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System & Hardware u uuuGef

rmwdum
pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsuEf mS
Introduction to Computer Science (uGey
f sLwmodyrHÜ w
d q
f uf)
1/ Computer (uGey
f sLwm) 1
2/ History of Computer Science (uGefysLwmodyÜH\ordkif;) 1
3/ Types of Computer (uGey
f sLwmtrsK;d tpm;rsm;) 2
4/ Parts of Computer (uGefysLwmwGifyg0ifaomtpdwftydkif;rsm;) 3

5/ Program (y½dk*&rf) 3
6/ Generations of Programming Languages
(uGefysLwmy½dk*&rfrsKd;qufrsm;) 3
7/ Artificial Intelligence(AI) (todÓPftwk) 3
8/ Future of AI (tem*wfumvtodÓPftwk) 5

Personal Computer Hardware & System Maintenance


(udk,fydkifoHk;uGefysLwmwpfpHk\trmxnfypönf;ESifhpepfjyKjyifxdef;odrf;rI)

9/ Components of a Computer
(uGefysLwmwpfvHk;\tpdwftydkif;rsm;) 6
10/ System Unit 6
11/ Computer System One Set (uGey
f sLwmpepfwpfp)kH 7
12/ Mother Board / Main Board 8
System & Hardware c uuuGef

13/ Bus, Slot and I/O Card 8


14/ Classes of I/O Buses (I/O Buses trsKd;tpm;rsm;) 9
15/ Microprocessors (rdkufu½dky½dkqufqmrsm;) 10
16/ Memory (rSwfÓPf) 12
17/ Monitor (armfeDwm) 13
18/ Monitor ESifhwGJzuftoHk;jyKrnfh VGA Card / Graphic Card
wGifrdrdtoHk;jyKvdkaom Resolution, Color Setting rsm;tvdkuf
Video RAM vdktyfcsufZ,m; 13
19/ Keyboard (cvkwfcHk odkYr[kwf tcsuftvufESifh ñTefMum;csuf
xnfhoGif;onfhypönf;) 14
20/ Mouse 14
21/ Printer 15
22/ Impact Printer 15
23/ Daisy Wheel Printer 15
24/ Dot Matrix Printer 15
25/ Non-Impact Printer 16
26/ Installation of the Computer and Accessories (AT)
(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;) 16
27/ Rear Panel of AT System Unit 17
28/ Installation of the Computer and Accessories (ATX)
(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;) 18
29/ Rear Panel of ATX System Unit 18
System & Hardware * uuuGef

30/ Starting the Computer (For Windows XP)


(Windows XP toHk;jyKuGefysLwmtm; pwiftvkyfvkyfapjcif;) 19
31/ Shut Down the Computer (For Windows XP)
(Windows toHk;jyKuGefysLwmtm; ydwfjcif;) 20
32/ Start-Up Procedure for PC
(uGefysLwmwpfvHk;rD;zGifhvQifpwifaqmif&GufrItqifhqifh) 22
33/ Power On Self Test (POST)
(rD;zGifhonfESifhtvdktavsmufppfaq;jcif;) 24
34/ Boot Strapping (uGefysLwmtqifoifhjzpfap&efvkyfaqmifjcif;) 25

35/ Low Level Interface


(trmxnfrsm;tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefqufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;) 26
36/ Maintenance a Hard Disk (For Windows XP)
(Hard Disk wpfvHk;tm;xdef;odrf;rI jyKvkyfjcif;) 27
37/ Protecting Electrical Power Problem
(vQyfppf"gwftm;qdkif&mjyóemrsm;udkumuG,fjcif;) 34
38/ Surge Protector, UPS, Computer System
wkdYcsdwfqufwyfqiftokH;jyKjcif; 35
39/ Notice of the Computer Users
(uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKolrsm;twGufowday;csufrsm;) 36
40/ Fault finding for PC
(udk,fydkifoHk;uGefysLwmtm; jypfcsuf½SmazGjcif;) 37
System & Hardware C uuuGef

PC Hardware Maintenance and Upgrading

41/ Typical ATX Motherboard & Real Panel Connectors 38


42/ Desktop Board Components 39
43/ Intel's Microprocessor 40
44/ Intel Processor Specifications 41
45/ Intel Compatible Processors 42
46/ Chipset 43
47/ Celeron and Pentium II/III Motherboard Chipsets
(North Bridge) 44
48/ Intel South Bridge Chips 45
49/ Mother Board Upgrading 45
50/ Processor Sockets / Slots 45
51/ Intel 486/Pentium CPU Socket Type and Specifications 46

52/ Five Ways to Faster PCs (PC rsm;tm; ykdrkdvsifjrefpGm


pGrf;aqmifEkdifa&;wGuf enf;vrf;(5)rsdK;) 47
53/ Two Buses are Better than One (BUS vrf;aMumif;ESpfckokH;
Motherboard rsm;onf BUSvrf;aMumif;wpfckokH;
Motherboard rsm;xufykdrkdpGrf;aqmifEkdifjcif;) 48
54/ Conventional Graphics Architecture 49
55/ How Accelerated Graphics Port Works 50
56/ PCI ESifh AGP Graphic Card wkdY\ tjrefEIef;EdIif;,SOfcsuf 50
57/ Upgrading jyKvkyf&eftwGuf tBuHjyKcsufrsm; 51
System & Hardware i uuuGef

58/ Hard Disk Storage 52


59/ Hard Disk Features 56
60/ Hard Disk udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifh

xdef;odrf;rIrsm; 56
61/ Floppy Disk Drives 57
62/ Floppy Disk 58
63/ Diskette on its Capacity 59
64/ Floppy Disk & Drive udktoHk;jyKaepOfowdjyKxdef;odrf;
&rnfhtcsufrsm;/ 59
65/ CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) 60
66/ CD-ROM Drive wpfck\tvkyfvkyfyHk 61
67/ MultiBeam Technology 62
68/ CD-ROM Drive Specification 63
69/ CD-ROM Drive \tjrefEIef;rsm;ESifh Access Time rsm; 63
70/ CD-ROM Format 64
71/ CD & CD Drive udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfh
tcsufrsm;ESifh xdef;odrf;rIrsm; 64
72/ High Capacity Removable Storage 65
73/ LS-120 Specifications 65
74/ Zip Specifications(100 and 250MB Capacity) 66
75/ Jaz Specifications 66
System & Hardware p uuuGef

76/ DAT and 8mm Tape specifications 67


77/ SparQ Specifications 67
78/ Removeable Drive Specifications 68
79/ DVD Formats and Standards 69
Contents
Introduction to Computer Science 1 uuuGef

Introduction to Computer Science (uGefysLwmodyÜHrdwfquf)

Computer (uGefysLwm)
1/ uGefysLwmqkdonfrSm tcsuftvufrsm;ukd owif; odkYr[kwf tajz tjzpfodkU wGufcsuf
vkyaf qmifaf y;aompuf jzpfygonf/ uGeyf sLwmonf ñTeMf um;csurf sm;ukd wdwu
d sus? vsiv
f sijf refjref
ESifh rSefrSefuefuef vkyfaqmifay;Ekdifaom tDvufxa&mepf ESifh pufrIqdkif&mpufypönf;[kvnf;
t"dyÜg,fzGifhqkdEkdifygonf/
Data → Processing → Information
GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out)

Computer

Hardware Software
- Input Hardware
- Output Hardware System Software Application Software
- Processing & Memory Hardware - Operating System ( Customize / Packages )
- Utility Programs - Word Processing
- Secondary storage Hardware
- Language Translators - Spread Sheet
- Communications Devices
- Database
- etc. - Graphic , etc.
History of Computer Science (uGefysLwmodyÜH\ordkif;)
2/ Computer Science \jzpfay:ajymif;vJrIorkdif;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygonf-
pOf ckEpS f Generation tokH;jyKaomypönf; tjrefEIef;
1/ 1200 - Decimal pepfukdtajccHaom
ayoD;wGufcsufrI
2/ 1800 - Automatic Mechanical
Calculator
3/ 1896 - Punch Card Machine
4/ 1950 1st Gen: Vaccum tube 1000 cal/sec
5/ 1960 2nd Gen: Transistors 10×1st Gen
6/ 1965 3rd Gen: Integreated Circuit(IC) 100×2nd Gen
7/ 1970 4th Gen: Microprocessor 50×3rd Gen
8/ 1980 5th Gen: Artificial Intelligence(AI) Million Inst/sec
Contents
Introduction to Computer Science 2 uuuGef
Types of Computer (uGefysLwmtrsKd;tpm;rsm;)
3/ Types of Computer (uGefysLwmtrsKd;tpm;)udk pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIyrmP? tjrefEIef;ESifh
csdwfquftoHk;jyKEdkifaom Terminal ta&twGufwdkYtay: rlwnfjyD; uGefysLwmrsm;tm; tMurf;
tm;jzifh atmufygtwkdif; trsdK;tpm;cJGjcm;xm;ygonf-
(u) Super Computer / Super Computer rsm;onf tvG e f j rif h r m;aom
pGr;f aqmifEidk rf &I NdS y;D a':vmoef;aygif; rsm;pGmwefz;dk &Syd gonf/ Super Computer
rsm;tm; odyÜHqkdif&mvkyfief;rsm;jzpfaom &moDOwkcefYrSef;jcif;? aq;okawoe
jyKvyk jf cif; ponfv h yk if ef;rsm;wGif tok;H jyKygonf/ ¤if;uGeyf sLwmrsm;wGif atmufyg
oGifjyifvu©Pmrsm; &Sdygonf-
(1) tjrifhqkH;tjrefEIef;ESifhpGrf;yum;
(2) BuD;rm;aomvkyfief;ESifhodkavSmifrIyrmP
(3) tBuD;rm;qkH; ½kyf0w¬Ktwkdif;twm
(4) tjrifrh m;qk;H wefz;dk
( c ) Mainframe Computer / t½G,ftpm; BuD;rm;aom uGefysLwmrsm; jzpfMu
onf/ Mainframe Computer rsm;onf Super Computer rsm;uJhodkY pGrf;&nf
rjrifrh m;aomfvnf; Bu;D rm;aompGr;f aqmifEidk rf I ESihf odak vSmifEikd rf I &Syd gonf/ Main-
frame rsm;tm; tzJ G U tpnf ; BuD ; rsm;wG i f Data rsm;tm; A[k d w G u f c suf r I
jyKvyk af y;&eftwGuf tok;H jyKonf/ bPfrsm;? avaMumif;vkid ;f rsm;? tmrcH vkyif ef;
rsm;? pmykv Yd yk if ef;rsm;? wuúov dk rf sm;? taumuftcGerf sm;ponfww Ykd iG f tok;H jyKonf/
( * ) Mini Computer / Mainframe Computer xuf csw d q
f ufEikd af omTerminal
ta&twGuf ESihf pGr;f aqmifEikd rf KS enf;onf/ uGeyf sLwmjzifh wGucf suv f yk af qmifjcif;
vkyfief;e,fy,ftoD;oD;wGif toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/
(C) Micro Computer(Personal Computer PC) / t½G,ftpm;ao;i,fí
tvG,fwulo,faqmifEkdifNyD; pm;yJG ay:wGif wifaqmiftokH;jyKEkdifonf/ Micro
Computer rsm;tm; Network wpfco k Ydk csw f ufíTerminal tjzpf tok;H jyKjcif;
d q
jzifh Personal Computer ESihf Workstation tjzpf(2)rsKd ; tok;H jyKEidk o f nf/ Micro
Computer rsm;udk tdrfrsm;? ausmif;rsm;? ½kH;rsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;tzJGUtpnf;rsm;wGif
us,fjyefYpGm tokH;jyKygonf/ trsm;tm;jzifh wpfOD;csif;tokH;jyK&aom pepfjzpfyg
onf/ Personal Computer rsm;tm; t½G,yf rmPay:rlwnfí atmufygtwkid ;f
cJGjcm;xm;ygonf-
(1) Desktops
(2) Laptops( 8-20 Pounds)
Contents
Introduction to Computer Science 3 uuuGef
(3) Notebooks( 4-7.5 Pounds)
(4) Pocket PCs or Hand Held PC (1 Pound or Less)
(5) Palmtops(1 Pound or Less) Screen ay:wGif Pen jzifha&;í Data
rsm;ukd xnfhoGif;edkifonf/
Parts of Computer (uGefysLwmwGifyg0ifaomtpdwftydkif;rsm;)
4/ uGefysLwmwpfvkH;wGif atmufygtpdwftykdif;rsm; yg0ifygonf-
(u) Hardware / uGeyf sLwm&Sd xdawGUukid w f ,
G í
f &aom ypön;f ud&,
d mrsm;ukd ac:qkd
ygonf/ Oyrm- Harddisk, Floppydisk, Monitor
( c ) Software / uGefysLwm&Sd xdawGUukdifwG,fír&aom tpdwftykdif;rsm;ukd ac:qkd
ygonf/ Oyrm- System Software (pufvnfywf&ef tokH;jyKaom y½dk*&rf)?
Application Software (tokH;csy½dk*&rfrsm;)/
( * ) Firmware / Hardware ESifh Software aygif;pyfyg0ifaom ypönf;ukd ac:qdk
ygonf/ Oyrm- ROMBIOS

Program (y½dk*&rf)
5/ Program qkdonfrSm ñTefMum;csufrsm;tm; tpDtpOfwus pkpnf;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/
¤if;ñTeMf um;csurf sm;ukd Programming Language rsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;onf/ Programming
language generation rsm;udk atmufygtwdkif; cJGjcm;xm;edkifygonf-

Generations of Programming Languages (uGefysLwmy½dk*&rfrsKd;qufrsm;)

pOff Generation Language


1/ 1st Generation Machine language
2/ 2nd Generation Assembly language
3/ 3rd Generation High-level language
4/ 4th Generation Very high-level language
5/ 5th Generation Natural language

Artificial Intelligence(AI) (todÓPftwk)


6 AI onf Computer Science \ tpdwftykdif;wpfckjzpfonf/ AI zefwD;&eftwGuf
Program a&;om;&mwGif uRrf;usifaom Programmer rsm;? Hardware qkdif&muRrf;usifol
Contents
Introduction to Computer Science 4 uuuGef
rsm;ESio
hf ufqidk &f mbmom&yf uRr;f usio f yl nm&Sirf sm;aygif;pyfí wnfaqmuf,&l ygonf/ AI onf
odyÜHenf;ynm Field wpfckjzpfonf/ AI ukd atmufaz:jyyg t"dutpdwftykdif;rsm;tjzpf
xyfrHcJGjcm;Ekdifygonf-
(u) Expert System / bmom&yfqidk &f m uRr;f usio f l Expert rsm;\ tawG;tac:?
tawGUtBuKH ? A[kow k rsm;ukd Computer ynm&Sirf sm;\tultnDjzifh Program
rsm;a&;om;jcif;ESifh Hardware qkdif&menf;ynmrsm;aygif;pyf&ef wnfaqmuf
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ þpepfonf Expert rsm;\ae&mwGif tpm;xkd;&efr[kwfyg/
Expert rsm;\tawGUtBuKH A[kow k rsm;ukd vlUywf0ef;usiw f iG f us,jf yefpY mG tok;H cs
Ekdif&ef jzpfygonf/
( c) Natural Language Processing (NLP) / Computer tokH;jyKolrsm;\
wwfuRrf;em;vnfaom bmompum;jzifh Keyboard rS trdefYay;í Computer
tm; ckid ;f apjcif;? Computer ESihf tjyeftvSeq f ufo, G af qmif½u G jf cif;ukd pGr;f aqmif
Ekdifonfh enf;ynmjzpfygonf/ ¤if;enf;ynmtm; atmufaz:jyyg e,fy,f(2)ck
tjzpf xyfrHcJGjcm;Ekdifygonf-
(1) Natural Language Understanding
(2) Natural Language Generation
( *) Speech(voice) Understanding(SU) / Computer tm; toHjzifh trdefYay;
vkyfaqmifapjcif;^tjyeftvSefqufoG,fjcif; enf;ynm jzpfygonf/
(C) Robotic and Sensory System / tm½kcH rH I enf;ynmESihf puf½yk ef nf;ynmrsm;ukd
aygif;pyftokH;jyKonfh enf;ynm jzpfygonf-
(1) Robotic System / puf½kyfwGif Electrical ESifh Electronic qkdif&m
ypönf;rsm;? Mechanical qkdif&mypönf;rsm; aygif;pyf yg0ifwnfaqmuf
xm;aom Electro Mechanical Device jzpfygonf/ ¤if; Robot tm;
Program rsm;xnfhoGif;í owfrSwfxm;onfh abmiftwGif;ü trsdK;rsdK;
vkyfaqmifEkdifygonf/
(2) Sensory System / tjrifukd tm½kHcHjcif;? Mum;cHe,f\ajymif;vJrIukd
tm½kcH jH cif;? toHudk tm½kcH jH cif; ponfph epfrsm;tjzpf trsKd ;rsKd ;&SEd idk yf gonf/
Intelligence Robot rsm;onf ywf0ef;usif tajctaersm;tm; tm½kc H í
H
olUtvkdtavsmufvkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh information qkdif&m tajzukd &&Sd
atmif pGrf;aqmifEkdifpGrf; &Sdygonf/ ,if;tcsufonf Automatic
Machine rsm;ESifhuJGjym;jcm;em;csufjzpfonf/
Contents
Introduction to Computer Science 5 uuuGef
( i) Computer Vision and Scene Recognition / Machine Sensor wpfckrS
&&Sdaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk Digitized vkyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tjrifqkdif&m
owif; tcsut f vufrsm;ukd Computer wGif xnfo h iG ;f xm;aom A[kow
k tajccH
onfh Programrsm; (Knowledge Base)jzifh aygif;pyfxm;onfh enf;ynmyif
jzpfonf/ ¤if;rS &&Sdaom Result onf puf½kyfrStp pufrIqkdif&mvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;?
Quality Control qkdif&mrsm;txd xdef;csKyfvkyfaqmif Ekdifonf/
( p) Intelligence Computer Aided Instruction(ICAI) / vlrsm;ukd enf;ynm
wpfckESifh ywfoufí enf;jyq&m wpfa,muf uJhokdY oifjyEkdifonfh enf;ynm
jzpfonf/ ,ck ICAI Program rsm;rSm tokH;jyKolESifh tjyeftvSef qufoG,f
aqmif½GufajzMum;Ekdifonfh tqifhokdYa&muf&Sdaejcif;rSm AI qkdif&menf;ynmrsm;
(Oyrm- Natural Language Interface) ESifh A[kokwqkdif&m tajccH( Knowl-
edge Base)Haygif;pyfí wnfaqmufxm;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/

