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{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_BARONS_DESCR}Count Raymond V\n\n\n\nToulouse was conquered by

the Franks in 507 (battle of Vouill) from the Kingdom of the Visigoths, along wi
th the whole of Aquitaine, which was governed separately from the kingdoms of Ne
ustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy. In 629 Charibert II entered into an agreement w
ith his half-brother Dagobert I to receive the new Kingdom of Aquitaine instead
of Neustria, which included Gascony and Toulouse. The County of Toulouse was cr
eated as part of the new Kingdom of Aquitaine and, very probably, the first Coun
t, Torson, received investiture by Charlemagne in 778.
In 1112, Alfonso Giordano succeeded in the titles of Count of Toulouse and Marqu
is of Provence. Around 1140, King Louis VII of France, encouraged by his wife E
leanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, prepared an invasion against the County of Toulous
e due to his claims on the County of Toulouse as a grandson of Philippa of Toulo
use; the expedition, personally led by King Louis VII, departed in June 1141 and
moved quickly on Toulouse. The attempted conquest proved unsuccessful and aft
er a few weeks the French forces withdrew without having achieved any results. I
n 1148 Alfonso Giordano participated in the second Crusade and returned to the H
oly Land, where he was poisoned. He was succeeded by his son Raymond.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_BARONS_TITLE}County of Toulouse
{FULL_BARONS_DESCR}Count Raymond V\n\n\n\nToulouse was conquered by the Franks i
n 507 (battle of Vouill) from the Kingdom of the Visigoths, along with the whole
of Aquitaine, which was governed separately from the kingdoms of Neustria, Austr
asia, and Burgundy. In 629 Charibert II entered into an agreement with his halfbrother Dagobert I to receive the new Kingdom of Aquitaine instead of Neustria,
which included Gascony and Toulouse. The County of Toulouse was created as part
of the new Kingdom of Aquitaine and, very probably, the first Count, Torson, re
ceived investiture by Charlemagne in 778.
In 1112, Alfonso Giordano succeeded in the titles of Count of Toulouse and Marqu
is of Provence. Around 1140, King Louis VII of France, encouraged by his wife E
leanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, prepared an invasion against the County of Toulous
e due to his claims on the County of Toulouse as a grandson of Philippa of Toulo
use; the expedition, personally led by King Louis VII, departed in June 1141 and
moved quickly on Toulouse. The attempted conquest proved unsuccessful and aft
er a few weeks the French forces withdrew without having achieved any results. I
n 1148 Alfonso Giordano participated in the second Crusade and returned to the H
oly Land, where he was poisoned. He was succeeded by his son Raymond.
{FULL_BARONS_TITLE}County of Toulouse
{LIGHT_BARONS_DESCR}Count Raymond V\n\n\n\nToulouse was conquered by the Franks
in 507 (battle of Vouill) from the Kingdom of the Visigoths, along with the whole
of Aquitaine, which was governed separately from the kingdoms of Neustria, Aust
rasia, and Burgundy. In 629 Charibert II entered into an agreement with his half
-brother Dagobert I to receive the new Kingdom of Aquitaine instead of Neustria,
which included Gascony and Toulouse. The County of Toulouse was created as par
t of the new Kingdom of Aquitaine and, very probably, the first Count, Torson, r
eceived investiture by Charlemagne in 778.
In 1112, Alfonso Giordano succeeded in the titles of Count of Toulouse and Marqu
is of Provence. Around 1140, King Louis VII of France, encouraged by his wife E
leanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, prepared an invasion against the County of Toulous
e due to his claims on the County of Toulouse as a grandson of Philippa of Toulo
use; the expedition, personally led by King Louis VII, departed in June 1141 and
moved quickly on Toulouse. The attempted conquest proved unsuccessful and aft
er a few weeks the French forces withdrew without having achieved any results. I
n 1148 Alfonso Giordano participated in the second Crusade and returned to the H
oly Land, where he was poisoned. He was succeeded by his son Raymond.
{LIGHT_BARONS_TITLE}County of Toulouse
{FEUDAL_FULL_BARONS_DESCR}Count Raymond V\n\n\n\nToulouse was conquered by the F
ranks in 507 (battle of Vouill) from the Kingdom of the Visigoths, along with the

