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Content Page
1. Media
a. New vs. Traditional
b. New: narcissistic?
c. Government Censorship
d. Proft-driven Media
e. dvertising
!. Private li!e o! p"blic fg"res
g. Celebrit# as a role model
h. $lame media !or o"r problems
i. Power % &esponsibilit# o! Media
'. Media ethics
(. New Media and )emocrac#
*. +cience,Tech
a. +cience and -thics
b. Government and scientist role in science
c. &el# too m"ch on technolog#?
d. N"clear technolog#
e. Genetic modifcation
!. &ight tech !or wrong reasons
.. rts,C"lt"re
a. rts have a !"t"re in +ingapore?
b. /h# p"rs"e rts?
c. rts and technolog#
d. 0ni1"el# +ingapore: C"lt"re
2. -nvironment
a. )eveloped vs. )eveloping
b. +ho"ld environment be saved at all costs
c. re we doing eno"gh to save the environment?
d. Main reasons !or environmental problems nowada#s
3. &eligion
a. &eligion divides more than it "nites
b. &eligion and politics
c. +cience and religion
4. Terrorism
a. Can terrorism ever be eradicated?
5. +ports
a. Tr"e p"rpose o! sports nowada#s
b. +ports and Media
6. 7oreign id
a. 8ow e9ective is 7oreign id?
:. Migration
a. ;s migration,having !oreigners good?
1<. +"b'ects
a. =iterat"re
b. 8istor#
c. Mathematics
d. 0niversal lang"age
11. $"sinesses
a. $"siness moralit#
b. Charities as b"sinesses
1*. )emocrac#
a. Good vs. $ad
1.. +ocial ;ss"es >onl# stats provided?
a. Gender
b. 7amil#
c. -1"alit#
12. Governance
a. /orld Governance
13. @thers
a. Cooperation
b. -d"cation
c. Crime
d. =ibert# or +ec"rit#
e. Cons"merism
1. Media
1a. New vs. Traditional
The frst 1"arter o! *<2. will be when the last newspapers land on
!ront process all over merica. This is the prediction the a"thor o!
AThe Banishing NewspaperC D
dvent o! tech has bro"ght a radical change in the media ind"str#
No longer confned to reading newsE watching television
Clic( o! mo"seE people can access instantaneo"s in!o and news
Proli!eration o! online blogs and social networ(ing sites s"ch as
Twitter threaten to ma(e mainstream media a thing o! the past
$"t mainstream media adapting to s"it the taste o! cons"mersE still
integral part o! their lives
Mainstream $): Comparativel# slower in its dissemination o! news
Chicago Trib"neE oFcial website chicagotrib"e.comE posts instant
news coverage be!ore newspaper hit the newsstands !ollowing
Man# di9erent perspectives on important events and iss"es
CitiGen 'o"rnalists closer to their s"b'ect matter than pro!essional
$etter position to "ncover "ni1"e on-the-gro"nd perspectives
Mainstream G@@): +heer ph#sical a"thenticit# - reliabilit#
Cost o! p"blishing boo( acts as a barrier to entr# against cas"al
8ardl# an# oversight over the 1"alit# o! material that gets p"blished
via new media channels
n# wor(E regardless o! its val"eE can easil# get broadcasted to a
global a"dience
P"blishers want to ens"re that their boo(s sell H1"alit# chec(H
n# hac( can p"t "p his dribbling on 7ictionpress.net
n# angst-flled teenager can p"t "p his or her macabreE misspelt
poetr# online.
n#one can mas1"erade a s"perstition !or scientifc tr"th and
create a website to scare similarl# wea(-minded netiGens
Mainstream $): Proft motive and Government-reg"lated - reliabilit#
I)onCt let the !acts get in the wa# o! a good stor#J is an instr"ction
o!ten heard in the newsroom
Concept o! media ethics is conceived to be an oK#moron. +adl#E
man# aspects o! the modern media are stripped o! almost all ethical
concerns. ;n a realit# o! competitionE ratings and economic
considerationsE ethics becomes a secondar#E sometimes irritatingE
-.g. $"t consider *<<.E New Lor( Times writer Ma#son $lair ca"ght
!or plagiarising and !alsi!#ing elements o! his stories D clear to
p"blic that newspapers are nowhere higher on moral gro"nds than
-.g. ;rish "ndergrad"ate posted a poetic b"t phone# 1"ote on
/i(ipedia ho"rs a!ter Ma"rice MarreCs deathE /i(ipedia 1"ic(l#
removed it !or the lac( attrib"tion b"t 'o"rnalists
-.g. Cover page o! economist: President @bama at oil spill >c"t a
lonel# fg"re: portra#s the m"ltit"de o! problems !aced b# merica
and his helplessness in coming "p with sol"tions?: Photoshopped
;nherent bias,political slants
-.g. 7oK news channel headed b# &ep"blican s"pporters o!ten
portra# )emocrats in a negative light. 7oKCs anchorman compared
the logo o! the recent n"clear technolog# !or"msE approved b#
President @bamaE with the M"slim crescentE acc"sing @bama o!
having M"slim inclinations. The logoE in !actE was a representation o!
the scientifc atom and had nothing to do with religion whatsoever.
-.g. /ith the tight reg"lations and censorship proced"res on media
p"t in place b# the ;ranian government in the lead-"p to the *<<:
Presidential electionsE an# news o! a manip"lated election process
wo"ld "nli(el# have reached the larger global comm"nit#. ;t was
onl# with social networ(ing sites li(e Twitter that ;ranian activists
co"ld raise the alert as to possible discrepancies in the re-election
o! President hmadine'ad.
/hen the media has so man# other motivesE it can hardl# be relied
on to provide reliable in!ormation. The individ"alE on the other handE
has less hidden agendas.
Mainstream G@@): 0se pro!essional 'o"rnalists >compared to citiGen
'o"rnalism? N content 1"alit#
CitiGen 'o"rnalist Ion-the gro"ndJ reports vs. pro!essional whose
sole p"rpose is to "ncover each and ever# piece o! in!ormation
related to the news article the# are writing
/ider and deeper coverage
Connections to a wider spectr"m o! pro!essionals greater insight
into iss"e at hand
-.g. *<<6 0.+. Presidential -lections >bloggers provide personal
opinions abo"t who was li(el# to win b"t New Lor( Times invited
eKperts to do a state-b#-state anal#sis presenting res"lts in a !"ll-
page spreadE c"lminating in a detailed map showing states
)emocrats were li(el# to win?
non#mit#: given !ree rein to p"blish an# tho"ght that comes to
-.g. 7or ever# worthwhile video present on the site >thin( nnie
=eonardCs IThe +tor# o! +t"9J? there are a m"ltit"de o! videos
!eat"ring otherwise inane and banal individ"als ind"lgentl# banging
awa# at their pianos or doing less-than-!"nn# spoo!s o! m"sic videos
>thin( the Two Chinese $o#s in their dormitor# room?
-.g. Temase( &eview: an anti-government news portal
-.g. Political commentar# b# a certain Owa# Teow Man
-.g. I-ver#one )raw M"hammad )a#J 7aceboo( Page. -mphasis
need !or !reedom o! speech and eKpression that is o!ten c"rtailed in
M"slim comm"nities b"t ended "p ca"sing m"ch "nhappiness
amongst M"slims beca"se the central religio"s fg"re in ;slam is not
s"pposed to be vis"all# depicted. -as#E convenientE e9ortlessl#
reach the global comm"nit# witho"t an# prior chec(s
;n-depth and broad coverage not !o"nd in new media where no
proft motive
Mainstream G@@): larger spectr"m o! in!ormation >range o! content?
$loggers tend to report more on celebrit# gossip and sports >e.g.
pereGhilton.com !oc"ses on reporting entertainment-based news?
>hidden agenda o! bloggers too??
Mainstream cover wide area o! felds
CitiGen Mo"rnalism o9ers "s m"ltiple perspectives
+tr"ct"re o! printed page classifes in!ormation !or the reader
according to s"b'ect matter and importance
Massive amo"nt o! >mostl# irrelevant? in!ormation onlineE
newspaper s"ppl# balanced amo"nt o! in!ormation
Mainstream % New: Ta(e advantage o! the ;nternet N) integration
-.g. +T@MPE newspaper readers invited to post news and pict"res
that the# have "ncoveredE ever# wee( m#Paper has a col"mn
specifcall# dedicated to +T@MPE in which the col"mn lists the top
1< newsworth# stories posted on the site
Mainstream media embrace the ;nternet as an alternative plat!orm
to share news reports with their readers
&espond to growing demand !or less lag time in rela#ing in!ormation
b# setting "p websites that complement their p"blications
>constantl# "pdated ro"nd the cloc(?
+hows on television !re1"entl# "ploaded onto video-sharing
websites s"ch as Lo"T"be and 8"l"E showing s"rging demand !or
mainstream shows
&ecent nielson indeK shows that Imerican ;dolJ over 3< million
viewers in 0.+. alone
&#an +eacrestE host o! showE !re1"entl# "rged viewers to log on to
!oK.americanidol.comE oFcial site o! the showE !or Inever-be!ore-
seen eKcl"sive contentE incl"ding behind-the-scenes coverage o!
merican ;dol even has a Twitter and Lo"T"be acco"ntE post "pdates
and 'e# per!ormances
oo! vs. "nternet
;n!ormation lives to be transmittedE boo(s served this p"rposeE
archivingE Aloc(ing downC and then passing it on
Preserve and disseminate in!oE enlighten or ed"cate readers
&apid advent o! internet has sha(en the traditional role o! the boo(
bilit# to transmit reg"larl# "pdated in!ormation at the speed o!
broadbandE giving !ree access to vast reso"rcesE and opening
aven"es !or more people to p"blish their commentaries or creative
writing D Ain!ormation s"per-highwa#C
HHH;nternet more Convenience and Capacit#
7or cent"riesE boo( was the onl# tangible repositor# o! (nowledge in
o"r world
-pitome o! the writing s#stemE evolved !rom prehistoric scratches in
sand or painting on wallsE more advanced than c"mbersome cla#
and stone tablets
Challenged b# ;nternet on the same two !ronts on which it proved
its master# over other !orms o! recording and disseminating
in!ormation: capacit# and accessibilit#
7abled =ibrar# o! leKandria contained h"ndreds o! tho"sands o!
boo(sE ;nternet has billions o! websites
Bast networ( o! in!ormation on the ;nternet readiness and
convenience with which this in!ormation is accessed is greater than
th"mbing thro"gh a boo( with the advent o! search engines s"ch as
HHH;nternet presents more possibilities than the boo(
7arthest boo( goes into another dimension is in the !orm o! a pop-
"p boo(
;nternet is m"lti-mediaE allows !or greater range o! eKpression and
gives a voice and virt"al page to wo"ld-be writers in the world >e.g.
weblogE !an-fction sitesE video-sharing sites?
s a repositor# o! entertainmentE at leastE the ;nternet seems to
render the boo( ins"Fcient and in man# wa#sE pathetic
;n!o not the same
;nternet does not incl"de the entire corp"s o! the written word
$oo(s are increasingl# fnding their wa# onto the ;nternetE in!o
digitiGed >google boo(s?
M"ch (nowledge residing in boo(s toda# that have not !o"nd their
wa# onto the ;nternet >eKcl"sive in!ormation?
$"tD G"tenberg Pro'ect transcribes old literar# teKts !rom all erasE
posting them online !or !ree
/ebsites s"ch as P"estia and M+T@& store !"ll academic 'o"rnalsE
boo(sE newspaperE magaGines D >portable tooQ?
lso limits imposed b# costs o! p"blicationE boo( cannot contain
ever#thing. -ditors sometimes !orced to tr"ncate minor pieces o!
in!ormation. ;nternet reso"rces easil# tro"nce their co"nterparts as
cost is low. -.g. /i(ipedia or ;nstr"ctables o9er in-depth g"ides and
reso"rces over an incredible range o! topic
-asil# edited rather than reprinted >e.g. /i(ipedia !reel# create and
edit in!o?: completel# d#namic reso"rceE constantl# evolvingE
"pdatingE sel!-correctingE improving
Not ever#one has access to the ;nternet to begin with
Comp"tersE mobile devices s"ch as phones can connect to ;nternet
+"ggest an increasingl# wired world
&estricted to developed co"ntriesE and partic"larl#E those in the
middle or "pper classes
No access to /orld /ide /eb >iron# in the name?. /hile !ricans
>arg"abl# most "nderdeveloped continent? have relativel#
in!re1"ent access to boo( and illiterateE b"t written word has
greater penetration there than broadband
$oo( is the readil# available s"bstit"te
Consider I@ne =aptop per ChildJ campaign
@r cannot a9ord to establish a dial-"p or pre-paid connection to the
0ser-!riendl# with whole range o! in-depth technical g"ides b"t
serve as a distractionE hopping !rom lin( to lin(
)istractions d"e to sheer variet# o! content and m"ltimedia can be
both especiall# tempting and eKceptionall# deadl#
Clear ps#chological di9erence to reading a novel man"script o9 a
laptop screen and act"all# cradling the hardcop# edition in oneCs
hand >simple sentimentalities??
1#. New$ nar%issisti%
Gone were the da#s when the chance o! seeing oneCs name in a
printed p"blication was at the mercies o! the p"blishing ho"seE
whose decision on oneCs man"script determined whether one wo"ld
achieve international prominence or be red"ced to lang"ishing in
nameless obsc"rit#
The rise o! the new mediaE most notabl# the ;nternetE has ca"sed an
"nprecedented democratiGation o! the p"blishing processE with
almost ever#one and an#one being entitled to their bit o! domain
space and broadband to broadcast their tho"ghts on the /orld /ide
/ebE and conse1"entl# to the whole wide worldE witho"t being
s"b'ect to the scr"tin# o! an intermediar#.
Promote a c"lt"re o! sel!-absorption
=ive in a little b"bble o! their own with inRated !eelings o! sel!-worth
and a general "ncaring attit"de
9ord new aven"es o! sel!-eKpression and act"aliGation
Transcended temporal and geographical bo"ndaries to bring "s in
greater contact
Given "s so man# new perspective on this world and enable "s to
ta(e s"ch greater global action
L-+: &ise o! "ser-generated content: sel!-ind"lgence
L-+: non#mit#
Given !ree rein to p"blish an# tho"ghtE even i! insensitive or
disparaging towardsD
-mpowered to have his views aired witho"t having to consider the
potential reperc"ssions and witho"t having to s"9er the ens"ing
bac(lash !rom the discord he has sowed
;dentit# protected b# veil o! anon#mit#
-.g. I-ver#one )raw M"hammad )a#J
N@: $ro"ght "s be#ond o"r sel!-absorbed perspectives
-.g. ;ran elections
llowing the circ"mvention o! restrictions placed on traditional
llow a plethora o! new and alternative perspectives to come
@pening o"r e#es to the larger world be#ond what we eKperience in
o"r ever#da# lives
More att"ned to the happenings o! o"r h"man co"nterparts
N@: Move be#ond o"rselvesE to ta(e a stance on social iss"esE enabling "s
to ta(e "p ca"ses !ar greater than o"rselves b# galvaniGing and gathering
the entire global comm"nit# into ta(ing concrete action
-.g. vaaG.org
Ma(ing "se o! the internet and social media to achieve a staggering
n"mber o! signatories to protest against the Chinese crac(down on
0#gh"r minorities in Sin'iang
-nabled "s to activel# ta(e part in the 1"est !or change , social
-nabled the Ro"rishing o! individ"al eKpressionE to the eKtent o!
New media is b"t a ne"tral toolT how we "se it will determineD
1%. Govern&ent 'ensors(i)
Govt &eg"lated >political-$)?:
Morphs into a power!"l tool to inR"ence peopleCs belie!s and val"es
+ends chills down a liberalCs spine
Magic behind oligarchsCE '"ntasCE emperorsCE a"thoritariansC abilities
to rall# the s"pport o! the people behind them
+"ppress all in!ormation that ma# 'eopardiGe a governmentCs
)evoid o! all diversit#
&obert M"gabe: corr"pt president o! Uimbabwe !orced all news
broadcasting frms to close downE allowing onl# the government-
reg"lated news frm to disseminate in!o
&wanda: Genocide was propagated thro"gh state-bac(ed radio.
-Ktremist 8"t" gro"p too( control.
Circ"mscribed the variet# o! in!ormation
Government dedicated to serving the good o! the peopleE "naware
o! UimbabweCs atrocio"s h"man rights record
Chairman Mao censored an# dissenting views criticiGing his reign
;ndonesia and Taiwan: demonstrationsE riotsE and needles bloodshed
Oills o9 certain aspects o! artistic creativit# thro"gh selective choice
o! content and hence might be said to be an ins"lt to the
pro!essional '"dgement o! the prod"cer o! the piece
c"tel# aware o! Ishoc( e9ectJ on the p"blic created thro"gh grisl#
images and shoc(ingE eclectic >!ree? perspectives on established
+tir "p emotions over a h"manitarian crisisE one inevitabl# "ses
!ottage o! cadaversE m"tilated and b"rnt
=amabaste an entit# or conceptE one can choose to adopt and
acridl# acerbic tone
Media conve#s in!ormation cond"cive to p"blic debate. ;!
government restricts thisE st"nt social growth and awareness b#
limiting in!ormation available
China: government bloc(s web addresses that contain opinions or
sentiments that are an#thing short o! in praise o! them >online
criticism is bloc(edE limits to what newspapers can print?. +till
!orbids eKtensive coverage o! the Tiananmen +1"are protests o!
1:6: where h"ndreds o! st"dents protesting peace!"ll# were
br"tall# massacred. ;n light o! its deplorable h"man rights recordE it
is not diFc"lt to see wh# the Chinese government has so m"ch at
sta(e N it ris(s spar(ing o9 massive p"blic o"tcr#. Modernising
rapidl#E still persists with "nethical means o! s"ppressing dissent
+"sceptible to inR"ence o! lobb#-gro"ps.
Govt reg"lated >political-G@@)?:
Media content that is raciall# o9ensive or c"lt"rall# inRammator# in
nat"re or intent can spar( social o"trage
Give the mass media !ree reinE and one will invariabl# fnd seditio"s
material widel# available on the /orld /ide /eb
-.g. )anish a"thorities inRammator# Prophet Mohammed
caricat"res in the national newspaper: spar( media !"rore and
widespread racial clashes
s people have var#ing opinions on the same iss"eE it is pertinent
that an a"thorit# r"ns thro"gh an# !orm o! content to minimiGe
/hat is accepting to one person ma# be derogator# to another
Given the wide spectr"m o! racial and religio"s gro"ps that
invariabl# !orm an# societ#E especiall# important that the !abric o!
the nation is not torn apart
+ingapore Government has chosen the right approach in this
respectE given the m"lti-ethnic composition o! societ#
Charging two #o"ng bloggers in *<<3 "nder the +edition ct
/ill not tolerate malicio"s acts o! racial discrimination
Censorship is necessar# to introd"ce some modic"m o! reg"lationE
in the hope o! diverting potential conRicts
Govt reg"lated >social?:
;ncreased accessibilit# o! in!ormation: greater eKpos"re o!
"ndesirable material >G@@)?
)emerit goods >-C@N+? D ;n a democratic government where voK
pop"li is the instr"ment which elevates a select gro"p to the !ore o!
administrationE regimes arg"e that the# possess the mandate to
ma(e normative decisions !or the greater good o! societ#.
Paternalism D right and d"t#.
Censorship challenges the basic premise o! a personCs individ"al
'"dgement: people sho"ld be allowed to decide !or themselves what
the# want to watch instead >$)?
Government censorship is paternalistic and intrinsicall# ignores the
possibilit# !or personal censorship or censorship b# vario"s
instit"tions in societ#
="dicro"s in their non-belie! o! the individ"alCs intelligence
7"ndamentall#E a democrac# is predicated on the belie! o! the
general abilit# o! the p"blic to discern between what is benefcial !or
them and what is not
Censorship b# and within the mass media itsel!. -.g. 0+: news
agencies li(e CNN do not broadcast pornograph# and violence on a
dail# basisT the !ormer perhaps not at all. )emonstration o! their
belie! that societ# at large is not !"ndamentall# concerned with and
interested in s"ch material D mani!estation o! the mat"rit# o!
societ# at large >proft motive: will not p"blish content that is not o!
great interest to all swathes o! societ#?
verage child watches 6<<< television m"rders b# the time he
reaches the age o! *1
-.g. Ted $"nd#: obsessed with pornograph# and went on to seK"all#
assa"lt and m"rder innovent #o"ng women
-.g. $and"raCs $obo )oll eKperiment: children who were eKposed to
violent scenes more li(el# to hit $obo )oll
-.g. Col"mbine +hootings inspired b# video game I)oomJ
-.g. Nathan MartineG who shot dead his step-mother and step-sister
a!ter watching the flm INat"ral $orn OillersJ ten times
-.g. The flm IC"tJ b# local flm ma(er &o#ston Tan was s"pported
b# M) beca"se it enco"rages debate on censorship.