Future of AI (tem*wfumvtodÓPftwk)
7/ Software enf;ynmtopfrsm; wk;d wufxe G ;f um;vmjcif;? Expert System rsm; wk;d wuf
xGef;um;vmjcif;? Software Development Tool rsm; ajrmufjrm;pGmay:xGufvmjcif;? Semi-
conductor Technology wk d ; wuf x G e f ; um;vmonf h t wG u f a Mumif h tvG e f j ref q ef j cif ; ?
pGrf;tm;aumif;jcif;wkdYjzifh jynhfpkHaom Microprocessor rsm; RAM Chip rsm; ponfh Hard-
ware qki d &f menf;ynmrsm;onfvnf; AI tm; tjrifqef;opfaom toGio f Ydk ykaYd qmif ay;aeygonf/
*syefEkdifiHonf AI tm; Computer Technology Fifth Generation \ &nfrSef;csuftjzpf
xm;&SdwnfaqmufaeaMumif;od&ygonf/ Computer Technology Fifth Generation \
&nf½G,fcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwkdif; jzpfygonf-
(u) jrifhrm;aom todÓPf&Sdap&ef/
( c ) vlrsm;tm; ¤if;wkdYr&if;ESD;aom udpö&yfrsm;wGif ulnDyHhykd;&ef/
( * ) vlrIa&;qkdif&m jyóemrsm;ukd ajz&Sif;aqmif½Guf&ef/
(C) tkyfcsKyfrIqkdif&mrsm;wGif ulnDyHhykd;&ef/
( i ) vlrIa&;qkdif&m jyóemrsm;ukd ajz&Sif;aqmif½Guf&ef/
( p ) vufawGUwnfaqmuf&rnfh vkyfief;rsm;ukd Computer jzifh wkyaqmif½Guf&ef/
(q) ukefxkwfpGrf;tm; wkd;wufa&;twGuf taxmuftul jzpfap&ef/
( Z ) tcsdefESifh aiGaMu;ukefusrI oufomap&efwkdYjzpfygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 6 uuuGef
Personal Computer Hardware & System Maintenance
(udk,fydkifoHk;uGefysLwmwpfpHk\trmxnfypönf;ESifhpepfjyKjyifxdef;odrf;rI)

Components of a Computer (uGefysLwmwpfvHk;\tpdwftydkif;rsm;)


1/ Computer wpfvHk;wGif t"duyg0ifonfh tajccHtpdwftydkif;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;
jzpfygonf-
(u) System Unit
( c) Monitor
( *) Keyboard ESifh Mouse
(C) Printer ponfhypönf;rsm;udk awGU&rnfjzpfonf/

System Unit
2/ System Unit wpfck\ twGif;ydkif;wGif atmufygypönf;rsm;yg0ifEdkifygonf-
(u) PSU (Power Supply Unit) [ AT/ATX ]
( c) FDD (Floppy Disk Drive)
( *) HDD (Hard Disk Drive) [ IDE/EIDE/UDMA33/UDMA66/SCSI ]
(C) CD Drive (Compact Disk Drive) [ IDE/SCSI ]
( i) Mother Board [ AT/ATX]
( p) Interface Card / Controller Card
(q) Sound Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)]
( Z) VGA Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)/AGP]
(ps) Fax Modem Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)]
(n) Main Memory [FPM/EDO/SDRAM]
( #) Cache Memory
( X) CPU [Intel/AMD/Cyrix/TI/WinChip]
( !) ROM BIOS [AMI/AWARD/PHOENEX]
( ¡) Backup Battery
(P) Others
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 7 uuuGef
Computer System One Set (uGefysLwmpepfwpfpHk)

System Unit
yHk (1)

Monitor

Speaker Speaker

Scanner Dot- Matrix Printer


Dot-matrix printer
Scanner Tower System

Mouse
uGefysLwm tpHkvdkuf wyfqifxm;onfhyHkxnfh&ef
Keyboard

Personal Pen
Computer Laptop
Computer PDA
trsK;d tpm;rsm;
Computer
Pen computer
(Per
(Per sonal
ersonal
PDA
Digital (Handheld
Digital computer)
Pocket organizer Laptop computer

Asistant)

Computer Casing Desktop


trsKd;tpm;rsm; Casing Tower
Desktop box Casing

Plotter
Tower box
Computer
Accessories Modem
Modem
uGeyf sLwmqufpyfypön;f rsm;
Laser printer

Plotter
Laser Printer
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 8 uuuGef
Mother Board / Main Board
3/ Personal Computer wpfv;kH wGif ta&;Bu;D qH;k tpdwt
f ydik ;f rSm Main Board (odrYk [kw)f
Mother Board jzpfygonf/ 4if; Mother Board wGif CPU, Chip Set ESifh tjcm;vQyfpD;
ywfvrf;rsm; yg0ifygonf/ xdkYtjyif tjcm; Expension Card rsm; wyfqif&ef Slots rsm; yg0if
ygonf/ Mother Board wpfcka½G;cs,f&mwGif atmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;udk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;
&rnf jzpfonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm -
(u) Processor trsKd;tpm;
( c) Processor Socket/Slot trsKd;tpm;
( *) Mother Board Speed
(C) Cache Memory yg0ifrI
( i) Main Memory yrmP
( p) BIOS trsKd;tpm;
(q) Form Factor (Full Size AT, Baby AT, LPX, ATX)
( Z) Interface rsm;yg0ifrI (PCI, VL Bus, ISA, SCSI, USB, PS II, Serial,
Parallel, Interface ..... )
(ps) Plug and Play (PNP) pGrf;aqmifEdkifrI
(n) Power Management jyKvkyfEdkifrI
( #) Mother Board Chip Set
( X) Documentation / Manual Book ..... ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/

Bus, Slot and I/O Card


4/ rnfonfh Computer System rqdk Mother Board onf ta&;Bu;D qH;k jzpfonf/ Mother
Board twGif; Hardware Devices tcsif;csif; tvkyfvkyf&mü Bus [kac:aom Wire BudK;
tpkta0; rsm;jzifh tjyeftvSeq f ufo,
G í
f tvkyv
f yk yf gonf/ Mother Board \ Bus Design
EIdif;,SOfcsufudk yHk(2)wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;wGif atmufyg Bus
trsKd;tpm;rsm; yg0ifygonf-
(u) Processor Bus
( c) Address Bus
( *) Memory Bus
(C) I/O Bus
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 9 uuuGef
External Half (or) Full of CPU Speed
CPU Cache L2
CPU Back Side Bus
Cache
Processor Bus
480-528MBPS

Processor Bus

800-1064MBPS
60/66MHz
Front Side Bus
PC 100/133
Memory

Chipset Memory RAM


AGP Chipset Memory RAM
PC 66
Memory 528MBPS
I/O Bus

Classic Mother Pentium Pro/

I/O Bus
Board Design PII/PIII Design
(Dual Independend Bus)
yHk (2)

5/ tjcm; Device rsm;ESihf CPU tjyeftvSef qufo,


G af qmif½u
G Ef ikd &f ef I/O Bus (odrYk [kw)f
Expension Slots rsm;u aqmif½Gufay;ygonf/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;&Sd Slots rsm;ü
atmufaz:jyyg I/O Cards rsm;wyfqifEdkifygonf-
(u) Sound Card
( c) Video Card
( *) Network Interface Card (NIC)
(C) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) Host Adapter ...etc
ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/

Classes of I/O Buses (I/O Buses trsKd;tpm;rsm;)


6/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;taejzifh jrifhrm;aompGrf;yum;jzifh tvkyfvkyfEdkif&ef I/O
Bus rsm;\ Speed jrefqef&efvdktyfygonf/ 4if;vdktyfcsufonf atmufaz:jyyg tcsuf(3)csuf
jzpfay:vm&ygonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm -
(u) CPU rsm;jrefqefvmjcif;
( c) Software rsm;\ Hardware qdkif&mawmif;qdkcsufrsm; jrifhrm;vmjcif;
( *) Video ESifhywfoufí vdktyfcsufrsm; BuD;rm;vmjcif;wdkYaMumifhjzpfonf/

7/ t"du I/O Bus trsKd;tpm;rsm;rSm wpfckESifhwpfck uGJjym;jcm;em;rI &SdEdkifygonf/ I/O


Buses trsKd;tpm;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf/
(u) ISA (8 bit / 16 bit) (Industry Standard Architecture)
( c) MCA (16 bit / 32 bit) (Micro Channel Architecture)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 10 uuuGef
( *) EISA (32 bit)(Extended Industry Standard Architecture)
(C) VL Bus (32 bit) (VESA Local Bus)
( i) PCI Bus (32 bit / 64 bit) (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
( p) PC-Card (Formerly PCMCIA)(Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association) (Note Book rsm;wGif toHk;jyKonf)

8/ Personal Computer wGiy f g&Sad om omref Mother Board wpfcw k iG f CPU, Chipset,
Memory, I/O Devices rsm;tcsi;f csi;f qufo, G af qmif½u
G af eyHrk mS atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf/

CPU

External
Processor
Cache
Bus
(High Speed)

Bus
Built-In I/O Bus Controller I/O Bus Slotted
I/O (Slow Speed) Chips (Slow Speed) I/O

Memory
Bus
(High Speed)
yHk (3)
RAM

Microprocessors (rdkufu½dky½dkqufqmrsm;)
9/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;\ Model udktqHk;tjzwfay;aom t"duypönf;rSm CPU
jzpfygonf/ CPU qdo k nfrmS A[dx
k ed ;f csKyo
f nfh ,lepfwpfcjk zpfNy;D Computer wpfv;kH \ OD;aESmuf
[kvnf; ac:qkEd ikd yf gonf/ CPU onf Computer wpfv;kH \ 'ór*Pef;qdik &f m wGucf surf rI t S y
tjcm;wGucf surf EI iS hf Processing qdik &f mrsm;udk vkyaf qmifay;Edik yf gonf/ 'ór*Pef;udk wGucf suf
Edkifaom FPU (Floating Point Unit) ESifh CPU udk Chip wpfcktwGif;wGif xnfhoGif;í
wnfaqmufxm;jcif;tm;jzifh Microprocessor [k ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ 4if; Microprocessor udk
IBM, AMD, Cyrix, Nexgen, Intel, DEC ..... ponfhukrÜPDrsm;rS xkwfvkyfvQuf&Sdygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 11 uuuGef
Intel Processor Specifications
Processor CPU Std. Internal Data-Bus Address- Max- Multimedia
Clock Voltage Register Width Bus Memory Instructions
Size Width
8088 1x 5v 16-bit 8-bit 20-bit 1M
8086 1x 5v 16-bit 16-bit 20-bit 1M
286 1x 5v 16-bit 16-bit 24-bit 16M
386SX 1x 5v 32-bit 16-bit 24-bit 16M
386SL 1x 3.3v 32-bit 16-bit 24-bit 16M
386DX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486SX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486SX2 2x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
487SX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486DX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486SL** 1x 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486DX2 2x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
486DX4 2-3x 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
Pentium OD 2-5x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 4G
Pentium 60/66 1x 5v 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 4G
Pentium 75+ 1.5-3x 3.3v*** 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 4G
PentiumMMX1.5-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 4G MMX
Pentium Pro 2-3x 2.9v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 64G
Pentium II 3.5-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 64G MMX
Celeron 3.5-7x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 64G MMX
Pentium !!! 4.5-8x 1.8-2.2v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 64G SSE(MMX,3D)
MMX=Multi Media Extensions
SSE=Streaming SIMD(Single Instr
SSE=Streaming uction Multiple Da
Instruction ta) Extensions
Data)
Z,m; (1)
10/ Intel ukrÜPDrS xkwfvkyfonfh Intel Processor rsm;\ pufrIqdkif&m t&nftcsif;rsm;udk
Z,m;(1)ygtwdkif; awGU&SdEdkifygonf/

11/ Intel Processor rsm;\ vkyfudkifaqmif½GufEdkifaom Memory yrmPudk Theory t&


Z,m;(1)ygtwdkif; awGU&SdEdkifygonf/
12/ Processor rsm;\tjrefEeI ;f onf Mother Board \tjrefEeI ;f ESihf rwlnED ikd yf g/ Processor
\tjrefEIef;udk CPU Speed (odkYr[kwf) CPU Internal Speed [kac:qdkNyD;? Mother Board
\tjrefEIef;udk Mother Board Speed (odkYr[kwf) CPU External Speed (odkYr[kwf) FSB
Speed [k ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ CPU Speed ESifh Mother Board Speed jrefqefrIudk OD;pm;ay;
a&G;cs,frSom Performance aumif;rGefygrnf/ CPU Speed onfMother Board Speed xuf
tq rnfrQjrefqefonfudk Z,m;(2)ygtwdkif; awGU&SdEdkifygonf-
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 12 uuuGef
CPU Type/Speed CPU Clock Motherboard Speed
Pentium 60 1x 60MHz
Pentium 66 1x 66MHz
Pentium 75 1.5x 50MHz
Pentium 90 1.5x 60MHz
Pentium 100 1.5x 66MHz
Pentium 120 2x 60MHz
Pentium 133 2x 66MHz
Pentium 150 2.5x 60MHz
Pentium 166/P6 2.5x 66MHz
Z,m; (2) Pentium 180/P6 3x 60MHz
Pentium 200/P6 3x 66MHz
Pentium 233/PII 3.5x 66MHz
Pentium II 300 4.5x 66MHz
Pentium II 350 3.5x 100MHz
Pentium II 450 4.5x 100MHz
Pentium !!! 500 5x 100MHz
Pentium !!! 533 4x 133MHz
Pentium !!! 667 5x 133MHz
Pentium !!! 733 5.5x 133MHz
Pentium !!! 800 8x 100MHz

Memory (rSwfÓPf)
13/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;\ wGufcsufrIrsm;? Process rsm;vkyfaqmif&mwGif CPU
rSajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufjcif; rjyKrDüvnf;aumif;? ajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufjcif; jyKvkyfNyD;üvnf;aumif;?
tcsuftvufrsm;? ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk Memory wGif odrf;qnf;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf/

14/ Mother Board wGif wyfqifEdkifaom Memory Chip (odkYr[kwf) Memory Card
trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk yHko@mefESihfwnfaqmufyHkt& DIPs, SIMMs, SIPs, DIMMs [lí
cGJjcm;edkifygonf/

15/ Mother Board ay:wGif Memory rsm;udk wyfqif&mü Memory Bank wpfcktjynfh
wyfqifrSomvQif tvkyfvkyfaqmifrnf jzpfygonf/ Mother Board, Processor rsm;tvdkuf
Bank pepfowfrSwfcsufrsm;? uefYowfcsufrsm; &dSygonf/ Memory wyfqif&mwGif Memory
Card rsm;onf Speed ESifh Capactity rsm; wlnD&ef vdktyfonfhtjyif FPM, EDO, SDRAM
ponfhwdkYvnf; wlnD&ef vdktyfygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 13 uuuGef
Monitor (armfeDwm)
16/ Monitor wGif CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube ) udkoHk;aom Monitor ESifh LCD ( Liquid
Crystal Display ) udkoHk;aom Monitor [lí ESpfrsKd;½Sdygonf/ Monitor trsKd;tpm;rsm;rSm
atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf-
(u) Monochrome
( c) CGA ( Color Graphic Adaptor )
( *) EGA ( Enhanced Graphic Adaptor )
(C) VGA ( Video Graphic Array )
( i) SVGA ( Super Video Graphic Array )
( p) XVGA ( Extrasuper Video Graphic Array )

17/ Monitor wGif Power On / Off Switch, yH&k yd \


f tvif;tarSmifEiS hf rsuEf mS jyifukd tay:
atmuf? ab;b,fnm tusOf;tus,fwdkYudk jyKvkyfEdkifaom Button / Adjustment rsm;yg½SdNyD;?
aemufzufwGif Data Cable (9Pin,15Pin) Male Type ESifh Power Cord wdkYyg½Sdonf/

9 Pin 00000 15 Pin


0 0 0 0 00000
Mono, CGA, EGA 0 0 0 0 0 VGA, SVGA, XVGA
00000
Connector Connector
yHk (4)