whole of Aquitaine, which was governed separately from the kingdoms of Neustria
, Austrasia, and Burgundy. In 629 Charibert II entered into an agreement with hi
s half-brother Dagobert I to receive the new Kingdom of Aquitaine instead of Neu
stria, which included Gascony and Toulouse. The County of Toulouse was created
as part of the new Kingdom of Aquitaine and, very probably, the first Count, Tor
son, received investiture by Charlemagne in 778.
In 1112, Alfonso Giordano succeeded in the titles of Count of Toulouse and Marqu
is of Provence. Around 1140, King Louis VII of France, encouraged by his wife E
leanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, prepared an invasion against the County of Toulous
e due to his claims on the County of Toulouse as a grandson of Philippa of Toulo
use; the expedition, personally led by King Louis VII, departed in June 1141 and
moved quickly on Toulouse. The attempted conquest proved unsuccessful and aft
er a few weeks the French forces withdrew without having achieved any results. I
n 1148 Alfonso Giordano participated in the second Crusade and returned to the H
oly Land, where he was poisoned. He was succeeded by his son Raymond.
{FEUDAL_FULL_BARONS_TITLE}County of Toulouse
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_BARONS_DESCR} Count Raymond V\n\n\n\nToulouse was conquered by the
Franks in 507 (battle of Vouill) from the Kingdom of the Visigoths, along with t
he whole of Aquitaine, which was governed separately from the kingdoms of Neustr
ia, Austrasia, and Burgundy. In 629 Charibert II entered into an agreement with
his half-brother Dagobert I to receive the new Kingdom of Aquitaine instead of N
eustria, which included Gascony and Toulouse. The County of Toulouse was create
d as part of the new Kingdom of Aquitaine and, very probably, the first Count, T
orson, received investiture by Charlemagne in 778.
In 1112, Alfonso Giordano succeeded in the titles of Count of Toulouse and Marqu
is of Provence. Around 1140, King Louis VII of France, encouraged by his wife E
leanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, prepared an invasion against the County of Toulous
e due to his claims on the County of Toulouse as a grandson of Philippa of Toulo
use; the expedition, personally led by King Louis VII, departed in June 1141 and
moved quickly on Toulouse. The attempted conquest proved unsuccessful and aft
er a few weeks the French forces withdrew without having achieved any results. I
n 1148 Alfonso Giordano participated in the second Crusade and returned to the H
oly Land, where he was poisoned. He was succeeded by his son Raymond.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_BARONS_TITLE}County of Toulouse
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_EMIRS_DESCR}Master Muhammad\n\n\n\nThe Nizarites, also known
as Assassins (from the Arabic al-Haiiyyun) were a militant Ismaili sect, active be
tween the 8th and 14th century in the Middle East. The height of their activity
occurred in Persia and Syria from the 11th century on, following a major split o
f the Ismaili faction in 1094, under the guidance of Hasan-i Sabbah, known as "T
he Old Man of the Mountain", whose stronghold was Alamut, in northern Persia, be
tween Tehran and the Caspian Sea.\n\nThe adepts were divided into varying degree
s of the sect, from novice to Grand Master, according to their level of educatio
n, reliability and courage, while following an intensive physical training and i
ndoctrination.\n\nHasan terrified his enemies through individual murders: member
s of the sect were sent, individually or in small groups, with the mission to ki
ll a person. Executions, in order to make a greater impression, were conducted
in public mosques, preferably on Fridays, Islam's holy day. The assassins were
usually killed while carrying out their mission. The serenity with which they ma
ssacred their victims made contemporaries think that the hit men were hashish ad
dicts, whence the nickname hashashiyyun ("grass eaters"), from which Assassin is
derived. The death of the Fatimid Imam in Cairo, in 1094, opened a war between
his two sons Nizar and Mustali for the succession. Hasan sided with Nizar (hence
the term Nizarite), but the partisans of the latter were defeated in Egypt: this
event marked the separation between the Ismaili of Alamut and all other Ismailis
. Under the strict rule of Hasan the Hashshashin prospered.\n\nThe Seljuk Turks,
constituted a permanent threat; they undertook several campaigns against the Ha
shshashin, but without major success. In response, Hasan opened a campaign of as

sassinations targeting Seljuk military and political leaders. One of the first v
ictims was the vizier of the Seljuk Sultans, Nizam al-Mulk, in 1092. During the
12th century the role of the Hashishin was crucial and almost always very danger
ous to the survival of the sect, in a ground (the Holy Land) contended between t
he forces of the Crusader States, the Sunni Seljuk Turks, and the Shiite Egyptia
ns...
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_EMIRS_TITLE}Nizarite Sect
{FULL_EMIRS_DESCR}Master Muhammad\n\n\n\nThe Nizarites, also known as Assassins
(from the Arabic al-Haiiyyun) were a militant Ismaili sect, active between the 8th
and 14th century in the Middle East. The height of their activity occurred in P
ersia and Syria from the 11th century on, following a major split of the Ismaili
faction in 1094, under the guidance of Hasan-i Sabbah, known as "The Old Man of
the Mountain", whose stronghold was Alamut, in northern Persia, between Tehran
and the Caspian Sea.\n\nThe adepts were divided into varying degrees of the sect
, from novice to Grand Master, according to their level of education, reliabilit
y and courage, while following an intensive physical training and indoctrination
.\n\nHasan terrified his enemies through individual murders: members of the sect
were sent, individually or in small groups, with the mission to kill a person.
Executions, in order to make a greater impression, were conducted in public mos
ques, preferably on Fridays, Islam s holy day. The assassins were usually kille
d while carrying out their mission. The serenity with which they massacred their
victims made contemporaries think that the hit men were hashish addicts, whence
the nickname hashashiyyun ("grass eaters"), from which Assassin is derived. Th
e death of the Fatimid Imam in Cairo, in 1094, opened a war between his two sons
Nizar and Mustali for the succession. Hasan sided with Nizar (hence the term Niza
rite), but the partisans of the latter were defeated in Egypt: this event marked
the separation between the Ismaili of Alamut and all other Ismailis. Under the s
trict rule of Hasan the Hashshashin prospered.\n\nThe Seljuk Turks, constituted
a permanent threat; they undertook several campaigns against the Hashshashin, bu
t without major success. In response, Hasan opened a campaign of assassinations
targeting Seljuk military and political leaders. One of the first victims was th
e vizier of the Seljuk Sultans, Nizam al-Mulk, in 1092. During the 12th century
the role of the Hashishin was crucial and almost always very dangerous to the su
rvival of the sect, in a ground (the Holy Land) contended between the forces of
the Crusader States, the Sunni Seljuk Turks, and the Shiite Egyptians...
{FULL_EMIRS_TITLE}Nizarite Sect
{LIGHT_EMIRS_DESCR}Master Muhammad\n\n\n\nThe Nizarites, also known as Assassins
(from the Arabic al-Haiiyyun) were a militant Ismaili sect, active between the 8t
h and 14th century in the Middle East. The height of their activity occurred in
Persia and Syria from the 11th century on, following a major split of the Ismail
i faction in 1094, under the guidance of Hasan-i Sabbah, known as "The Old Man o
f the Mountain", whose stronghold was Alamut, in northern Persia, between Tehran
and the Caspian Sea.\n\nThe adepts were divided into varying degrees of the sec
t, from novice to Grand Master, according to their level of education, reliabili
ty and courage, while following an intensive physical training and indoctrinatio
n.\n\nHasan terrified his enemies through individual murders: members of the sec
t were sent, individually or in small groups, with the mission to kill a person.
Executions, in order to make a greater impression, were conducted in public mo
sques, preferably on Fridays, Islam s holy day. The assassins were usually kill
ed while carrying out their mission. The serenity with which they massacred thei
r victims made contemporaries think that the hit men were hashish addicts, whenc
e the nickname hashashiyyun ("grass eaters"), from which Assassin is derived. T
he death of the Fatimid Imam in Cairo, in 1094, opened a war between his two son
s Nizar and Mustali for the succession. Hasan sided with Nizar (hence the term Niz
arite), but the partisans of the latter were defeated in Egypt: this event marked
the separation between the Ismaili of Alamut and all other Ismailis. Under the
strict rule of Hasan the Hashshashin prospered.\n\nThe Seljuk Turks, constituted
a permanent threat; they undertook several campaigns against the Hashshashin, b