/hat media sho"ld do:
Media sho"ld be "sed as a plat!orm not onl# to entertainE b"t also
in!orm and ed"cate the masses
M"st be willing to bear the responsibilit# o! bringing good-1"alit#
broadcasting to all
Commendable brocasting in light o! possible political adherence is
$ritish $rodcasting Corporation >$$C?
+hows li(e I8ard Tal(J present ro"nd-table debates and interviews
with eminent leaders !rom aro"nd the world
/ho determines what is censored?
s the &omans elo1"entl# p"t it: 1"is c"stodiet ipsos c"stodes?
/ho will g"ard the g"ardians? ;! censorship has been established as
a cr"cial concept which does not threaten the mental capacit# o!
man(indE then who is to ens"re that it does not degrade into a tool
!or ab"se?
+cope o! Censorship:
)iFc"lt to determine the scope o! censorship boards as well as the eKtent
o! censorshipE given the spread o! in!ormation "s"all# available to "sT this
line is o!ten hard to drawE hence the diFc"lt# in drawing "p g"idelines and
establishing what disting"ishes an enlightened government !rom a
deplored one.
Governments o! m"lti-racial societies have the added challenge o! (eeping
the s#nerg# and harmon# o! societ#D n"mero"s interest gro"ps to ta(e
into acco"nt be!ore D Meet these challenges and the "ni1"e needs o! the
peopleE while maintaining a certain amo"nt o! !reedom in the press. 8ence
the di9erential rates o! media !reedom in vario"s co"ntries aro"nd the
Government o"ght not to !ear political !reedom o! speech in the media N
transparenc# and press !reedomE co"pled with a nation that is sociall#
stableE "s"all# reRect the confdence o! the people in the given Cabinet.
The media is "sed !or dissemination o! "se!"l in!ormation while !acilitating
p"blic disc"ssion and debate and is there!ore an eKcellent means o!
raising social and intellect"al awareness.
/hile total !reedom certainl# has its shortcomingsE a trade-o9 between
social wel!are and the !reedom o! press is not necessaril# a bad thing.
$en'amin 7ran(linCs epithet that Ian# government who see(s to give "p a
little libert# !or a little sec"rit# deserves neither and will lose bothJ.
Censorship has been aro"nd !or as long as h"mans had the abilit# to voice
their opinion and his !ellow man has deemed it appropriate to chastise this
;n PlatoCs ideal state o"tlined in The &ep"blicE oFcial censors wo"ld
prohibit mothers and n"rses !rom relating tales deemed bad or evil
+hi 8"ang Ti: Penchant !or b"rning boo(s
7reedom o! speech in ancient &ome was restricted to those in
positions o! a"thorit#
7reedom o! +peech:
; disapprove o! what #o" sa# b"t ;Cll de!end to death #o"r right to
sa# it N Boltaire
7reedom o! speech is !"ndamental to a democrac# as it creates
ed"cated and mat"re individ"als that are able to ma(e in!ormed
National +ec"rit#: prevent enem# !rom ac1"iring in!ormation o! militar#
/hite 8o"se reporters said the# were given ver# limited in!ormation
regarding the costE the length and the possible ris(s in the militar#
attac( on ;ra1
Media literac#
Tools o! censorship tend to wor( as a bl"nt instr"ment. 7iltering
so!tware isnCt partic"larl# selective. $# fltering the words AhateCE
so!tware will certainl# screen o"t most hate /eb sites b"t ma# also
bloc( access to val"able and legitimate reso"rces s"ch as sites
dedicated to anti-racismE Mewish c"lt"reE war m"se"ms etc.
7orbidden !r"it e9ect
critical anal#sis on the media will inspire #o"ths to 1"estion wh#
violence is so prevalent in o"r media toda#
8elp them to realiGe that media is not a reRection o! realit# b"t
rather a social constr"ct
/hite 8o"se report that media literac# empowers #o"ng peopleE
not onl# to "nderstand and eval"ate the ideas !o"nd in pop"lar
c"lt"reE b"t also Ito be positive contrib"tors to societ#E to challenge
c#nicism and apath# and to serve as agents to social changeJ
enhances rather than c"rtails #o"ng peopleCs intellect"al growth
and their development into criticall# thin(ing ad"lts
Censorship cannot achieve this
1d. Pro*t+,riven
Mani!estations o! what eKtremel# parochial motives can do to
trans!orm a medi"m that sho"ld serve m"ltiple p"rposes
Proft driven: ineKtricabl# bo"nd to the economic conteKt and
fnancial imperative o! the media ind"str#
Govt reg"lated: devoted to perpet"ating specifc sets o! val"es and
-vent"ates in the ending o! all variet#E choice and vibranc#
="dicro"sl# stilted motives
Proft driven: (eep "sing same !orm"laE no creativit#
Mod"s operandi o! mass media is governed b# corporate sponsors
Television shows are prod"ced so that a certain n"mber o!
a"diences watch the advertisements d"ring commercial brea(s
Corporate sponsors pa# broadcasting frms based on n"mber o!
people the# eKpect to watch the show
Trite >commonplaceE hac(ne#ed? banalit# >predictabilit#? and lac( o!
innovation in media: Icoo(ie-c"tterJ programmes
7alling standards and tastes o! the broadcasting
The wildl# s"ccess!"l birth o! +"rvivor cemented the place o! realit#
TB in o"r c"lt"re toda#
+p"rned man# other realit# TB shows ranging !rom maGing &ace to
7ear 7actor whose !orm"laic >rigid?E insipid >d"ll? nat"re ma(es the
discerning viewer 1"eas# with its monochromatic eKcesses o! cat-
fghtingE seK and cheap sentiment
The $achelor has spawned Moe MillionaireE verage Moe and /ho
wants to be a Millionaire
;nvariable !orm"laE attract millions o! viewers
$land and "tterl# "npalatable
Proft driven: target gro"p alwa#s the same
Target largest gro"p o! people in societ# with ab"ndant p"rchasing
power to maKimiGe reven"e
Cater to tastes o! the ma'orit#
+ocial gro"ps which are deemed "nli(el# to p"rchase advertisersC
prod"cts are "n!ort"natel# marginaliGed
;ncl"de disabled and elderl# who have limited p"rchasing power
and are deemed to be less overwhelmed b# cons"merist desires
;n contrastE teenagers and #o"ng ad"lts are the motivation behind
shows prod"ced toda#
7irms have long been cogniGant o! the baVing appeal o! violence:
proli!eration o! violence
M"sic l#rics >-minem IOill #o"J?E video games >Grand The!t "to?E
movies >onl# one in fve violent movies rated A&C?.
&ed"ced to nothing more than a !ew pain!"ll# "bi1"ito"s themes
1e. Advertisin-
General +tats:
;n 166<: Global advertising eKpendit"re was W.<million
;n 1:1<: W4<<million
;n *<<<: W1*<billion
$# *<<4E b# the most conservative o! estimatesE W4<<billion
Coca-Cola spent W*.2 million in advertising in 0+ alone
Macdonalds spent W* billion in advertising
There is nothing inherentl# wrong with advertising
Corporations have the right to p"bliciGe their prod"ct to the p"blic
and the p"blic has the right and desire to (now what is o"t there in
the mar(et
dvertising acco"nts !or 4<X o! newspaper and magaGine
prod"ction and almost 1<<X o! electronic media prod"ction
8oweverE advertising has deviated !rom its original p"rpose o! in!orming
the p"blic abo"t new prod"cts
-.g. 0se o! photoshop
-.g. A+eK sellsC gent Provocate"r lingerie got seK# pop icon O#lie
Minog"e to ride wildl# on a mechanical b"ll and challenge the men
in the cinema to stand "p to prove to ever#one that the# were not
t"rned on
-.g. Terms and Conditions o! fnancial advertisements alwa#s
printed in small !ont
-.g. 0se o! empt# b"t colo"r!"l lang"age s"ch as Inew and
improvedJE or Ipart o! a complete mealJ !or !ast !ood when it is
act"all# onl# health# when eaten in eKtreme moderation
-.g. $e!ore and a!ter photos !or slimming advertisements. ;n the
Abe!oreC photosE the person "s"all# slo"chesE is pict"red in !"ll view
and is clad in "ns"itable clothing. ;n the Aa!terC photosE pict"red in
hal! view with more attractive clothing. ;ncreased attractiveness is
th"s attrib"ted to weight loss.
-.g. 7ast !ood "s"all# photographed in warm light so that it loo(s
healthier. Corn Ra(es on cereal boKes loo( permanentl# golden and
crisp# beca"se it is held not in mil( b"t in white gl"e. +imilarl#E
sesame seeds are s"per gl"ed on to the b"rgers !or photoshoots.
"dience themselves have become the prod"ct
The media capt"res the peopleCs attention and sells this attention to
the frms. 7irms "se this attention to advertise their prod"cts. Th"sE
contrar# to conventional wisdom where advertising is all abo"t the
frm tr#ing to sell prod"cts to the p"blicE the a"dience themselves
have become a val"able commodit# to the advertisers
-.g. .< second advertising slot d"ring @scar Ceremon# costs
W0+1million as it promises 4<X o! merican !emale viewership
@vereKpos"re has ca"sed desensitiGation and advertising messages wor(
into o"r conscio"s
lmost ever# ph#sical s"r!ace that can be "sed is eKploited !or
advertising >e.g. athletes as wal(ing billboards >71 drivers?E s"r!ace
o! prod"cts?
@vereKpos"re is bad inso!ar that it encroaches into o"r private li!e
and private space. This is not s"pposed to be the case since we
need to be able to control what we are eKposed to
-.g. /hen televisions were frst introd"ced in p"blic transport
s#stems in +ingaporeE it ca"sed an "proar as now people co"ld not
sleepE chat or read on the b"s witho"t hearing advertisements in
the bac(gro"nd
-.g. merican children are eKposed to advertising at s"ch a #o"ng
age that in a s"rve#E more o! them co"ld recogniGe the Macdonalds
logo as compared to the Christian Cross
+ince frms want a constant s"ppl# o! viewers who want to p"rchase their
prod"ctsE it is in the interest o! the advertisers to create a sense o!
inade1"ac# rather than a sense o! sel!-satis!action
+ince one has to be confdent be!ore he starts to thin( o! societ#E
advertising ca"ses selfsh mindsets
-.g. $"st enhancement advertisements lin( a womanCs confdence
solel# to the "p(eep o! her loo(s
+tealth advertising has ca"sed "s to lower o"r g"ard
-.g. $+ "sed prime news time to advertise To"chstone Pict"res
movie Pearl 8arbo"r as both $+ and To"chstone belonged to
Prod"ct placement
-.g. The movie ITomorrow Never )iesJ earned a landmar( W1million
!rom advertising with Mames $ond seemingl# pre!erring to "se $M/
motorc#cles and @mega watches
-.g. ;n the movie I&"nawa# $rideJE 7ed-K was !eat"red with the
p"nchline Iwherever she goesE sheCll reach there be!ore 1<.<amJ
-.g. &eebo( s"ed Tristar pict"res !or W1<million !or a movie in which
the protagonist pre!erred Ni(e to &eebo(
P"estionable c"lt"ral val"es being advocated in advertisements
Narrowing concept o! !eminine and masc"line bea"t#: 8andsome
men generaliGed to be m"sc"larE athleticE chiseled and toned while
bea"ti!"l women are seen to have above average breast siGeE long
legsE long hair and white compleKion.
Cons"merism and materialism: dvertisements seem to p"rport
that one can achieve a happ#E satis!actor# li!e b# b"#ing the right
dvertising has been "sed intelligentl# and responsibl# in the promotion o!
important ca"ses
The $od# +hop: Promote !emale empowerment and environmental
awareness. Printed advertisements abo"t missing children on all her
$od# +hop tr"c(s to help the police in their search
*<<3 international campaign !or )ove: debate abo"t bea"t#:
challenges the preconceived notions o! what ma(es a woman
=;NO: media literac#
1.. Private li.e o. )/#li% *-/res
7rom Princess )iana to Tiger /oodsE the headlines on o"r dailies
have consistentl# eKposed the sordid details o! the private lives o!
p"blic fg"res
+"ch irascible coverage
8arm p"blic fg"res , prove to be eKcessive !or even p"blic
$"tD "pholds the p"blic right to in!ormation and potentiall#
promotes better behavio"r among p"blic fg"res
P"blic fg"re: individ"al who achieves prominence and o!ten
eKtracts considerable beneft !rom being in the p"blic spotlight
>politiciansE actors?
Private livesE which re!er to their a9airs and li!est#le choices
"nrelated to their pro!essional activities
+"b'ect o! immense disc"ssion in p"blications
&ight to privac# o! p"blic celebrities is "n'"stifabl# in!ringed >in principle?
-ver# individ"al deserves a certain amo"nt o! dignit#
ctions in p"blic sphere sho"ld not be s"b'ect to intense criticism
based on tastes and pre!erences o! others in societ#
&ight to privac# does not cease to eKist when an individ"al is
pl"nged into p"blic limelight
P"blic li!e sho"ld not become something which can be eKploited b#
media companies to gain profts
Conse1"ences o! s"ch coverage o!ten prove to be deleterio"s >in practice?
Process o! gaining s"ch scoops o!ten involves invading the lives o!
individ"als in their most private moments
-.g. Memor# o! paparaGGi cameras chasing stars li(e "dre#
8epb"rn on their s"mmer vacations D most iconic ill"stration
More insidio"sl#E damage others whom he or she was lin(ed to in
-.g. /hen seK"all#-revealing photos o! -dison Chen and his m"ltiple
partners were splashed all over the !ront pages o! 8ong Oong
newspapers s"ch as pple )ail# D not onl# -dison ChenCs m"sic
career which s"9ered. @ther celebritiesE s"ch as Gillian Che"ngE
who chose to have private tr#sts with him b"t did not consent to
having their rep"tations signifcantl# smearedE were "n!airl#
compromised b# actions which had nothing whatsoever to do with
their pro!essional career
Ps#chological stress on p"blic fg"res when stories o! their !amilies
and their romantic relationships are thr"st into the p"blic e#e
$ritish Tabloid reports on Mohn Terr# and the !ormer girl!riend o! his
!ormer teammateE /a#ne $ridge heaped m"ch press"re on the
alread# str"ggling pla#er and even called into 1"estion his abilit# to
contin"e serving as -ngland captain
Casts "n!air aspersions on their pro!essional careers and prod"ces
pernicio"s o"tcomes
+ince it wo"ld be !"tile to den# the eKistence o! s"ch negative e9ects D
attempt to deb"n( the above arg"ments b# presenting a principle that
tr"mps the right to privac# N the right o! the p"blic to (now the tr"th
;solating the !act that "nli(e the average MoeE who eschews the
media spotlightE individ"als become p"blic fg"res beca"se o! the
!avo"rable light that the media casts "pon themE which allows
them to achieve widespread recognition and signifcant s"pport
-.g. /itho"t the s"pport o! &"pert M"rdochCs widel#-read dailies li(e
The +"nE Ton# $lair wo"ld "nli(el# have won b# a th"mping ma'orit#
which catap"lted him to the premiership
-ven a!ter individ"als become p"blic fg"resE the# rel# on the media
to connect with and inR"ence the p"blic
-.g. The s"ccess o! )avid $ec(hamCs endorsement o! didas soccer
boots depended heavil# on the media reaching o"t to a"diences
Th"sE p"blic fg"res beneft !rom the tr"st and s"pport that the
p"blic places on them
$# implicationE their d"t# to remain acco"ntable to the p"blic is
m"ch higher than the average person
+ince the media is the primar# means thro"gh which the p"blic gets
to (now these p"blic fg"resE media coverage on them is '"stifed
More importantl#E since it is important !or the p"blic to (now
whether or not the image that the# portra# is a !aYade that hides
deceit and sociall#-"nacceptable behavio"rE the private lives sho"ld
remain s"b'ect to media scr"tin#
)oes not mean that the media can lie abo"t their private lives since
the media is still s"b'ect to slander and libel s"its that celebrities
can fle i! the# fnd the media is spreading mistr"ths that s"ll# their
+everal benefts accr"e when these principles are p"t into practice
People can chec( on p"blic fg"resE ma(e more in!ormed decisions
-.g. +enator Mohn -dwardsE a )emocratic Presidential hope!"l in
*<<6 in 0nited +tatesE who !ell !rom grace a!ter /ashington Post
eKposed that he had eKtra-marital a9airs when his wi!e was
"ndergoing treatment !or breast cancer. $# eKposing the !alsit# o!
the s1"ea(# clean image that his campaign team had tried to
preserveE D E the people d"l# re'ected him
$ecome better role models
&egardless o! potential harms inc"rred beca"se o"tweighed b# D
7or those who want to be larger than li!eE the# m"st live "p to the
1-. 'ele#rit0 as a role &odel
Mass coverage and the media have infltrated ever# last noo( and
crann#E and children !rom ZZZZ to ZZZZ (now the name $ritne#
+pearsE it is hard to 1"estion the pervasive presence o! the celebrit#
&ise o! the paparaGGi and the "bi1"it# o! tabloids have made it
nearl# impossible !or an#one with a modic"m o!E or the remotest
claim to !ame to do an#thing that does not end "p "nder p"blic
scr"tin# and '"dgement
Catap"lted into the p"blic e#e D bear mantle o! the Irole modelJ
/hat (ind o! celebrit# stat"e and what the# do with their !ame.
Parents acco"ntable?
)efne I&ole ModelJ
)epends on oneCs individ"al val"e s#stem: s"b'ective
pprove strongl# o! Christina g"ileraCs talentE conservative person
D once-t"m"lt"o"s private li!e negates eKtent o! nat"ral gi!ts
7"ndamentall#E role model [ wish to em"lateE personifcation o!
oneCs desired attainmentE "pright moral standard
gainst 1 % Co"nter: Celebrit# image co"nter-int"itive to role model
;dea o! the celebrit# closel# integrated with the idea o! the
entertainment celebrit# D image it con'"res is that o! a dr"n(E
vac"o"s and promisc"o"s personE preocc"pied with shallow
concerns o! appearance and prone to ma(ing la"ghable sartorial
-.g. Going aro"nd town witho"t "ndergarments >$ritne# and Paris?E
s"9ering Iwardrobe mal!"nctionsJ on national television
7all miserabl# short o! the #ardstic(s o! a role model
cc"rate description o! man# o! TinseltownCs most in!amo"s b"t
does not do '"stice to those who are celebrated !or gen"ine talentE
dedication and the li(e
Celebrities not !o"nd eKcl"sivel# in $everl# 8illsT lend their names
and !ame to good ca"ses >ngelina Molie and her wor( with the 0N?E
diligentl# wor(ing on improving their God-given abilities to even
greater heights >&oger 7ederer?E rnold +chwarGeneggar >(nown !or
his m"scle and starring role in IThe TerminatorJ rode on wave o!
pop"larit# and !ame to political power as governor o! Cali!orniaE
dedicated to environmental ca"seE implement policies to red"ce
emissions and vehicle "sage?
Closer to home: -"nice @lsenE !ormer Miss +ingapore 0niverse:
active in comm"nit# serviceE advocating vario"s ca"ses event"all#
becoming Nominated Member o! Parliament. @ther important
ca"ses championed b# man# celebrities ranging !rom climate
changeE gender e1"alit# to even spea(ing good Chinese in
gainst *:
/ell-(nown song !rom )isne# smash hit I8igh +chool M"sical I;
want it all,The !ame and the !ort"ne and moreJ
+el!-made celebrities D creating notoriet# !or themselves b# an#
means possible
-.g. M"ltit"de o! socialites !eat"red in MTBCs IM# +"per +weet
+iKteenJE who behave horrendo"sl# on television !or their hal!-ho"r
o! !ame on national televisionE condemning ever# lavish gi!t the#
receive !or some minor Raw and generall# behaving with a
complete lac( o! gratit"de
-.g. Paris 8iltonCs in!amo"s IseK tapeJ scandal entered p"blic
conscio"snessE cop#cat eKamples in local conteKt: Tamm# Ling seK-
tape /hile originall# not intended !or p"blic cons"mptionE idea is
arg"able ver# eKhibitionist N potential o! being lea(ed !or nothing is
private an#more >rein!orced b# the -dison Chen scandal n"de
photos o! eK-girl!riendsE Madonna having personal contacts made
p"blicl# accessible?