18/ Monitor ESiw


hf zJG uftoH;k jyKrnfh VGA Card / Graphic Card wGirf rd t
d oH;k jyKvakd om
Resolution, Color Setting rsm;tvdkuf Video RAM vdktyfcsufZ,m;

Resolution 16 Colors 256 Colors 64K Colors 16.7M Colors


640 x 480(VGA) 0.15MB 0.29MB 0.59MB 0.88MB
800 x 600(SVGA) 0.23MB 0.46MB 0.92MB 1.37MB
1024 x 768(XGA) 0.38MB 0.75MB 1.5MB 2.25MB
1280 x 1024(SXGA) 0.63MB 1.25MB 2.5MB 3.75MB
1600 x 1200 0.92MB 1.83MB 3.66MB 5.94MB

VRAM Requirements for Various (VGA/SVGA/XGA/SXGA)Resolutions/Color Depths


Z,m;(5)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 14 uuuGef
½Sif;vif;csuf/ 1024 x 768 Resolution ESihf 16 Million Color az:jyEdik af om Frame wpfcu
k kd
Monitor ay:wGif az:jyEdkif&ef SVGA Card ü Memory yrmP 2.25MB
vdktyfrnfjzpfí vufawGUwGif VRAM 4MB wyfqif&ef vdktyfygonf/

Keyboard (cvkwfcHk odkYr[kwf tcsuftvufESifhñTefMum;csufxnfhoGif;onfhypönf;)


19/ Keyboard wGif XT Keyboard, AT Keyboard ( 101 Keys, 104 Keys, Windows'95
Keyboard, Windows'98 Keyboard )[lí awGU½SdEdkifygonf/

PS2 Keyboard Connector yHk (5) 101 Keyboard AT Keyboard Connector


( 6-Pin -Female ) ( 5-Pin -Female )

Mouse
20/ Mouse (3) rsKd;½Sdygonf/ Serial Mouse, Bus Mouse ESifh Inport Mouse jzpfygonf/
toHk;rsm;qHk; trsKd;tpm;rSm Serial Mouse jzpfonf/

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 Serial Mouse Connector

PS2 Mouse Connector

yHk (6) Mouse & Mouse Pad


Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 15 uuuGef
Printer
21/ Printer qdo k nfrmS Data rsm;? ½kyyf rkH sm;udk Output (Hard Copy)taejzifh pm½Guaf y:odYk
xkw,f al ompufjzpfygonf/ Printer rsm;udk t"dutm;jzifh atmufygtwdik ;f ESprf sK;d cJjG cm;Edik yf gonf-
(u) Impact Printer
( c) Non-impact Printer wdkYjzpfygonf/

Impact Printer
22/ Microcomputer oHk; Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;rsm;wGif -
(u) Daisywheel Printer
( c) Dot-matrix Printer [líawGU½SdEdkifygonff/

23/ Impact Printerrsm;onf Hammer (or) Small Pin rsm;jzifh ½dkufESdyfaom Printer
trsKd;tpm;rsm; jzpfMuonf/

Daisy Wheel Printer


24/ Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;xJwGif yg0ifonf/ Solid Character Printer [kvnf;
ac:onf/ vkyfaqmifrIonf Type Writer ESifhqifwlonf/ Daisy Wheel ac: A[dkrS jzmxGuf
aeaom vufwHtoD;oD;ay:wGif azgif;<upmvHk;rsm;yg½Sdonf/ rdrdtoHk;jyKaom pm½Guf\tus,f
wpfavQmufwGif Daisy Wheel onf vnfywfa½GUvsm;jcif;jzifh pmvHk;udk ½dkufESdyfonf/

Dot Matrix Printer


25/ Line Printer qdkonfrSm Ribbon udktoHk;jyKí Pin rsm;jzifh½dkufESdyfyHkazmfay;aom
pufjzpfonf/ Dot Matrix Printer [kvnf;ac:onf/ Dot Matrix Printer onf Pin
ta&twGufay:rlwnfNyD; 9 Pin , 24 Pin [lí trsKd;tpm;cJGjcm;xm;ygonf/

24 Pin 9 Pin Dot Matrix Printer


Printer Head Printer Head
yHk (7)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 16 uuuGef
Non-Impact Printer
26/ Microcomputer oHk; Non-Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;wGif -
(u) Laser Jet Printer(Photocopying machineESifhqifwl)
( c) Ink Jet Printer (Nozzle rsm; toHk;jyKíyHkazmf)
( *) Thermal Printer(Special Paper toHk;jyK) [lí awGU½SdEdkifygonff/

Laser Jet Printer

yHk (8)

Installation of the Computer and Accessories (AT)


(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;)
27/ AT System Unit yHk(9)wGif Computer ESifh qufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifyHkrSm atmufyg
twdkif; jzpfygonf -
(u) AT System Unit wGif Power Cord wyfqifjcif; / System Unit wGi½f adS om
AC Inlet Port (A) wGif Power Cord udk csdwfqufwyfqifyg/
( c) Monitor Power Cord wyfqifjcif;
(1) System Unit ½Sd AC Outlet Port (B) ESifh Monitor ½Sd Power Inlet
Port udk Loop Back Power Cable jzifh csw
d q
f uf wyfqifyg/ (odrYk [kw)f
(2) AC Source rS Monitor ½Sd Power Cord wdkYtm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf
wyfqifyg/
( *) Monitor rS Signal Cable tm; System Unit wGif wyfqifxm;aom VGA
Interface Card (C) wGif csdwfqufwyfqifyg/
(C) System Unit ½Sd Keyboard Input Port (D)wGif Keyboard Connector tm;
wyfqifyg/
( i) System Unit ½Sd Serial Port (E) wGif Mouse Connector tm; wyfqifyg/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 17 uuuGef

( p) System Unit wGi½f dS Parallel Port (F) wGif Printer Data Cable tm;wyfqifyg/
(q) AC Source ESifh Printer Power Port tm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf wyfqifyg/
( Z) System Unit ½Sd Sound Card (G) ½Sd SPK Port wGif Speaker Connector
tm; wyfqifyg/
( ps) UPS ( Uninterruptible Power Supply ) csdwfquftoHk;jyKjcif;/ AC
Source rS UPS ? UPS rS System Unit odkY rSefuefpGm tpOfvdkuf csdwfquf
wyfqif toHk;jyK&rnf/
(n) Surge Protector csdwfquf toHk;jyKjcif; / Surge Protector udk AC Source
ESifh UPS tMum;xm;í toHk;jyK&rnf jzpfonf/
( #) wyfqifrItm;vHk;tm; rSefuefrI ½Sd^r½Sd ppfaq;yg/

Rear Panel of AT System Unit

DB 25 PARALLEL PORT (F)


AC OUTLET (B)
○○○○○○○○○○○○○
( TO MONITOR)
○○○○○○○○○○○○
AC INLET (A)

DB 9 SERIAL PORT (E)


○ ○ ○ ○ ○

KEYBOARD INPUT (D)


VGA INTERFACE (C)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
SERIAL 2
PARALLEL PORT (F)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
.............
............
PARALLEL SERIAL 1 PARALLEL & SERIAL
.............
............ .....
.... INTERFACE
SERIAL PORT (E)
tjcm; Sound pepf wpfck rS
O/P udk 4if; PortwGifxnfh&ef

GAME IN SPK Speaker wyfqif&ef


........
....... SOUND CARD INTERFACE (G)
.....
MIC OUT
tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckodkY yHk (9)
..... O/P xkwf&ef ae&m
VGA Port
MIC wyfqif&ef
VGA INTERFACE (C)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 18 uuuGef
Installation of the Computer and Accessories (ATX)
(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;)
28/ ATX System Unit yHk (10)wGif wyfqifyHkrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygonf-
(u) ATX System Unit wGif Power Cord wyfqifjcif;/ AC Source rS System
Unit wGif½Sdaom PSU (Power Supply Unit) ½Sd AC Inlet Port (A) wGif
Power Cord udk csdwfqufwyfqifyg/
( c) Monitor Power Cord wyfqifjcif;
(1) System Unit ½Sd AC Outlet Port (B) ESifh Monitor ½Sd Power Inlet
Port udk Loop Back Power Cable jzifh csw
d q
f ufwyfqifyg/ (odrYk [kw)f
(2) AC Source rS Monitor ½Sd Power Port wdkYtm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf
wyfqifyg/
Rear Panel of ATX System Unit

Keyboard (F)
PS/2

(E)
PS/2 Mouse
AC OUTLET (B)

AC INLET (A)

PORT
USB
o

o
yHk (10)
....
..... .....

○ ○ ○ ○ ○
.............
............

○○○○○○○○○○○○○
COM B

○○○○○○○○○○○○

LPT PORT (G)


....

tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckrS


O/Pudk 4if; Port wGifxnfh&ef
o o

Speaker wyfqif&ef
.....
..... VGA INTERFACE (C)
SPK
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Game Port IN
........ SOUND CARD
COM A

....... INTERFACE (D)


MIC OUT

tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckodkY


O/P xkwf&efae&m
o
o

MIC wyfqif&ef
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 19 uuuGef

( *) Monitor rS Signal Cable tm; System Unit wGifwyfqifxm;aom


VGA/ SVGA/AGP Interface Card (C) &S d Interface wG i f
csdwfqufwyfqifyg/
(C)S System Unit ½Sd PS2 Keyboard Input Port (F) wGif PS2 Keyboard
Connector tm; wyfqifyg/ (odkYr[kwf)tjcm; Keyboard rsm;udk wyfqif
toH;k jyKvykd gu PS2 Keyboard Input Port (F) wGif Adapter cHí
toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/
( i) System Unit ½Sd PS2 Mouse Input Port (E) wGif PS2 Mouse
Connector tm;wyfqifyg/ (odr Yk [kw)f tjcm; Serial Mouse wyfqif
toHk;jyKrnfqdkygu COM A wGif Mouse Connector tm;wyfqifyg/
( p) System Unit wGif wyfqifxm;aom LPT Parallel Port (G) wGif
Printer Data Cable tm;wyfqifyg/
(q) AC Source ESihf Printer Power Port tm; Power Cable jzifh wdu k ½f u
kd f
csdwfqufwyfqifyg/
( Z) System Unit ½Sd Sound Card (D) rS SPK Port wGif Speaker
Connector tm;wyfqifyg/
( ps) UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) csdwfquftoHk;jyKygu AC
Source rS UPS? UPS rS System Unit odkYrSefuefpGm tpOfvdkuf
csdwfqufwyfqif toHk;jyK&rnf/
(n) Surge Protector csdwfquftoHk;jyKygu AC Source rS txGufwGif
Surge Protector udkcHí UPS t0ifwGifwyfqiftoHk;jyK&rnf/
( #) wyfqifrItm;vHk;tm; rSefuefrI½Sdr½Sd aocsmpGmppfaq;yg/

Starting The Computer (For Windows XP)

(Windows XP toHk;jyK uGefysLwmtm; pwiftoHk;jyKjcif;)


29/ Windows XP Operating System xnfhoGif;xm;aomuGefysLwmrsm;tm;
atmufygtwdkif; zGifhEdkifygonf/
(u) AC Source rS Switch udk On yg/
( c) System Unit a½SU&Sd Power On/Off Switch udk On yg/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 20 uuuGef

( *) Monitor Power Switch udk On yg/


(C) acwåtMumwGif Windows XP Desktop Screen ay:vmNyD;aemuf
Computer tm; pwiftoHk;jyKEdkifrnfjzpfygonf/ (Windows 9x,
desktop screen rsm;ESifh tenf;i,fuGJjym;aeonfukdawGU&ygrnf/)

Shut Down The Computer (For Windows XP)


(Windows XP toHk;jyK uGefysLwmtm; ydwfjcif;)
30/ Windows XP Operating System xnfhoGif;xm;aomuGefysLwmrsm;tm;
atmufygtwdkif; ydwfEdkifygonf-
(u) rdrdtoHk;jyKpOf zGifhxm;aom Files rsm;? Folder rsm;? Application
Software rsm;tm; wpfqifhjcif; Close vkyy f g/
( c) Windows Desktop Screen atmufajc½Sd Task Bar ay:rS Start
Button udk Click vkyy f g/ (odrYk [kw)f Short Cut taejzifh Ctrl+Esc
Key ud k w G J í ES d y f y g/ (od k Y r [k w f ) Windows Keyboard rsm;wG i f
Windows Key udE k ySd yf g/
( *) Start Menu ay:vmrnf/ yHk(11)

(C) Shut Down Button tm; Click vkyy


f g/
( i) Shut Down Wimdows Dialog Box ay:vmrnf/ yHk(12)? ykH(13)

( p) ATX System jzpfygu uGefysLwmonf tvdktavsmuf Turn Off


jyKvkyfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/
(q) Monitor Power Switch ukd Off vkyy
f g/
( Z) AC Power Source rS Switch ukd Off vkyy
f g/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 21 uuuGef

yHk(11)

yHk(12)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 22 uuuGef

yHk(13)

Startup Procedure for PC


(uGefysLwmwpfvkH;rD;zGifhvQifpwifaqmif&GufrItqifhqifh)

31/ uGeyf sLwmwpfv;Hk ukd rD;zGiv


hf u
dk o
f nfEiS hf atmufygtqifrh sm;twkid ;f aqmif&u
G Nf y;D
Ready tqifhokdY a&muf&SdoGm;rnfjzpfonf-

(u) Power Supply Unit

( c) Motherboard/Mainboard

( *) Crystal (X'tal)

(C) Clock Generator

( i) Digital Clock (or) Digital Pulse

( p) ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory- Basic Input Output System)


Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 23 uuuGef
(u) Power Supply Unit (PSU) / Computer wpfvHk;pwiftoHk;jyK&eftwGuf
rD;zGifhvdkufonfESifh PSUonf AC Voltage vufcH &,lNy;D DC Voltage (4) rsKd;
(+5, -5, +12, -12 )udkjyefvnfxkwfay;onf/ PSU 4if; Output Voltage (4)
rsK;d udk ±5% Error twGi;f tNr&J adS eatmif Maintainvkyaf y;aejcif;jzifh Regu-
lated Outputudk pOfqufrjywf xkwaf y; ygonf/ PSU onf Switched Mode
Power Supply trsK;d tpm;wpfck jzpfonf/ ±5% Error qdo k nfrmS 5V Output
twGuf 4.75V tenf;qHk;&Sd &rnfjzpfNyD; 5.25V tjrifhqHk;&Sd&rnfjzpfovdk 12V
Output twGuf 11.4V tenf;qH;k &S& d rnfjzpfNy;D 12.6V tjrifqh ;kH &S&d rnfjzpfonf/
( c) Mother Board / Main Board (MB) / PSU rSxkwfay;aom Regulated
Output Voltage \ ± 5% Error &Sdr&Sdudk Mother Board rSppfaq;NyD; 4.7V
ESifh 5.25V \ tjyifa&mufaevQif Mother Board rSvufrcHyg/ 4.7V ESifh
5.25V twGi;f &Sr d o
S mvQif Power Good Signal (PG) udk PSU odjYk yefyaYkd y;onf/
PG onfvdar®mfa&mifBudK;jzpfNyD; 5V &Sdonf/ PG Signal jyefvnfr&vQif PSU
tvkyfrvkyfawmhyg/ odkYjzpfí PSU ESifh Mother Board onf wpfckESifhwpfck
Independent jzpfygonf/ PSU ysuw f ikd ;f Mother Board udk rxdcu kd af p&efEiS hf
Mother Board ysufwdkif; PSU udk rxdcdkufap&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
( *) Crystal (X'tal) / Crystal onf vIdif;xkwfonfhud&d,mjzpfonf/ ovif;
ausmufjym;yg;yg;udk pwD;bl;i,fwGifxnfhí wnfaqmufxm;onf/ 0ifvmonfh
AdkYtm;aMumifh Crystal &Sdovif;ausmufjym;wkefcgrIrS Analog vIdif; (14.31818
MHz)xkwaf y;onf/ 4if;vdi I ;f udk Digital Clock toGiaf jymif;,l&ef vdt k yfonf/
(C) Clock Generator / Crystal rSxkwfay;aom Analog vIdif;udk Clock
Generator IC odkY ay;ydkYNyD; 4if; IC rS Digital Clock odkYtoGifajymif;ay;onf/
( i) Digital Clock (or) Digital Pulse / Digital Clock udkoufqdkif&m
Frequency rsm;odkY tqwifí Mother Board wGif&Sdaom IC , Memory,
Processor, ROM-BIOS, Chip Set ponft h pdwt
f ydik ;f toD;oD;odYk ay;ydoYk nf/
( p) ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System)/
Mother Boarday:wGif ROM Chip (Read Only Memory)yg&Sdygonf/ 4if;
twGi;f wGif Program udk puf½rkH x S w k v
f yk pf Ofuwnf;u owfrw S af y;vduk yf gonf/
ROM BIOS onf atmufaz:jyyg tqifh(3)qifhjzifh vkyfaqmifygonf-
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 24 uuuGef
(1) Power On Self Test (uGey f sLwmrD;zGichf sed rf pS í pwifppfaq;rIjyKvyk jf cif;)
(2) Boot Strapping (uGefysLwmtqifoifhjzpfap&efjyKvkyfay;jcif;)
(3) Low Level Interfaces (Hardware tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef qufo, G rf I
udk Interface jyKvkyfay;jcif;)