ut without major success. In response, Hasan opened a campaign of assassinations


targeting Seljuk military and political leaders. One of the first victims was t
he vizier of the Seljuk Sultans, Nizam al-Mulk, in 1092. During the 12th century
the role of the Hashishin was crucial and almost always very dangerous to the s
urvival of the sect, in a ground (the Holy Land) contended between the forces of
the Crusader States, the Sunni Seljuk Turks, and the Shiite Egyptians...
{LIGHT_EMIRS_TITLE}Nizarite Sect
{FEUDAL_FULL_EMIRS_DESCR}Master Muhammad\n\n\n\nThe Nizarites, also known as Ass
assins (from the Arabic al-Haiiyyun) were a militant Ismaili sect, active between
the 8th and 14th century in the Middle East. The height of their activity occurr
ed in Persia and Syria from the 11th century on, following a major split of the
Ismaili faction in 1094, under the guidance of Hasan-i Sabbah, known as "The Old
Man of the Mountain", whose stronghold was Alamut, in northern Persia, between
Tehran and the Caspian Sea.\n\nThe adepts were divided into varying degrees of t
he sect, from novice to Grand Master, according to their level of education, rel
iability and courage, while following an intensive physical training and indoctr
ination.\n\nHasan terrified his enemies through individual murders: members of t
he sect were sent, individually or in small groups, with the mission to kill a p
erson. Executions, in order to make a greater impression, were conducted in pub
lic mosques, preferably on Fridays, Islam s holy day. The assassins were usuall
y killed while carrying out their mission. The serenity with which they massacre
d their victims made contemporaries think that the hit men were hashish addicts,
whence the nickname hashashiyyun ("grass eaters"), from which Assassin is deriv
ed. The death of the Fatimid Imam in Cairo, in 1094, opened a war between his t
wo sons Nizar and Mustali for the succession. Hasan sided with Nizar (hence the t
erm Nizarite), but the partisans of the latter were defeated in Egypt: this event
marked the separation between the Ismaili of Alamut and all other Ismailis. Unde
r the strict rule of Hasan the Hashshashin prospered.\n\nThe Seljuk Turks, const
ituted a permanent threat; they undertook several campaigns against the Hashshas
hin, but without major success. In response, Hasan opened a campaign of assassin
ations targeting Seljuk military and political leaders. One of the first victims
was the vizier of the Seljuk Sultans, Nizam al-Mulk, in 1092. During the 12th c
entury the role of the Hashishin was crucial and almost always very dangerous to
the survival of the sect, in a ground (the Holy Land) contended between the for
ces of the Crusader States, the Sunni Seljuk Turks, and the Shiite Egyptians...
{FEUDAL_FULL_EMIRS_TITLE}Nizarite Sect
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_EMIRS_DESCR}Master Muhammad\n\n\n\nThe Nizarites, also known as As
sassins (from the Arabic al-Haiiyyun) were a militant Ismaili sect, active between
the 8th and 14th century in the Middle East. The height of their activity occur
red in Persia and Syria from the 11th century on, following a major split of the
Ismaili faction in 1094, under the guidance of Hasan-i Sabbah, known as "The Ol
d Man of the Mountain", whose stronghold was Alamut, in northern Persia, between
Tehran and the Caspian Sea.\n\nThe adepts were divided into varying degrees of
the sect, from novice to Grand Master, according to their level of education, re
liability and courage, while following an intensive physical training and indoct
rination.\n\nHasan terrified his enemies through individual murders: members of
the sect were sent, individually or in small groups, with the mission to kill a
person. Executions, in order to make a greater impression, were conducted in pu
blic mosques, preferably on Fridays, Islam s holy day. The assassins were usual
ly killed while carrying out their mission. The serenity with which they massacr
ed their victims made contemporaries think that the hit men were hashish addicts
, whence the nickname hashashiyyun ("grass eaters"), from which Assassin is deri
ved. The death of the Fatimid Imam in Cairo, in 1094, opened a war between his
two sons Nizar and Mustali for the succession. Hasan sided with Nizar (hence the
term Nizarite), but the partisans of the latter were defeated in Egypt: this event
marked the separation between the Ismaili of Alamut and all other Ismailis. Und
er the strict rule of Hasan the Hashshashin prospered.\n\nThe Seljuk Turks, cons
tituted a permanent threat; they undertook several campaigns against the Hashsha

shin, but without major success. In response, Hasan opened a campaign of assassi
nations targeting Seljuk military and political leaders. One of the first victim
s was the vizier of the Seljuk Sultans, Nizam al-Mulk, in 1092. During the 12th
century the role of the Hashishin was crucial and almost always very dangerous t
o the survival of the sect, in a ground (the Holy Land) contended between the fo
rces of the Crusader States, the Sunni Seljuk Turks, and the Shiite Egyptians...
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_EMIRS_TITLE}Nizarite Sect