7or 1:
$ehavio"r we o!ten condemn as morall# degrading is part o! their
private lives
ll-invasive nat"re o! reporters and photographers eager !or the
neKt big scoopE be it Uhang Ui#i !rolic(ing topless with her ;sraeli
fanc\ or m# /ineho"seCs latest entrance into rehabE have
rendered this demarcation between the p"blic and the private
impossible !or celebrit#
-.g. Banessa nne 8"dgens scandal: )eclared as befts her image
as a wholesomeE )isne#-endorsed starletE that she wishes to be a
Irole modelJ !or girls. N"de photos scandal. Parents whose children
are ardent !ans o! the 8igh +chool M"sical !ranchise disma#ed and
condemn her $0T 8ardl# her intention ] h"man and !allible
CelebritiesE b# virt"e o! the other privileges the# en'o#E sho"ld bear
greater social responsibilit# as e1"al eKchange
Media '"st as c"lpable >!or see(ing attention-grabbing stor# to
ens"re wider readership? !or deliberatel# sensationaliGing these
negative behavio"rs
Parents pla# a role
Not to advocate a (ind o! I$ig $rotherJ mentalit#
;mmediate inR"ence o! the s"rro"nding moral environment probabl#
has the most impact on a child or teenCs behavio"rs
/hat are IrightJ val"es and how or wh# the# sho"ld be espo"sed
Compare political fg"res
Commit illegal acts or inR"ence #o"ths in eKtreme ideolog#
-Kceptional 1"alities o! leadershipE advocac# or enlightenment on
vario"s social iss"es
-.g. Mao Uedong stir #o"ths in 1:4<s C"lt"ral &evol"tion: lasting
damage especiall# to the c"lt"ral and societal !abric o! China
mo"nt o! negative inR"ence politicians co"ld wield is m"ch greater
than celebrities as the# are the ones "ltimatel# charting the
progress o! a state
+tirring !ervent #o"ths in the wrong directionE s"ch as acts o!
terrorism or violence co"ld ca"se lasting damage to generations o!
#o"ths and even their societies
Proli!eration o! celebrit# p"blicit#E and there!ore the inR"ence the# eKertE
is !"elled b# o"r own inherent imp"lse to '"dge N we ma# in !act relish it
when the celebrities do wrongE that we ma# '"dge them accordingl#T b"t
we m"st ta(e care not to let impressionable #o"thE "naware o! moral
standardsE be "nd"l# inR"enced
1(. la&e &edia .or o/r )ro#le&s
Media responsible !or problems !aced b# #o"ng people toda#
Most convenient scapegoat
$lamed !or an#thing !rom "nderage alcoholism to promisc"o"s
li!est#les among teenagersE or acc"sed o! acts ranging !rom
perpet"ating the m#th o! the ideal bod# to promoting moral
+ome basis o! these allegationsE na^ve to hold media !"ll#
7or 1:
Moral norms are o!ten threatened b# salacio"s television
programmes s"ch as the in!amo"s )esperate 8o"sewivesE or b#
sensationalist news reports abo"t the seK"al eKploits o! st"dents
Mislead #o"ths into morall# 1"estionable behavio"r
Glamorisation o! smo(ing and alcohol cons"mption "ndesirable
inR"ence on impressionable teenagers
d !or slimming or proli!eration o! television programmes in which
per!ectl#-proportioned actors are the protagonists contrib"te to
teenage insec"rit# and sel!-esteem iss"es >d"ring their !ormative
Cannot absolve media o! all responsibilit#
gainst 1:
)isting"ish between correlation and ca"salit#
-ven sta"nchest advocate o! media censorship D
8ormonesE not television dramsE are responsible !or teenage seK"al
Peer Press"reE not +eventeenE is directl# responsible !or creating
perception that one m"st con!orm
gainst *: @ther !actors
Peer press"reE a s"btler and more insidio"s !orce than media
;! oneCs social circle fnds smo(ing A"ncoolCE "nli(el# to ta(e "p
smo(ing '"st beca"se lead singer o! !amo"s roc( band does so
Conversel#E i! one is bro"ght "p on a strict diet o! onl# the most
wholesome television programming and ed"cational p"blicationsE
#et associates with peers who consider copio"s alcohol
cons"mption the "ltimate rite o! passage D end "p heading down
road o! teenage alcoholism
$anning Cosmopolitan or 78M will not lead to a drastic drop in
teenage pregnanciesT impressionable girls will not be c"red o!
anoreKia '"st beca"se the# are no longer eKposed to bea"t#
$"t media does pla# a role in shaping teenage attit"des and hence
contrib"ting to peer press"re
gainst .: BiewerCs responsibilit#
Giving #o"ng people too little credit to s"ggest that the# are the
helpless victims o! a media onsla"ghtE able onl# to s"cc"mb to
media inR"ence witho"t an# resistance
Toda#Cs #o"ths do not have to accept the stereot#pes rein!orced b#
pop songs or moviesT !ree to challenge the val"e s#stems and
morall#-s"spect messages presented to them
=i(e all other ind"striesE media ind"str# r"led b# !orces o! s"ppl#
and demand
;! #o"ths choose to b"# magaGines that promote materialistic
s"perfcialit# or decide to watch realit# shows that glori!# violence
gainst 2: GeneraliGation
IThe mediaJ encompasses ever#thing !rom The sian /all +treet
Mo"rnal to Teenage MagaGine and incl"des both doc"mentaries and
mindless sitcoms ali(e
@nl# a section o! the media responsible
lso problems other than those commonl# cited b# critics o! the
media: academic stressE social politicsE a d#s!"nctional !amil#
sit"ation or even fnancial diFc"lties
8ardl# blame depraved television programmes
&ange o! problems !aced b# #o"ng people is vast and media onl#
implicated in a small portion o! those problems
MediaCs role one o! inR"ence rather than ca"sation
P"tting aside 1"estion o! the mediaCs c"lpabilit#E i! we still hold it !"ll#
responsibleE against all logicE inevitabl# attempt to tac(le problems b#
merel# censoring and dil"ting the media. &oot o! problem remains
The media remains a convenient scapegoatT b"t to persec"te a scapegoat
is to remain "naware o! the tr"th
1i. Power 1 Res)onsi#ilit0 o. Media
/e live in a world where the mone# dedicated to advertising b#
m"ltinational companies is e1"ivalent to hal! o! the mone#
channeled to ed"cation across all co"ntries
0ncle $en: /ith great power comes great responsibilit#
Nat"re o! the media is s"ch that the tiniest error is magnifed when
it is processed b# the media
/hether it is thro"gh h#ped-"p reports or the !act that millions o!
people are watchingE the media opens "p a blac( hole o!
possibilities o! tension and stri!e to occ"r
Power can be "se!"lQ
t a time when the merican government was tr#ing to cover "p
the !act that scores o! merican soldiers were d#ing b# the da# in
the Bietnam warE the media became the voice o! tr"thE bringing
reports !rom the !ront and showing the merican people what was
reall# going on in Bietnam
&es"lting p"blic "proar !orced government to reloo( its !"tile e9orts
$owed to p"blic press"re
Can media ever be responsible?
Government reg"lated
/h# need to be responsible?
+ocial e9ects o! media
Political e9ects o! media
-9ects o! new media?
=ess control % anon#mit# [ less responsibilit#?
12. 'an &edia #e relied on to tell t(e tr/t(3
;ntro: P"rpose o! media [ important to conve# the tr"th >power o! media?
Conse1"ences o! not telling the tr"th [ less reliable [ less people b"# [
less profts >individ"al tooQ? >there!ore tell the tr"th?
Proft motive [ sensationaliGe stories >lin( media ethics?
Government reg"lated [ censor the tr"th
New media [ more tr"th? Not necessaril#Q N problems with new media
News is never a mere recording or reporting o! the world o"t there b"t a
s#ntheticE val"e-laden acco"nt which carries within it dominant
ass"mptions and ideas o! the societ# within which it is prod"ced
Concl"sion: individ"al needs to be discerning
1!. Media et(i%s
Need !or acc"rac#:
Moseph P"litGer Ithree r"les !or reporters: acc"rac#E acc"rac# and
A)onCt let the !acts get in the wa# o! a good stor#C is an instr"ction
o!ten heard in the newsroom
8ard to resists eKec"tive press"re to p"sh stories !"rther than the
!acts '"sti!#E o!ten b# the "se o! anon#mo"s 1"otes
The concept o! media ethics is conceived to be an oK#moron. +adl#E
man# aspects o! the modern media are stripped o! almost all ethical
concerns. ;n a realit# o! competitionE ratings and economic
considerationsE ethics becomes a secondar#E sometimes irritating
@b'ective nat"re o! the media:
News is never a mere recording or reporting o! the world o"t there
b"t a s#ntheticE val"e-laden acco"nt which carries within it
dominant ass"mptions and ideas o! the societ# within which it is
Proft-driven: mod"s operandi controlled b# frms
-.g. ;nvestigating reporters discovered that the mil( prod"ced b#
Monsanto in the 0+ co"ld be ad"lterated with bovine growth
hormone. 7orced to change the stor# >6. dra!ts? beca"se Monsanto
threatened that there wo"ld be Idire conse1"ences !or 7oK news i!
the programme airs in 7loridaJ. scared o! losing advertising dollars
1l. New Media and de&o%ra%0
New media arise thro"gh technological advancements >e.g.
internet? to ma(e o"r world increasingl# globalised and inter-
)emocrac# whose main ideal is enshrined in o"r power to voteE
re1"ires political leaders to reach o"t to the masses so that the
masses can ma(e in!ormed choices in electing leaders
+haring o! (nowledge and ideas: p"sh towards democratic process
&each o"t to one another in a wa# that is revol"tionar# and which can
never be achieved thro"gh door-to-door canvassing o! votes and s"pport
0+ presidential electionE set "p political websites
Monetar# !"nds !or political campaigns raised thro"gh internet
llow citiGens to voice their opinions whether in dissent or in
s"pport o! political candidates
$0TD $ritish general election >most memorable online moments
pale b# comparison: frst political s"icide b# Twitter when a =abo"r
candidate posted some cr"de comments? >moment that changed
the campaign was a live televised debate where in a :<-min"te
contestE the =iberal )emocrat leaderE Nic( CleggE ended in clear
victor# and whose s"pport s"rged b# an "nprecedented 3< percent
a!terward: TB invented in 1:*3? >most memorable incident came
when Prime Minister Gordon $rown was campaigning in &ochdale
when a widow came over to give the prime minister a piece o! her
mind. $rown dealt with the enco"nter well b"t when he got bac(
into his carE !orgot to disconnect the radio and called the woman
IbigotedJ: radio microphone invented in 1:2:?
Poll cond"cted b# @pinion Matters: :X get in!ormation !rom /eb
sitesE 3X !rom emails sent b# politiciansE 4.X !rom TBE 25X !rom
newspapersE *5X !rom radio
&es"lted in degradation o! political process
General trend has been in the !ormation o! ver# cloistered and
segregated comm"nities
-.g. proponents o! abortion have their own website and comm"nit#
!or"m and same can be said !or pro-li!e camp
-.g. s"pporters o! @bama segregated themselves on the internet
!rom s"pporters o! Mccain
)evelopment o! disc"ssions that are one-sided and narrow in !oc"s
Prevent people !rom ma(ing more in!ormed choices abo"t their
political candidates
Newspaper better medi"m !or eKchange and s#nerg# o! contrasting
ideas and viewpoints as the# ma(e ob'ective reports presenting
hard and discerning !acts to citiGens witho"t m"ch bias
Noam Choms(# IPropaganda is to democrac# what the bl"dgeon is
to totalitarianismJ
+pread !alse in!ormation abo"t themselves and their rival political
-.g. Change their entries on /i(ipedia to improve own image
-.g. +preading o! !alse claims that ;ra1 had weapons o! mass
destr"ction b# the George /. $"sh government >Lo"T"be?
+pread o! idea o! democrac#
ctivists set "p watchdog gro"ps criticise governments !or not being
wholl# democratic
mnest# ;nternational scr"tiniGes co"ntries worldwide to determine
whether the# are democraticE o!ten posting criti1"es and
eval"ations online
P"blic scr"tin# and criticism o!ten stir leaders towards greater
democrac# b# placing press"re on governments to re!orm
>proli!eration o! tenets o! democrac#?
lso sole medi"m that has tr"l# allowed !reedom o! eKpression >(e#
tenet o! democrac#? >censorship o! viewpoints largel# impossible
given internet rapidl# changing and eKpanding?
$0T limited accessD -.g. Twitter !"eling protests that co"ld bring
regime change to ;ran >onl# 1X have Twitter acco"nts? Censorship
>Great China 7irewall?
Closer to homeE . bloggers detained !or inciting social tension
thro"gh insensitive comments on blogs.
Concl"sion: ;nternet has given spread and act"al practice o! democrac# a
m"ch needed boost in recent #ears b"t limitationsD M"st beca"se a tool is
new and cool doesnCt mean it will have a great impactD
2. S%ien%e 4 Te%(
2a. S%ien%e and Et(i%s
+cience: s#stematic and organiGed p"rs"it o! (nowledge
P"rpose o! science: eKplain and manip"late the ph#sical world
-instein has . motives: en'o#ment o! intellect"al power and
accomplishmentE satis!action o! practical p"rposesE and a sort o!
religio"s !ollowing
+cience provided man(ind with a lang"age which transcends
c"lt"ral bo"ndaries and connects "s in a highl# satis!#ing wa#
-thics: st"d# o! what is right and what is wrong >moralit#?
Melamine scandal in China which (illed several #o"ng children
re(indled the debate on whether or not ethics has a part to pla# in
+cience witho"t ethics
+cience is ver# m"ch a career-driven discipline. Th"sE scientists rel#
ver# m"ch on their rep"tation !or ongoing !"nding and s"pport and
s"ch rep"tations onl# come when the# p"blish high-profle scientifc
papers. This Ip"blish or perishJ concept has ca"sed man# scientists
to !abricate data.
;! scientists are given !ree reignE the# are as li(el# as an#one else to
cross lines
-.g. +o"th Oorean scientist 8wang /oo +"( !a(ed stem cell
research. ;n an interview laterE he claimed that he was Iblinded b#
wor( and his drive !or achievementJ.
-.g. ;n 1:6<sE two chemists claimed the# had per!ormed controlled
n"clear !"sion in a test t"be. >energ# woes solved?? $"t the# had
not per!ormed the tests properl#.
-.g. +imon +horvon >National Ne"roscience ;nstit"te Chie!? p"tting
Par(insonCs disease patients thro"gh tests witho"t in!orming them
-.g. T"s(egee eKperiment >1:.*-1:5*? !rican merican men given
s#philis intentionall# and monitored. Penicillin discovered then b"t
not administered
B+. +cience with ethicsQ Geneticall#-modifed !ood >ver# tightl#
reg"lated? Aanti!reeGeC gene in tomatoes. -T8;C+: blasphem#
against li!e o! divine origin and potential emergence o! strange and
new varieties o! harm!"l organisms
+cience potentQ
Means to ac1"iring (nowledge sho"ld be s"b'ect to common ethical
)"e to its potenc#E li(e the analog# o! a child with a g"nE science
m"st be balanced with social responsibilit#
+t"d# o! science m"st be balanced with social responsibilit#
+cience cannot shrin( awa# !rom the moral implications that are
implicit in all !orms o! learning
-sp. beca"se science now increasingl# corporate-ledE no more
obligation to h"manit#E scientists sel!-serving
&esearch !"nding s(ewed towards those which can bring abo"t
fnancial beneft >armies sponsor?
+cience is hindered b# ethics
+cience itsel! has no conscience
;n1"isitiveE creative mind hindered i! need to (eep thin(ing abo"t
moral iss"es
President $"sh veto o! legislation to !"nd stem cell research sa#ing
that Icrossing the line wo"ld needlessl# enco"rage a conRict
between science and ethics that can do damage to bothJ
+cience cannot be A"ndiscoveredC AirreversibleC
+cientifc improvements are IpandoraCs boKesJ
-.g. lbert -instein said that i! he (new his wor( in n"clear ph#sics
wo"ld lead to the invention o! the n"clear bombE he wo"ld never
have st"died ph#sics
-.g. =eader o! the Manhattan Pro'ectE @ppenheimerE who had earlier
chastised scientists in his team !or opposing the "se o! the bomb !or
ethical reasonsE was later overwhelmed b# g"ilt and championed
the stopping o! development o! n"clear weapons later on
-.g. ;n an attempt to develop a stronger pesticideE scientists
developed sarin gas. ;t was later "sed b# Germans d"ring //;; and
even b# terrorists in the 1::3 To(#o +"bwa# attac(s
)eclaration reiterates the notion that science is irreversible
-nvironmental problems nowada#s d"e to scientifc inventions in
the past >ind"strial revol"tion?
Thomas /atson I; thin( thereCs a world mar(et !or abo"t fve
Nat"re o! ethics s"b'ective vs. Nat"re o! science ob'ective
nimals: rights or so"l?
No "nifed s#stem o! ethics
)iversifed views and var#ing moral stands
-.g. embr#onic stem cell research: var#ing models o! Aenso"lmentC
rights o! !oet"s >0+ embr#o older than 12 da#s?
)ebate alone co"ld p"t scientifc research and all the benefts
coming !rom itE on hold
)en#ing patients therape"tic stem cell treatment beca"se o!
dissent in the religio"s and moral arenas is "ndo"btedl# more
"nethical than the act o! embr#onic stem cell research itsel!.
-.g. =o"is Paste"r shot to !ame a!ter testing his vaccine in a bo#
who had small poK
-.g. PenicillinE the sacrifce o! the ArightsC o! a !ew laborator# g"inea
pigs has led co"ntless lives to be saved b# the invention o! this
Concl"sion: lbert -instein: +cience is the st"d# o! what is and not what
sho"ld be. @"tside the domains o! scienceE all !orms o! val"e '"dgement
are still re1"ired.
=ate Pope Mohn Pa"l ;; I+cience p"rifes religion o! error and s"perstition.
&eligion p"rifes science o! evil and !alse absol"tesJ. This is what we m"st
strive towards. +cience m"st be g"ided b# ethicsE and ethicsE similarl#E
m"st also be g"ided b# science.
&is(-conscio"s scientifc research is the best option available
-.g. GM !ood ma# one da# help Third /orld co"ntries prod"ce highl#
n"tritio"sE hard# and cheap crops. Nanotechnolog# ma# one da# help "s
create o"r wants !rom r"bbish. Genetic engineering ma# one da# help "s
c"re genetic diseases s"ch as Par(insonCs disease.
-.g. 8"man enhancement technolog# can help c"re illnesses li(e cancer
b"t can be ab"sed in sports as well
-.g. Clonaid claimed that the# had cloned the frst h"man bab#E -veE even
tho"gh the# co"ld not prove it. The# received large amo"nts o! !"nding
!rom people who were desperate to have clones despite the s"spicions
s"rro"nding the validit# o! this claim.