Power On Self Test (POST) (rD;zGifhonfESifhtvdktavsmufppfaq;jcif;)


32/ POST onfuGefysLwmudkpwifzGifhvdkufaomtcg uGefysLwmpepfwpfckvHk;wGifwyfqif
xm;aom Standard Devices (Memory, Monitor, Keyboard, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk,
CPU, Chip Set, ...)rsm;udk pwifppfaq;&ygonf/

33/ POST onfuGefysLwmwGif Disk Drive ta&twGuf rnfrQ&Sdonf? Serial Ports,


Parallel Ports rSwÓ f Pf (Memory) wdu Yk kd ppfaq;ay;ygonf/ Test vkyí f &&Sad om Hardware
tajctaersm;udk CMOS Setup ESifhEIdif;,SOf ppfaq;NyD; udkufnDrI&Sdygu POST tqifhrS Boot
Strap odYk a&muf&y
dS gonf/ tu,fírSm;,Gi;f rI&ydS gu Monitor ay:wGief yH gwfrsm;az:jyjcif;? Error
Message ay;jcif;? toHjrnfjcif;wdkYjzifh today;ygonf/

Start -Up Procedure For PC


(PCwpfvHk;rD;zGifhvQifpwifaqmif&GufrItqifhqih)f CMOS

MOTHER BOARD Internal


Regulated Battery
DC Output 3V
ROM-BIOS
(i) POST

(± 5% Error)
+5 Digital
(Power On Self
AC P →-5
Analog
Clock
Test)
→ →
Generator

1234567
+12 1234567
1234567
S
Clock

1234567 (ii) Boot Strap


230V/110V U →
-12
→PG
Crystal

Switched (Oscillator) (iii) Low Level
Mode Read Interface
Power
Supply → Other
Devices
Only
Memory
→ Basic
Input
Output
yH(k 14)
System
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 25 uuuGef
(ii) Boot Strap Boot Strap Program Code

Boot Strap
Program I/O.SYS
Main 2 3
Memory MSDOS.SYS
4
Seg F ROM-BIOS Program
Loader CONFIG.SYS
1 5
COMMAND.COM
yH(k 15) 6
Seg 2 7 AUTOEXEC.BAT
Seg 1
WIN.COM
Boot Strapping (uGefysLwmtqifoifhjzpfap&efvkyfaqmifjcif;)
34/ Boot Strapping onf OS udk Memory ay:odkYwifay;jcif; (odkYr[kwf) Computer udk
toHk;jyKEdkifap&ef Ready jzpfapjcif;tydkif;udk aqmif½Gufay;onf/
35/ Boot Strapping (DOS) vkyfaqmifrItqifhqifhrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf-
(u) ROM-BIOS Programs rsm;onf Memory \ Segment F wGif ae&m,lonf/
ROM-BIOS rS Program Loader ac: Loader Program onf uGefysLwm
pepfudk Boot vkyf&ef Drive A (System Disk) \ Boot Record (BR)
odrYk [kwf Drive C (Hard Disk) \yxr Track, yxr Sector wGif &Sad eaom
Master Boot Record (MBR) rS Boot Strap Program Code ud k
uGeyf sLwm\rSwÓ f Pf (Memory) ay:odYk wifyaYkd y;Ny;D 4if;wGiyf g&So
d nfh Instruc-
tion rsm;udk rdkufc½dky½dkqufqmu qufvuf vkyfaqmifay;onf/
( c) Boot Strap Program Code onf System Disk (or) Hard Disk xJ&Sd System
File (5) Files jzpfaom (1) IO.SYS (2) MSDOS.SYS (3) CONFIG.SYS
(4) COMMAND.COM (5) AUTOEXEC.BAT udk Memory ay:odYk quf
vufwifay;onf/

36/ Boot Strap Program onf Input/Output Operation udk ROM-BIOS ESifhwGJNyD;
vkyaf qmifay;aom IO.SYS File udyk xrOD;pGm Memory ay:odYk wifay;ygonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh
IO.SYS onf Input/ Output Operations rsm;udk ROM-BIOS ESifhtwl aqmif&Gufay;onf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 26 uuuGef
37/ 4if;aemuf Memory ay:odaYk &muf&NdS yjD zpfaom IO.SYS onf DOS Request udak jz&Si;f
aqmif½Gufay;aom MSDOS.SYS File udk Memory ay:odkY wifay;onf/

38/ IO.SYS onfqufvufí CONFIG.SYS File udk &SmazGNy;D Memory ay:odYk wifay;
onf/ CONFIG.SYS File onf4if;wGif&Sdaom Instruction rsm;t&aqmif&GufNyD; uGefysLwm
pepf\ Configuration udk wnfaqmufay;onf/ DOS toHk;jyKuGefysLwmpepfwGif Hardware
Device topfwyfqifygu Device twGuf Instruction udk CONFIG.SYS zdi k w
f iG f xnfo
h iG ;f
ay;&rnf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh CONFIG.SYS onf Standard r[kwo f nfh Device rsm; wyfqif
xm;jcif;udk uGefysLwmpepfu odatmifaqmif&Gufay;jcif; jzpfonf/

39/ 4if;aemuf IO.SYS File onf COMMAND.COM zdik u f kd qufvuf&mS azGNy;D Memory
ay:odkY wifay;onf/ CONFIG.SYS zdkifwGif COMMAND.COM File onf rnfonfh
Directory wGif &Sad Mumif;udk Path vrf;aMumif;jzifh az:jyEdik o
f nf/ COMMAND.COM zdik o f nf
DOS \ Command Interpreter jzpfojzifh Command rsm;udkuGefysLwmem;vnfatmif
bmomjyefay;onf/ COMMAND.COM File r&Sv d Qif "Missing Command Interpreter"
[k owday;pmwef;ay:vmrnf/

40/ qufvufíaemufq;kH tqifw h iG f COMMAND.COM File onf AUTOEXEC.BAT


File udk&SmazGonf/ AUTOEXEC.BAT File onf uGefysLwm rD;zGifhNyD;aemuf aqmif½Gufapvdk
aom Instruction rsm;udk pDpOfppk nf;íxnfo h iG ;f xm;onfzh ikd f jzpfygonf/4if; Instruction rsm;udk
COMMAND.COM File uulnDajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufay;NyD; "C:\>-" odkYvnf;aumif;? Win 9x
pepfwGif WIN.COM udk Automatic Execute vkyfívnf;aumif;? uGefysLwmtm; tqifoifh
jzpfapygonf/

Low Level Interface


(trmxnfrsm;tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefqufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;)
41/ BIOS onf Hardware Devices rsm;tcsi;f csi;f udk tjyeftvSef qufo, G af qmif½u
G rf u
I kd
OS ESifhtwl ulnDyHhydk;ay;ygonf/ Oyrm- Memory rS Hard Disk odkYvnf;aumif;? Hard Disk
rS Memory odkYvnf;aumif; Data rsm;tjyeftvSefay;ydkYqufoG,fjcif;rsm;udk ulnDay;ygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 27 uuuGef
Maintenance a Hard Disk (For Windows XP)
(Hard Disk wpfvHk;tm;xdef;odrf;rI jyKvkyfjcif;)
42/ Windows rS Defragmentation jyKvkyf&ef atmufygtwdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkif
ygonf-
(u) Start→All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk
Defragmentor udkyHk(16)ygtwdkif;tpOfvdkuf Click vkyy
f g/ (odrYk [kw)f

yHk(16)
( c) Desktop ay:½Sd My Computer Icon udk Double Click vkyy f g/
(1) My Computer Window ay:vmrnf/
(2) rdrd Defragmentation vkyfcsifaom Drive A: (or) Drive C:
ponfjzifha½G;í Right Click vkyyf g/
(3) Shortcut Menu yHk (17) ay:vmrnf/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 28 uuuGef

yHk(17)

(4) Shortcut Menu rS Properties udk a½G;í Click vkyy f g/


(5) Properties Dialog Box ay:vmrnf/ yHk(18)
(6) Properties Dialog Box rS Tools udak ½G;yg/
(7) Defragment Now, Button udk Click vkyy f g/
( *) Disk Defragmenter Window ay:vmrnf/ yHk (19)
(1) Disk Defragmenter Window wGif Drive rsm;udx k yfNy;D a½G;cs,f
Edkifygonf/
(2) a&G;cs,fNyD;ygu Defragments Button udk Click vkyyf g/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 29 uuuGef

yHk(18)

yHk(19)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 30 uuuGef
(C) rdrda½G;cs,fxm;aom Drive udk Defragmenting vkyfaeaMumif; Disk
Defragmenter Window wGifvkyfaqmifcsufay:vmrnf/ yHk (20)

yHk(20)
( i) Defragmenting Window wGif cP&yfqdkif;vdkvQif Pause ? &yfqdkif;
vdkvQif Stop udk Click vkyyf g/
( p) teDa&mifonf wpfqufwpfpyfwnf;&Sdaejcif; r&Sdaomzdkifrsm;udk
vnf;aumif;? tjyma&mifonfwpfqufwpfpyfwnf;&Sad eaom zdik rf sm;udk
vnf;aumif;? tpdrf;a&mifonf a&TUír&aomzdkifrsm;udk vnf;aumif;?
tjzLa&mifonf Hard Disk &SdtoHk;rjyK&ao;aom Free Space
wdkYudk&nfñTef;ygonf/
(q) Defragmenting vkyfaejcif;NyD;qHk;oGm;ygu NyD;qHk;aMumif;udkaz:jyonfh
Disk Defaragmenter Window ay:vmrnf/ yHk(21)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 31 uuuGef

yHk(21)

( Z) NyD;qHk;aMumif;az:jyonfh Disk Defaragmenter Window rSxGufvdk


ygu Close Button tm;a&G;cs,fNyD;? Defragmentation Report
udMk unf½h v
I ykd gu View Report Button tm; a&G;cs,fvQif atmufyg
Defragmentation Report Window yHk(22 ) ay:vmrnfjzpfygonf/

yHk(22)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 32 uuuGef
(ps) Defragmentation Report ygtcsut f vufrsm;tm; odr;f qnf;vdyk gu
Save As... Button tm; Click vkyfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? Hard Copy
xkwfvdkygu Print... Button tm; Click vkyfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;?
xGuvf ykd gu Close Button udk a&G;cs,fjcif;jzifh Defragmenting vkyf
aqmifcsuf atmifjrifpGmNyD;qHk;oGm;NyDjzpfygonf/

43/ DOS Mode rS Defragmentation jyKvkyf&ef atmufygtwdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkif


ygonf-
(u) Start→Command Prompt udk yH(k 23 )ygtwdik ;f a&G;cs,f Click vkyyf g/
( c) DOS Mode Desktop Screen ay:vmygrnf/ yH(k 24 )

yHk(23)

( *) Command Prompt wGif rdrd Defragmentation vkyfvdkaom Drive


ES i f h o uf q d k i f a om Command ud k ½ d k u f í Enter Key ud k E S d y f y gu
Defragmenting vkyfoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/
(Oyrm- C:\>DEFRAG F: )
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 33 uuuGef

yHk(24)

44/ DOS Mode rS Check Disk jyKvkyf&ef atmufygtwdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkifygonf-


(u) Start→Command Prompt udk yH(k 23 )ygtwdi k ;f a&G;cs,f Click vkyyf g/
( c) DOS Mode Desktop Screen ay:vmygrnf/ yH(k 25)
( *) Command Prompt wGif rdrd Check Disk vk y f v d k a om Drive
ESifhoufqdkifaom Command udk½dkufí Enter Key udEk ydS yf gu Check
Disk vkyof mG ;rnfjzpfygonf/ (Oyrm- C:\>CHKDSK C: )

yHk(25)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 34 uuuGef
45/ Computer Hardware rsm;onf atmufygtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh cRwf,Gif;^ysufpD;rsm;
½SdEdkifygonf-
(u) User Error (toH;k jyKorl sm;rS pufukd pepfwus zGi^hf ydwf rjyKvyk jf cif;? toH;k jyKpOf
ae&ma½TUajymif;jcif;? vIyf½Sm;rIjzpfapjcif;)
( c) Manufacture Fault (puf½kHrS Design ESifh Quality wdkYaMumifh jzpfjcif;)
( *) Environmental Condition ( Dust-zk e f r I e f Y r sm;? Temperature -tyl c sd e f ?
Moisture-pdkxdkif;q? EMI = Electro Magnetic Interference-vQyp f pfovH ukd f
qdkif&maESmuf,SufrIrsm;? RFI = Radio Frequency Interference-a&'D,dkvdIif;
aESmuf,SufrIrsm;)
(C) Electrical Power Problem rsm;rSm-
(1) Noise (rvdkvm;tyfaom Signal rsm;)
(2) Spike (rD;tm; ½kwfw&ufjrifhwufrI)
(3) Surge (rD;tm; jrifhwufoGm;jcif;)
(4) Brown out (vQyfppf"mwftm; avsmhenf;usqif;jcif;)
(5) Black out (vQyfppf"mwftm; vHk;0jywfawmufjcif;)
(6) Unstable Frequency (BudrfEIef; rrSefjcif;)
(7) Unstable Power (vQyfppfAdkYtm; rwnfNidrfjcif; )

Protecting Electrical Power Problem


(vQyfppf"gwftm;qdkif&mjyóemrsm;udkumuG,fjcif;)
46/ Noise, Spike, Surge jzpfjcif;wdrYk u S muG,&f ef Noise Filter rsm;? Spike Killer rsm;ESihf
Surge Protector rsm;udk rdrdtoHk;jyKrnfhpuf\ yg0gt0ifrsm;wGif wqifhcHí toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/
Brown Out jzpfjcif;ESifh Black Out jzpfjcif;rS umuG,f&eftwGuf UPS ( Uninterruptible
Power Supply) udw k qifch í
H toH;k jyK&rnf/ ,©Ktcg UPS rsm;onf Electrical Power Problem
rsm;udk umuG,fEdkifaom pepfrsm;yg0ifvmNyDjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh vQyfppf"mwftm;qdkif&mjyóem
rsm;aMumifh uGefysLwmpepfwpfckvHk; rysufpD;apa&;twGuf UPS Mum;cHí toHk;jyKoifhygonf/
csdwfqufyHkudk atmufwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ yHk(26)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 35 uuuGef

Surge Protector, UPS, Computer System wkdYcsdwfqufwyfqiftokH;jyKjcif;

600VA

yH(k 26)

rSwfcsuf/ UPS onf Built In AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) ryg0ifyguExternal


AVR tm; UPS \t0ifwGif csdwfqufítoHk;jyKoifhygonf/ ukd,fykdifokH; uGefysLwm
pepfrsm; wGif UPS wyfqifvdkygu uGefysLwmwpfpkH(System Unit+14"Monitor)
twGuf yQrf;rQ (500VA~600VA) yrmP&Sd UPS qkdvQif vkHavmufrI&SdEkdifygonf/
47/ uGefysLwmpepfrsm;wGifvkdtyfaom Power yrmPukd wGufcsufvdkygu atmufygZ,m;&Sd
Rating rsm;jzifh wGufcsufEkdifygonf-

5v Power 20.0 Amps


Less Motherboard (5.0 amps)
4 slots filled at (2.0 amps)each (8.0 amps)
3 1/2 and 5 1/4 inch floppy drives (1.5 amps)
3 1/2 inch hard disk drive (0.5 amps)
CD-ROM drive (1.0 amp)
=Remaining power 4.0 amps

12v Power 8.0 Amps


Less 4 slots filled at (0.175 amps)each (0.7 amp)
3 1/2 inch hard disk drive (1.0 amp)
3 1/2 and 5 1/4 inch floppy drives (1.0 amp)
Cooling fan (0.1 amp)
CD-ROM drive (1.0 amp)
=Ramaining power 4.2 amps

14" Monitor= (180VA~290VA) Dotmatrix Printer=(120VA~150VA)