IMPERIAL CAMPAIGN
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_TITLE}Hotseat Campaign
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_AZTECS_DESCR}King Demetrius Bagration\n\n\n\nThe early decade
s of the 9th century AD saw the birth of new Georgian State, which was declared
in South-Western region of Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot I Kuropalates, of the Bagration R
oyal family, freed the territories of southern Iberia from Arab domination, incl
uding the principalities of Tao and Klarjeti as well as the counties of Shavshet
i, Khikhata, Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formerly a pa
rt of the Byzantine Empire under the pseudonym "Curopalatinato of Iberia."
Curopalates David Bagration expanded his domains annexing the city of Theodosiop
olis (known in the times as Karin or Karnukalaki, now Erzurum), the Armenian pro
vinces of Basiani, Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert and Khlat, formerly controlled b
y the Arab Emir Kaysithe.
In 978 all Georgian principalities were unified in the United Kingdom of Georgia
(978-1466) under the Bagration Dynasty, whose ancestor was Ashot I "the Great"
(9th century AD). Since then, Georgia remained independent for almost a thousand
years. The greatest representative of this dynasty was David "the Builder" (Dev
id IV Agmashenebeli), who reigned from 1089 to 1125, considered a Saint by the G
eorgian Orthodox Church. Under his leadership the Kingdom of Georgia also includ
ed territories of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the northern Caucasus.
David IV of Georgia, considered by tradition as the greatest Georgian ruler, is
celebrated for being able to repel from Georgian soil the invading Seljuks, winn
ing the battle of Didgori in 1121. Thanks to his military and administrative ref
orms, the strong Georgian nation managed to bring under its control much of the
Caucasus region. His tolerance and kindness towards other religions and other et
hnic groups marked the Armenian culture so deeply that this attitude became a co
nstant feature of this Kingdom even after the death of David IV. He died on Jan
uary 24, 1125 and his body, as it was stated in his will, was buried under a sto
ne placed at the main entrance to the Gelati monastery so that anyone coming int
o that place was forced to put his foot on his tomb, a demonstration of his deep
humility. David IV left three sons: the eldest son Demetrius was his successor
and follower of his policy of expansion and consolidation of the Kingdom.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_AZTECS_TITLE}Kingdom of Georgia
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ARAGON_DESCR}King Ramon Berenguer IV\n\n\n\nRamiro II was mar
ried on November 13, 1135 in the Cathedral of Jaca with Ins of Poitou. The King w
as 60 years old. Petronilla, their daughter, was bornAugust 11, 1136. Ramiro II
knew that the independence of Aragon couldn t last very long with the powerful
Kingdom of Castile seeking to expand its lands and titles. It was necessary to l
ook eastward to the rich countryside of Barcelona and its Count Ramon Berenguer
IV. The County of Barcelona was created as a vassal of the Frankish Kings as pa
rt of the Marca Hispanica during the reign of Charlemagne. King Ramiro of Arago
n abdicated in 1137 in favor of his daughter Petronilla, who at one year of age
was promised to Ramon Berenguer IV, who was 23 years old.
Petronilla was educated at the Court of Barcelona and Ramiro II prepared a contr
act of marriage that count of Barcelona signed in all its clauses. Ramon Bereng
uer became Prince of Aragon holding the royal power and controlling the treasury
without the title of King. Basically Don Ramon Berenguer ruled both kingdoms.

The marriage between Queen Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer was celebrated when sh
e was 14 years of age in the Cathedral of Lleida, in the month of August 1150.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ARAGON_TITLE}Kingdom of Aragon
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_BYZANTIUM_DESCR}Basileus Manuel I Comnenus\n\n\n\nAt the time
of the first crusade, Alexios I Komnenos sat on the throne of Byzantium; a memb
er of the military aristocracy, he came to power after a long period of crisis.
He had conducted a series of successful campaigns against the enemies of the Emp
ire and reafirmed the role the Byzantine Empire as a great power. This project w
as brought to a sudden standstill by the arrival of the Crusaders, who forced hi
m to devote himself entirely to the new and unexpected problem of foreign policy
.
After the death of Alexios, his son John became Emperor and continued the proces
s of restoring the power and lands of the Byzantine Empire. After Johns death in
1143, Manuel I Comnenus inherited the throne and a series of problems that had
begun to beset the Empire: to the east the Turks were a constan threat, the Lati
n Crusader States were a constant source of frustration for the Byzantines becau
se of the uneasy periods of alliance and hostility that existed between the Chri
stian factions. In the Balkans, the Sicilians, Hungarians and Slavs also posed
challenges for Emperor Manuel I.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_BYZANTIUM_TITLE}Byzantine Empire
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_CUMANS_TITLE}Cuman Conf.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_CUMANS_DESCR}Khan Bonyak\n\n\n\nThe Cumans ("Kunok" in Hungar
ian, "Qipciaq" in Turkish, "Polovtzy" in Russian) are a western branch of the Tu
rkic Kipchaks who traveled through the plains of Central Asia to settle around t
he Caspian Sea, from where he emigrated during the 11th century to occupy the pl
ains of the lower Danube, devastating Hungary to their path. Eventually the Cuma
n horde founded a semi-nomadic state in the 12th century around the Black Sea th
at conducted business and diplomatic relationships with the Bulgarian Khanate, K
hwarezm, China, Venice, Genoa and Europe through its ports in Crimea and the Sea
of Azov. Throughout the first half of the 12th century, certain parts of Bulga
rian territory served as strategic bases for attacks carried out against the Byz
antine Empire by Cumans settled in the regions bordering the Danube, which long
retain the name Cumania. In 1122 Macedonia and Thrace were looted. The Polovtzy-C
umans were the dominant part of semi-sedentary or wandering ethnicities that cla
shed with the Varangians of the Kievan Rus
in their quest for expansion to the
Black Sea. After the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125, the Cumans sought to
profit from the resulting anarchy in Kievan Russia (now shattered and torn apart
from periodic revolts) through raids into the Rus territory , while to the Nort
h the city of Novgorod is increasingly attracted to the commercial interests tha
t gravitate around the Baltic.
The Cumans subdued many peoples of the steppe and since slavery did not compleme
nt the nomadic life, once subdued, the captives were incorporated into the army.
This was the case of Pechenegs, Khazars, the Ghuzz, and in later periods, the V
lachs.
The faction of the Cumans (as it happened historically) will have a wide choice
of cavalry, both heavy and light, many armed with bows. Their infantry will be l
ight and will be formed largely by the subjugated peoples.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_DENMARK_DESCR}King Valdemar I Lavard\n\n\n\nFor the Danes, th
e Norman Conquest of England put an almost definitive end to the attempts to con
quer the Island1074 and 1085 baing the last dates of projected invasions. At the
beginning of the reign of Niels (1104-1134), Asser, Bishop of Lund, becomes the
first Archbishop of Denmark, with ecclesiastical independence and full right to
voice his opinion in Christendom, though during the last years of his reign, a
motion presented to the feudal lords marks a regression of the royal authority.
Canute Lavard (son of Erik 1070-1103, predecessor and brother of Niels), the fir
st Danish Duke and likely pretender, (1131) is assassinated by his cousin and ri
val Magnus "the Strong" (son of King Niels). The death of Canute Lavard marks t