2#. Govern&ent and s%ientist role in s%ien%e
-.g. ;n +oviet 0nionE =#sen(oE an agric"lt"ral scientistE claimed that he had
!o"nd a c"ltivation techni1"e that co"ld 1"adr"ple agric"lt"ral #ield. The
media and propaganda machine showered praise on him. /ith =#sen(oCs
advice and +talinCs blessingsE man# geneticistsE whom =#sen(o
deno"ncedE were eKec"ted or sent to labo"r camps. =#sen(oism ca"sed
long-term harm to +oviet biolog#. =#sen(oism contin"ed in China !or
several more #ears even a!ter it was deno"nced b# the +oviets in 1:4<s
-.g. 7rom 1::5 to *<<*E Cali!ornia had a 3 #ear cloning moratori"m to
allow law#ersE ethicists and religio"s leaders to debate and catch "p on
the iss"e o! cloning
2%. Rel0 too &/%( on te%(nolo-03
glimpse into h"man civiliGation a cent"r# ago will reveal star(
di9erences in the wa# we lived then and now
=ess reliant on tech a"tomated
Governed b# technolog# in so man# aspects and spheres o! o"r
7ear the loss o! a personalE h"man to"ch and h"man independence
+pawned copio"s science fction movies and boo(s that imagine a
world dominated b# machines and robotsE relegating Man to the
-vidence 1: ;mmense !aith on technolog# is the main driving !orce that
(eeps &]) ind"str# thriving
-.g. 7ood shortage: increase crop #ield thro"gh better irrigation
methodsE !ertiliGers and GM crops
lleviates the problem b"t brings with a new host o! problems
Perhaps i! technolog# were not perceived to be the best wa# o"t !or
an# problemE political bodies co"ld have wor(ed on improving the
!ood distrib"tion in the world
+tarvation and h"nger in Nigeria and +omalia: not dearth o! !ood
b"t problem o! wealth: gargant"an amo"nts o! !ood wastage
Man# wa#s o! addressing a problem b"t modern world is
pres"mpt"o"s in p"rs"ing the best technolog# to mitigate their
woesE overloo( better sol"tions
-vidence *: Characteristic laGiness o! modern Man
Comm"nication eKtremel# eas#
@verloo( other more personal comm"nication channels
8andwritten letters are "ncommon and !ew are willing to travel a
long distance to have a !ace-to-!ace conversation
Lo"th in +ingapore overl# reliant on short message service >+M+?
fnd it partic"larl# crippling and diFc"lt to connect with !riends and
=ost a sense o! independence !rom technolog#
-vidence .: ;mpossible to c"t down on o"r energ# cons"mption
O#oto protocol: carbon emissions and energ# 1"ota was
"n!"lfllableE "nreasonableE "n!air
;nd"strialiGing and ind"strialiGed co"ntries need energ# to !"el their
Cannot per!orm man"al 'obs on o"r ownE "phill tas( to reverse
peopleCs wa# o! living
&el"ctant to brea( o"t o! their !amiliar li!est#les
-nerg# conservation is an "n!easible sol"tion to o"r problem o!
depleting !ossil !"els
Tech "sed to fnd alternative so"rces o! energ#
$lac(o"ts in the 0+E electricit# completel# c"t o9 !or merel# a !ew
ho"rs: n"mero"s complaintsE activit# seemingl# ceasedE normal
activit# cam to a halt
Let to infltrate certain aspects o! o"r lives
8"man to"ch: developing love and emotions is onl# within the
power o! h"mans
-ssence o! Man that technolog# cannot aidE intervene or replace
&etain a certain sense o! independence and a"tonom#
8"man emotion and interpersonal relationships still highl# val"ed
2d. N/%lear te%(nolo-0
Pilot o! -nola Ga# IM# GodE what have we done?J
dvent and p"rs"it o! n"clear technolog# (e# defning !eat"re o!
the *<
Possession o! n"clear energ# !acilities and n"clear weapons
aspired to dominance
Concerns over n"clear research and its applications have m"ltiplied
in recent decades
7or 1: applications to the energ# ind"str#
s oil and gas prices soar d"e to depleting stoc(sE war scares and a
!alling 0+ dollar
P"rs"it o! alternative so"rces o! cheap energ#
&enewable energ# so"rces remain largel# "nproven and "nviable
d"e to prohibitive costs n"clear power immensel# e9ective in
alleviating the energ# woes o! the developed world
More eFcient and eKpedient methods o! prod"cing enriched
"rani"m desirable
Medical applications: treatment o! cancers
gainst 1 , 7or *: /aste disposal
ltho"gh in m"ch less danger o! r"nning o"t than oil
0rani"m not a renewable reso"rce
More n"clear waste piles "p !rom spent "rani"m !"el rods: harm!"l
and lethal conse1"ences o! n"clear waste disposal >remains
radioactive and dangero"s !or long periods o! time?
Ide-enrichingJ "rani"m !"el rods?
gainst *: 8ighl# dangero"s
Potentiall# devastating impacts on h"man pop"lations and the
s"rro"nding areas
;ncreasing pop"lation fg"res have compo"nded the challenges to
the p"rs"it o! n"clear technolog#
)isastro"s reactor !ail"res at Chernob#l and Three Mile ;sland:
ph#sical and environmental damage >pict"res o! de!ormed &"ssian
children and crac(ing Geiger co"nters in +candinavia and central
-"rope: necessar# evil??
7or .: )angers largel# "n!o"nded n"clear technolog# remains one o!
the most highl# reg"lated felds o! research
-.g. +tats !rom 0+ )epartment o! -nerg# and N"clear Ph#sics >1 in
13 proposals !or n"clear research approved B+. 1 in 1< !or genetic
engineeringE another feld widel# (nown to have strict reg"lations?
-ven in mega-instit"tes s"ch as C-&NE where n"clear research are
highl# !"nded and enco"ragedE close watch on eKperimentsE
ens"ring proper protocol !ollowed
N"mber o! sa!et# nets imposed: minimal concerns over sa!et#
gainst .:
-clipsed b# recent brea(thro"ghs in the energ# ind"str#: "tiliGation
o! new renewable energ# so"rces >sa!eE cleanE limitless so"rces o!
windE waterE solar power? @& improvements to eKisting technolog#
>German#Cs decision to ta(e all n"clear reactors oVine b# *<*3 and
replace them with a new t#pe o! highl#-eFcientE red"ced-poll"tion
coal-fred plant shows that "ltimatel# the sa!et# o! pop"lation
centres m"st ta(e precedence even in the p"rs"it o! red"cing
7or 2:
-9ectiveness o! energ# so"rces: n"clear energ# 6<XE wind and
micro-algae prod"ction onl# provide energ# at eFcienc# levels o!
*<X and 2<X respectivel#
Marr# the concepts o! environmental conservation and contin"ed
economic development
gainst 2: N"clear weaponisation is severel# detrimental to global stabilit#
and highl# "ndesirable given ethical concerns and political ris(s involved
Cold /ar: tens o! tho"sands o! n"clear warheads instilled worldwide
!ear !or !o"r decades
-nd o! Cold /ar in 1:6:: sign o! hope !or h"manit# $0T also
bro"ght abo"t notion that an# !"rther p"rs"it o! n"clear technolog#
was an attempt to r"in newl#-!o"nded state o! global stabilit#
-.g. P#ong#angCs *<<5 n"clear test ] TehranCs insistence on
p"rs"ing Apeace!"lC n"clear research embargoesE threats o! warE
0N sanctionsE political isolation
N"clear weaponisation now seen as bordering on a belligerent
action against the rest o! the world
2e. Geneti% &odi*%ation
2.. Ri-(t te%( .or wron- reasons
General @mar $radle#E Commander o! the 0+ !orcesE once
omino"sl# declaredE I@"rs is a world o! n"clear giants and ethical
in!antsJ. >do"ble-edged sword?
/rong reason 1: C"rsor# eKamination o! topic D ind"bitabl# draw oneCs
attention D race between co"ntries to boost militar# right
CogniGant o! the need to maintain a power!"l arsenal o! weapons to
deter potential aggressors
Threaten other co"ntries w[or serve as !orm o! deterrence against
potential aggressors
$"ild stronger tan(sE !aster aircra!tE more precise missiles
-.g. atomic bomb
Toda# man# co"ntries retain tho"sands o! warheads to s"stain the
concept o! m"t"all# ass"red destr"ction
/rong reason *: Private economic gain
Motivation that is parochial and sel!-centred
-.g. pharmace"ticals ind"str#. )r"g companies race to fnd new and
better c"resE '"st so that the# can be the frst to appl# !or the
patentE and reap the !"ll benefts o! monopoliGing a dr"g line which
is licensed eKcl"sivel# to them
Grossl# overpriced dr"gsD poor fnd it hard to gain access to c"re
their ailments
Concomitantl#E practice o! p"rs"ing research '"st to sec"re a patent
and reap the corollar# economic benefts has eKtended to the
biotechnolog# sector has eKtended to biotech sectorE where
research instit"tes have been patenting cell-lines and even parts o!
the h"man genome
/rong reason .: !ra"ght with ethical considerations
-.g. Gene therap#E whilst opening door to possibl# c"ring man#
debilitating diseases ca"sed b# genetic de!ectsE is still an ethical
minefeld as it involves changing oneCs )N D ab"se !or e"genics
-.g. GM !ood boost #ield b"t Apla# GodC and temper with li!e itsel!
Correct reason 1: ltr"istic reasons
=arge b"l( attained !or benefting h"manit# as a whole
Tech comes in response to h"man problems or to overcome h"man
-.g. /right brothersE empower man(ind with the abilit# to R#:
-.g. Mr 8ooverE vac""m cleaner
-.g. smallpoK vaccine
-.g. ;nternetE started as a militar# pro'ectE saw its greatest growth
when programmers saw its potential in connecting people aro"nd
the world and contrib"ted to its development >$0T "sed as a means
o! spreading pornographic content as well as terrorism-related
Correct reason *: aid h"manit#
)"ring o"tbrea( o! bird R"E research labs banded together and
posted reso"rces to develop a c"re
TamiR" instantl# available to ever# co"ntr# to enable them to stave
o9 the pestilence
+"rge in green tech
5. Arts6'/lt/re
5a. Arts (ave a ./t/re in Sin-a)ore3
s a disclaimer to his appearance in the beloved classic IM"ch do
bo"t NothingJE well-(nown local thespian drian Pang implored his
a"dience to not '"dge him b# his television wor(
This dismissiveE almost shame-!aced attit"deE lamentabl# depicts
the general consens"s regarding +ingaporeCs Redging arts scene
Tide o! common perception changing slowl# b"t s"rel#
Government active enco"ragement % growing receptiveness o!
people towards arts
+ingapore arts scene increasingl# inR"ential
=ast !ew decades D determinedl# striven towards ma(ing its
presence !elt
7rom interviews with pop"lar stage actress -mma Long en'o#ing a
!"ll page coverage in local newspapers to the constr"ction and
renovation o! iconic b"ildings s"ch as the -splanade and the
National rts M"se"m that have irrevocabl# altered the local
landscape D healthier than a decade ago
Private sector and governmentE "nder the a"spices o! the
s"bstantiall#-s"bsidiGed National rts Co"ncilE have in no minor part
helped to l"re international acts !rom overseas. The $ritish staging
o! The Tempest and the ;ndian rema(ing o! 8amlet: The Prince o!
Common perception and prevailing ma'orit# mindset casts a shadow on
this lo!t# prospects
s drian PangCs disclaimer ill"stratedE the arts in +ingapore are still
ver# m"ch limited to the fltered-air domain o! the aV"ent and
/estern ed"cated
;n contrastE the stereot#pical local heartlander is eKpected to en'o#
his lower-r"ng !are N Mac( Neo movies and Channel 6 )ramas N
Pander to ma'orit# appetites and do art that is not necessaril#
challenging to his cra!t
Common perception is doggedl# fKed against the arts as a viable career
choiceE advocating instead pro!essions s"ch as engineering and science to
p"t !ood on the table
)istressing trend o! local artists moving overseas to !"rther their
passions a!ter fnding it impossible to pl# their trade in +ingapore
7ashion designer ndrew Gn decided to move overseas to fnd
s"ccess and the open-armed receptions in the Parisan catwal(s that
are not available in +ingapore
+mall mar(et: local artists s"ch as $#* moving to Taiwan to develop
their m"sic career
=imited development o! tr"e-bl"e +ingaporean artists as opposed to
international o9erings
Government has realiGed this problem and has eKpanded its art promotion
polic# to !"nding and s"pporting local talentsE especiall# b"dding ones
Newl#-minted +chool o! The rtsE pro"dl# occ"p#ing eleven store#s
o! b"ilding at the heart o! the b"siness district
Genero"s !"nding !rom the rts Co"ncil >Piano virt"oso bigail TanCs
piano classes are !"ll# s"bsidiGed?
;ncreasingl# receptive to the rts
)emocratisation o! the rts thro"gh 8e&TbeatE bringing the arts to
the p"blic
;ncreasing instances o! people collecting sian rtE which are priced
!rom a reasonable !ew h"ndred dollarsE is so dramatic that it has led
to the constr"ction o! the Tan'ong Pagar )istripar( to (eep this
b"rgeoning collection
shle# ;sham t"rned his bac( on -"ropean acclaim to re-establish
his head1"arters in native soilE spea(s vol"mes o! the growing
receptiveness towards the arts in +ingaporeE something that the
sold-o"t stat"s o! acts s"ch as Cats and Phantom o! the @pera can
certainl# attest to
8istor# has shown that there has been a strong correlation between
growing aV"ence and a thriving arts scene
-.g. -mma Long credited her !reedom to p"rs"e her passions to her
parents abilit# to s"pport her fnanciall#
Not press"riGed to choose bread-and-b"tter pro!essions sho"ld their
calling lie elsewhere
;mportant to recogniGe the presence o! local artists and artwor(s
that +ingaporeans can gen"inel# be pro"d o! N bands li(e -lectricoE
acts li(e the ever-charming )im +"m )ollies and flms li(e Glenn
GoeiCs The $l"e Mansion N as improvements on stereot#picall#
s"bstandard Mediacorp broadcasting
+M Goh Cho( Tong once declined labeling +ingapore as a 7irst /orld
Nation beca"se she lac(ed the artistic and c"lt"ral developments
5#. 7(0 )/rs/e Arts3
5%. Arts and te%(nolo-0
s earl# as 1:.*E art critic /alter $en'amin voiced concerns that
technological advancement encroached "pon the artistic endeavo"r
The impact o! technological advancement has spared ver# !ew
aspects o! modern li!e and the arts are no eKception
Technological wonders li(e the printing pressE the comp"ter and its
attendant digital graphic so!tware and m"sical e1"ipment s"ch as
llows art to eKpand and sta# relevant
Technolog# does not help
The abilit# o! D to stri(e o"r !anc# lies more s1"arel# in its
composition and the message>s? rela#edE than simpl# its !orm.
0ns"stainable witho"t s"bstance.
+#nthesisers: AelectronicaC genre o! m"sic emerged b"t it is o!ten
derided !or its s#nthetic "nemotional 1"alit#
Technolog# s"bmits the arts to cr"de commercialism at the hands o!
&ed"ces the val"e o! a piece to the lowest common denominator as
people p"rchase s"ch reprod"ctions to hang in their rooms p"rel#
!or aesthetic pleas"re and disregard the val"e o! the arts as a
means !or eKpressing a mood or idea
rt needs to be "ni1"e
/alter $en'amin arg"ed that what gave art its Im#stical a"raJE its
most sacred and revered 1"alit#E was its sing"larit# N desecration o
! art
Technolog# and art are not alwa#s complementar#E two are
antagonistic to some degree
Mass reprod"ction o! -dvard M"nchCs IThe +creamJ has
desensitiGed modern a"diences to m"ch o! the rawE "nbridled
power o! the original
To see angr# reds and oranges glaring at #o" ever# da# as #o" ta(e
the train to wor( ma# consign M"nchCs masterpiece to the bl"r o!
the m"ndane and the ro"tine
)esensitisation is harm!"l inso!ar as it enco"rages careless and
c"rsor# treatment o! artwor( in general N !ew o! "s can claim to
have loo(ed "pon a wor( o! art and immersed o"rselves completel#
in a wholl# bea"ti!"l and transcendental eKperience
@riginalit# tends to be compromised as ever#one "ses similar
so!tware. /itho"t ed"cationE not innovativeE simpl# learn !rom
Cop#right iss"es
Proli!eration o! fle-sharing services s"ch as OaGaaE =imewire and
More aven"es are open !or cop#right breachE and this removes
incentive !or artists to contin"e the creative e9ort
;! sales reven"e !rom the sale o! C)s pl"mmet beca"se the p"blic
opts !or the cheaper alternative o! !ree downloadsE then the artist is
deprived o! both the will and the reso"rces to ma(e a new alb"m
Mala#sian artistsE !or eKampleE !re1"entl# allege this as the reason
wh# domestic m"sic ind"str# cannot ta(e o9
$0TD in response to growing concerns o! cop#right breachE a
matriK o! intellect"al propert# law has arisen to preserve artistsC
incentive to createE in tandem with the recording ind"str# o!
mericaCs crac(down o! illegal fle-sharing services
Preservation o! classics
&estoration and reconstr"ction o! damaged prints !rom the ;talian
&enaissanceE c"rrentl# eKhibited in mericaCs National Galler# o!
rt. ;mpossible witho"t the precise tools and s"bstances that
technological advances have given "s
)evelopment o! colo"r fKatives has been a godsend !or colo"r-
pencil artists. bsence o! s"ch fKativesE pencil pigment Ra(es o9
easil# diminishing the vibranc# o! even the most metic"lo"sl#
colo"red masterpieces within months
$irth o! some new !orms o! art
)igital art: dobe Photoshop
Provide !ertile gro"nd !or artistic inspiration: the $a"ha"s
movement and the doctrine o! new internationalism in twentieth-
cent"r# architect"re arg"ed !or a consideration o! ho"ses as
!"nctional Iliving machinesJ and drew inspiration !rom the
constr"ction o! m"lti-store# RatsE carpar(s and state b"ildings
Marcel )"champCs masterpiece N the "rinalE which embodied a
re'ection o! the aesthetic process N wo"ld have been impossibleD
7rom a MarKist perspectiveE developments in the technological
IbaseJ led to the artistic Is"perstr"ct"reJ growing even richer and
more interesting
Comm"nication revol"tion and accessibilit# o! Ae-teKtsC have benefted the
literar# tradition
llowed writers access to other writersC wor(s and ideas with a clic(
o! the mo"se
llows meeting o! man# minds and the literar# movement is s"rel#
richer with s"ch dense interaction
Post-str"ct"ralist M"lie Oristeva maintains that all literar# teKts are
Itiss"es o! past citationJE allowing a"thors access to other wor(s is
absol"tel# essential
Technolog# has inR"enced rtCs content
/e alread# (now that comp"ter technolog# has enabled the
diversifcation o! art !ormsE b"t in terms o! act"all# permeating the
concerns o! artistsE technolog# has also pla#ed a (e# role
-Kemplifed in the proli!eration o! art dealing with the iss"e o!
scientifc progress and whether this bodes well or ill !or the !"t"re o!
8elped paral#sed or otherwise ph#sicall# disen!ranchised artists who
regain the abilit# to eKpress themselves creativel#. rtists who s"rvive
road accidents lose certain motor !"nctions and are "nable to prod"ce art
in traditional !orms o! sc"lpt"re or painting
5d. 8ni9/el0 Sin-a)ore$ '/lt/re
+ingapore is a strange little societ#. +it"ated at the crossroads o!
n"mero"s shipping and transport ro"tesE it hasE over the #earsE
"nder the conR"ence o! eKternal and internal societal !orcesE
mo"lded what ; believe is an eKtremel# idios#ncratic and distinctive
$"t is it "ni1"e c"lt"re? N Casts a shadow "pon the originalit# o! o"r
C"lt"re: set o! belie!sE practices and li!est#les that is embraced b#E
and entrenched inE a common gro"p o! people. ;deolog# and val"e
s#stem that characteriGe "s.
+ingaporeans have c"ltivated themselves a global image which is
s#non#mo"s with the in!amo"s +ingaporean trait o! AOias"ismC >a!raid to
lose o"t?
PragmatismE political apath#E pr"dence and the desire to p"rs"e
material ob'ectives
)ispla# the distinctive ethos o! competitiveness
Tracing its origins to the hard li!e that o"r migrant ancestors had to
leadE the political s#stem and the general Chinese desire !or
material gain and social stat"s
-ngendered this spirit o! Adie die m"st winC
+atiriGed b# the international media and local commentators D
calc"lative and sel!-preserving wa#s
&idic"led !or pac(ing !ood into nap(ins at b"9ets to get maK val"e
!or o"r dollar
&eb"9ed !or o"r conservative attit"des to seemingl# !rivolo"s
things s"ch as casinos
ConservativeE sel!-centred view that resembles that o! Bictorian
-ngland where social stat"sE wealth and propriet# were celebrated
+till frml# rooted in tradition and eKacerbated b# the islandCs
competitive econom#E s"ch a distinctive +ingaporean attit"de will
persist long into the !"t"re
side !rom attit"des and mindsetsE +ingapore also has a "ni1"e c"lt"ral
scene that brims with the vigo"r o! its sian Ravo"r
-.g. +"mpt"o"s spread o! sian haw(er !are
Than(s to diverse ethnicit# o! +ingaporeanCs pop"lationE local
c"isine here is r"led b# a gam"t o! inR"ences
romatic spicesE the op"lent cream sa"ces o! /estern societ#E
traditional and modern coo(ing methods have mani!ested
themselves in a gastronomic delight
Characteristicall# +ingaporean dishes to"ted as Am"st-tr#sC !or
to"rists incl"de 8ainanese Chic(en &ice and roti prata. The list
eKtends into infnit#.
ttrib"ted to +ingaporeCs role in a converging point !or the regionCs
di9erent c"lt"res.
Bast variet# o! inR"ences mani!ests themselves in o"r local c"lt"re
-Kemplifes the mingling o! the -astern and /estern worlds
Colonial roots and increasing penetration o! globaliGation !orces
C"lt"re has evolved into a cross-c"lt"ral !"sion o! -ast meets /est
-.g. +inglish e9ectivel# in!"se their sian roots into a /estern
;nR"ence o! local dialects which stem !rom the ancestral roots o! o"r
migrant !ore!athersE Colonial -nglish has been trans!ormed into a
"ni1"e +ingaporean !orm
/ords li(e AlahE AlorC and other pop"lar dialect terms have become
part and parcel o! the +ingaporean diction.