15" Monitor= (300VA~340VA) Laser Jet Printer = (360VA~400VA)
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 36 uuuGef
Notice of the Computer Users (uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKolrsm;twGufowday;csufrsm;)
48/ uGeyf sLwmtoH;k jyKorl sm; owdjyKvu kd ef m&rnft h csurf sm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf-
(u) uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm;tm; aeYpOfoefY½Sif;rIjyKvkyfyg/
( c) uGeyf sLwmwpfv;kH tm; rzGirhf D Cable rsm;csw d qf ufxm;rI rSerf rSepf pfaq;yg/ (110
V / 230VwdkYudk*&kpdkufítoHk;jyKyg/
( *) UPS ESifhcsdwfqufxm;ygu AC Switch udk ON NyD;aemuf UPS udk ON yg/
(C) uGeyf sLwm ON/OFF jyKvyk jf cif;rsm;udk Procedure twdik ;f pepfwus vkyaf qmifyg/
( i) Application Software, Utilities Software rsm; Installation vkyf&mwGif
puf\ Operating System ESifhudkufnDrI½Sd^r½Sd? Version udkufnDrI &dS^r&dS wdkYudk
ppfaq;NyD;rSom Installation jyKvkyf&rnf/
( p) uGefysLwmwGif xnfhoGif;xm;aom ta&;BuD;onfh Data rsm;? Files rsm;udkyHkrSef
Back Up jyKvkyfxm;yg/
(q) uGefysLwmtm; BuHhcdkifrI½Sdap&eftwGuf Hard Disk tm; Scan Disk or Norton
Disk Doctor ESifh Defragmenting or Speed Disk vkyfjcif;wdkYudk vdktyfygu
tywfpOf aqmif½Gufyg/
( Z) uGeyf sLwmtm; Virus tEÅ&m,fru S if;a0;ap&eftwGuf aemufq;kH ay: Anti Virus
Program tm; uGefysLwmpwif rD;zGifhonfhtcsdefrSpwifí Auto Run Edkif&efESifh
rSwfÓPfwGif apmifhMuyfppfaq;Edkif&ef(TSR) pDpOfaqmif½Gufxm;yg/
( ps) jyifyrS,al qmifvmaom Diskettes rsm;? CD Disks rsm;tm; Virus ygrygppfaq;
NyD;rS toHk;jyK&rnf/ jyifyESifhcsdwfquftoHk;jyKvQifvnf; Virus owdjyKyg/
(n) uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKaepOf a½TUajymif;jcif;? uGefysLwmwifxm;aom pm;yGJtm;
vIyf½Sm;rIjzpfapjcif;? System Unit a&SU&dS Hard Disk rD;vif;aepOf ydwfjcif;
rsm;udk rjyKvkyf&yg/
( #) uGefysLwmcsKdU,Gif;rIjzpfay:ygu oufqdkif&modkY csufcsif;owif;ydkYwifjy&rnf/
( X) Utilities Software rsm;udk toH;k jyK&mwGif aocsmpGmzwf½aI vhvmNy;D rS toH;k jyKyg/
( !) System ydik ;f qdik &f mESihf Computer Peripheral rsm;udk jyKjyif ajymif;vJprf;oyfrrI sm;
udk uRrf;usifem;vnfjcif;r&dSbJ wpfpHkwpf&m jyKjyif ajymif;vJ jcif; rjyKvkyf&/
( ¡) CRT Monitor twGif;&dS tpdwftydkif;rsm;tm; jyifqifjcif;? vQyfppf"gwftm;ESifh
ywfoufí jyKjyifjcif;rsm;onf touftEÅ&m,fxdcdkufapEdkifojzifh toHk;jyKol
taejzifh (vHk;0) rvkyfaqmif&/
Contents
PC Hardware & System Maintenance 37 uuuGef
Fault finding for PC (udk,fydkifoHk;uGefysLwmtm; jypfcsuf½SmazGjcif;)
49/ uGeyf sLwm\ vkyaf qmifrt I qifrh sm;udk atmufygvG,u
f &l iS ;f vif;aomyHjk zifh rnfonft
h ydik ;f
wGif csKdU,Gif;aeaMumif;udk pOf;pm;awG;ac:Edkifygonf-
(u) Hardware (PSU, CPU , Memory,
Keyboard, HardDisk, FloppyDisk, Application
Monitor wdkY yHkrSef vkyf^rvkyf/ O/S
( c) POST vkyf^rvkyf/ (rD;pzGifhvQif Key- Firmware(ROMBIOS)
board rD;ESpfBudrf vif;jcif;) Hardware
( *) Operating System yHkrSef vkyf^rvkyf/
(C) Application rsm; aumif;rGefpGm vkyfaqmifEdkifpGrf; &dS^r&dS/
( i) tjzpfrsm;aomtjypfvu©PmtcsKUd udk atmufygtwdik ;f jypfcsu&f mS azGEikd yf gonf-
pOf tjypfvu©Pm csKdU,Gif;Edkifonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm;
1/ Power rD;rvif; Power Source (odkY) Power Cable (odkY)
Power Switch (odkY) PSU
2/ Monitor rD;rvif; Power Source (odkY) Power Cable (odkY)
Power Switch (odkY) Monitor
3/ POST rvkyf PSU rSAdkYtm;rrSefuef(odkY) Memoryraumif;
(odkY) ROMBIOS rvkyf
4/ Monitor wGifray: Monitor Cable (odkY) Memory raumif; (odkY)
VGA raumif; (odkY) Monitor raumif; (odkY)
Mother Board/ CPU raumif;
5/ Memory Error Memory raumif; (odkY) Memory trsKd;tpm;
rwlnD
6/ Hard Disk Error CMOS Setup wGif HD type rSm; (odkY)Hard
Disk raumif; (odkY) HD Controller raumif;
(odkY) Backup Battery tm;enf;
7/ Non System Disk or System File rsm;ysuf (odkY) Boot Disk ysuf
Disk Error (odkY) Virus zsufqD;
8/ Missing Command COMMAND.COM File ysuf (odkY) Virus
interpreter zsufqD;
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 38

PC Hardware Maintenance and Upgrading


Typical ATX Motherboard & Real Panel Connectors
50/ PII/PIII ATX Motherboard wpfck\ Layout Diagram ESifh Built-in Connector
rsm;tm; atmufaz:jyyg ykH(27)ESifhyHk(28)wdkYtwkdif; Type trsKd;rsKd;awGY½SdEkdifygonf-
Floppy Disk Connector
ATX Power Supply Hard Disk
..........
..........
Connector }
Connector South
Bridge
Backup
DIMM Battery
} Memory
Bank AGP Slot

North

ISA Slots
ISA Slots
Bridge
PCI Slots

PCI Slots

PCI Slots

PCI Slots
Slot 1(CPU)

A C
F H

B D E G I J K
A PS2/ mouse E Serial Port A I Audio Line Out (optional)
B PS2/ keyboard F Parallel Port J Audio Line in (optional)
C USB Port 1 G Serial Port B K Audio Mic in (optional)
D USB Port 2 H MIDI/Game Port (optional)
Slot Type PII/PIII ATX Motherboard
yHk (27)
Contents
39 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading
Desktop Board Components

A BCDE

G
H
Y I

USB Line
Device In X J
W

UT S R Q P O NM L K

Socket Type Intel DX15EEA Motherboard


yHk (28)
A. CNR (Communication and Networking Riser) connector (optional)
B. AGP universal connector C. Chassis fan connector (Fan 2)
D. Legacy CD-ROM connector E. ATAPI-style CD-ROM connector
F. Auxiliary line in, ATAPI-style connector G. Processor fan connector (Fan 3)
H. Digital video output connector I. Processor socket
J. DIMM sockets K. Power connector
L. Diskette drive connector M. Primary IDE connector
N. Secondary IDE connector O. Serial port B connector
P. BIOS configuration jumper block Q. Front panel USB connector
R. Front panel connector S. Front panel power LED, alternate
T. Wake on LAN technology connector U. Chassis fan connector (Fan 1)
V. Battery W. SCSI LED connector
X. Speaker Y. PCI expansion

The Intel Desktop Board D815EEA supports the following processors:


Processor Socket Processor System Bus L2 Cache
Type Type Designation (MHz) Freq. (MHz) Size (KB)
Intel FC-PGA 866, 800EB, 733, 667, 133 256
Pentium 600EB, and 533EB
Processors FC-PGA 850, 800, 750, 700, 650, 100 256
600E, 550E, and 500E
Intel FC-PGA 700, 667, 633, 600, 566, 66 128
Celeron 533A, and 500A
Processors
Celeron PPGA 533 and 500 66 128
Processors
For the latest information on processors supported by the Desktop Board D815EEA, refer to the Intel web site at:
Z,m;(1)
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 40

Intel's Microprocessor
51/ Computer wpfv;Hk \ Model ukd ¤if;wGiw f yfqifxm;aomCPU \Model jzifo h wfrw
S f
qkH;jzwfMuygonf/ ¤if; CPU rsm;rSm CISC (Complex Instruction Set Code) ESifh RISC
(Reduced Instruction Set Code) enf;ynmrsm;ukd tokH;jyKMuonf/ RISC enf;ynmokH;
Microprocessor rsm;ukd Motorola, Digital ponfh ukrÜPDrsm;rSxkwfvkyfMuNyD; Special
Purpose Computer rsm;wGif tokH;rsm;Muonf/ CISC enf;ynmokH; Microprocessor rsm;ukd
Intel,AMD,Cyrix ukrP Ü rD sm;rS tjyKd it
f qkid x
f w
k v
f yk v
f m&m ,cktcgwGif 1000 MHz(1 GHz)
tjrefEIef;txd a&muf½SdvmMuNyDjzpfonf/ az:jyygZ,m;rsm;onf Intel rSxkwfvkyfaom
Microprocessor rsm;ESifh tjcm;ukrÜPDrsm;rSxkwfvkyfaom Processor rsm;\ pufrIqkdif&m
tcsuftvufrsm;? pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIrsm;ukd EIdif;,SOfaz:jyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/
52/ Z,m;(2)t& atmufaz:jyygtxl;od½Sd&eftcsufrsm;ukd avhvmawGY½SdEkdifygonf-
(u) 486 DX Processor rSpwifí Microprocessor twGif; 'ór*Pef;rsm;ukd
wGufcsuf aqmif&GufEkdifonfh FPU (Floating Point Unit) (okdU) Co-Math
Processor rsm;ukd Built-in wnfaqmufxm;onf/
( c) 386 rSpí Internal 32-bit vkyfaqmifEkdifonfhtwGufaMumifh 32-bit OS rsm;
tokH;jyKEkdifonf/
( *) Classics Pentium ukd MMX enf;ynm ( 57 MMX Instruction ) aygif;pyf
wnfaqmufvkdufaomtcg Pentium MMX [kjzpfay:vmjyD; Multimedia
qkdif&mñTefMum;csufrsm;ukd CPU rSajz½Sif;aqmif&GufvmEkdifonf/
(C) P6 Architecture udk MMX Instruction Set (57 Instruction) aygif;vdu k af om
tcg PII Processor [líjzpfay:vmonf/
( i) P II Processor wG i f 3D Instruction (SSE-Streaming SIMD)
aygif;pyffvdkufaomtcg P!!! Processor [líjzpfay:vmum 3D Instruction
rsm;udk CPU rSajz&Sif;aqmif½GufvmEdkifonf/
( p) Pentium Pro (P6) Microprocessor twGif;ü L2 Cache udk built-in wnf
aqmufxm;jcif;jzifh L2 Cache rS access vkyfonfh Performance udkwdk;wuf
aponf/
(q) Pentium Pro (P6) rSpí L2 Cache ESifh CPU wdkY\ access vkyfonfhEIH;udk
CPU Core Speed \w0uf (odkY) tjynfhjzifh aqmif½Gufjcif;jzifh Performance
udk ydkrdkwdk;wufaponf/
Intel Processor Specifications
Internal Data L1 L2
CPU Register Bus Max L1 Cache L2 Cache Integral Multimedia No. of Date
Processor Clock Voltage Size Width Memory Cache Type Cache Speed FPU Instructions Tsransistors Introduced
8088 1x 5v 16-bit 8-bit 1MB - - - - - - 29,000 Jun'79
8086 1x 5v 16-bit 16-bit 1MB - - - - - - 29,000 Jun'78
286 1x 5v 16-bit 16-bit 16MB - - - - - - 134,000 Feb'82
386SX 1x 5v 32-bit 16-bit 16MB - - - Bus - - 275,000 Jun'88
386SL 1x 3.3v 32-bit 16-bit 16MB 0KB 1 WT - Bus - - 855,000 Oct'90
386DX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB - - - Bus - - 275,000 Oct'85
486SX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus - - 1.185M Apr'91
486SX2 2x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus - - 1.185M Apr'94
487SX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus Yes - 1.2M Apr'91
486DX 1x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus Yes - 1.2M Apr'89
486SL 2 1x 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus Opt - 1.4M Nov'92
486DX2 2x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB WT - Bus Yes - 1.2M Mar'92
486DX4 2-3x 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 16KB WT - Bus Yes - 1.6M Feb'94
486Pentium OD 2.5x 5v 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 2x16KB WB - Bus Yes - 3.1M Jan'95
Pentium 60/66 1x 5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB WB - Bus Yes - 3.1M Mar'93
41

Pentium 75-200 1.5-3x 3.3-3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB WB - Bus Yes - 3.3M Oct'94

Z,m; (2)
Pentium MMX 1.5-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x16KB WB - Bus Yes MMX 4.5M Jan'97
Pentium Pro 2-3x 3.3v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x8KB WB 256KB Core Yes - 5.5M Nov'95
512KB
Contents

1MB
Pentium II 3.5-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 512KB 1/2Core Yes MMX 7.5M May'97
Pentium II PE 3.5-6x 1.6v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 256KB Core3 Yes MMX 27.4M Jan'99
Celeron 3.5-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 0KB - Yes MMX 7.5M Apr'98
Celeron A 3.5-8x 1.5-2v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 128KB Core3 Yes MMX 19M Aug'98
Celeron III 4.5-9x 1.3-1.6v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 128KB Core3 Yes SSE 28.1M Feb'2000
Pentium III 4-6x 1.8-2v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 256KB 1/2Core Yes SSE 9.5M Feb'99
Pentium III E 4-9x 1.3-1.7v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 512KB Core3 Yes SSE 28.1M Oct'99
1MB
2MB
Pentium II Xeon 4-4.5x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 512KB Core Yes MMX 7.5M Apr'98
1MB
2MB
Pentium III Xeon 5-6x 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 512KB Core Yes SSE 9.5M Mar'99
1MB
2MB
Pentium III E Xeon 4.5-6.5x 1.65v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB 256KB Core3 Yes SSE 28.1M Oct'99
1MB 84M May2000
2MB 140M
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading
Intel Compatible Processors
Internal Data L1 L2
Processor CPU Register Bus Max L1 Cache L2 Cache Integral Multimedia No. of Date
Introduced Clock Voltage Size Width Memory Cache Type Cache Speed FPU Instructions Tsransistors

AMD K5 1.5-1.75x 3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 16+8KB WB - Bus Yes - 4.3M Mar'96
AMD K6 2.5-4.5x 2.2-3.2v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB WB - Bus Yes MMX 8.8M Apr'97
AMD-K6-2 3.5-5x 2.2-2.4v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB WB - Bus Yes 3DNow 9.3M May'98
AMD-K6-3 4.5x 2.2-2.4v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB WB 256KB Core Yes 3DNow 21.3M Feb'99
AMD-Athlon 5-10x 1.6-1.8v 32-bit 64-bit 8TB 2x64KB WB 512KB 1/2-1/3CoreYes Ench.3DNow 22M Jun'99
3
AMD-Duron 5-10x 1.5-1.8v 32-bit 64-bit 8TB 2x64KB WB 64KB Core Yes Ench.3DNow 25M Jun'2000
AMD-Athlon 4 5-10x 2.5-3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 8TB 2x64KB WB 256KB Core3 Yes Ench.3DNow 37M Jun'2000
Cyrix 6x86 2x 2.5-3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 16KB WB - Bus Yes - 3M Feb'96
Cyrix 6x86MX/MII 2.3-5x 2.9v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 64KB WB - Bus Yes MMX 6.5M May'97
Cyrix III 2.5-7x 2.2v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 64KB WB 256KB Core3 Yes 3DNow 22M Feb'2000
42

Nexgen Nx586 2x 4v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x16KB WB - Bus Yes - 3.5M Mar'94
Contents

IDT Winchip 3.4x 3.3-3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB WB - Bus Yes MMX 5.4M Oct'97

Z,m; (3)
IDT Winchip2/2a 2.33-4x 3.3-3.5v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB WB - Core3 Yes 3DNow 5.9M Sep'98
Rise mP6 2-3.5x 2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB WB - Bus Yes MMX 3.6M Oct'98

FPU = Floating Point Unit (internal math coprocessor)


WT = Write - Through Cache (caches read only)
WB = Write-Back cahce (caches both reads and writes)
Bus = Processor external bus speed (motherboard speed)
Core = Processor internal core speed (CPU speed)
MMX = Multimedia extensions, 57 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing
3DNow = MMX plus 21 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing
Enh.3DNow= 3DNow plus 24 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing
SSE = Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) Extensions, MMX plus 70 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing
1
= The 386SL contains an Itegral-cache controller, but the cache memory must be provided outside the chip.
2
= Intel later marketed SL Enhance version of the SX, DX, and DX2 processors.These processors were available in both 5 v and 3.3 v versions and
included power-management capabilities.
3
= On-die integrated L2 cache-runs at full-core speed.
4
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

= 128 KB functional L2 cache (265 KB total, 128 KB disabled), use same die as Pentium 333 E.
Contents
43 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

(Z) P II / P!!! Xeon Processor rsm;onf L2 Cache yg0ifrI 1024 KB rS 2048


KB xd &SdEdkifojzifh Performance ydkrdkaumif;rGefNyD; Server rsm;wGiftusKd;jyK
Edkifonf/

Chipset
53/ Motherboard wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIukd t"ducsKyfukdifaom Chip rSm Chipset jzpfyg
onf/ Chipset rsm;ukd CPU, Main Memory, AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) ESifh Slot
rsm;tm;xdef;csKyfonfh North Bridge ESifh Hard Disk Controller, USB wkdYukdxdef;csKyfonfh
South Bridge [lí½Sdygonf/ Intel Chipset, SIS Chipset, ALi Chipset, UMC Chipset,
VIA Chipset ponfjzifhawGU&SdEdkifygonf/ Intel Chipset rsm;\ pGrf;aqmifekdifrIESifh pufrIqkdif&m
t&nftaoG;rsm;ukd Z,m;rsm;jzifh EIdif;,SOfavhvmEkdifygonf/