he beginning of a long civil war in which several members of the Danish Royal Fa
mily are massacred. The half-brother of Canute Lavard, Erik, attempts to avenge
his death and to secure the succession but has to temporarily take refuge in Swe
den.
The state of crisis in Denmark encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II to retak
e the initiative and in 1133, the Archbishop of Lund loses his position as Archb
ishop to the benefit of the Archbishop of Bremen, only to reacquire it six month
s later, in 1134. Lothair II, on the pretext of ill treatment that German merch
ants suffered from the Danes, forced Magnus to pay homage in Halberstadt. In 11
34, at the battle of Fotevik (Fodevig) Magnus and Niels, determined to do away o
nce and for all with Erik, are taken by surprise by a contingent of German caval
ry hired by Erik. The army that served Niels is massacred before they can regro
up and Magnus is assassinated. King Niels manages to escape but inexplicably de
cides to head south and, near the city of Schleswig, is killed by the people loy
al to Erik. The new King known as Erik "the Memorable" turns out to be a tough
and unpopular ruler, and is finally killed in 1137 by a palace conspiracy which
brings to the throne his nephew, Erik the "Mild". Erik III "the Mild" abdicated
in 1146-47; he is succeeded by Sven III (or Sweyn), illegitimate son of Erik II
"the Memorable", but must share the Kingdom with his cousin Canute V (son of Pri
nce Magnus). Valdemar I is the son of Canute V.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_DENMARK_TITLE}Kingdom of Denmark
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_EGYPT_DESCR}Imam al-Fa iz al-Fatimiyyun\n\n\n\n1130: the Fati
mid Caliph al-Amir is assassinated and power is assumed by his brother al Hafiz;
the state falls into anarchy and the dynasty begins to rapidly decline. Conspir
acies and palace revolutions from the barracks along with court intrigues marks
this period as perhaps the most corrupt of all time.
In 1149 weak Caliph al-Hafiz dies and is succeeded by his son az-Zafir, but powe
r was soon usurped by the Kurdish vizier Ibn as-Sallar. The two are killed by Na
sr (1153), grandson of Caliph al-Hafiz; Abbas, who was the father of Nasr, becom
es vizier while the fortress of Ascalon falls into the hands of Baldwin III.
While the decay of the Fatimid regime has become irreversible, Nur ed-Din leads
the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul to the rescue against the invading Franks; it wil
l be a general of Nur ed-Din, Salah ad-Din, who will bring an end to the Shiite
dynasty of Egypt, establishing that of the Ayyubids, whilst formally recognizing
the supremacy of the Sultan of Damascus.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_EGYPT_TITLE}Fatimid Egypt
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ENGLAND_DESCR}King Henry II Plantagenet\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the Ki
ng of England Henry I, the last of the House of Normandy, died. The contenders f
or the throne were his daughter Matilda, an illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucest
er and his nephews Theobald and Stephen of Blois (sons of Adela, sister of the d
eceased King). Civil War soon broke out between the parties with several foreig
n powers getting involved in the contest for the throne, including the Pope and
the King of Scotland.
Henry Plantagenet, son of Matilda and Godfrey V Count of Anjou and Maine, marrie
d Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux (formerly wife of Louis VII of France, whose
marriage had been dissolved for consanguinity) and received as dowry the lands f
rom Gascony in Aquitaine in South-Central France. Pope Eugenius III prohibits Ar
chbishop Theobald from crowning Eustace (son of Stephen) as King of England, bec
ause his father was considered a usurper, and accept the coronation of Henry II
Plantagenet as King of England (1154-1189). The name of the English Dynasty deri
ves from the Planta Genista, a shrub that Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and of Main
e known as "the beautiful" had as his insignia.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ENGLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of England
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_FRANCE_DESCR}King Louis VII Capet\n\n\n\nWhat was the Kingdom
of France in the 12th century and how was it perceived? A significant date: the
first card of France will be designed only in 1525. At the time the French was
perceived not as a defined geographical territory but as an array of local polit