+inglish is the idios#ncratic ling"a !ranca o! +ingaporeans
)emonstrates "ni1"eness o! +ingaporean c"lt"re and the abilit# o!
+ingaporean societ# to assimilate modern inR"ences into its
tradition to prod"ce its own "ni1"e li!est#le
Ca"ght e9ectivel# between the past and present
&etain and preserve its traditional heritage and (eep "p with the
rapidl# moderniGing world
Bariet# o! c"lt"res interact to adapt to the traditional and #et
modern +ingaporean mindset
Prod"ced the a!orementioned compleK and varied c"lt"re
+ingaporeCs "ni1"e c"lt"re is not a direct prod"ct o! o"r pop"lationCs
actions. ;ndigeno"s c"lt"re has pla#ed a signifcantl# smaller role in
shaping o"r wa# o! li!e. The predominantl# migrant pop"lation has
generated o"r "ni1"e c"lt"reE more so than an# other c"lt"ral !orce in
=argel# attrib"ted to its location
+it"ated along the worldCs most vital trading ro"tesE since colonial
times D commercial h"b o! activities
C"lt"ral !orces that have since shaped and mo"lded o"r c"lt"re
originate !rom these eKternal agents who were drawn to +ingapore
d"e to commercial interests. This stream o! commercial activit# has
been the driving !orce o! +ingaporeCs c"lt"ral evol"tion
ltho"gh o"r c"lt"re based on the premise o! a doGen other
c"lt"resE is this not t#pical o! the rapidl# globaliGing societ#?
Can no longer remain imm"ne to eKternal c"lt"ral !orces D move
along to a homogeno"s c"lt"re dominated b# /estern traditions
and norms D com!orting to see that +ingapore has managed to hold
on sta"nchl# to her traditional roots
Concl"sion: The !act that o"r distinct c"lt"re is not entirel# o"r own and
the embracement o! this !actE has in !act created a la"dable c"lt"re which
di9erentiates itsel! !rom others in the worldCs c"lt"ral landscape
:. Environ&ent
2a. )eveloped vs. )eveloping
2b. +ho"ld environment be saved at all costs?
+everal events have bro"ght the iss"e o! environmental
conservation to the !ore!ront
)oc"mentar# In ;nconvenient Tr"thJ b# l Gore bro"ght the iss"e
to the masses
0N commissioned a st"d# on climate change that concl"dedE rather
worr#ingl#E that climate change is a9ecting the environment more
than the wildest o! pro'ections !rom barel# a !ew #ears ago and is
set to accelerate in the !oreseeable !"t"re
$0T with c"rrent economic crisisE voters no longer consider global
warming a priorit#. 2*X o! Germans now worr# abo"t climate
changeE down !rom 4*X in *<<4. "straliaE 3. percent still consider
it a pressing iss"eE compared to 53X in *<<5. mericans ran(
climate change dead last o! *1 problems that concern them mostE
according to a Man"ar# Pew poll.
*<1<E CanadaCs Prime Minister +tephen 8arperE blasted climate
change as a IsideshowJ to global economic iss"esE canceled the
meeting o! environment ministers that has preceded the G6 or G*<
s"mmit !or ever# #ear b"t one since 1::2.
Mer(el slashed green-development aidE @bama cooled on his plan to
cap emissions
-conomic Costs
+lower economic growth d"e to the need to phase o"t
environmentall# "n!riendl# b"t economicall#-"se!"l tools emplo#ed
b# the econom# s"ch as coal-powered power plants
dded costs needed to increase the energ# eFcienc# o! machines
and tools
Need to treat harm!"l economic b#-prod"cts
Profts decreaseE economic growth s"9ersE 'ob losses as the#
become less competitive.
=eads to social costs >crime ratesE +@=E brea(down o! !amil# "nitE
increasing povert#?
Political cost:
Main !actor wh# economic preservation not widespread toda#
1 ;n toda#Cs mostl# capitalistic worldE politicians o!ten ride into their
oFce on a tic(et sponsored b# large corporations with vested
Proft-see(ing frms o!ten hope that politicians the# sponsor will
implement policies that allow them to ma(e more profts
$id to conserve environment b# increasing operating costs certainl#
will not go down well with corporate sponsors
ILo" do not bite the hand that !eeds #o"JE r"in political career
-.g. 0+ presidents have well-p"blicised lin(s with large frmsE hence
hesitation in implementing policies to save environment
* Green policies can be pop"lar when the# mean s"bsidiGing
renewable !"els b"t can 1"ic(l# hit a wall when the# !orce li!est#le
changeE s"ch as less driving
Politicians aim to remain in oFce !or as long as possible
. Preocc"pied with other matters s"ch as !oreign polic#. =eave s"ch
matter neglected will ris( letting the state degenerate into chaos
;s the environment reall# saved?
German#Cs solar s"bsidiesE perhaps the most waste!"l green
scheme on earthE prod"ce a mere <.*3 percent o! the co"ntr#Cs
energ# and cost cons"mers as m"ch as W1*3 billion.
NovemberCs IclimategateJ a9air over irreg"larities in the report o!
the ;ntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change >;PCC?E the 0nited
Nations bod# whose fndings are the basis o! all climate polic#.
Tho"gh a review panel has since cleared the researchers o! most
allegationsE the lingering controvers# co"ld !"rther "ndermine the
;PCCCs longstanding p"sh !or massive carbon emission red"ction
targets as the onl# viable option to deal with global warming
Concl"sion: +ir /inston Ch"rchill IThe era o! procrastination is drawing to
a close and in its place is a period o! conse1"encesJ D act now b"t ens"re
overall positive res"lts
2c. re we doing eno"gh to save the environment?
2d. Main reasons !or environmental problems nowada#s
;. Reli-ion
;a. Reli-ion divides &ore t(an it /nites
IGod might not be deadE b"t God s"re leaves a lot o! people dead.J
This was one social science pro!essorCs response to NietGscheCs
!amo"s proclaimation that AGod is deadC
7ace val"e D more peace!"l witho"r religion
Perhaps Cr"sades might not have happened. Perhaps siK million
Mews might not have been gassed to death b# 8itler. Perhaps the
;srael-Palestinian conRict wo"ld have been resolved in 1:45 N or
betterE need not be carved o"t o! Palestine and artifall# instit"ted
as a state
&eligion leads to genocide against one another
$# its ver# nat"reE religion can ma(e people disagree
P"intessence o! religion is !aith in something that can neither be
seen nor provenE cannot be deb"n(ed as well
&eligion is ver# diverse: some !eel that religion is a social constr"ct
Iopi"m o! the massesJE some !eel that there is onl# Ione tr"e
religionJ: ;slamE Christianit#E while others !eel that there will be a
IGreat wa(eningJ in the sense that all religions are wor(ing
towards and adapting to the fnal tr"th
@!ten no pla"sible wa# !or people o! di9erent religions to see e#e-
/hen oneCs religio"s belie!s constit"te the meaning o! oneCs li!eE
and is a tremendo"s so"rce o! strengthE co"pled with the nat"ral
tendenc# !or members o! a partic"lar !aith to identi!# with one
anotherE a stra# attac( on one member is easil# interpreted as a
challenge to all who share that !aith
-.g. )anish newspaper p"blish cartoons depicting Prophet
Mohammed in "nRattering lightE shoc(waves o! disg"st and
resentment against /estern Civilisation reverberated thro"gh
M"slim comm"nities
;n absence o! common senseE a 8obbesian nightmare o! Awar o! all
against allC does not seem !ar awa#. -.g. 8oloca"st and Cr"sades
eKempli!# how desensitiGing !eelings o! hatred can h#pnotise
individ"als and blind them to common sense
-ngenders the nation,state conRict
Nation: gro"p o! people who identi!# with one anotherE !or instanceE
members o! a partic"lar religion
+tate: political entit# that see(s to represent the people o! one
+tate o!ten incl"des m"ltiple nationsE eKacerbated b# religion
)"t# o! state o!ten hi'ac(ed b# the selfsh interests o! a nation
within it
T#rann# o! the ma'orit# where minorit# religio"s gro"p is eKcl"ded
!rom societ# and marginaliGed
-.g. M"slim minorities in -"rope have little political powerE interests
seldom representedE tend to live in inner-cit# ghettosE receive
"ne1"al share o! socioeconomic opport"nities
-.g. +ectarian violence hampering the reb"ilding o! ;ra1 as +"nniE
+hiite and O"rdish denominations in ;ra1 >di9 interpretation o!
;slam?E never seem to be able to !orge a political consens"s
Misinterpretation o! religion which divides
No reasonable reading o! Christian $ible condone senseless
(illings sanctioned d"ring the Cr"sades
No reasonable reading o! the PC"ran commit A'ihadC
That the Taliban and l-Paeda wield religion as a blood-stained
sword is no !oreign !ace to "s. The convenient "se o! ;slam as an
eKc"se to !ree them !rom Athe opposition o! the /estCE a '"stifcation
!or the mass-m"rdersE br"tal (illings and savage beheadings is b"t
a warped and sic( distortion o! hol# teKt. /hile ;slam itsel! means
peaceE terrorists have "sed its teachings in an "nprescribed and
"nprecedented manner N the# have most ass"redl# "sed religion to
sow the seeds o! hatred and ostensibl#E conRict.
+capegoat !or conRicts o! the world
&eligion is o!ten politiciGed
-.g. ;ranCs president together with man# politicians in the Middle
-ast engage in vicio"s ;srael-bashing arg"abl# not !or the sa(e o!
representing their people b"t rather to distract voters !rom
domestic problems and incompetencies o! governance b# "niting
them against the mirage o! a common enem#. +ame goes !or
@lmert and his gang o! merciless ;sraeli hardliners
@!t-re!erenced +am"el 8"ntingtonCs prediction o! a world defned b# a
clash between the M"deo-Christian /est and the ;slamic world will not
Globalisation and modern progressE I"nit# in diversit#J
C"lt"res become less homogeno"s and more o! a melting-potE
di9erences in religion loo(s to be cast aside
German govt. M"slim: German frstE M"slim second 5<X
&eligion does not defne people to a !"ll stop b"t rather serves to
s"pplement eKisting c"lt"res and national identities
Common moralit#
Most believers across the globe belong to one o! a !ew ma'or
1.. billion M"slimsE ro"ghl# a billion each o! Christians and
CatholicsE h"ndreds o! millions o! 8ind"s and $"ddhistsE a
signifcant n"mber o! people who belong to o9shoots o! these last
+hare a common credoE a common wa# o! doing thingsE a common
set o! c"stoms associated with their religions
rg"abl# one people in mindE i! not in bod#
&eligion doesE there!oreE provide a lin(ing !orce between peoples o!
the worldE perhaps giving the world a greater cohesion and identit#
/hile sometimes divide li(e on iss"es o! homoseK"alit#
Plethora o! religions have an amaGingl# similar set o! moral val"es
>Golden &"le?
0niversal val"es li(e no harmE enco"raging love and (indness D
-ven sec"lariGed and codifed these val"es as a !ormal constit"tion
&eligion is basis !or lawE basis !or which individ"als ma# !eel morall#
compelled to "phold the lawE and b# eKtensionE their own religion
lso "nite nations against a common in'"stice
-.g. /hites in 0+ realiGe discrimination against blac(s was an ins"lt
to their own !aith. Toda#E religionE transcending raceE still holds
them together
-.g. The sa9ron revol"tionE in which $"rmese mon(s protested
against their t#rannical governmentE gained eKtra moral !orce
than(s to religion
&eligio"s leaders o!ten become voices !or '"stice and moralit#
-.g. rchbishop )esmond T"t" in +o"th !rica fght against
apartheid and later crime
-.g. the )alai =ama preaches "nderstandingE recipient o! Nobel
Peace PriGe
&eligion creates bonds within societies
M"lti-religio"s societies as well
;nter-!aith dialog"es and eKchanges
;nter-&eligion @rganisation established in +ingaporeE leaders o!
vario"s religio"s comm"nities come together to promote
Mirrored on global stageE where we saw the Batican host a
con!erence o! the worldCs religio"s leaders in *<<5
)r. Laacob ;brahim: +ingapore is one co"ntr# in which relation
between M"slim comm"nit# and the rest o! societ# did not worsen
a!ter :11 >M"slim eKtremistsC terrorist attac(s on the /orld Trade
Centre in New Lor( Cit#? in no small part d"e to the eKcellent inter-
!aith dialog"e that we have instit"ted
&eligion is not the sole !oc"s o! most peopleCs belie!s. ;n addition to
s"bscribing to a religionE most people will also be part o! other
societal gro"psE s"ch asD Champion democrac# and h"man
rightsD inalienable powers o! their monarch or state. These belie!s
are intrinsicall# lin(ed to religio"s ones in that religion does help
shape their moral g"idelines. gnosticE these divides remain.
)i9erences alwa#s eKist and religio"s gro"p them together into
easil# recogniGable general gro"ps. ;n recent /&- sagaE m"ch
debate centred on iss"e o! homoseK"alit#E in which ob'ectors to its
acceptance largel# belonged to the Christian religion. Presence o!
inter-!aith dialog"eD bring viewpoints together in a conciliator#
Concl"sion: &eligion intrinsicall# "nites societ# in tolerance and in
moralit#. $"t when misinterpreted or hi'ac(ed !or political interests D
Given religion is so intrinsic to h"man li!e and h"man calc"l"s o! meaning
and val"eE religion is here to sa#. &eligion can be both the light o! the
world and a sco"rge o! this planet
-.g. 8igh-ran(ed $"ddhist mon(s ca"ght visiting prostit"tes
-.g. )oomsda# C"lts: +olar Temple C"lts inspired 52 people to b"rn
themselves to death so that the# co"ld travel to the planet +ir"is. 2<
8eaven Gate !ollowers poisoned themselves so that the# co"ld ta(e the
07@ to heaven be!ore the gates o! heaven closed
-.g. President George $"sh "ses Christian rhetoric to garner s"pport !or
his policies so does @sama $in =aden
-.g. ;n 14<<sE Christian Ch"rch grew so power!"l that people started
pa#ing mone# to ch"rch to b"# their wa# to heaven
-.g. +ome Christian !"ndamentalists believe that technolog# is
disrespect!"l to God and th"s re!"se to get an# treatment !or their
;#. Reli-ion and )oliti%s
The idea o! religion and the state being closel# lin(ed goes bac( to
ancientE "nenlightened times
&ecent s"rge in enth"siasm !or vario"s religio"s !"ndamentalisms
+ho"ld religion pla# a part in politics
Ber# !"ndamentals o! religion and politics are so !ar removed !rom
one another that the combination o! the two can onl# lead to
corr"ption o! the grand ideals embodied in them
8istor# has seen a move towards political sec"larism
&eligion acts as a Imoral compassJ
)esire to recti!# the evils that liberalism has bro"ght abo"t
+ec"lar state is deemed decadent and morall# loose
&eligio"s state wo"ld be governed b# a strict moral code
Modern theocraciesE s"ch as ;ranE see the state as an actor o! divine
religio"s willE teaching the people how to behave morall#E and i!
need beE ens"ring that the# do so thro"gh the !orce o! law
Modern world o! eKcess and decadenceE religio"s state seen as the
onl# !orce le!t that can ens"re that people remember disciplineE sel!-
control and spirit"al p"rit#
/ith the Adivine willC o! God behind themE religio"s states can '"sti!#
almost an# (ind o! eKtremist behavio"r
Claiming it part o! a religio"s mission to cleanse the world o! the
eKcesses o! the liberal world
+el!-righteo"s Acr"sadeC attit"de: rise o! state-sponsored terrorism
I'ihadJ war against the non-;slamic world based on divine command
;n =ebanonE 8eGbollahE which means IPart# o! GodJ is not onl# a
state recogniGed organiGation b"t also a terrorist organiGation that
has la"nched m"ltiple attac(s on ;srael as a response to the
Aanomal#C that is the 'ewish state
&eligion: based on !aith: eas# '"stifcation. )issenters labeled as
non-believers and enemies o! the Awill o! GodC
&eligion acting as a per!ect de!ense !or states engaging in all sort o!
eKtremist behavio"r has led to man# international conRicts and made
man# s"ch conRicts harder to resolve
&eligion gives the state the rightE even the enco"ragementE to stand
so frm that all compromise seems impossible
-.g. rab-;sraeli conRict: p"rel# sec"lar conRict: resol"tion thro"gh
the two-state sol"tion. LetE with the insertion o! religion into the
miKE ;srael now sees the land it occ"pies as its 8ol# =and and hence
absol"tel# !"ndamental to its eKistence. No longer willing to
compromise with the Palestinians !or the religio"s '"stifcation !or
holding the territories is !ar too strong
bilit# o! religion to polariGe politics and enco"rage inter-state
rivalr# is not new: har(ens bac( to the twel!th and thirteenth
cent"ries or perhaps even earlier
;rrational political rivalr# between -ngland and +pain is a compleK
oneE b"t !"ndamental divide springs !rom the !act that +pain was a
Catholic nation and -ngland a Protestant one >eKacerbated political
ConRict between ;ndia and Pa(istan beca"se Pa(istanE a M"slim
nationE la#s claim to the ma'orit# M"slim Oashmir
;n land o! politicsE where diplomac# and compromise are essential in
order to s"rvive alongside other statesE religion onl# leads to
irrational rivalries and drawn o"t conRicts
;nternational stage: no room !or s"ch polariGe and "nchangeable
)omesticall# too religio"s states have proven to be a haGard to the ver#
people it see(s to protect
+el!-righteo"s attit"de o! the religio"s state gives it the right to
ignore an#thing that is incongr"o"s with the religio"s teachings it
&ight to dole o"t p"nishments that o!ten den# the individ"al all
!orms o! h"man rights
&ight to !ree speech completel# ignoredE spea(ing o"t against the
state ma# lead to death o!ten b# inh"mane methods s"ch as p"blic
+ince law is the Aword o! GodC no room !or compromise
$rea(ing law is a(in to de!#ing word o! God
+tate can clamp down on all dissent in order to retain political
-.g. Middle gesT roman Catholic Ch"rch co"ld claim to !oc"s onl#
on religionE ignoring the general state o! dissol"tion in the co"ntr#
&eligion: based so m"ch on !aith and so little on logic that it can be
"sed b# the state to instantl# silence all dissentE even i! dissenting
voices are raising per!ectl# valid points that co"ld lead to the
betterment o! the nation
7"ndamental incongr"it# o! religion and politics
Bastl# di9erent entities with di9erent !"nctions
@verlap can onl# corr"pt the p"rit# o! both
+ocial contract between those who govern and those who are
governed onl# stands i! the r"lers are acco"ntable to the peopleE
whichE in the case o! religio"s statesE the# are not
)isco"raged !rom listening to the corr"ptE selfsh voice o! the
+eperation o! state and religion will not solve all the problems
Comm"nists in +oviet 0nion and the NaGis in 8itlerCs German# were
!"ndamentall# opposed to the ver# concept o! religion
CombinationE while a grand ideal on the s"r!aceE presents too man#
;%. S%ien%e and reli-ion
&eligion: age-old endeavo"r o! man(ind to become clearl# and
completel# conscio"s o! s"perpersonal val"es and goals
8istor# o! man(ind has been mar(ed b# both spirit"al and material
Two radicall# di9erent philosophical worldviews have emerged as
catal#sts and prod"cts o! s"ch progressJ the empirical method o!
science and the more spirit"al one o! religion
)iametricall# opposite at their deepest levels: science is an
ob'ectiveE empirical interpretation o! the "niverse while religion
see(s a moralE spirit"al "nderstanding o! the world we live in
ccording to defnitions: science and religion do not conRict
+cience determines what is and not what sho"ld beE and o"tside o!
its domainE val"e '"dgements o! all (inds remain necessar#
&eligion deals onl# with eval"ations o! h"man tho"ght and action: it
cannot '"stifabl# spea( o! !acts and relationships between !acts
/ell-(nown conRicts between religion and science ascribed to a
misapprehension o! the sit"ation
ConRict "s"all# arises when religio"s comm"nit# insists on the
absol"te tr"th!"lness o! all statements recorded in the $ible:
intervention on the part o! religion into the sphere o! science >e.g.
str"ggle o! ch"rch against doctrines o! Galileo and )arwin? &eligion
attempts to "se accessible tho"ghts and narratives to teach certain
morals. ;t is this m#thicalE or rather s#mbolicE content that is li(el#
to conRict with science. @! vital importance !or the preservation o!
tr"e religion that s"ch conRicts are avoided which are not reall#
essential to the p"rs"ance o! religio"s aims
&epresentatives o! science o!ten ma(e and attempt to arrive at
!"ndamental '"dgments with respect to val"es and ends on the
basis o! scientifc method
&eligion helps science
&ealms o! religion and science clearl# mar(ed o9 !rom each otherE
b"t there eKists between the two strong reciprocal relationships and
+cience can onl# be created b# those who are thoro"ghl# imb"ed
with the aspiration toward tr"th and "nderstanding
This so"rce o! !eelingE springs !rom the sphere o! religion
+cience helps religion
@ne o! religionCs goals is to liberate man(ind as !ar as possible !rom
the bondage o! egocentric cravingsE desires and !ears
/hoever has "ndergone the intense eKperience o! s"ccess!"l
scientifc advances is moved b# pro!o"nd reverence !or the
rationalit# made mani!est in eKistence. $# wa# o! the
"nderstandingE he achieves a !ar-reaching emancipation !rom the
shac(les o! personal hopes and desiresE and thereb# attains that
h"mble attit"de o! mind thro"gh the grande"r o! reason
+cience and religion do overlapE most notabl# in shaping o"r attrib"tes to
the "n(nownE b"t the# are not necessaril# in conRictD
+cience cannot eKplain ever#thing
$ig $ang Theor#: what happened be!ore $ig $ang
+cience does not claim to o9er a !"ll or complete "nderstanding o!
the "niverseE b"t merel# hopes to move closer to the tr"th
-.g. Galileo and Copernic"s
-.g. l!red /agnerCs theor# o! continental dri!t
-.g. leKander 7lemingCs theor# o! germs
&eligion o9ers an eKplanation !or creation and eKistence
Theories o! creation range !rom that o! a primordial cosmic egg to
the belie! that ever#thing abo"t "s is the mani!estation o! a
+#mbolic >cosmic egg s#mboliGes vitalit# and ab"ndance?. No wa#
to confrm an# o! these claims
&eligion o9ers salvation
!terli!e. /hich God is real?
