kV systems
in series in each pole for n-1 redundancy is given in the following figures.

Fig.10 Comparison



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ADANI POWER LTD.

UHVDC LAYOUT


Fig.11 UHVDC layout

COMPARISON OF CLASSIC HVDC & VSC HVDC

Table-1
Comparison of classical HVDC & VSC HVDC

Attributes Classical HVDC VSC-HVDC
Converter
technology
Thyristor valve,
grid commutation
Transistor valve
(IGBT), self
commutation
Max converter
rating at present
6400 MW, 800
kV (overhead
line)
1200 MW, 320
kV (cable)
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ADANI POWER LTD.

Relative size 4 1
Typical delivery
time
36 months 24 months
Active power flow
control
Continuous
0.1Pr
to Pr (Due to
the
change of
polarity,
normally
changing
the power
direction takes
some time, which
is not the case for
VSC-HVDC)
Continuous 0 to
Pr
Reactive power
demand
Reactive power
demand = 50%
power transfer
No reactive
power demand
Reactive power
compensation &
control
Discontinuous
control (Switched
shunt banks)
Continuous
control (PWM
built-in in
converter
control)
Independent
control of active
& reactive power
No Yes
Scheduled
maintenance
Typically < 1% Typically < 0,5%
Typical system
losses
2.5 - 4.5 % 4 - 6 %
Multiterminal
configuration
Complex, limited
to 3 terminals
Simple, no
limitations
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THANK YOU SO MUCH TO
THE ADANI POWER GROUP
TEAM FOR THEIR KIND
SUPPORT IN PROJECT