ical entities (towns, castles, Lordships) whose Lords paid homage of faithfulnes
s to the sovereign. The personal ties of dependence and alliance formed the back
bone of a united realm more than any abstract notion of territory. The formation
of the Kingdom, as a geographical space where the supreme authority of the Cape
tian kings was recognized, progressed slowly outwards from the core lands of the
family, in the le-de-France in Northern France.
The Capetian dynasty, one of the longest ruling houses of the middle ages, for t
hree centuries since the rule of Hugh Capet (938/41-996), held the reins of the
monarchy and expanded the kingdom. In 1100 it had been ruled for the past forty
years by the great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Philip I, who was succeeded by Louis
VI the Fat (r. 1108-1137). He in turn was succeeded by Louis VII who ruled until
1180.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_FRANCE_TITLE}Kingdom of France
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_HRE_DESCR}Emperor Frederick I\n\n\n\nIn the heart of medieval
Germany, Frederick I Barbarossa (reigned until 1190), succeeded Conrad III, Duk
e of Swabia and Franconia of the House of Hohenstaufen (1138-1152), recently Kin
g of Germany, and now, in the year 1155, is crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman
Emperor. Although his domains are extensive, he is not immune from the dangers
and threats to his authority represented by powerful princes that surround him
and by multitudes of settlers: Saxons, Franks, Flemish, and Lotharingi. Frederi
ck faces a difficult position in his German lands as he tries to expand to the e
ast while dealing with disobedient, self-serving nobles in his realm. To the so
uth are his Italian possessions, which are not always loyal and are forever seek
ing to break away from Imperial control. The Italian issues are aggravated by t
he constant interference of the Pope who feels threatened by the power of the Em
pire and the challenges to Papal control of church matters.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_HRE_TITLE}H.R. Empire
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_HUNGARY_DESCR}King Geza II Arpad\n\n\n\nIn the mid-11th centu
ry the Kingdom of Hungary was grappling with serious difficulties: two pagan rev
olts in 1046 and 1061, dynastic struggles, and interference by the German Empero
rs. The canonization of Saint Stephen in 1073 marked the beginning of a national
renewal. Gza I (1074-1077) and Ladislaus I (1077-1095) supported Gregory VII in
the investiture controversy and placed Hungary under the suzerainty of the Holy
See, managing to remain outside the orbit of the HRE. In the 12th century the Ki
ngs of Hungary used diplomacy to thrive between the HRE, the Papacy and the Byza
ntine Empire, expanding their influence in Croatia, Romania and even in Serbia,
but the fierce dynastic struggles continued and the power of the nobles establis
hed itself at the expense of the monarchy.
Stephen II, having no descendants, recalled his cousin Bla II the blind (King of
Hungary from 1131 to 1141) from exile and designated him as his successor. His G
overnment, supported by the nobles, is generally considered peaceful despite the
tragic nature of his youth. After the benevolent reign of Bela II, his eldest s
on Gza II (1141-1161) ascended to the throne to pursue the work of consolidation
of royal power.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_HUNGARY_TITLE}Kingdom of Hungary
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MILAN_DESCR}Signore Ottone Visconti\n\n\n\nThe Kingdom of Ita
ly, the domain of the German Emperors in their capacity as Kings of Italy, with
administrative capital in Pavia and religious capital at Monza (where the Kings
of Italy surrounded the Lombard Iron Crown) witnessed the triumph of the city du
ring the 12th century.
In September of 1122 on the banks of the Rhine, the Concordat of Worms was promu
lgated: Henry V renounced his right to confer spiritual investitures (by means o
f the ring and staff), but his right to confer temporal rights to the clergy (by
scepter) was recognized by Pope Calixtus II. Conrad of Swabia, thanks to the su
pport of the Milanese, seized the Crown of King of Italy (1128) without being ab
le to exercise real power. He later became Holy Roman Emperor in 1138 and was s
ucceeded by his nephew Frederick I, called Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190). Born of a Gh

ibelline father Frederick, Duke of Swabia and Guelph mother, Judith of Bavaria,
he is hailed as the Prince of Peace. But peace presupposes a new and stable orde
r, based on the consolidation of the sovereign power in his relationship with th
e Italian city-states.
Frederick I and Adrian IV (1154-1159), the only English Pope in history, agree t
o condemn Arnold of Brescia to be burned at the stake (a Lombard that due to his
sincerity of faith followed the philosophical school of Abelard). In Exchange f
or the delivery of the heretic (who escaped from the city in a vain attempt to f
ind an agreement between the Pope and the Municipality) Frederick was crowned Em
peror (June 1155), but the people revolted and the Emperor, fearing to remain wi
thout food, was quick to withdraw ravaging and plundering Pontifical Umbria: aft
er this event one of the pillars of Papal policy will rely on the Communities of
the Po, under the influence of Milan, the richest, most powerful and aggressive
of them.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MILAN_TITLE}Comune di Milano
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PISA_DESCR}Console Ranieri Caetani\n\n\n\nThe greatest Arab m
edieval historian, Ibn-Khaldoun (1332-1406), wrote nostalgically of the ninth an
d tenth centuries "Then the Christians were not allowed to sail anything on the
Mediterranean, even the smallest boat". Of course like any absolute statement, t
his phrase should be clarified: Byzantium controlled Ionia and the Aegean and th
e Venetians in addition trading in Italy, maintained trade contacts with the Byz
antines through the Adriatic Sea. Amalfi was present with its ships and merchant
s in the Byzantine and Islamic trade systems.
In 1135 the Pisans, allies of Lothair, sack Amalfi, is the only relevant fact of
the campaign led by the emperor. Two years later, in an Allied expedition of th
e Pope and the Emperor Lothair II, Pisa participates once again in the campaign
in the region of Almafi. Following a period of relative calm in which the Republ
ic binds itself even more to the German Emperors, from which it receives signifi
cant concessions in 1162 and 1165. With these the Emperor Frederick I recognizes
the citys jurisdiction over the region near Pisa and freedom of trade in the ter
ritories of the Empire.
With the Saracen threat in the Western Mediterranean abated, Pisa turned towards
the markets of the East and concentrated its efforts in the construction of new
trade depots and in attaining new diplomatic and economic relations simply usin
g force to secure more advantageous treaties or monopolies in competition with r
ival city. Such rivalry occurred at different times, with all the other republic
s but particularly with Genoa. The reason for the disputes with the Ligurian ci
ty were their positions in Sardinia and Corsica and the hoarding of the markets
of southern France and Spain, where Genoa took on a markedly predominant positio
n.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PISA_TITLE}Repubblica di Pisa
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MONGOLS_DESCR}DO NOT TRANSLATE - MONGOLS NOT PLAYABLE IN CAMP
AIGN
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MONGOLS_TITLE}Mongol Horde
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MOORS_DESCR}Amir Abd al-Mu min Masmuda\n\n\n\nIn 1130 the Ber
ber Muhammad ibn Tumart who proclaimed himself Mahads (sent by God) initiated a mo
vement of deep religious renewal in southern Morocco. His sect, called Almohads
(Unitarian), fights against the accepted interpretation by the Almoravid theolog
ians, who hold the fate of the empire founded by Yusuf ibn Taschfin (1060-1106).
In 1147 Abd al-Mu min (successor of Muhammad ibn Tumart) destroys the Almoravid
army in Tlemcen and conquers Ceuta, Fes, Tangier and Marrakech which becomes hi
s capital. Immediately after these victories, the Almohad army crosses into Spai
n and reconquers Seville, Cordoba, Jaen (1147-48) and Malaga (1152-53), relegati
ng the last Almoravids to the Balearic Islands.
In 1152 Abd al-Mu min, already ruler of Morocco, defeated coalition forces of Ha
mmaditi and Beni-Hilal in Setif and conquers Algeria; the capture of Tripoli in
1160 completes the domain of Ifriqiyyah (Africa) by the Almohads. Abd al-Mu min