&eligion promises to develop societ# morall# according to "niversal
Man# people worldwide cite a religio"s "pbringing as the reason !or
their moralit# and sense o! right and wrong
Man# acts o! benevolence are per!ormed in the name o! religion
Moral dilemmas? &eligion has been "sed as a political tool to
s"b'"gate and discriminate and to (ill. Man# eKamples o! this have
been chronicled N the Cr"sades in -"ropeE the invasion o! Persians
in North ;ndiaT the ongoing !riction between ;ndia and Pa(istan
Concl"sion: +cience witho"t religion is lameE religion witho"t science is
=ate Pope Mohn Pa"l ;; I+cience p"rifes religion !rom error and s"perstition.
&eligion p"rifes science !rom evil and !alse absol"tesJ
dependence o! science on the religio"s attit"deE a relation whichE in o"r
predominantl# materialistic ageE is onl# too easil# overloo(ed D scientifc
res"lts entirel# independent !rom religio"s or moral considerations D
individ"als to whom we owe the greatest creative achievements were all
imb"ed with the tr"l# religio"s conviction that this "niverse o! o"rs is
something per!ect and s"sceptible to the rational striving !or (nowledge
<. Terroris&
<a. 'an terroris& ever #e eradi%ated3
+eptember 11 *<<1 was ind"bitabl# an epochal da# in the lives o!
o"r generation. People all aro"nd the globe were gl"ed to their
television screensE sha(ing with !ear as the# watched the tragic
!ates o! the /orld Trade Centre and tho"sands o! innocent people
"n!old be!ore their ver# e#es
Merel# mar(ed the start o! a series o! similarl# "n!orgiving attac(s
Terrorism greatest threats plag"ing the international comm"nit#
$r"talE relentless !orm o! political violence that "ses !ear as a (e#
s#mmetrical war!are o!ten born o"t o! political aims that have
been constantl# s"ppressed or denied b# governmentsE !orcing
man# disill"sioned citiGens to ta(e "p arms and see( to deliberatel#
create violence and !earE disr"pting the delicate harmon# and social
!abric o! societ# so that their demands will be heard
Co"nter-terrorist meas"res e9ective at 1"elling terroristsE do"ble-
edged sword that !"el and !"rther radicaliGe man# to become
Co"nter-terrorist meas"res crac( down on terrorists and terrorist
;ncrease in in!ormation sharing and intelligence both within and
between co"ntries
Patriot ct in 0+: government passed legislation allowing wire
tapping on phone conversations
0N member co"ntries agreed to !reeGe the ban( acco"nts o!
s"spected terrorists in their co"ntr# to den# these terrorists a
+"ccess o! m"t"al cooperation is eKemplifed in the wa# the m"lti-
intelligence sharing among +ingaporeE Mala#sia and ;ndonesia
enabled the ;ndonesian government to fnd and arrest (e# leaders
o! the Memaah ;slami#ah >M;?
@verpower "sing militar# might
8illar# Clinton: imperative that we Ire!"se to legimitise terroristsJ
@bamaCs s"pport !or General McChr#stalCs co"nterins"rgenc#
meas"res in !ghanistan: rein!orce domestic sec"rit# !orceE emplo#
state-o!-the-art militar# weapons and air drones
Taliban and l Paeda (e# leaders have been (illed
To I'aw-'aw is alwa#s better than to war-warJ
Negotiations between the government and terrorist gro"ps are
instr"mental in s"ccess!"ll# weeding o"t terrorism
Terrorist gro"psE s"ch as the ;rish &ep"blican rm# in Northern
;relandE are disen!ranchised gro"ps that see( political !reedoms o!
e1"alit# in treatment or an a"tonomo"s region and have onl#
resorted to terrorism beca"se the government has constantl#
re!"sed to acceded to their re1"ests and marginaliGed them
Grant political consens"s D less need to adopt violence
@N=L C0&$ @&GN;U-) T-&&@&;+ME not sel!-radicalised terrorists and
state-sponsored terrorism b# rog"e states or a"tocratic dictators
Terrorism is abo"t Iwining the hearts and minds o! the peopleJ
8arsh co"nter-terrorist meas"res o!ten serve to create breeding
gro"nds !or !"rther radicaliGation
NietGsche Iin dealing with a monsterE be care!"l lest #o" t"rn into a
monster #o"rsel!J
Patriot ct: 8ighl# contentio"s as it in!ringes "pon a personCs right
to privac# which is enshrined in the merican Constit"tion
trocities committed in G"antanamo $a# and the b" Graib prison
in ;ra1 go against Geneva ConventionsE provide !"rther !"el !or
terrorist gro"ps s"ch as l Paeda to characteriGe the 0+ as a
power-h"ngr# and h#pocritical. +hi!ting moderate M"slims towards
7ail to address the political grievances and aims o! terrorist organiGations
Creating sit"ations termed Inegative peaceJ
+immering tensions still brew and threaten to er"ptE destro#ing the
!ragile peace
+ri =an(aJ governmentCs vicio"s destr"ction o! the =TT- not onl#
violated international h"man rightsE b"t led to growing discontent
and protest !rom the Tamil diaspora worldwide that wo"ld provide a
!ertile gro"nd !or the =TT- to regro"p and re-emerge.
&a'apa(saCs government re!"se to ac(nowledge the political
marginaliGation and deprivations o! these gro"ps
+ome are politicall#-drivenE others are p"rel# terror driven
&ise o! ;slamic !"ndamentalist terrorist gro"ps s"ch as the Mamm"
Oashmir =iberation 7ront >MO=7?in Oashmir and 8amas in the
Palestinian ;sraeli conRict
7"ndamental nat"re: !erventl# believe the# are fghting a hol# warE
or MihadE against !oreign inR"ences in their landE based on a
distorted interpretation o! the P"ran
+tate-sponsored terrorism
/hile most co"ntries have recogniGed international cooperation as
paramo"nt to achieving their political sel!-interest
+ome radical dictators contin"all# !"nd militant terrorist gro"ps in
!"lfllment o! realism
l PaedaE prod"ct o! +a"di rabia and the 0+Cs !"nding o! the
m"'ahideen d"ring the +oviet-!ghanistan /ar
Pa(istan !"nds the =a(sha-e-Tobia >=eT? responsible !or the M"mbai
bombings in Nov *<<6
Proli!eration o! new media:
New plat!orms !or terrorist gro"ps to send their message to other
;nciting man# to be inR"enced b# s"ch s"bversive messages and
-as# instr"ctions on creating bombs
7ew tho"sand mericans perished in +ept 11 attac(sE e9ects o!
attac(s were transmitted globall# b# media coverage o! the eventsE
inciting !ear in the entire global comm"nit#
)eath co"nt not biggest weapon. &atherE harrowing and dramatic
images o! destr"ction
0se !ear and propaganda as main weapon: presence and inR"ence
even more pervasive than be!ore
Terrorists are a m"lti!acetedE compleK gro"p o! people s"pported b#
states or gro"ndswells o! disen!ranchised people and cannot be
viewed simplisticall# as homogeno"s gro"ps.
=. S)orts
=a. Tr/e )/r)ose o. s)orts nowada0s
ICiti"sE alti"sE !orti"sJ are the three !amo"s words which
encaps"late the spirit and so"l o! the worldCs greatest games N the
The @l#mpics was born to one manCs dream o! recreating the
sporting intensit# and passion o! ancient Greece and creating a
plat!orm !or co"ntries to interact and eKhibit their abilitiesE D
creating a sort o! A"niversal brotherhoodC
M#riad iss"es ranging !rom doping to proft-see(ing D belied the
ideals that are the !o"ndation o! sports
+port is heralded as a test o! h"man strength and character
thletes p"sh be#ond perceived bo"ndaries o! h"man anatom# to
achieve the impossible
-.g. $ei'ing @l#mpics: ten-second barrier !or the h"ndred metres
sprint was smashed
thletes li(e Michael PhelpsE a m"ltiple @l#mpic gold medalist !or
swimmingE has inspired man# to test bo"ndaries and has given "s a
temporar# reprieve !rom the harsh realities o! the worldE and !or one
magical momentE encaps"lated the a"dience within a b"bble where
h"man strength and man(indCs greatest abilities are eKalted
$ea"t# o! sports lies in it abilit# to merge both strength and grace
D legendar# per!ormances
Michelle Owan: artistr# on ice moved even the '"dges to tears
0niversal brotherhood
/ildcard !eat"re
-ric Mo"ssambaniE a9ectionatel# called A-ric the eelC b# the mediaE
won the hearts o! millions o! s"pporters even tho"gh he fnished
last in his race
)eveloped co"ntries "s"all# have better !acilities to develop
sporting talents
/hile compromising on eKcellenceE it has enabled people !rom all
over the world to compete togetherE regardless o! their athletic
8elped to en!orce spirit o! I"niversal brotherhoodJ
George @rwell I+port on the international level is !ran(l# mimic war!areJ.
)ar(er iss"es have tarnished the polished s"r!ace o! sports
ChieR# concerned abo"t profts
;t is not the hono"r o! being able to hold the GamesE nor the desire
to spread the sporting ideals that ca"se co"ntries to Gealo"sl# bid
!or the right to hold the Games. Neither do organiGers envision great
tri"mphs or grandiose !alls d"ring the Games that wo"ld ma(e a
mar( on histor#.
/hile it is not wrong to ma(e proft !rom sports since this is
essential !or the contin"ation o! sports D compromise sporting
&ecent 7;7 /orld C"pE 7;7 do"bled the !ees the# t#picall# charge
!or the rights to broadcast the /orld C"p. )id not ta(e into
consideration the ideals o! the "niversal sharing o! sport and global
+ports have also served as a bac(drop !or companies to advertise
their prod"cts
/imbledon: Maria +harapova and Ni(e criticiGed when shots o!
+harapovaCs "nderwearE which revealed the in!amo"s Ni(e +woosh
logo when her s(irt li!ted d"ring the tennis matchE were posted on
the internet
Cooperation and !riendship are compromised
Imimic war!areJ
Canada won a record 12 titles in the Banco"ver /inter @l#mpics b"t
created the I@wn the Podi"mJ programme that cost 0+W113 million.
lso restricted training !acilities to athletes !rom other co"ntries
+ports is an aven"e thro"gh which co"ntries show their athletic
abilitiesE andE b# eKtensionE their political and economic might
)"ring Banco"ver @l#mpicsE the heated rivalr# between Oim L"-Na
o! +o"th Oorea and Mao sada o! Mapan eKtended be#ond the
private spheres to a nation-wide magnit"de
Celebrating L"-NaCs event"al victor#E +o"th Oorea was also
celebrating a victor# over Mapan
No longer the p"rs"it o! athletic abilities that matterE it is the gold
medal that matters and it is even more sweet when it is a victor#
over traditional rivals
Celebration o! s"per-h"man abilities
;ncreasing n"mber o! cases o! doping
Great records negated the ver# neKt da#
7allen heroes incl"de Marion MonesE the once golden girl o! merica
who was stripped o! all her titles
To"r de 7rance was marred b# allegations that the Chinese team
had ridden behind the merican team to avoid the e9ects o! wind
on their stamina
/h# then do we still N almost religio"sl# N !ollow /orld C"psE the
@l#mpics and the /orld Championships?
-ngaged b# the Rambo#ant !ashion o! +erena /illiams
&abid competition: Greater draw !or man# to catch the clash o! the
G"ilt# en'o#ment o! o9 the co"rt drama
7"elled the movement o! sports awa# !rom original goals
;t is not the games that have to changeT it is o"r attit"des.
=#. S)orts and Media
+portE in toda#Cs increasingl# commercialiGed worldE has been
arg"able diverted !rom its @l#mpic ideals N "niting people with the
same love !or the en'o#ment o! sport
thletes no longer train immeas"rable ho"rs !or p"re adrenaline
r"sh o! a good sprintE or a well-pla#ed tennis match
The amo"nt o! media coverage on sporting events is immenseE esp.
i! one compares it to news on events with greater brevit#
@ne might even be inclined to arg"e that media coverage has
overstated the val"e o! sport in toda#Cs world
/hile sport is indeed newsworth# and does aid in promoting good
val"es s"ch as sportsmanshipE commercialism o! sport D T8-+;+
&eason behind overeKpos"re o! sport in the media toda#:
Commercialism and sponsorship have made sport a l"crative billion-
dollar ind"str# with MNCs spl"rging s(#-high fg"res in order to
advertise at ma'or sporting events or sponsor athletes as their
-.g. &ecent @l#mpics where Coca-Cola and Mc)onaldsC were
"nhapp# with the organiGers !or restricting no. o! spectators in
stadi"m D !or(ed o"t millions to place advertisements in prominent
areas within and o"tside stadi"m
-.g. +ports brands li(e didas and Ni(e also sign on celebrit#
athletes to "se their sporting prod"cts in their matches
This is where the media comes in D
Newspaper coverage o! events s"ch as /imbledon ens"res that the
championCs photos are splashed across the !ront page o! ever#
newspaperE complete with his or her championship troph# and
dec(ed o"t in Ni(e gear !rom head to toe
Television coverage o! soccer matches ens"re top-dollar frms pa#
!or neon advertisementsE billions o! people see advertisements as
the# sit at home watching the -P= matches
Media and MNCs share a s#mbiotic relationship. 7irms re1"ire media
coverage !or the sporting events the# sponsorE media re1"ire these
frms to create celebrit# athletes !or their reports to be newsworth#
gainst 1: +porting victories and de!eats have become !ar more p"blic
toda# with media coverage
+port D o"tlet !or nationalist conscio"sness
Bictories and de!eats are perceived b# sport-craGed !ans to be a(in
to tri"mphs and losses on the battlefeld >traditional arch-
-.g. Cric(et between ;ndia and Pa(istanE &"gb# between the
+pringbo( +o"th !rican teamE the "stralians and the $ritish
Media coverage D pla#s "p the signifcance o! the o"tcomes o!
these matches D p"blish incendiar# headlines D national pride
-.g. ChinaCs gold medal tall# eKceeding 0+Cs !or the frst time in
@l#mpic histor#
0+ media co"ntered: overall medal tall# 0+ still leadsE Chinese
g#mnastics team "nder-aged sho"ld be stripped o! their gold
-.g. /orld C"p: +pain winning /orld C"p giving elated +paniards a
brea( !rom months o! economic gloom and political s1"abbling B+.
gainst *: -Ktension o! politics into sports
/ell-established be!ore advent o! eKtensive media coverage
-.g. $lac( merican sprinter Messe @wens 'eered b# German
spectators in the $erlin @l#mpics "nder NaGi German#
-.g. +oviet team bo#cotted @l#mpics held in 0+ d"ring height o!
Cold /ar
$0TD Media ma(e both inseparableE !"rther entrenched mindsets o!
people that sport m"st be p"bliciGed
-.g. +porting bo#cott o! apartheid +o"th !rica: given boost b#
media. Media reports partic"larl# !rom the /estE pla#ed "p
instances o! athletes who defed the bo#cott and pla#ed in +o"th
!ricaE inciting !"rore in home co"ntries o! these athletes >incl"ding
!ormer /imbledon Champion Pat Cash?
$ei'ing @l#mpics? +pott# h"man rights record. ;nternational @l#mpic
Committee >;@C? criticiGed. &eports criticiGing $ei'ingCs heav#-
handedness regarding the Tibet iss"e
7or 1: Given sport and sporting ideals the coverage the# d"l# deserve
)isclose hard wor( and determination behind the ma(ing o! a sports
championE p"blicise strength o! these athletes in the !ace o!
-.g. ;an Thorpe overcome chlorine allerg# swim with head above
water "ntil 1* , )avid Billa
-.g. Oen#an marathon r"nners escape povert# c#cle d"e to their
gi!t. )r /illiam TanCs record-brea(ing !eats contin"e to inspire the
poorE the disabled and the disill"sioned that the# too can overcome
their challenges
/in-win sit"ation: generate h#pe and bring news agencies reven"e
7or *:
8arsh media criticism o! athletes who "se per!ormance-enhancing
Ma(es an eKample o"t o! athletes who resort to cheating to attain
-mphasising the need !or integrit# in sport
-.g. Media !"rore over !ormer 0+ sprint 1"een Marion Mones:
stripped o! medals and !ormer sporting glor#
+trong impediment !or #o"ng sportsman >impressionable?? to "se
steroids or other dr"gs
/hile media has eKaggerated sportCs importance in toda#Cs worldE it is
perhaps '"st a necessar# o"tcome in o"r increasingl# commercialiGed
world where the media are no longer a complement b"t a prere1"isiteE
and sport is merel# one domain which the media have capitaliGed on.
>. ?orei-n Aid
>a. @ow eAe%tive is ?orei-n Aid3
ll men are e1"al. That the val"e o! a h"man li!e does not diminish
across borders is a principle that has achieved "niversal consens"s
$0T ver# !ew o! the worldCs most developed nations meet the clear
re1"irement o! the 0N on committing at least <.5X o! their GNP to
!oreign aid.
s o! *<<6E most genero"s is Norwa# N <.:X. 0+E shining beacon o!
democrac# and g"ardian o! h"man !reedom N a meagre <.1X to the
desolate and impoverished lives in the Third /orld
)"e to great degree o! interdependence and also stemming !rom
moral obligationE there has been a rising sentiment that eKternal
bodies sho"ld deliver !oreign aid
1.2 billion o! global pop"lation is mired in povert# toda#
Me9re# +achs mentioned in his boo( The -nd o! Povert# that given
s"Fcient international aidE povert# can end b# *<*3
gainst 1:
&eso"rces donated are s1"andered awa# b# corr"pt and r"thless
dictatorsE and nothingE it seemsE can be done to prevent the
rapacio"s !oll# o! s"ch regimes d"e to the politicall# tric(# iss"e o!
national sovereignt#.
-.g. 7ood and fnancial relie! provided to M#anmarE North OoreaE
+omaliaE Uimbabwe and other oppressive regimes scarcel# reach
the starving and the sic(
-.g. -mperor Jean-Bdel Bokassa o! the Central !rican &ep"blic
"sed /estern aid to b"# a gold-plated bedE and Uaire_s dictatorE
Mobutu Sese SekoE spent it on personal 'a"nts on the Concorde.
Mone# !re1"entl# ends "p lining the dirt# poc(ets o! immoral r"lers
7ormer Nigerian President once estimated that o! ever# dollar in
!oreign aid given b# eKternal bodies to !rican governmentsE a
whopping eight# cents is siphoned o9 b# corr"pt government
oFcials and "sed to line their poc(ets
id ma# be deliberatel# withheld !rom the pop"lation as defant
leaders see it as a !orm o! political leverage
N. Oorea: threaten to stop deliver# o! aid in response to the
international diplomatic press"re eKerted on it regarding its n"clear
-9orts in remed#ing the state o! deprivation D !"tile D resistance
!rom crac(pot leaders who spare no concern !or the wel!are o! their
own people
7or 1:
+ho"ld not completel# deter nations !rom providing !oreign relie!