54/ Z,m; (4)ESifh(5)wdkYudkavhvmjcif;jzifh atmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;ukd awGU½SdEkdifygonf-


(u) Chipset ukdMunfhí Motherboard wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIukd cefYrSef;Ekdifygonf/
( c) Chipset ay:rlwnfí Mother Board Speed uGmjcm;onf/
( *) Chipset ay:rlwnfí trsm;qkH;wyfqifEkdifonfh t"durSwfOmPfyrmP
Memory Bank ta&twGufuGmjcm;onf/
(C) Chipset ay:rlwnfíwyfqifEkdifaom CPU ta&twGufuGmjcm;onf/
( i) 440GX, 440 NX Chipset rsm;onf SMP [kac:aom CPU ta&twGuf
2ck (odkY) 4ckxd wyfqifvkyfaqmifEdkifonfhtwGuf Server rsm;wGif tokH;jyK
Ekdifonf/
( p) Chipset ay:rlwnfíwyfqifEkdifaom CPU trsdK;tpm;uGmjcm;onf/
(q) Chipset ay:rlwnfí BUS Speed uGmjcm;onf/
( Z) Chipset ay:rlwnfí wyfqifEkdifaom Memory Type (FPM, EDO,
SDRAM, RDRAM) uGmjcm;onf/
( ps) Chipset ay:rlwnfí UDMA 33 / UDMA 66/ UDMA 100 Hard Disk
wyfqiftvkyfvkyfEdkifjcif;wdkY uGmjcm;ygonf/
(n) Chipset ay:rlwnfí AGP Support(1X/ 2X/ 4X) vkyfEdkifjcif;? rvkyfEdkifjcif;
uGmjcm;ygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 44

Celeron and Pentium II/III Motherboard Chipsets (North Bridge)


Chipset 440FX 440LX 440EX 440BX
Codename Natoma none none none
Date Introduced May 1996 Aug 1997 Apr 1998 Apr 1999
Port Number 82441 FX 82443 LX 82443 EX 82443 BX
82442 FX
Bus Speed 66 MHz 66 MHz 66 MHz 66/100 MHz
Optimum Processor Pentium II Pentium II Celeron Pentium II/III, Celeron
SMP (dual CPUs) Yes Yes No Yes
Memory Types FPM/EDO/BEDO FPM/EDO/SDRAM EDO/SDRAM SDRAM
Parity/ECC Both Both Neither Both
Maximum Memory 1 GB 1 GB EDO/ 256 MB 1 GB
512 MB SDRAM
Memory Banks 4 4 2 4
PCI Support 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
AGP Support No AGP-2x AGP-2x AGP-2x
South Bridge 82371AB(PIIX4) 82371EB(PIIX4E) 82371EB(PIIX3) 82371SB(PIIX4E)

Chipset 440GX 450NX 440ZX 810


Codename none none none Whitney
Date Introduced Jun 1998 Jun 1998 Nov 1998 Apr 1999
Port Number 82443 GX 82451 NX 82443 ZX 82810/ 82810-DC100
82452 NX 82802 AB/AC
82453 NX
82454 NX
Bus Speed 100 MHz 100 MHz 66/100 MHz* 66/100 MHz
Optimum Processor Pentium II/III, Pentium II/III Celeron, Celeron,
Xeon Xeon Pentium II/III Pentium II/III
SMP (dual CPUs) Yes Yes, up to 4 No No
Memory Types SDRAM FPM/EDO SDRAM SDRAM
Parity/ECC Both Both Neither Neither
Maximum Memory 2 GB 8 GB 256 MB 256 MB
Memory Banks 4 4 2 2
PCI Support 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2
AGP Support AGP-2x No AGP-2x Direct AGP
South Bridge 82371EB 82371EB 82371EB 2801AA/AB
(PIIX4E) (PIIX4E) (PIIX4E) (ICH/ICH0)

SMP = Symmetric Multiprocessing (Dual Processors )


FPM = Fast Page Mode PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect
EDO = Extended Data Out AGP = Accelerated Graphics Port
BEDO = Burst EDO SIO = System I/O
SDRAM = Synchronous Dynamic RAM PIIX = PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator
Pburst = Pipeline Burst ( Synchronous ) ICH = I/O Controller Hub

Z,m; (4)
Contents
45 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

Intel South Bridge Chips

Chip Name SIO PIIX PIIX3 PIIX4 PIIX4E ICHO ICH

Port Number 82378IB/ZB 82371FB 82371SB 82371AB 82371EB 82801AB 82801AA


IDE Support None BMIDE BMIDE UDMA-33 UDMA-33 UDMA-33 UDMA-66
USB Support None None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
CMOS/Clock No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Power SMM SMM SMM SMM SMM/ SMM/ SMM/
Management ACPI ACPI ACPI

SIO = System I/O BMIDE = Bus Master IDE


PIIX = PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator UDMA = Ultra-DMA IDE
ICH = I/O Controller Hub SMM = System Management Mode
USB = Universal Serial Bus ACPI = Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
IDE = Integrated Drive Electronics (AT Attachment)

Z,m; (5)
Mother Board Upgrading
55/ Chipset ay:rlwnfí Mother Board Speed ? Memory Bus Speed uGmjcm;onfh
twGuf Mother Board wGif wyfqif&rnfh t"durSwOf mPf (Main Memory) \tjrefEeI ;f rsm;
onfvnf; Mother Board Speed ?Memory Bus Speed ESihf uduk n
f &D efvt
kd yfygonf/ odjYk zpfí
Mother Board udk Upgrade jyKvkyf&mwGif topfwyfqifrnfh Mother Board rSvufcHonfh
Memory trsKd;tpm;(FPM / EDO / SDRAM / RDRAM) ESifh Memory Speed (PC 66
MHz / PC 100 MHz / PC 133 MHz) wdkYudkudkufnDatmifa½G;cs,f&rnf jzpfygonf/Z,m;(7)

Processor Sockets / Slots


56/ CPU udk Socket wGifvnf;aumif;? tcsKdU SEC Type CPU rsm;udk Slot wGif
vnf;aumif; wyfqif&rnfjzpfygonf/ odkYjzpf&m CPU Upgrade jyKvkyf&mü Motherboard
ay:½Sd Socket eHygwfuMdk unfjh cif;jzifh rnfo
f nfh CPU jzifh Upgrade vkyEf idk af Mumif; od½EdS idk yf gonf/
qkdvkdonfrSm Socket 7 Motherboard ay:wGif Slot 1, PGA 370, Slot 2 Processor rsm;jzifh
Upgrade rjyKvkyfEkdifyg/ tu,fí Upgrade jyKvkyfvkdygu CPU omru Motherboard
ukdyg Upgrade jyKvkyf&ygrnf/ (Memory ukdvnf; Motherboard \tjrefEIef;ESifhukdufnDaom
Memory jzifh Upgrade jyKvkyf&ygrnf/) CPU Socket rsm;\pufrIqdkif&mtcsuftvufrsm;udk
Z,m;(6)wGifawGUEdkifygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 46

Intel 486/Pentium CPU Socket Type and Specifications


Socket Pins Pin Layout Voltage Supported Processors
Number
Socket 1 169 17x17 PGA 5v 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4 Overdrive
Socket 2 238 19x19 PGA 5v 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4 Overdrive,
486 Pentium Overdrive
Socket 3 237 19x19 PGA 5v/3.3v 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4,
486 Pentium Overdrive, AMD 5x86
Socket 4 273 21x21 PGA 5v Pentium 60/66, Overdrive
Socket 5 320 37x37 SPGA 3.3v/3.5v Pentium 75-133, Overdrive
Socket 6** 235 19x19 PGA 3.3v 486 DX4, 486 Pentium Overdrive
Socket 7 321 37x37 SPGA VRM Pentium 75-233+, MMX, Overdrive,
AMD K5/K6, Cyrix MI/II
Socket 8 387 dual pattern SPGA Auto VRM Pentium Pro
PGA370 370 37x37 SPGA Auto VRM Celeron
Slot 1 242 Slot Auto VRM Pentium II/III, Celeron
Slot 2 330 Slot Auto VRM Pentium II/III, Xeon

PGA = Pin Grid Array SPGA = Staggered Pin Grid Array VRM = Voltage Regulator Module

Z,m; (6)
CPU Speed CPU Clock Mainboard CPU Speed CPU Clock Mainboard
CPU Type (MHz) Multiplier Speed (MHz) CPU Type (MHz) Multiplier Speed (MHz)

Pentium 60 1x 60 Celeron 667 10x 66


Pentium 60 1x 66 Pentium II 350 3.5x 66
Pentium 75 1.5x 50 Pentium II/Xeon 400 4x 100
Pentium 90 1.5x 60 Pentium II/III/Xeon 450 4.5x 100
Pentium 100 1.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 500 5x 100
Pentium 120 2x 60 Pentium III/Xeon 550 5.5x 100
Pentium 133 2x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 600 6x 100
Pentium 150 2.5x 60 Pentium III/Xeon 650 6.5x 100
Pentium/PenitumPro/MMX 166 2.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 700 7x 100
Pentium/PenitumPro 180 3x 60 Pentium III/Xeon 750 7.5x 100
Pentium/PenitumPro/MMX 200 3x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 800 8x 100
Pentium-MMX/Pentium II 233 3.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 850 8.5x 100
Pentium-MMX(Mobile)/ 266 4x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 533 4x 133
Pentium II/Celeron Pentium III/Xeon 600 4.5x 133
Pentium II/Celeron 300 4.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 667 5x 133
Pentium II/Celeron 333 5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 733 5.5x 133
Pentium II/Celeron 366 5.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 800 6x 133
Celeron 400 6x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 866 6.5x 133
Celeron 433 6.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 933 7x 133
Celeron 466 7x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1000 7.5x 133
Celeron 500 7.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1066 8x 133
Celeron 533 8x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1133 8.5x 133
Celeron 566 8.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1200 9x 133
Celeron 600 9x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1266 9.5x 133
Celeron 633 9.5x 66 Pentium III/Xeon 1333 10x 133

Z,m; (7)
Contents
47 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

Five Ways to Faster PCs


(PC rsm;tm; ykdrkdvsifjrefpGmpGrf;aqmifEkdifa&;twGuf enf;vrf;(5)rsdK;)
57/ PC rsm;tm; ykdrkdvsifjrefpGm pGrf;aqmifEkdifa&;twGuf atmufaz:jyygenf;vrf;(5)rsdK;jzifh
Upgrade jyKvkyfaqmif&GufEkdifygonf- 2 CPUESifh L2 Cahce
(BackSide Bus)
qufo, G rf v
I rf;aMumif;
oD;jcm;xm;½Sdjcif;/

Backside
1 CPU \System I/O Bus bus
speed tm; 66 MHz rS
100 ~133~200 MHz xd
CPU
I/O BUS

Accelerated L2 cache (old)


Graphic Port

5 PCI Graphic Con-


troller tpm; Acce- PCI Bus 3 Main Memory Speed
lerated Graphic Port ukdjrefqefap&eftwGuf
uk d tok H ; jyKjcif ; jzif h SDRAM, RDRAM
Graphic Speed uk d Graphics PCI PCI wkjYdzift
h pm;xk;d jyKvyk af pjcif;
Controller device Device
jrefqefapjcif; (old)

4 PCI BUS Width ukd 32-bit 64-bit ok¤Yd if;?


yHk (29) Speed ukd 33 MHz rS 66 MHz xd¤if;
ESpfqwifjcif;jzifh Speed jrefqefapjcif;

rS w f c suf / P6, PII, PIII Motherboard Design rsm;onf txufygtcsuf(5)csufESifh


ukdufnDatmif Design jyKvkyfxm;ojzifh ¤if;Motherboard rsm;ukd tokH;jyKjcif;
jzifh Performance ydkrdkaumif;rGefvmygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 48

Two Buses are Better than One


( BUS vrf ; aMumif ; ES p f c k o k H ; Motherboard rsm;onf BUS vrf ; aMumif ; wpf c k o k H ;
Motherboard rsm;xuf y k d r k d p G r f ; aqmif E k d i f j cif ; )
58/ P6, PII, PIII Motherboard Design rsm;onf ,cif Motherboard Design rsm;xuf
ykdrkdpGrf;aqmifEkdifaMumif; atmufaz:jyygykHrsm;jzifh EIdif;,SOfavhvmEkdifygonf-

Intel’s Socket 8 and SEC Slot 1 Socket 7

Private
CPU CPU
backside bus
I/O bus I/O bus
(64 bits wide)
(64 bits wide) (64 bits wide)

PCI bus PCI bus

PCI device PCI device PCI device PCI device PCI device PCI device

Socket 8 and Slot 1 have two independent 64-bit buses, improv-


ing cache access bandwidth over Socket 7.
yHk (30)
59/ Socket 370, Socket 8, Slot 1, Slot 2 okH; Motherboard rsm;onf DIB (Dual-
Independence Bus Architecture) ukd tokH;jyKxm;ojzifh L2 Cache ESifh Main Memory
ukd wpfNydKifwnf; Access vkyfEkdifonf/ okdYjzpfí ,cif Pentium ESifh Pentium xufedrfhaom
Motherboard rsm;xuf ykdrkdpGrf;aqmifEkdifygonf/
Contents
49 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

Conventional Graphics Architecture


60/ Pentium Mother Board Design rsm;wGif Graphic Card tjzpf PCI trsKd;tpm;udk
toHk;jyKí PCI Slot wGif wyfqifvkyfaqmifjcif;aMumifh PCI Bus \ Data Transfer Rate
om tvkyfvkyfEdkifonfhtjyif atmufygyHktwdkif; tm;enf;csufrsm;udk awGU&Sd&ygonf/

3-D Program rsm;


onfh 3-D Texture
Graphic Controller rsm;udF
k rame Buffer
rSvmaom PCI Memory wnfaqmufí Main
Request rsm;udk Chipset Memory twG i f ; ü
rS vufcHrxm;Ekdifyg/ okdavSmifonf/

PCI rS Data yk d Y v T w f
EI e f ; onf One Cycle
wG i f w pf B ud r f o myk d Y v T w f
Ek d i f j cif ; aMumif h yk d Y v T w f r I
tjrefEIef;enf;aponf/

Graphic Control-
ler \Memory wGif
Frame Buffer wnf
aqmufjyD; ¤if; twGif;ü
Main Memory wGif
½S d N yD ; jzpf a om 3-D PCI Graphic Card onftjcm; PCI
Texture rsm;ukd xyfrH Device rsm;ESifh PCI Bus ukd rQa0okH;pGJ
í od r f ; qnf ; xm;&o &onf h t wG u f a Mumif h Bandwidth
jzifhMemory okH;pGJrI yHk (31) uefYowfcsufukdjzpfaponf/
rsm;onf/

61/ PCI Graphic Card tok;H jyKjcif;aMumifh Graphic qkid &f mtjrefEeI ;f (Data ykv
Yd w
T o
f nfEh eI ;f )
aES;onfh jyóemukd jzpfay:apygonf/ ,if;jyóemukd ajz½Sif;&ef AGP Card, AGP Slot
tok;H jyKoifyh gonf/ Pentium ESi¤hf if;xuferd ahf om Motherboard rsm;wGif Chipset onf AGP
uk d raqmif & G u f Ek d i f o jzif h AGP Chipset ygaom Motherboard rsm;jzif h Upgrade
jyKvyk af qmif&uG f &efvt dk yfrnfjzpfonf/ tcsKUd AGP Set rsm;onf AGP 2x jzifo
h mtvkyv f yk Ef idk f
jyD;aemufqkH;ay: Motherboard Design rsm;onf AGP 4x jzifhtvkyfvkyfEkdifMuonf/ AGP
\ pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIukd wpfzufwGif ½Sif;vif;az:jyxm;ygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 50

How Accelerated Graphics Port Works


62/ AGP \pGrf;aqmifEdkifrIudk atmufygyHkjzifh awGUjrifedkifygonf-
AGP onf tjcm; Bus rsm;ESifh rQa0okH;pGJ
&efrvkdbJ Chipset, Main Memory
wk d Y E S i f h wk d u f ½ k d u f tvk y f v k y f E k d i f o nf / Graphic Controller rSvmaom
(Program ESifhTexture rsm;ukd Main PCI Memory Request rsm;udk
Memory rS AGP okdYwkduf½kduf ay;ykdY Chipset rS vuf c H o d r f ; qnf í
Ekdifonf)/ CPU
tjrefqkH;tvkyfvkyfEkdifonf/
I/O Bus

AGP

Graphics
Controller
(old)