(or el Moumen) was able to impose his lordship within a short time, realizing fo
r the first time the political unification of the Maghreb and imposing his will
on most Muslim kingdoms or taifas into which al-Andalus was again divided. Durin
g the rule of three Almohad Caliphs (Abd al-Mu min, Abou Youssef Yacoub and Abou
Youssef Yacoub al Mansour) the Maghreb experienced one of the most important pe
riods in its history, in which religious and political purposes became closely t
ied to expansionist economic needs including monitoring the Saharan trade routes
and their outlets to the sea.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_MOORS_TITLE}Almohad Empire
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_NORMANS_TITLE}K. of Jerusalem
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_NORMANS_DESCR}King Baldwin III of Anjou\n\n\n\nJuly 17, 1099:
the great massacre comes to an end. The "Franks" (name used by the local Arabs
to designate the crusaders) have gathered to elect their king. Amidst great sacr
ifices and subtle power games, the choice falls on Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, th
e most pious and harmless among the leaders of the expedition. Godfrey refuses t
o wear the crown and proclaims himself only "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchre (Defende
r of The Holy Sepulcher)".
Outremer, as the holy land is called, is again an integral part of Christianity.
Upon the death of Godfrey, the crown that he refused is taken by his brother Ba
ldwin, the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118). As a feudal state organized acco
rding to the Assizes of Jerusalem, the kingdom consisted of the subordinate vass
al principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli, the fiefs of several distingu
ished nobles, and those of dozens of minor vassals. Several military orders of m
onastic knights created in the XII century (Knights of Jerusalem, Templars, Hosp
itallers, and Teutonic) enjoyed full autonomy within the kingdom while Pisa, Gen
oa, and Venice established separate quarters for their merchants in the coastal
cities. Formally elective, the crown of Jerusalem remained mostly in possession
of the descendants of Baldwin I and the counts of Anjou, finally passing in 1186
to the French noble Guy of Lusignan. After the loss of Edessa in 1144, the Crus
aders suffer the relentless attacks of the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul, and later
of Saladin, ruler of Egypt.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PAPAL_STATES_DESCR}Pope Adrian IV\n\n\n\nA tradition holds th
at the Roman Catholic Church had been granted the exclusive domain over certain
territories in Italy thanks to the so-called Donation of Emperor Constantine (32
1). The author of this concession, which would have assured the then Pope Sylves
ter I and subsequent pontiffs a kind of sovereignty over the Lateran Palace and
the city of Rome, with all of its properties and the Imperial regalia, would hav
e been the same, Constantine I. In reality the document of the Donation was a fo
rgery dating back at least to the 8th century, as was proven since 1440 by the h
umanist Lorenzo Valla.
While the claim to territorial sovereignty held no veracity, the cultural enviro
nment of the late Middle Ages granted broad authority to the Popes. Authority th
at was not only spiritual but also temporal. The Holy Roman emperors felt a need
to see their emperorship consecrated by the Pope and the latter needed to exert
their power over the sovereigns of Europe. The delicate situation turned to a m
ajor confrontation over the question of the election of Bishops (the Investiture
Controversy), which focused the differences of opinion about the possibility th
at the emperor would not be totally free of papal authority. Thus the Popes supp
orted the struggle of the Italian cities against Frederick Barbarossa in order t
o weaken the political authority of the HRE.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PAPAL_STATES_TITLE}Papal States
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_POLAND_DESCR}King Bolesaw IV the Curly\n\n\n\nThe enduring dyn
asty of Piast (IX-XIV centuries, with royal dignity since the XII century) gives
life in the XI-XII centuries to ephemeral Empires, extending with uncertain bou
ndaries towards Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Russia.
Bolesaw III (1102-1139), relying on small and medium cavalry and court magistrate
s (as in the Hohenstaufen Empire), tries to avoid the onset of dynastic struggle

s by dividing the Kingdom among his sons in his testament, while subordinating t
he cadets to the moral authority of his first-born son Ladislaw II. This "senior
ity" becomes more and more fictitious and the state is fragmented into a group o
f virtually independent duchies: Great Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masovia , the D
uchy of Sandomierz, and Small Poland; Krakow has only a theoretical preeminence.
In 1146 King Ladislaw II is overthrown by his brothers and takes refuge at the c
ourt of his brother-in-law King Conrad III; he is replaced by his brother Bolesaw
IV the Curly (1120-1173). Meanwhile, the power of the princes and clergy contin
ues to grow: in 1136, the Archbishop of Gniezno (Episcopal created in 1000 over
the grave of the martyr Adalbert), has already more than a thousand dwellings an
d some five thousand servants. Among the chief towns include Krakow (capital), P
oznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw, surrounded by vast areas inhabited by a huge rural ma
ss with patriarchal customs that will remain pagan until the 13th century.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_POLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Poland
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PORTUGAL_DESCR}King Alfonso I Henriques\n\n\n\nIn 1093 Henry
of Burgundy (1066-1112) and Alfonso VI of Castile recovered Galicia and Northern
Portugal as far as the Tagus River, including Lisbon, Cintra and Santarm, from t
he Muslims. As a reward, King Alfonso agreed to have his daughter, Teresa of Len,
marry Henry. The couple had several children, who all died in childhood except
the last, Alfonso Henriques (1109-1185).
In 1128 the Count of Portugal, Alfonso Henriques, defeated the Castilian army at
the battle of So Mamede and laid the foundation for an independent kingdom. In 1
139, after the victory against the Muslims in the battle of Ourique, the victori
ous army of Portugal proclaimed Alfonso Henriques as King. In the fight against
the Almohads the monastic military orders of the Holy Land, Hospitallers and Tem
plars, play an important role. So do newly established Orders such as those of
Calatrava (1158), Evora (1162), Santiago de Compostela (1175) and Alcntara (1176)
, forming a veritable permanent army. During this period, the Christian kingdoms
often collaborate in joint ventures, ever more frequent in the last decades of
the century, coinciding with the declining power of the Almohads, absorbed by se
rious problems in Africa.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_PORTUGAL_TITLE}Kingdom of Portugal
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_RUSSIA_DESCR}Grand Prince Yuri Dolgoruki Yurievich\n\n\n\nThe
Principality of Kiev had never been solidly unified and had already fragmented,
in the 12th century, into independent principalities. At the end of the reign o
f Vladimir Monomach the struggle between Kiev and Novgorod marked the beginning
of its destruction, the same city of Kiev, already threatened by nomadic Polovcy
, fell prey to the savage looting of the Princes of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal,
Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky (1157-1174).
In 1147, during a meeting between the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Chernigov, we
hear of a rapidly expanding commercial village on the Moskva, name of the river
from which the settlement will be named Moscow. The struggles that took place in
the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal in the 12th century were similar to those of
the other principalities in the same era: the years 1136-1174 are considered yea
rs of crisis. Their violence bear witness to the turmoil within the principles,
especially the boyars and the clergy seizing control of lands.
But unlike the other principalities, Rostov-Suzdal was ruled by a Prince of grea
t authority, Yuri Dolgoruky. He fought against the Bulgars of the Volga, but al
so against the Slavs, managing to take over temporarily over Novgorod and Kiev,
where he was finally crowned Prince and where he died in 1157. This date marks t
he beginning of the age of Russia under the auspices of the Kievan Rus and the r
eal power switches to the Rus of the Northeast. The principality of Suzdal becam
e the nucleus of the future state of Moscow and what would eventually become the
huge Russian Empire.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_RUSSIA_TITLE}Princ. of Vladimir
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_NOVGOROD_DESCR}Prince Konstantin Stepanich\n\n\n\nThe Princip
ality of Novgorod was significantly different from the character of other Russia