-ven i! an "nreasonabl# h"ge proportion o! all h"manitarian aid
ends "p wastedE some good m"st have been done in getting basic
necessities to the masses
Precisel# beca"se the pitiless r"lers o! !ailed states have evidentl#
decided to neglect their people that it becomes all the more
compelling that we do not leave these people to their own damned
!ates when we are empowered to help them with the wealth that we
gainst *:
7oreign aid is merel# a short-term meas"re that "ltimatel# !alls Rat.
Lears o! channelling mone# into the !rican continent has seen little
s"ccess in povert# alleviation
7oreign aid seems to be ine9ect"al and does not deserve to be
@ver-reliance on !oreign aid
Most =atin merican and !rican economies remain "ns"stainable
and are li(el# to collapse sho"ld !oreign mone# s"ddenl# be
withdrawn !rom them
ge-old maKim: Give a man a fshE and he is !"ll !or a da#. Teach a
man how to fshE and he is !"ll !or li!e
7oreign aid that is not accompanied b# social re!orm initiatives and
economic restr"ct"ring g"idance D !"tile
7or *:
$"t this onl# proves that we need to ma(e aid more e9ective
id has been instr"mental in co"ntries li(e Oen#a and Nigeria where
!"nds have been allocated to !"elling the growth o! small-scale
cottage ind"striesE s"ch as providing better heating and coo(ing
stores or installing better s#stems to harness the energ# !rom rivers
)eveloped nations possess the technical eKpertise and capital !or
these Astart-"p technologiesC
7or .:
+hort-term aid is important too in times o! war or nat"ral disasters:
providing basic s"stenance defnitel# needs to be met be!ore we
can tal( abo"t long-term sol"tions
-.g. provision o! medicine in c"ring gonorrheaE s#philis or even
potentiall# !atal cases o! R" has a defnite and 1"antifable e9ect in
protecting h"man lives B.+. long-term meas"res o! ed"cation and
ens"ring sanitation
=ac(s the reso"rces and political will necessar# to relieve the dire
state o! its people
-.g. M#anmar in the trail o! C#clone Nargis
-.g. //;; &econstr"ction o! economies o! German# and Mapan
gainst .:
@ther policies co"nteract the e9ects o! aid >'eopardiGe the interests
o! the receiving nations that !"rther eKacerbate povert# and
intensi!# their domestic problemsE directl# and indirectl#?
Protectionist policies imposed hand-in-hand with aid
;mport tari9s and s"bsidies to local !armers b# 0+ and -0 cannot
compete !airl# !armers lose their 'obs and contin"e to be trapped
in povert#
-.g. id is given b# -0 to the developing world to develop their
agric"lt"ral sector b"t do"ble that amo"nt is given to the !arm
enterprises in -0 itsel!.
-.g. the teKtile and clothing sector. )espite the obvio"s importance
o! these sectors in terms o! development opport"nities poorer
co"ntriesE the M"lti-7ibre rrangement >M7? sets bilateral 1"otas
on teKtile and clothing trade.
+"ch barriers to trade that protect the richer co"ntries are
estimated to cost the developing world aro"nd W3< billion a #earE
which is more or less e1"ivalent to the total amo"nt o! ann"al
development aid provided to the Third /orld.
gainst 2:
Not all co"ntries have altr"istic motives when providing aid
)onor co"ntr# also hopes to have something in ret"rn
-.g. Mapan: id heavil# s(ewed towards those in -ast sian
co"ntriesE which the# have eKtensive commercial ties with
0+: direct aid to regions where it has concerns related to national
sec"rit# >Middle -ast? >;srael three billion dollars in aid: nearl# all
goes to militar# credits?
@sbo"rne Ii! aid is not partic"larl# given with the intention to !oster
economic growthE it is perhaps not s"rprising that it does not
achieve itJ
P"rchase prod"cts !rom donors: recipient have to "se these
precio"s "ncompetitivel# priced imports
;nter Press +ervice: C"t val"e o! aid b# *3 to 2< percent
-.g. id !or !rica to fght ;)+. ;nsist that anti-dr"gs !rom 0+ are
bo"ght when mone# co"ld be better spent on cheaper generic
medicine !or common R"
13<<< dollars on anti-;)+ dr"gsE .3< dollars on generic dr"gs
+ome cla"ses that come tied with the aid are even more sinister
!rican Growth and @pport"nit# ct: Cla"se which states that i! a
co"ntr# is eligible !or this aidE has to re!rain !rom an# actions that
ma# conRict with the 0+Cs strategic interests
0sed this cla"se to garner s"pport !rom the 0N sec"rit# co"ncil !or
the invasion o! ;ra1
Message was clear: either #o" vote !or "s or #o" lose #o"r aid
To end o9E let "s consider this. 0nited +tates provides the largest absol"te
amo"nt o! aid in the world. This s"pposedl# h"ge amo"ntE howeverE is a
mere <..:X o! 0+Cs G)P. @! this <..:XE more than hal! goes to the middle-
east co"ntries to b"# weapons. nd o! this min"te amo"nt o! mone# that
act"all# comes to #o"r co"ntr#E some o! it is wasted d"e to the
ineFciencies o! tied aidE some o! it goes to the poc(et o! the dictator in
power and even more goes bac( to the donor hersel!. nd whatever the
amo"nt le!tE that is i! there is an# le!tE will have to be divided amongst the
millions o! people who are the ones who reall# re1"ire this aid.
t the end o! the da#E we have to admit that aid is sometimes not as
e9ective as it seems. People o!ten arg"e over how some co"ntries have
#et to ma(e the <.5X o! GNP mar( !or !oreign aid. The problemE howeverE
lies deeper. id and politics '"st donCt go hand in hand. s Cornelio
+ommar"gaE President o! the ;C&C remar(sE Ih"manitarian endeavo"r and
political action m"st go their separate wa#s i! the ne"tralit# and
impartialit# o! h"manitarian wor( are not to be 'eopardiGedJ. ;! !oreign aid
is to become e9ectiveE it needs to be !ree o! politics. LetE witho"t politics
there will never be an# signifcant !oreign aid.
B. Mi-ration
Ba. "s &i-ration6(avin- .orei-ners -ood3
Thorn# iss"e
)efne: Row o! people across borders
+ingapore: stat"s as a nation !o"nded b# immigrants in search o! a
better li!e
+ingaporeCs "ni1"e conteKt as an openE m"lti-racial societ# with
pro"d ambitions
+ingaporeCs "ni1"e identit#
$eginnings as a Ro"ndering colonial port-o!-callE attracted man# in
the sian region to traverse the high seas to see( their riches here
M"lti-ethnicE m"lti-c"lt"ral societ# established thro"gh peace!"l co-
habitation o! earl# settlers !rom a wide spectr"m o! co"ntries
;! close doors on immigrantsE tantamo"nt to re'ecting o"r own
heritageE and b# eKtensionE o"r identit#
gainst 1: Mobs
@!t-heard lament that !oreigners steal 'ob opport"nitiesE competition
drives down wages
;! inR"K o! immigrants threatens the abilit# o! locals to remain
gain!"ll# emplo#ed and even decreases +@=E no s"rprise that (nee-
'er( reaction wo"ld be to deno"nce these immigrants
-.g. /hen news lea(ed than =as Begas +ands >Marina $a# ;&?
promised Philippines president 'ob vacancies !or 7ilipinosE "proarQ N
provide m"ch needed emplo#ment in a time o! fnancial crisis
gainst *: ;ncompatibilit# o! c"lt"res
)iFc"lt !or immigrants to assimilate into local societ#
&es"lt being immigrants end "p being the !oc"s o! m"ch discontent
)"e to c"lt"ral di9erencesE conRicts ma# arise when some practices
o! immigrantsE s"ch as spitting in p"blicE are viewed with distaste b#
-sp. when immigrants !rom bac(ward nations acc"stomed to r"ral
li!eE do not comprehend the "nspo(en r"les o! living in dense
neighbo"rhoods in +Cpore
=oitering o! immigrants at void dec(sE radios blasting 8indi m"sicE
-.g. &es"r!aced most prominentl# when residents o! +erangoon
Gardens signed petition protesting against the siting o! a dormitor#
!or !oreign wor(ers !or the a!orementioned reasons
$"t these problems are not ins"rmo"ntableT long term interests
7or 1: -Kpand local talent base
$ring in s(ills and eKpertiseE eKpediting o"r economic advancement
-.g. welcoming ;ndian ;T pro!essionals to 'oin o"r ran(s
-.g. man# positions in o"r local "niversities are also helmed b# eK-
China and ;ndian nationals impart (nowledge and eKperience to
o"r #o"th
dd to the mar(etplace o! ideas and spar( !"rther innovation
7or *: dd colo"r to o"r social !abric
;nR"K o! immigrants !rom neighbo"ring sian co"ntries D
contrib"te towards the eKciting diversit# in +ingaporeCs societ#E
rein!orcing o"r international rep"tation as an accommodating nation
that o9ers visitors a chance to immerse themselves in a m#riad o!
c"lt"ral eKperiences
-.g. ;ndian immigrants head to local ethic 1"arters that is =ittle
;ndiaE spice "p the area
-.g. Gathering o! Thai and M#anmar immigrants at Golden Mile
CompleK on wee(ends I=ittle ThailandJ with shops springing "p to
cater to their needs
Precisel# basis behind +T$Cs I0ni1"el# +ingaporeJ slogan N the miK
and match o! the (aleidoscope o! c"lt"res into a "ni1"e heritage
en'o#ed b# all
7or .: -mbracing immigrants and shaping a harmonio"s societ#
demonstrates o"r commitment towards being a tr"e representative o! the
sian region
/elcoming immigrants show that we are a h"b with regional
+ingapore small mar(et siGe imperative !or "s to loo( be#ond
o"r borders and capitaliGe on opport"nities in the region done b#
promoting +-N identit# so that +ingaporeE as part o! the regional
blocE has an enhanced international standing
-.g. &oll o"t the MeetingsE ;ncentivesE Conventions and -Khibitions
>M;C-Z programme to attract eKhibitions or events li(e LG to
+ingapore b# positioning itsel! as a gatewa# to the region
M"dicio"s in terms o! who we allow to enter o"r borders
/eight o! terrorism rests heavil# on the worldCs sho"ldersE
+ingapore m"st be on the alert !or "nsavo"r# characters with
malicio"s intent
/eed o"t those who might rend o"r societ# as"nder
&egional terrorist gro"p Memaah ;slami#ah >M;? ca"se !or concern
Concl"sion: D potential !or amalgamation o! s(illsE talents and
eKperiences that wo"ld beneft D 0nwise to be parochial and re'ect all
contact with immigrants '"st beca"se o! a !ew "npleasant eKperiences.
8istor# as g"ideE +ingaporeCs road to development was not witho"t
teething problems as 1:4<s racial riots showedE b"t conscio"s e9ort b# all
parties to resolve di9erences and live peaceabl# together D attain
prosperit# toda#. Present sho"ld be no di9erent
10. S/#2e%ts
10a. Literat/re
;ncessant nagging o! parents to Iread moreE read widel#J
/h# sho"ld ;E wanting nothing to do with writing in m# !"t"re
careerE immerse m#sel! in the writings o! Milton and +ha(espeare i!
; am not to prod"ce an# novel o! that calibre in m# li!etime?
=itE encompassing fne writing in the !orms o! literar# novelsE pla#s
and poetr#E has a lot to teach to readers.
)o not '"dge a boo( b# its cover N h"mble novel canD
7or 1:
P"rpose o! lit: li(e other art !orms: tr# to comm"nicate
"thorE pla#wrightE poet: ideasE opinions or tho"ghts to share or has
something abo"t their c"lt"re or a !raction o! histor# to D
7rom other people: learn thingsE eKpand o"r horiGons be#ond the
shadows o! o"r PlatoCs cavesE assimilating vario"s ideas to gain
mat"rit# o! tho"ght o"rselves
7or *:
;ntrinsic in ever# piece o! lit is h"man nat"re
CharactersE their emotionsE their tho"ghts D !orm the ver# basis o!
a piece o! writing
-ven in writings that do not involve h"man characters N animal
!ormsE !or instance N we fnd h"man tho"ght processesE along with
o"r c"lt"resE being imposed on these non-h"man characters
Thin( abo"t what the h"man ps#che reall# is abo"tE glean partic"lar
insights abo"t the h"man character
+ha(espeareCs @thello: !allibilit# o! man than(s to his innate sense
o! prideE greatest strengthE i! in eKcessE can be oneCs greatest
Character-b"ilding: step bac(E eKamine o"rselvesE bettering
8olistic ed"cation: strength o! character
@thello: warning abo"t manCs pride: be more war# and strive
towards h"milit#
7or .:
-Kpansion o! oneCs (nowledge
&epresentative o! the c"lt"ral bac(drop o! the novel
*<<5Cs bestselling novelE The Oite &"nnerE while engaging "s in a
poignant stor# o! two child charactersE eKposes "s to a part o!
!ghan c"lt"re D cannot learn in other lessons
Give "s a birdCs e#e view o! o"r world D allowing "s to Goom in on
an# partic"lar co"ntr# and be immersed in their c"lt"re
)onCt live behind closed doors o! his residence
7or 2:
=it inevitabl# gives "s insight into the partic"lar niche area that a
stor# belongs toE be it histor#E c"rrent a9airs and even science
-.g. Bictor 8"goCs =es MiserablesE 7rench &evol"tion D 7rench
histor#. Onowledge not in-depthE b"t act as springboard !or readers
to get interested
-.g. +ingaporeCs latest pla# b# Mean Ta#E entitled $@@ME details stor#
o! old lad# whose home is being sold Aen blocC N) corpse that
re!"ses to eb eKh"med insight to !renG# o! Aen blocC sales in
+ingapore and obsession with progress and limited land and its
Pool o! (nowledge
7or 3:
)evelop emotionall#
-vo(e a m#riad o! emotions in its readersE !rom shoc( to s"rprise to
-.g. /ar poetE /il!red @wenE written !rom variet# o! voices b"t most
commonl# !rom common soldier. llow "s to step into the shoes o!
$ritish soldiers who !o"ght in 7irst /orld /ar. -Kperience s"9ering
o"trage disill"sionment
+ensitive to the !eelings o! othersE enable "s to empathise with the
plights o! others
7or 4: )evelop sociall#
=it invites readers to get in to"ch with the stor#E with the charactersE
c"lt"re and histor# that are intertwined with and embedded in the writingE
and "ltimatel#E lit invites "s tog et in to"ch with o"rselves
10#. @istor0
+ho"ld we st"d#?
P"estion arises !"ndamentall# beca"se o! societ#Cs preocc"pation
with advancement and the betterment o! the h"man condition
+ocial "nderc"rrent that seems to approve o! progress and
inventionE "nderl#ing perception that loo(ing into the !"t"re and ...
infnitel# more relevant
Thesis: bandon o"r m#opic views
7or 1: 0nloc(s the secrets to o"r rootsE o"r heritage and o"r c"lt"re
Progress in o"r 'o"rne# o! sel!-discover# and o"r search !or identit#
N a 'o"rne# that is 1"intessentiall# h"man
;nsight into what ta(es place be!ore o"r eKistenceE what trials and
trib"lations o"r !ore!athers !acedE D overcome D present
8"mansE we !ace the perennial 1"estion o! I/ho am ;?J
-.g. +- "nderstand wh# o"r c"lt"re is ver# m"ch inR"enced b# the
/estE be it attire or architect"re colonialism in pre-war #ears
-.g. +ingapore strive to be democratic and sociall# stable
&eaction to a"tocratic colonial r"le and rigid totalitarian impositions
o! the Mapanese d"ring the @cc"pation
merica concerned with liberating co"ntries s"ch as ;ra1 and
!ghanistan that are perceived to enslave their people to
"nreasonable demands d"e to the Civil /ar in the past
7or *: Not onl# conteKt"aliGe the present b"t also !oreshadow what is to
come in the !"t"re
Past has a (nac( !or repeating itsel!
-.g. merican &evol"tion mirrors 7rench &evol"tion >decades
-.g. Modernist movement at dawn o! *<
cent"r# ;nd"strial
&evol"tion o! 1:
cent"r#: cit# pop"lation was dil"ted b# an inR"K o!
peasants and Aco"ntr#-!ol(C
Colonialism Aneo-colonialismC
+"bstantial empirical evidence: "ncann# similarities
-.g. Politicians recogniGe that grievances s"ch as social ine1"alit#
and a lac( o! rights led to n"mero"s revol"tions strive to be
democraticE liberalE !air
Pivotal to the process o! civiliGationE #ears o! progress and social
evol"tion not wasted and we are not catap"lted bac( into the
vestiges o! time
-.g. Siao 8eE a high-ran(ing oFcial in the 8an d#nast#E re!"sed to
destro# the historical records o! the despotic Pin d#nast# when the
8an came in power
7or .: -Kposing "s to ideas and abstract notions >impractical b"t o!
paramo"nt impt?
8istor# is !"ndamentall# abo"t a clash o! ideologies >democrac# vs.
!ascismE comm"nism vs. capitalism etc.?
)etermine the best wa# to organiGe h"manit# sociall# D !air and
e9ective !ramewor( !or civiliGation
M"ch li(e +ci and tech: aims to elevate the h"man condition and
advance civilisation
gainst 1: &emembering the past does not change it
Philosophical theor# o! conse1"entialism
&eminiscing abo"t the past [ Icr#ing over spilt mil(J
$etter to anticipate what is to come based on concrete evidence or
signs !rom the presentE instead o! heeding on Aprophetic revelationsC
!rom the past
Present: more relevant and realistic starting point !or o"r pro'ections
and predictionsE better prepare o"rselves !or what is to come
Case resonates most in econs D
gainst *: 8istor# is !"ndamentall# s"b'ectiveE impractical to st"d# views
and perceptions that are biased and tainted b# regional lo#alties or
political aFliations
Past can be written and re-written in almost an# shape or !orm
-.g. &eagan Bictor# school proposes that it is &eaganCs frst term
assertiveness that led to end o! Cold /ar b"t traditional historians
tend to thin( that it is GorbachevE a new change in mentalit# and a
paradigm shi!t in the 0++& res"lted in the thawing o! the Cold /ar
8istor# can be bro(en into Ihis stor#JE however clich\d it might
seemE encaps"lates wh# man# believe histor# has no tangible val"e
$0TD it is this inherent bias that ma(es it s"ch an interesting st"d#.
-.g. st"d#ing Bietnam /ar in the 1:4<sE one ma# come across an
merican teKt which will most probabl# attempt to downpla# the
disastro"s loss o! the mericans to the Bietnamese g"errillas.
Thro"gh anal#Ging the writerCs stand and tone in the acco"ntE a
learned historian will probabl# be able to discern the mericanCs
motive !or the warE the t#pe o! propaganda and reasons !or their
;t is onl# in si!ting thro"gh the mass o! '"dgemental acco"ntsE
sieving o"t the !acts and !"rther "nderstanding them D h"man
nat"re better "nderstood
@nl# thro"gh s"ch tedi"m can oneCs mental fnesse be honed D
become more shrewd in tho"ght and clearer in perception >blessing
in disg"ise?
Nationalistic pride that ca"ses Mapan toda# to den# the atrocities
that the co"ntr# committed d"ring //;;E choosing instead to glori!#
the pastE or the c"lt"ral inR"ences that ma# contrib"te to a
distinctive wa# o! portra#ing histor#
ChinaCs downpla#ing o! the devastation ca"sed d"ring MaoCs reign
&emembering the past and loo(ing into !"t"re not m"t"all# eKcl"sive.
7"nction in tandem to lead to progress.
)oes st"d#ing ma(e "s more pessimistic abo"t !"t"re o! h"man race
cco"nt o! a world shaped b# man(indCs aggressionE power and
moral deca# N all s"ggestive o! a blea( !"t"re entailing more conRict
and stri!e
Man(indCs capacit# to develop and espo"se ideals that respect and
"phold the worth o! li!e lend some optimism to the pict"re
Change onl# constant b"t contention is '"st as worth# o! being
branded as a constantE or at least consistentE !eat"re
7rom ancient GreeceE militar# might was deemed central to the
empireE which warred against other states to b"ild "p its empire
Chinese empire "nifed "nder -mperor Pin onl# via n"mero"s wars
N@/: C"rrent generation holds two world wars within span o! past
cent"r# alone
$loodshed and destr"ction N and most poignantl# !"tile aggressionE
as bemoaned b# n"mero"s war poets o! the 7irst /orld /ar li(e
@wen and +assoon N seem to attest to the 8obbesian idea that
h"mans are innatel# aggressive creat"resE prone to conRict and
inRation o! harm
;mpossibilit# o! greater peace N contin"e fnding areas o! contention
to eKtrapolate into long-drawn conRicts >N@/: ascension o! religio"s
!"ndamentalist gro"ps s"ch as 8amas attests to this trend?