PCI Bus
3-D Program rsm;
Graphic Controller \ onf 3 -D Texture
Memory wGif Frame Buffer rsm; udk Frame Buffer
wnfaqmufNyD; ¤if;twGif;ü Main PCI PCI PCI wGif odrf;p&mrvkdawmhbJ
Memory ½Sd 3-D Texturersm;ukd Device Device Device Main Memory t
xyfrHí odrf;qnf;&ef rvkdawmhbJ AGP \ Data ykdYvTwf EIef;onf One wG i f ; vk d t yf o avmuf
3-D Dataukdom odrf;qnf; xm; Cycle wGif ESpfBudrfykdYvTwfEkdifjcif;aMumifh om okdavSmifonf/
ojzifh Memoryvkt d yfrI enf;onf/ tjrefEIef; (Band width) ukd ESpfq
jrifhwufaponf/ yHk (32)
63/ okdYjzpfí Main Memory ESifhqufoG,f&mü AGP onf PCI Bus xuf 4qykdrkdjrefqef
aMumif; az:jyygZ,m;twkid ;f awG½Y &dS ojzifh Graphic qkid &f m? Animation qkid &f m? Video qkid &f m?
Presentation rsm;ESifh Editing vkyfaqmifjcif;rsm;wGif AGP 2x, 4x Graphic Card wkdYukd
okH;pGJoifhygonf/
PCI ESifh AGP Graphic Card wkdY\ tjrefEIef;EdIif;,SOfcsuf
(AGP 2x onf PCI xuf av;qjrefjyD;? AGP 4x onf PCI xuf ½Spfqjrefonf)
PCI AGP 2x
Bits per transfer 32 32
Transfer per clock cycle One Two
Clock cycles per second 33.3Million 66.6 Million
Band Width 133 MByte/Sec 533 MByte/Sec
Contents
51 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

Upgrading jyKvkyf&eftwGuf tBuHjyKcsufrsm;


64/ uGefysLwm Hardware qdkif&mESifh Software qdkif&mwdkY\ wdk;wufajymif;vJrIonf tvGef
jrefqefonfhtwGufaMumifhvnf;aumif;? toHk;jyKolwdkY\ vdktyfcsufrsm;rSmvnf; waeYwjcm;
wdk;wufvmonfhtwGufaMumifhvnf;aumif;? uGefysLwmpepftm; ydkrdkaumif;rGefa&;twGuf
t&nftaoG;jr§ifhwifjcif; (Upgrading) udkvkyfaqmif&efvdktyfvmygonf/ Upgrading
jyKvkyfjcif;twGuf atmufygtwdkif; pOf;pm;Edkif&ef tBuHjyKygonf/
(u) uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKonfh vkyfief;twGuf Software qdkif&m Upgrading jyKvkyf
aqmif½Guf&ef vdk^rvdk/
Oyrm / Windows 98 rS Windows 2000 odkYajymif;vJ&ef vdk^rvdk/
Office 97 rS Office 2000 odkYajymif;vJ&ef vdk^rvdk/
( c) Software qdik &f m Upgrading vkyaf qmif&mwGif Hardware qdik &f m Upgrading
jyKvkyf&efudkyg xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;oifhonf/
( *) Performance aumif;rGefa&;twGuf Memory (FPM / EDO / SDRAM)
yrmP jr§ifhwifjcif;udk yxrOD;pm;ay;pOf;pm;&ef/
(C) Performance aumif ; rG e f a &;twG u f Hard Disk yrmPES i f h tjref E I e f ;
jr§ifhwifa&;udk 'kwd,OD;pm;ay;pOf;pm;&ef/
( i) Performance aumif;rGefa&;twGuf CPU (odkY) CPU ESifh Mother Board
jr§ifhwifa&;udk wwd,OD;pm;ay;pOf;pm;&ef/
( p) Mother Board jyKjyifajymif;vJ&mwGif Casing ESifh Power Supply trsKd;tpm;
tm; AT (odkY) ATX Casing & Power Supply udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&ef vdktyf
ygonf/
(q) Graphic Performance jr§ifhwifa&;twGuf Graphic Card wGifyg&Sdaom
Memory jr§ifhwifa&; (odkY) ydkrdkaumif;rGefaom Graphic Card jzifh tpm;xdk;
aqmif½Gufa&;udk pOf;pm;&ef/
( Z) tcsKdU Simulation qdkif&m Program rsm;? Game Program rsm;? Application
Program rsm;udk Install jyKvkyfí toHk;jyK&ef? Hardware qdkif&m vdktyfcsuf?
OS qdi k &f mvdt
k yfcsurf sm;udk udu
k n
f aD tmifaqmif½u
G af y;&ojzifh ,if; Program
rsm;udk toHk;jyKvdkygu Hardware qdkif&m jyKjyifajymif;vJrI? Software qdkif&m
jyKjyifajymif;vJrIrsm; vkyfaqmif&efvdktyfonf/
Oyrm / 3D Game rsm;twGuf owfrSwfVRAM yrmP&Sdaom3D
Graphic Accelerator Card vdktyfygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 52

Hard Disk Storage


65/ uGefysLwmpepfwpfckwGif tcsuftvufodkavSmif ypönf;wpfckjzpfonfh Hard
Disk onfta&;BuD;qHk;aomtpdwftydkif;rsm;wGif yg0ifonf/Hard Disk \pufrIydkif;
qdkif&mtvkyfvkyfyHkudk em;vnfjcif;jzifh rnfodkYrnfyHkBuHhcdkifatmif xdef;odrf;oifhonf?
rnfonfhenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh xdef;odrf;a&;aqmif ½Gufoifhonfudk od&SdEkdifrnfjzpfygonf/
66/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;wGif atmufaz:jyyg Conponents rsm;yg0ifonf-
(u) Disk Platters
( c) Logic Board
( *) Read/Write Heads
(C) Cable and Connector
( i) Head Actuator Mechanism
( p) Configuration Items (Jumper or Switches)
(q) Spindle Motor
67/ Hard Disk onftvHkydwfxm;aom oHbl;i,fwpfckjzpfygonf/ 4if;oHbl;i,f
twGif;wGif&Sdaom ypönf;rsm;udk atmufaz:jyygyHktwdkif;awGU&SdEdkifygonf/

yHk (33)
Contents
53 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

68/ txufygyHtk & Iron Oxide jzifh Coating vkyx f m;aom puf0ikd ;f yHk tvlreD ,
D rfjym;rsm;udk
Shaft wpfckwGiftaowyfqifxm;NyD; Spindle Motor jzifhvnfywfapygonf/ (1 rdepfvQif
tywfaygif; 5400? 7200? 10000 txd vnfywfEdkifonf)/ tcsuftvufrsm;udk Head jzifh
ñdIUízwfygonf/ rsufESmjyifwpfzufwGif Head wpfckpD wyfqifxm;NyD; 4if; Head rsm;onf
Fly Head Principle jzifh Platter \rsufESmjyifESifh 1 vufr\ tyHk 1 oef;yHkvQif 3 yHkcefY
tuGmta0; (3 µ in) rSñdIUízwfonf/
69/ ,if;odkY Head rSzwfaepOf (Hard Disk tvkyfvkyfaepOf? Hard Disk LED vif;aepOf)
User rS Proper Shut Down rjyKvkyfojzifhvnf;aumif;? rD;ysufjcif; rD;tm;avsmhusjcif; ponfh
Electrical Power Problem jzpfojzifhvnf;aumif;? vnfywfrI½kwfw&uf&yfwefYjcif;aMumifh
yifhtm;&aeaom Head rSm yifhtm;r&awmhbJ Platter \rsufESmjyifESifhxdcdkufrdojzifh Head
Crack jzpfum Data rsm;aysmufqHk;Edkifonfhtjyif Hard Disk rSmvnf; ysufpD;Edkifygonf/
70/ rD;tm;jyóemrsm;aMumifhvnf;aumif;? oHk;pGJol\toHk;rjyKwwfrIaMumifhvnf;aumif;
Head Crack jzpfEi kd o
f uJo
h Ykd Logic Card udv
k nf; ysupf ;D cRw,
f iG ;f Edik yf gonf/ odjYk zpfí vQypf pfr;D
jyóemrsm;jzpfaom (Spike, Noise, Surge, Brown Out, Black Out) ponfwdkYudkyg
umuG,fwm;qD;&ef vdktyfojzifY trsdK;tpm;aumif;rGefaom UPS ESifY Surge Protector rsm;udk
tokH;jyK&ef vdktyfygonf/ owfrSwfcsufESifhudkufnDaom Ground System &dS&efESifh oHk;pGJolrS
rSefuefpGm toHk;jyKwwf&efvnf; vdktyfygonf/
71/ Hard Disk onf atmufaz:jyygyHkrsm;twdkif; puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif; Tracks rsm;jzifh
tcsuftvufrsm;udk Magnetic Sport rsm;tjzpfzefwD;í " 1, 0 " rsm;tjzpf odrf;qnf;ygonf/
Platter rsufESmjyifwdkif;wGif Track rsm;wnf&Sdav&m rsufESmjyifrsm;&Sd eHygwfwlnDaom Track
rsm;udk pkpnf;jcif;jzifh Cylinder [kac:qdkEdkifygonf/
123
123
Spindle
123 Head Arm Platter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Head
123
123
123
123
123
123
123 Cylinder
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
yHk (34)
123
123
123
123
123
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 54

72/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;\tcsuftvuf odkavSmifEdkifrIyrmPudk Cylinder ta&twGuf?


Head ta&twGu?f Sector ta&twGuaf y:wGif rlwnfí wGuc f suEf ikd yf g onf/ atmufaz:jyyg
yH(k 9)onf Capacity rsm;rsm; odr;f qnf;Edik &f eftwGuf wpfvufrwGif &Sad om Track ta&twGuf
udk wdk;íxm;&Sdjcif;? wpfvufrwGif&Sdaom 1, 0 ta&twGuf bit ta&twGufudk wdk;íxm;&Sdjcif;
jzifh &&SdEdkifygonf/ þtcsufonf Platter tcsif;0ufcsif;wlaomfvnf; odrf;qnf;EdkifrIyrmP
enf;&jcif;? rsm;&jcif;\ t"dutcsufyifjzpfonf/
Tracks per Inch ( TPI ) Tracks per Inch ( TPI )

Bits Bits
per per
Inch Inch
(BPI) (BPI)

Track
Lower Higher
Bits
Areal Areal
Density Density

yHk (35)
73/ Hard Disk \ Platter Surface wGiaf tmufaz:jyyg yH(k 10)twdik ;f puf0ikd ;f yHv
k rf; aMumif;
(Track) ESifh Sector rsm;cGJí tcsuftvufrsm;odrf;qnf;onf/

Track

} Sector

yHk (36)
Contents
55 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

74/ Hard Disk \puf0dkif;ykHvrf;aMumif;rsm;wGif tjyiftusqHk; puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif;udk


Track 0 [kac:onf/ 4if; Track 0 onf Hard Disk \ta&;BuD;qHk;tpdwftydkif; (System
Area) jzpf&m Track 0 Bad jzpfomG ;ygu tcsut f vufrsm; ysuq
f ;D qH;k ½I;H Ny;D Hard Disk wpfcv
k ;kH
oHk;r&aom tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ tjyiftusqHk; Track rStwGif;bufodkY
a&muf&SdoGm;onfESifh eHygwfydkBuD;vmrnf jzpfygonf/ (eg : Track 1024)
Outer Track

Middle Track
yHk (37)
Inner Track

Cylinders Outer Cylinder

MiddleCylinder

Inner Cylinder

yHk (38)
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 56

Hard Disk Features


75/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;tm;a½G;cs,f&mü-
(u) Reliability (,HkMunfpdwfcs&rI)
( c) Capacity (odkavSmifEdkifrIyrmP)
( *) Interface Type (csdwfqufEdkifonfhpepf)
(C) SMART (Self Monitoring And Reporting Technique)
( i) Head Technology (Head wnfaqmufxm;onfh enf;ynm)
( p) MTBF (oufwrf;umv)
( q) Shock Mounting (vIyf&Sm;rI'PfcHEdkif&ef txdef;rsm;)
( Z ) Speed (tjrefEIef;)
( ps) Cost (wefzdk;aiG) wdkYudkMunfhí a½G;cs,foifhygonf/
76/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;\oufwrf;udk MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) jzifh
wdkif;wm onf/ MTBF rSm 20000 rS 50000 em&D txufwGif&SdEdkifygonf/ (Oyrm/ MTBF
t& em&D (5)aomif; &Sdaom Hard Disk wpfvHk;udk (1) &ufvQif (8) em&DMumtoHk;jyKygu
(17)ESpfMumtoHk;jyKEdkifNyD; (24)em&DtjynfhtoHk;jyKrnfqdkygu (6)ESpfcefY toHk;jyKEdkifaMumif;
wGucf sucf efrY eS ;f Edik yf gonf/) 4if;onf oDt&kd t
D & oufwrf;yifjzpf&m wu,fvufawGUwGif tjcm;
xdcdkufEdkifzG,f tajctaersm;udkyg xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf/
77/ Hard Disk udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifhxdef;odrf;rIrsm;
(u) uGeyf sLwmtm; rD;zGijhf cif;? rD;ydwjf cif;wdu Yk kd owfrw S cf suEf iS thf nD vkyaf qmif&rnf/
( c) Hard Disk rD;vif;aepOf (odkY) tvkyfvkyfaepOf rydwf&? rvIyf&Sm;&yg/
( *) Hard Disk Utility , File System Utility Software rsm;toHk;jyK&mwGif
ruRr;f usib f J toH;k rjyKoifyh g/ owdjyK&rnft h csurf sm;udk aocsmpGmzwf½NI y;D rSom
oHk;oifhygonf/ (Data rsm;udktjcm; Media wpfckckwGif Backup jyKvkyfNyD;rSom
oHk;pGJoifhygonf/)
(C) CMOS Setup &S d Hard Disk ES i f h y wf o uf a om tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k
jyKjyifajymif; vJrIjyKvkyf&mwGif owdjyKyg/
( i) Hard Disk udo k ifah wmfaom Hard Disk Utility rsm;jzifh Scan Disk jyKvyk jf cif;?
Defragment jyKvy k jf cif;rsm;jzifh yHrk eS x
f ed ;f odr;f rI aqmif½u G af y;&ef vdtk yfygonf/
(Norton Utility jzpfygu Norton Disk Doctor jyKvkyfay;jcif;? Speed Disk
jyKvkyfjcif;rsm;jzifh yHkrSefxdef;odrf;rI aqmif½Gufoifhygonf/)
Contents
57 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

Floppy Disk Drives

78/ Flopy Disk Drives rsm;wGif a&;EdkifzwfEdkifaom Read / Write Head onf
rsuEf mS jyifwpfzuftwGuf wpfcpk ½D o dS nf/ Floopy Drive wpfckwnfaqmufrIudk yHk (39)
jzifah zmfjyxm;ygonf/ Floopy Drive onfwpfrdepfvQif tywfaygif; 300 ESifh 360
xdvnfywfEikd o f nf/ Head ESihf Diskette \rsuEf mS jyifukd xdízwfjcif;aMumifh zHrk sm;aom
ae&mwGifxm;½Sdygu Diskette ESifh Head rsm;Mum;wGifzHkrsm;Mum;cHí yGwfwdkufrdum
Diskette ESifh Head rsm;ysup f ;D Edik yf gonf/ Head Cleaning Disk jzifh Clean jyKvkyfí
oefY ½Sif;rIaqmif ½GufEdkifaomfvnf; Cleaning Disk jzifh tBurd Bf urd tf oH;k jyK&efroifyh g/
79/ Floppy Drive wpfckwGif wnfaqmufxm;aom tpdyftydkif;rsm;tm; atmuf
az:jyyg yHk(39)wGif awGU&SdavhvmEdkifygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 58

Floppy Disk
31/ Floppy Disk wpfcsyf \ puf0dkif;;yHkvrf;aMumif;ESifh Sector rsm;pdyfydkif;xm;yHkudk
atmufygtwdkif;awGU&dS&rnfjzpfygonf-

Platter

Floppy Disk ESifh Head vIyf&Sm;rI


yHk (40)
Contents
59 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

81/ Floopy Disk rsm;udk Plastic Material jzifhjyKvkyfxm;onf/ puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif;rsm;


Sector rsm;cGJí tcsuftvufrsm; udkodrf;qnf;ygonf/ 5¼ ESifh 3½ Floopy Disk wdkY\
odrf;qnf;EdkifrIyrmPrsm;udk atmufygZ,m;rsm;twdkif;awGY½SdEdkifygonf-
Diskette on its Capacity
For 5¼" Track Sector Byte/Sector Total
1. Single Sided Double Density 40 x 8 x 512 = 160 KB
(SSDD) 40 x 9 x 512 = 180 KB
2. Double Sided Double Density (40 x 9 x 512) x 2 = 360 KB
(DSDD)
3. Double Sided High Density (80 x 15 x 512) x 2 = 1.2 MB
(DSHD)
For 3½" Track Sector Byte/Sector Total
1. Double Sided Double Density (80 x 9 x 512) x 2 = 720 KB
(DSDD)
2. Double Sided Quad Density (80 x 18 x 512) x 2 = 1.44 MB
(DSQD)
3. Double Sided High Density (80 x 36 x 512) x 2 = 2.88 MB
(DSHD)
Z,m; (8)
82/ Floppy Disk & Drive ud k t oH k ; jyKaepOf o wd j yKxd e f ; od r f ; &rnf h t csuf r sm;/
atmufygtcsufrsm;udk owdjyKvkyfaqmif&ygrnf-
(u) jyifyrS Diskette rsm;toH;k jyKrnfqykd gu Virus &S^d r&Sd ppfaq;Ny;D rStoH;k jyK&rnf/
( c) zkefwufaeaom? rIdwufaeaom? ysufpD;aeom Diskette rsm;tm; toHkrjyK&yg/
( *) Diskette \rsufESmjyiftm; vufjzifhudkifwG,fjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/
(C) Diskette rsm;tm; oHvu kd pf ufuiG ;f &Sad om? tylrsm;aom ae&mrsm;wGif rxm;&yg/
( i) Floppy Drive zwfaepOf Diskette tm;txkwftoGif;rjyKvkyf&yg/
( p) Diskette tm;ajymif;jyefrxnfhrdap&ef owdjyK&rnf/
(q) Floppy Drive \ Head wGifzkefwufjcif;? rIduyfjcif;rsm;jzpfay:í zwfr&ygu
Cleaning Disk jzifh Cleaning vkyfay;&ef vdktyfygonf/ odkYaomf Cleaning
Disk jzifh tBudrfBudrfjyKvkyfygu Head ysufpD;Edkifygonf/
( Z) uGefysLwmtm; jyifyodkYo,faqmif&mwGif Floppy Drive twGif; Diskette
xnfhvQuf o,faqmifjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 60

CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory)


34/ ,cktcg CD-ROM Drive rsm;onf PC rsm;wGif Standard Equipment
tjzpfyg&Sdvmygonf/ CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) onf
Optical Storage Medium wpfckjzpfNyD; 682 Milliom Byte or 650 MB udkzwf½Hk
oufoufom toH;k jyKEikd yf gonf/,cktcg Plane CD ay:ü Record vkyu f modr;f qnf;
Edkifaom CD-R Drive rsm;ay:vmNyD;t*Fvdyftu©&m rsm;jzifh ½dkufEdSyfodrf;qnf;ygu
Text pmrsuE f mS 333,000 Pages eD;yg; (odkYr [kwf) t&nftaoG;aumif;rGefaom toH
udo k rd ;f qnf;ygu 74 Minutes pmudo k rd ;f qnf;xm;Edik yf gonf/ wpfpuúet
Yf wGuf Block
wpfckvQif 2048 Byte ygaom Block aygif; 75 ckyg&So d nf/
Contents
61 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

85/ CD-ROM Drive wpfck\tvkyfvkyfyHk


(u) avqma&mifjcnfxkwfvTwfjcif;/avqm'dkiftkyfonf Energy tenf;i,fom
&Sdaom Infrared tvif;a&mifwef;ufk rSefjym;ay:odkYxkwfvTwfonf/
( c) Servo Motor rScsdefn§djcif;/ Servo Motor onf Microprocessor rS ydv Yk w
T f
aom ñTefMum;csuftwdkif; vkyfaqmifNyD; tvif;a&mifwef;\ taetxm;udk
CD-ROM ay:&Sd vrf;aMumif;ay:odkY a&muf&Sdatmif rSefjym;rsm;udk a½GUvsm;
apjcif;jzifh csdefñd§yg onf/
( *) avqm"gwfjym;ufkxd½dkufrdjcif;? tvif;jyefjcif;ESifhpkpkHapjcif;/tvif;a&mif
wef;onf avqmDisk zefjym;udk xd½dkufrdNyD;aemuf tvif;jyefrI jzpfapygonf/
jyefvmaom tvif;a&mifwef;udk jyefvnfpkpnf;&eftwGuf rSefbDvl;wGif
jzwfoef;aponf/ xdkYaemuf rSefjym;rsm;udkjzwfí tvif;a&mifwef;udk cGJxkwf
onfh Beam Spliter odkYydkYvTwfygonf/
(C) jyefvmaomavqma&mifjcnfwef;ukd pkqkHapjcif;/ Beam Splitter onf
jyef v maoma&mif j cnf w ef ; uk d pk q k H r I a umif ; ap&ef t wG u f pk q k H r S e f b D v l ;
aemufwpfckokdY ykdYvTwfonf/
( i) tvif;a&miftcsufjyrsm;ukdvQyfppftcsufjyrsm;tjzpfajymif;jcif;/ aemufqkH;
tqifhwGif avqma&mifjcnfwef;ukd Photo detecotr okdY ay;ykdYonfh Photo
detector onf tvif;a&mifudk jywfawmif;jywfawmif; vQyp f pfvidI ;f tcsujf yrsm;
tjzpfokdYajymif;ay;onf/
( p) CD Drive wGif Microprocessor rS Process jyKvkyfjcif;/
Microprocessor onf¤if;xHokdY 0ifvmaom impulse rsm;ukd uGefysLwmokdY
datarsm; tjzpfykdYvTwfygonf/
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 62
MultiBeam Technology
86/ jrefqefaom CD-ROM Drive rsm;ESifh DVD (Digital Video Disk) wdkYonf
wpfBurd wf iG f puf0ikd ;f yHv
k rf;aMumif;wpfco k m or½k;d uszwfonfeh nf;ynmrS Track rsm;pGm
udk wpfBudrfwnf;ESifh jrefqefpGmzwfEdkifonfh Multi Beam / True X Technology udk
Zer Research ukrÜPDrSwDxGifcJhygonf/ atmufaz:jyygyHkonf puf0dkif;yHk vrf;aMumif;
(7)ckukd avqma&mifjcnfrsm;jzifw h pfNyKd iwf nf;zwf&ef rnfov
Ykd yk af qmifonfukd &Si;f vif;
jyoxm;aomyHkjzpfygonf/

Multi-beam
Dector

Beam Splitter

Lenses

Laser Diode

MultiBeam Technology allows seven tracks to be read at once.

yHk (47)
Contents
63 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

CD-ROM Drive Specification


87/ CD-ROM wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEdkifrIrsm;udk atmufygtcsufrsm;jzifh wdkif;wmygonf-
(u) Data Transfer Rate (CD-ROM rStcsuftvufydkYvTwfEdkifonfh yrmP)
( c) Access Time (tcsuftvufzwf&efMumcsdef)
( *) Buffer / Cache (tcsuftvufrsm; acwåodrf;qnf;&ef CD Drive twGif;&Sd
rSwfÓPfyrmP)
(C) CPU Utilization (CPU \xdef;csKyfrIjzifh vkyfaqmifrItwdkif;twm)
( i) DMA (Direct Memory Access udktoHk;jyKí CPU \xdef;csKyfrI tenf;qHk;
jzifhvkyfaqmifEdkifrI)
( p) Interface (uGefysLwmpepfESifh csdwfqufrI)
(q) Loading Mechanism (CD xnfhoGif;pepf)

CD-ROM Drive \tjrefEIef;rsm;ESifh Access Time rsm;


Drive Speed Transfer Rate(bps) Transfer Rate(KB/sec) Access Time (ms)
1x 153,600 150 400
2x 307,200 300 300
3x 460,800 450 200
4x 614,400 600 150
6x 921,600 900 150
8x 1,228,800 1,200 100
10x 1,536,000 1,500 100
12x 1,843,200 1,800 100
16x 2,457,600 2,400 90
18x 2,764,800 2,700 90

}
24x 3,686,400 3,600 90
32x 4,915,200 4,800
36x 5,529,600 5,400
40x 6,114,000 6,000
48x 7,372,800 7,200 85~75 or less
52x 7,987,200 7,500
100x 15,360,000 15,000

Z,m; (9)
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 64

CD-ROM Format
Format Used For Notes
Red Book Digital audio CDs This standard, a.k.a. CDDA (Compact Disc Digital
Audio), was codeveloped by Philips and Sony
Yellow Book Computer CDs Specifies physical arrangement of sector. ISO Mode
1:9660
Level 1: PC, Apple, UNIX, DVI
Level 2: CDTV
ISO 9660, HFS, and HFS-ISO are used with Yellow
Book to define file and directory structures. See also
Mode 1, Mode 2, and CD-ROM/XA, which define
sector formats.
White Book VideoCD Stores MPEG 1, MPEG 2, and similar video sources.
Has replaced VHS video in southeast Asia for flim
distribution
Orange Book Writable CDs Port I-Magneto-Optical Drives
including CD-R, Port II-CD-R
magneto-optical, single and
multisession recording and
packet writing
Green Book Combination of Red Book and CD-ROM/XA can be played on either CD-I or
Yellow Book - for CD-I CD-ROM drives; CD-I has been used for interactive
(Interactive CD) sales presentations and kiosks
CD+(Enhance CD) Combines music and computer Used by musical artists to incoporate video and
data on single CD interviews on music CDs
Z,m; (10)
88/ CD & CD Drive udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifhxdef;odrf;rIrsm;
(u) CD rsm;udk Virus ygrygppfaq;NyD;rS toHk;jyKyg/
( c) zkefwufaeaom? jcpf&mygaom? zefom;aygufaeaom CD rsm;udk toHk;rjyK&yg/
( *) zkew
f ufaeaom CD rsm;udk owfrw S x
f m;aom Cleaning Kit jzifo
h m oef&Y iS ;f rI
jyKvkyfoifhygonf/
(C) Format rwlízwfr&aom CD rsm;tm; xnfhoGif;zwfjcif;udk a&SmifusOf&rnf/
( i) CD Drive twGif;&Sd Lens tm; tjcm;Murf;wrf;onfh ypönf;rsm;jzifh yGwfwdkufí
oefY&Sif;a&;jyKvkyfjcif;tm; a&SmifusOf&rnf/
( p) uGefysLwmtm; jyifyodkYo,faqmif&mwGif CD Drive twGif; CD xnfhvQuf
o,faqmifjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/
(q) CD Drive twGif;rS CD udkxkwfír&ygu ta&;ay: Eject vkyfEdkifonfh
taygufudk toHk;jyKí vkyfaqmifyg/ 4if;taygufonf CD Drive \ rsufESmpm
wGif yg&Sdwwfygonf/
Contents
65 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

( Z) CD Drive &Sd Eject cvkyftm;csufjcif; zGifhydwfrI rjyKvkyfoifhyg/

High Capacity Removable Storage


89/ tcsuftvufrsm;ukd Backup tjzpf odrf;qnf;xm;&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? wpfae&mrS
wpfae&mokdY yrmP BuD;rm;aom File rsm;ukd o,faqmif&mwGifvnf;aumif; atmufaz:jyyg
Magnetic Media ESifh Magneto-optical Drive rsm;ukd tokH;jyKEkdifonf-
(u) High-Capacity Floptical drive (21MB, 120MB, 250MB, 500MB
[lítrsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
( c) Bermoulli Drives(10MB, 35MB, 65MB, 105MB, 150MB [l í
trsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
( *) Zip Drives (100MB, 250MB [lí trsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
(C) JAZ Drives (1GB, 2GB [lítrsKd;rsKd;&Sdonf/)
( i) SyQuest Drives (44MB, 88MB, 270MB, 1GB [lítrsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
( p) Tape Drives (2GB, 4GB, 8GB, 14GB, 24GB, 35 - 70 GB [lítrsdK;rsdK;
&Sdonf)
(q) Optical Storage Drives(CD-ROM, CD-R or CD-RW, DVD)

90/ Removable Storage tcsdKU\ pufrIqkdif&mt&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIrsm;ukd


atmufaz:jyygZ,m;toD;oD;jzifhEIdif;,SOfEkdifygonf-
LS-120 Specifications

Drive Type LS-120 Floppy Standard 1.44MB


Floppy Disk

Fomatted Capacity 120MB 1.44MB


Transfer Rate: parallel port 290KB/sec 45KB/sec
Transfer Rate: Internal IDE 484KB/sec n/a
Average seek time 70ms 84ms
Disk rotational speed 720rpm 300rpm
Track density 2,490tpi 135tpi
Number of tracks 1,736×2 sides 80×2 sides

Z,m; (11)
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 66

Zip Specifications(100 and 250MB Capacity)

Model (Interface) SCSI and/or Parallel Eide

Formatted capacity 100MB or 250MB 100MB or 250MB


Substained transfer rate 1.40MB/sec 1.40 maximum MB/sec
Substained transfer rate 0.79MB/sec 0.79 minimum MB/sec
Maximum throughput 60MB/min(SCSI); 84MB/min
20MB/min(parallel)
Average seek time 29ms 29ms
Disk rotational speed 2,941 rpm 2,941 rpm
Buffer size 32KB 16KB
Z,m; (12)

Jaz Specifications

Model 1GB 2GB

Formatted Capacity 1070 million bytes 2000 million bytes


Transfer rate:
Maximum 6.62MB/sec 8.7MB/sec
Average 5.4MB/sec 7.35MB/sec
Minimum 3.41MB/sec 3.41MB/sec
Burst 10MB/sec 20MB/sec
Average seek time read 10 ms 10 ms
Average seek time write 12 ms 12 ms
Acess Time 15.5-17.5ms 15.5-17.5ms
Disk Rotational speed 5400rpm 5394rpm
Buffer size 256KB 512KB
Interface Fast SCSI II Ultra SCSI
Z,m; (13)
Contents
67 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

DAT and 8mm Tape specifications

Tape Capacity Tracks


Standard (w/o Com- Data Appro- Tape Recording Encoding
pression) Density ximate Length Technology Format Interface

DAT 2GB/4GB 114MB/in 1869 195 ft./ Helical Scan DDS* SCSI
(Digital AudioTape) 300 ft. DataDAT

Video
Tape 14GB n/a n/a 120m Helical Scan

*DDS=Digital Data Storage


DDS-1 drives store 2GB of uncopressed data(4GB Compressed)
DDS-2 drives can store 4GB of uncompressed data(up to 8GB with compression)
DDS-3 drives have a native 12GB capacity or 24GB compressed
Z,m; (14)

SparQ Specifications

Formatted Capacity 1008 milion bytes

Transfer rate:
Maximum 6.9MB/sec
Minimum 3.7MB/sec
Burst (PIO mode 4) 16.6MB/sec
Substained transfer rate: parallel version 1.25MB/sec
Average seek time 12ms
Disk rotational speed 5,400rpm
Burst (PIO mode 4) 16.6MB/sec
Substained transfer rate: parallel version 1.25MB/sec
Average seek time 12ms
Disk rotational speed 5,400rpm
Z,m; (15)
Contents
PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading 68

Removeable Drive Specifications


Disk/Cartridge Average Data
Drive Type Capacity Seek Time Transfer Rate

lomega Zip Parallel 100MB 29ms 1.4MB/sec


lomega Zip IDE 100MB 29ms 1.4MB/sec
lomega Zip SCSI 100MB 29ms 1.4MB/sec
Imation LS-120 Internal 120MB 70ms 4.0MB/sec
SyQest 235 Parallel 235MB 13.5ms 1.25MB/sec
Avatar Shark 250 Parallel 250MB 12ms 2.0MB/sec
SyQest 235 SCSI/IDE 235MB 13.5ms 2.4MB/sec
lomega Jaz (SCSI) 2GB 12ms 5.4MB/sec
Avatar Shark IDE 250M 12ms 2.5MB/sec
SyQest Syjet SISC 1.5GB 12ms 5.3MB/sec
SyQest Syjet IDE 1.5GB 12ms 5.3MB/sec
SyQest SparQ Parallel 1GB 12ms 1.25MB/sec
CD-R Drives 650MB <150ms 150KB/sec
Z,m; (16)

91/ uGeyf sLwmtok;H jyKorl sm;taejzifh ta&;Bu;D aom tcsutf vufrsm; rqk;H ½I;H apa&;twGuf
trsdK;tpm;rwlaom Media (3)rsdK;jzifh ykHrSef Backup jyKvkyfxm;oifhygonf/ Removable
Drive 0,f,l&mwGif atmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;ukd pOf;pm;oifhonf-
(u) 1MB odrf;qnf;&eftwGuf ukefusrnfhaiG (Price per megabyte of storage)
( c) a&;Edkif? zwfEkdifonfh tjrefEIef; (Access time)
( *) rnfonfhuGefysLwmESifhrqkd csdwfquftokH;jyKEkdifjcif;ESifh o,faqmif&vG,fuljcif;
(C) uGefysLwmtwGif; (okdYr[kwf) jyifywGifwyfqifEkdifjcif; (Internal or External)
( i) uGeyf sLwmtm; Ready jzpfatmifjyKvyk Ef idk jf cif; (Bootable)ponfwYkd jzpfygonf/
Contents
69 PC Hardware, Maintenance & Upgrading

DVD Formats and Standards


Standard DVD Formats and Capacities
Data Video
Format Disk Size Sides Layers Capacity Capacity
DVD-ROM Formats and Capacities
DVD-5 120 mm Single Single 4.7 GB 2+ hours
DVD-9 120 mm Single Double 8.5 GB 4 hours
DVD-10 120 mm Double Single 9.4 GB 4.5 hours
DVD-14 120 mm Double Double 13.24GB 6.5 hours
DVD-18 120 mm Double Double 17 GB 8+ hours
DVD-1 80 mm Single Single 1.4 GB 0.5 hours
DVD-2 80mm Single Double 2.7 GB 1.3 hours
DVD-3 80mm Double Single 2.9 GB 1.4 hours
DVD-4 80mm Double Double 5.3 GB 2.5 hours
Recordable DVD Formats and Capacities
DVD-R1.0 120 mm Single Single 3.95 GB
DVD-R2.0 120 mm Single Single 7.4 GB
DVD-RAM 1.0 120 mm Single Single 2.58 GB
DVD-RAM1.0 120 mm Double Single 5.16 GB
DVD-RAM2.0 120 mm Single Single 4.7 GB
DVD-RAM2.0 120 mm Double Single 9.4 GB
DVD-RAM2.0 120 mm Double Single 1.4 GB
CD-ROM Formats and Capacities (For Comparison)
CD-ROM 120 mm Single Single 0.65 GB
CD-ROM 120 mm Single Single 0.194 GB

Z,m; (17)
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