+alient characteristic o! man(ind is a will to power
Power corr"pts and absol"te power corr"pts absol"tel#
8itlerCs Third &eich commanded the elimination o! the Mewish raceE
gas chambersD
;n a similar !ashionE +talinCs r"le was characteriGed b# repeated
p"rging o! dissenters so as to entrench his totalitarian r"le
/illingness o! men to eKercise violence or annihilate them
+"ch acts o! cr"elt# spea( strongl# against an innatel# moral
h"man !abric
N@/: N. Oorea and M#anmar similarl# intransigent in their br"talit#
7"ndamental sel!-interested behavio"r o! h"mansQ
Contradicts the imperative !or h"mans to act in a more moral and
altr"istic manner
-.g. 7oreign polic#: g"ided b# national interest >Cold /ar: rich
collection o! engagement with states !or strategic interests in their
respective spheres o! inR"enceE b"t what is morall# revolting is the
irresponsible disengagement a!ter no strategic needs are served
an# longer? N 0+E a!ter training militants li(e the l-Paeda in
!ghanistanE promptl# disengagedE b"dding terrorist gro"p
-conomic histor#: Colonisation o! !rica and import o! !rican slaves
Tendenc# !or man(ind to compromise on the well-beingE nat"ral
rights and peace o! DE spea(s vol"mes abo"t contin"ation o! similar
actions that de!# o"r sense o! what is hono"rable
N@/: economic crisis: selfsh nat"re o! h"mans. $etra#al o! tr"st b#
fnancial advisors that irresponsibl# pac(aged s"b-prime loans as
promising investments has "ndermined the moral !abric o! the
fnancial s#stem
-vents and trends in histor# that point towards greaterE more promising
h"man development
-.g. +laver# was abolished a!ter a long-drawn battle that advocated
the e1"aliGation o! rights between /hites and !rican-mericans
Gender bias dramaticall# eradicated or red"ced
-Kert press"re !or change
Global cohesion
=imited "nderstanding characteriGed relations between great
powers in the past
N@/: 7ormation o! the =eag"e o! Nations and then the 0nited
Nations: strong s#mbols o! a cooperative world order
CCNOTE$ @istor0 o. %o/ntr0 not D @istor0 as a s/#2e%t. @istor0 o.
%o/ntr0 in%l/des %/lt/re6ar%(ite%t/reECC
10%. Mat(e&ati%s
Mathematics is a discipline whose "tilit# is seldom 1"estioned in the
modern worldE given its ostensible impact on o"r li!est#les
;ntellect"all# satis!#ing
Tap the le!t brainE which !oc"ses on logical thin(ingE reasoning and
problem solving
Thin( activel# "sing n"mbersE s#mbols and !orm"lae to eKpress
things rather than basic emotions
ctive harnessing o! the h"man mind to solve mathematical
problems: satis!action
ChallengeE which one has to tac(le "sing his intellect and thin(ing
-.g. +"do("E &"bi( c"beE well-(nown mathematical Acon"ndr"msC
;ntellect"al growth over the #ears too
Mathematics is "s"all# st"died thro"gh a long period o! schooling
#ears: possible to compare a st"dentCs level o! growth at a nascent
stage with the more mat"re phase
)eepening in thin(ing s(ills li(e ded"ction and reasoning
/ide range o! applications
$e#ond the temporal comparison o! abilities or the satis!action o!
solving a mathematical problem
Transcendence !rom the paper world o! Cartesian planes and
random triangles to the act"al application o! concepts
-.g. Golden ratioE considered the A!orm"laC !or aesthetic bea"t#.
0sed in man# !orms o! artE !rom the -g#ptian p#ramids to paintings
li(e )a BinciCs Mona =isa
+ome even tr# to lin( the str"ct"re o! the Petrarchan sonnetE a
pop"lar poetic !ormE to the golden ratio
+cience: Math dictates the proportionate manner in which the world
operates. -.g. derivation o! NewtonCs law o! motion greatl# assisted
b# his st"d# and !o"nding o! calc"l"s
+o!ter sciences: econometricsE the st"d# o! economics "sing
concrete mathematical fg"res in pre!erence to baseless
$"t are these mere impractical applications?
+t"d# o! P"ant"m Ph#sicsE the wor(s o! =a Grange and =a placeE
even +chrodingerE serve to eKplain how min"te particles o! the
earth operate and little application
stronom# and positioning o! planets seem to a9ord little practical
$"t this serves to broaden o"r mindsE eKposing them to events that
cannot be !athomed thro"gh li!eCs eKperiences while "nloc(ing both
gargant"an and =illip"tian alternative "niverses that we strive to
$"t i! we do not do applied mathE is math o! little practical "se?
-speciall# tr"e !or st"dents who simpl# cannot "nderstand how the
man# graphsE e1"ations and geometrical fg"res the# enco"nter can
possibl# help them in their lives
Most immediate part o! li!e which involves mathematics is in
co"nting mone# and spending itE cannot be classifed as a Ast"d#C
The mathematical applications !or the sol"tions o! dail# problems
are o!tentimes not observed beca"se average person lives and
behaves b# instincts and approKimations
-.g. r"nning lateE )avid $ec(hamE Carl# Patterson times her !all
whilst somersa"lting in mid-airE Michael Mordan
$"t isnCt ever# s"b'ect o! little practical "se?
;n-depth (nowledge o! science not needed
No need to (now abo"t acid and bases to be 1"alifed to "se
;ntricate (nowledge abo"t procreation not a prere1"isite to doing
the act itsel!
rts disciplines "seless too
verage person has better things to do on a rain# da# than
attempting to "nderstand the water c#cle
People "s"all# b"# things on a whim rather than leaving it to the
Arationalit#C economists ass"me we need in order to calc"late the
val"e o! what we p"rchase
Nobod#E i! an#bod# everE converses in iambic pentameter in real li!e
Mar( Twain: ; never let m# schooling get in the wa# o! m# ed"cation
There is more to li!e than simpl# !"lflling the demands that m"ndane and
ApracticalC li!e gives "s. =i!e is more than ph#sical actions and monetar#
calc"lationsE b"t more abstractl#E a 'o"rne# towards disc"ssing and
"nderstandingE not '"st o! the sel!E b"t o! the world aro"nd "sE nat"ral or
10d. 8niversal lan-/a-e
Globalisation: phenomenon in which comm"nications and Row o!
goods and services cross national or continental bo"ndaries with
increasing ease and e9ectiveness
;ncreasing AborderlessnessC o! the world
rtifcial lang"ages >notabl# -speranto?
Need !or ling"a !ranca to comm"nicate with each other
$enefts: Convenience o! comm"nication
;ndispensable within certain circles
-.g. +cientifc comm"nit# "ses eKcl"sivel# -nglish as its lang"age o!
p"blication and disc"ssionE researchers eKpected to p"blish in
-nglish or ris( being ignored b# m"ch o! the world
+cientifc comm"nities separated and isolated b# lang"age barriers
simpl# cannot reap benefts !rom s#nerg# o! collective international
-.g. 8"man Genome Pro'ectE the greatest collective scientifc
"nderta(ing b# man(ind so !arE "se -nglish. /ith s"ch endeavo"rs
becoming more commonplaceD
-.g. Global b"siness comm"nit#
Growing integration o! trade in regional trading blocs and bilateral
trade agreements across regional bo"ndariesE m"ltinational
companies dominate scene
)espite importance o! learning local lang"ages and c"stoms in
order to cond"ct b"sinessE b"sinessmen !ace a growing necessit# o!
comm"nicating e9ectivel# with co"nterparts across the globe
;mpossibleE impracticalE inconvenientE not cost-eFcient:
interpretersE learn
-.g. ;n -0E *. lang"ages recogniGed as AoFcialC b# -0E most t"rn to
-nglish when cond"ct b"siness >even in +witGerland where GermanE
7rench and ;talian hold oFcial stat"s?
)etrimental to eKistence and s"rvival o! "ni1"e c"lt"re
Common lang"age is "n"s"all# sed"ctiveE prompting man# to
!orego learning their mother tong"es in !avo"r o! new lang"age
-.g. +panish Con1"istadores imposed lang"age on natives o! the
mericas and now some Native merican tong"es once widel#
spo(en are now almost eKtinctE along with the pre-Col"mbian wa# o!
Closer to homeE minorit# o! +ingaporeans in the past chose to send
their children to -nglish-medi"m schools D ac1"ire ling"istic s(ills.
Man# people !orsoo( or even neglected to learn their mother
tong"es and lose their roots
=oss o! val"able c"lt"ral heritage
=ang"age is c"lt"re. =ang"age derives its meaning !rom c"lt"re.
-ver# c"lt"re is embodied in the lang"age it spea(s. -ver#
lang"age is rooted in the c"lt"re that spea(s it.
Mapanese,Chinese,-nglish: wa#s o! sa#ing than( #o"E calling
+inglish: invo(es a di9erent !eelingE in!ormal
11. /sinesses
11a. /siness &oralit0
11#. '(arities as #/sinesses
12. ,e&o%ra%0
12a. Good vs. ad
/e live in a world toda# where three-1"arters o! the co"ntries in the world
adopt democrac# >or so the# claim? as the dominant political s#stem.
;ndeedE democrac# has its all"re and it is "nderstandable wh# co"ntries
li(e Thailand have AprogressedC !rom a power!"l monarch# in the 1:<<s to
a democratic state. 7or the frst time in histor#E the pop"lace o! n"mero"s
co"ntries fnd themselves e1"ipped and empowered b# new!o"nd
a"thorit# to evo(e change and pla# a part in the decisions o! the state.
LetE has democrac# tr"l# s"cceeded in bringing good to people? )etractors
o! democrac# claim that democrac# !ails on two co"nts. 7irstl#E democrac#
is too idealistic a political s#stem and can there!ore never #e tr/l0
i&)le&ented. +econdl#E even i! democrac# can be p"t into practiceE
there are still some !"ndamental !ail"res o! democrac# when it is applied
to o"r dail# li!e d"e to the vario/s eFa&)les o. G.ail/res o.
de&o%ra%0H that we have seen over the #ears. 8oweverE to meE these
s"pposed !ail"res in practice cannot be attrib"ted to democrac# per se.
;nsteadE ; believe that tho"gh there are Raws in the principles o!
democrac# at the end o! the da#E democrac# is still a lesser evil and isE
there!oreE not a total !ail"re in practice.
?A"L8RE "N PRA'T"'E3
nti Thesis 1: 7ail"re in practice ('an never #e tr/l0 i&)le&ented)
-.g. +ingapore: democrac# b"t restrict !reedom o! speech >media
censorshipE s"ppression o! opposition?
-.g. -ven 0+ cannot be said to be tr"l# democratic >G"antanamo
$a#: violates basic h"man rights?: tort"re detainees to eKtract
in!ormation and ind"ce cooperation
Co"nter 1,thesis: No political s#stem can ever be tr"l# implemented and
there!ore it is not right to sa# that democrac# !ails merel# beca"se it can
never be tr"l# implemented
@ther s#stemsE when Atr"l# implementedCE !ailQ -.g. Comm"nism
>ChinaE 0++&?
Monarch#E on the other handE is too simplistic and concentrates
power in the hands o! !ew people. /hile benevolent dictatorships
ma# be benefcialE most do not t"rn o"t that wa#
Thesis *: 7ail"re in practice (?ails in %ertain sit/ations)
;t does seem to be benefcial to some societies li(e 0+
$"t is democrac# necessaril# the mod"s operandi o! all co"ntries?
)emocrac# ass"mes that people are rationalE want !reedomE are not
apatheticD >are these ass"mptions tr"e??
-.g. ;ra1 >0+ coerced ;ra1 to radicall# adopt democrac#. The# have
constit"tions in Rower# lang"age that p"rport to g"arantee man# o!
the rights ta(en !or granted in /estern democracies. Let their
leaders s"rvive b# control and repression. +"nni minorit# re!"se to
ac(nowledge electionsD?
-.g. -g#ptE MordanE MoroccoE lgeria and O"wait might be described
as IliberaliGed a"tocraciesJ even tho"gh the# claim to be
Co"nter *,thesis: 7ine in principle and fne in practice !or most sit"ations
;n these casesE democrac# was !orced. People need to embrace the
ideals o! democrac# be!ore democrac# can wor(. ;! +"nni minorit#
re!"se to ac(nowledge electionsE it is not democrac# which !ails b"t
the people which !ailed in implementing it.
)i9erent c"lt"ral and political conteKts: sian democracies areE b#
necessit#E a di9erent model !rom western democracies
?"NE "N PR"N'"PLE3
Thesis 1: 7ine in principle >goodE !airE practical? b"t too simplistic,idealistic
Good: &espects and wal(s hand in hand with opennessE !reedom
and capitalism N val"es which are
7air: 0pholds '"sticeE promotes e1"alit#E maintains a s#stem o!
chec(s and balances and recogniGes the m"t"al s#mbiosis o! state
and people
Practical: Not overwhelmingl# compleK as in MarKist societ#
merica "s"all# "sed as benchmar( in meas"re how A!reeC a state is
b"t there are limitations to this.
There!oreE fne in principle
ntithesis 1: Propoganda
Noam Choms(#E IPropoganda is to democrac# what the bl"dgeon is
to the totalitarian stateJ
M"st li(e how totalitarian regimes "se !orceE violence and oppression
to prevent people !rom revolting against harsh and "n!air
treatmentE democracies o!ten "se propaganda to convince the
people that the government is doing a good 'obE hoodwin(ing the
p"blic into believing what the government wants them to believe
-.g. 0+
;n principleE democrac# ass"mes that people are well-in!ormed and
are not apathetic
$"t this is a !alse ass"mptionQ
/inston Ch"rchillE Ithe best arg"ment against democrac# is a fve-
min"te conversation with the average voterJ
ntithesis *: T#rann# o! the ma'orit#E interests o! minorit# gro"ps are o!ten
Boting s#stem res"lts in the will o! the ma'orit# being imposed on
the "nwilling and o!ten oppressed minorit#
-.g. ;n 7ranceE !rican immigrants who are a minorit# are o!ten
discriminated against and are !orced to wor( long ho"rs with low
wages and to live in appalling conditions
;n principleE democrac# tal(s abo"t Apeople powerC b"t it is act"all#
onl# abo"t power o! the ma'orit# o! the people
ntithesis .: +mall vocal gro"p is o!ten able to eKpress its options best and
th"s will o! the ma'orit# is not respected
-.g. ThailandE Tha(sin +hinawatra was !orced to step down as Prime
Minister even tho"gh he was re-elected as the "rban pop"lation in
$ang(o( la"nched h"ge demonstrations that threatened to ca"se
immense disr"ption. -ven tho"gh the ma'orit# o! ThailandCs r"ral
pop"lation s"pported Tha(sinE the# were "nable to eKpress their
;n theor#E democrac# demonstrates e1"alit# b# allowing each
person to have one and onl# one vote
$"t is it reall# tr"e that each person gets one and onl# one vote?
;s it possible !or "s to reconcile these !ail"res in the principles o!
democrac# when we appl# it in realit#?
Propaganda: transparenc#E !ree mediaE technolog#E internet
T#rann# o! the ma'orit#: G&Cs >+ingapore?
/ill o! ma'orit# not respected: +trict controls
;n concl"sionE democrac#E li(e almost an# other political s#stem or theor#E
ma(es several grave ass"mptions that can easil# be proven wrong. LetE
democrac# does provide "s with a set o! val"es and ideals which we can
aim to achieve. MoreoverE the shortcomings o! democrac# can be
mediated in real li!e. /hile it is tr"e that democrac# ma# not be the best
polic# !or all co"ntriesE we do need to concede that democrac# is defnitel#
a lesser evil than the other pop"lar political s#stems o! o"r da# N
comm"nism and despotism. Perhaps it is too m"ch o! a generaliGation to
call democrac# a !ail"re d"e to some instances in which democrac# has
been ab"sed b# a small minorit#. There!oreE ; !eel that it is sp"rio"s to sa#
that democrac# is fne in principle b"t a !ail"re in practiceE !or the
converse is in !act more acc"rate.
15. So%ial "ss/es (onl0 stats )rovided)
1.a. Gender

1.b. 7amil#

1.c. -1"alit#

1:. Governan%e
1:a. 7orld Governan%e
1;. Ot(ers
1;a. 'oo)eration
1;#. Ed/%ation
)efne: -d"cation is abo"t imparting and ac1"iring s(illsE (nowledge
and belie!s thro"gh teaching and learning
Man# +ingaporeans !eel that ed"cation is all abo"t sec"ring a good
'ob and a good li!est#le in the !"t"re. 8oweverE ed"cation has m"ch
broader socio-politicalE economic and h"manistic p"rposes.
*<<4: +ingapore spent W3.* billion on ed"cationE 1:..X o! b"dget
and ..:X o! G)P
7rom a p"rel# pragmatic perspectiveE ed"cation helps an individ"al ma(e
a living and ma(es the individ"al more "se!"l and more relevant in societ#
$asic ed"cation is essential ed"cation and is cr"cial especiall# in
developing co"ntries. $enefts incl"de red"ced diseases as people
learn abo"t h#giene and n"tritionE red"ced "nwanted pregnancies
and red"ced violence as people learn to "se non-violent wa#s to
resolve conRicts
$e#ond basic ed"cationE ed"cation promises to give people the
power to reasonE the capacit# to ma(e in!ormed '"dgmentsE the
abilit# to solve problems and the vision to thin( clearl# and
imaginativel#: vario"s academic disciplines teach "s !ramewor(s to
"nderstand the world
man who has basic literac# can probabl# get a 'obE order !ood and
open a ban( acco"nt. +omeone with a higher ed"cational level can
probabl# get a better 'obE order more decadent !ood and have a
!"ller ban( acco"nt
The speed at which co"ntries li(e +ingaporeE 8ong OongE Mala#sia
and +o"th Oorea have developed !rom their previo"s Third /orld
economies as compared to their !rican and =atin merican
co"nterparts is in no minor part d"e to the regimented wa# in which
basic literac# and basic ed"cation are en!orced.
-ven in ancient ChinaE the ;mperial eKamination s#stem was
implemented in the 8an d#nast# to eval"ate and choose oFcials to
r"le the co"ntr#
+ingapore is increasingl# moving towards an ed"cation that !oc"ses
on technolog#E lateral thin(ing and creativit# to meet the new
demands o! the "npredictable and compleK modern da# econom#
-d"cation also socialiGes individ"als to establish social order
Con!ormit# to a common socio-political val"e
merica "ses ed"cation to inc"lcate respect !or individ"al !reedoms
which is the basis o! merican democrac#. +imilarl#E +ingapore "ses
ed"cation to inc"lcate hard wor( which is intrinsic in +ingaporeCs
meritocratic societ#
;n order to create a gracio"s societ# that respects the collective
rights to ever#oneE it m"st teach its people to be sociall#
responsible and con!orm to basic social norms. 7or instanceE in
+ingaporeE moral ed"cation is ta"ght !rom #o"ng which teachers
#o"ths that spitting in p"blic is a health haGard and that
discrimination o! an# sort is absol"tel# intolerable
8oweverE ed"cation can be ab"sed too. &"lers have "sed ed"cation
as a wa# o! controlling societ# in order to retain power or credibilit#.
;nstead o! meaning!"l val"es and (nowledgeE ed"cation s#stems
can be "sed to promote meaningless propaganda to indoctrinate
-.g. Mapanese leaders !eel that the atrocities committed in /orld
/ar ;; and the &ape o! Nan'ing were too m"ch an ins"lt to the ro#al
!amil# and have deliberatel# le!t o"t an# s"ch re!erences in their
-.g. ;n 1:::E +chool $oard o! the state o! Oansas ca"sed
controvers# when it decided to eliminate testing o! evol"tion in its
state assessment tests
-d"cation inc"lcates val"es in "s
The enterprise o! civil societ# depends on ed"cating #o"ng people
to become responsibleE tho"ght!"l and enterprising citiGens. This is
an intricateE challenging tas( re1"iring deep "nderstanding o!
ethical principlesE moral val"esE political theor#E aesthetics and
The goal is aiding the growth o! st"dents so that the# become
prod"ctive members o! societ#. n imparting o! c"lt"re !rom
generation to generation promotes a greater awareness and
responsiveness thro"gh social mat"rit# to the needs o! an
increasingl# diversifed global societ#.
+chools in the past were heavil# lin(ed to religio"s instr"ction >e.g.
@K!ord and 8arvard began as seminaries to train ministers in Igodl#
(nowledgeJ li(e medicine and law?
ltho"gh schools have become increasingl# sec"larE it still teaches
"s to realiGe the better and higher aspects o
1;%. 'ri&e
1;d. Li#ert0 or Se%/rit0
1;e. 'ons/&eris&