n principalities, so different that we often speak of the land of Novgorod rather


than Principality. Different then was also the general regime of life because
of the eminently agricultural and aggressively militaristic character of other p
rincipalities, while Novgorod was mainly a mercantile society.
The location of the city, at the meeting of the Volkhov River with the Lake Ilme
n, in one of the essential points of the ancient waterways towards the Black Sea
, favored the development of trade which originally consisted not only of goods
but also of slaves and workers. The territory of Novgorod was not fertile enough
for large-scale agriculture; this condition required the development of trade.
Other conditions conducive to such development was the ease of communication tow
ards the Germanic lands and Sweden; from Germany arrived twice yearly a caravan
of merchants to do business; there were less regular but more frequent visits to
Novgorod merchants, in particular from the Swedish island of Gotland and the Ba
ltic lands.
The regime of Novgorod, in the sense of the relationship between Prince and Asse
mbly, was different from that of other principalities as the Assembly, being in
the hands of boyars and merchants (but especially the first) instead of people,
often did not respect the interests of the latter. Also very limited were the po
wers of the Prince. The Principality of Novgorod was not fighting against nomadi
c peoples from the East (Cumans and Mongols), but rather the danger came from th
e West, when in the 12th century the Livonian Order of the Sword began the attem
pt to advance to the East.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_NOVGOROD_TITLE}Rep. of Novgorod
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SAXONS_DESCR}King Inge Gille\n\n\n\nFrom the mid-11th century
the Kingdom of Norway was consolidated and stabilized, gradually abandoning the
old Viking tradition linked to paganism and depredations. The first dioceses ar
ose and laid the foundations for a (albeit primitive) central management system,
based on the collection of taxes from the main towns in Norway (Oslo, Trondheim
or Nidaros, Bergen) and on the control of internal order through the force of a
Royal Army. In 1067 Olaf Kyrre came to the throne, the first ruler in history w
ho knew how to read and write.\n\n The church quickly contributed to the eradica
tion of the ancient pagan beliefs and rituals; however many Vikings gods persist
ed in remote northern regions for many centuries to come. In 1152 the first Cath
olic Archdiocese in Nidaros was founded, which extended to the Northern Islands
(Orkney, Shetland, Faroe) under the control of the King, while Oslo hosted a Bis
hop. Also in the Scottish Islands (Man and other) ruled Kings of Norwegian ances
try.\n\nThe 12th century however, was a period of internal tribulations for Norw
ay. In the absence of a specific regulation for the dynastic succession, every
son of a ruler was considered the legitimate heir, and this caused inevitable cl
ashes between factions on the death of the King. After the death of King Sigurd
the Crusader (1130), in particular, a violent struggle erupted between the suppo
rters of the four sons (all minors) that led to decades of civil war. The oldest
of the four was a bastard son Eystein, coming from Scotland; the second (and mo
st accredited pretender) was Inge, who opposed the younger brothers Sigurd and M
agnus (the latter died young). At the beginning of 1155, the Crown is then evenl
y divided between Inge, Eystein and Sigurd.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SAXONS_TITLE}Kingdom of Norway
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SCOTLAND_DESCR}King Malcolm IV\n\n\n\nMalcolm III (1058-1093)
, founder of the House of Dunkeld, introduced feudalism for the first time in th
e region, replacing the loyalty of consanguinity (clan), upon which Scottish soc
iety was based. David I (1124-1153), son of Malcolm III, aggravated the disputes
with the Kingdom of England. In 1136 he embarked on a series of raids on Englis
h soil which will continue the bitter disputes between the two crowns.
William I "the Rude", grandson of David I, assumed office as King of Scots after
the death of his brother Malcolm IV (1153-1165), he proved weak and deeply reli
gious. His reign is the second in order of longevity in Scottish history, after
James V (1567-1625). The posthumous nickname of "the lion" will be given to him
due to his coat of arms which will become the Royal Standard of Scotland used by

the rulers of Scotland. William I in 1152, inherited the title of Earl of North
umbria but will lose it to Henry II Plantagenet in 1157.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SCOTLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Scotland
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SICILY_DESCR}Re Guglielmo I d Altavilla\n\n\n\nThe celebratio
n of the coronation of Roger II (1130-1154) was a true display of grandeur, with
gold, silver, and a coronation mantle of fine silk. Roger II followed the examp
le of his father. William I, (1154-1166) and Wilhelm II (1166-1189) ruled after
Roger II and the history of their times comes from the chronicler Falcandus. The
nobles and the literati of that age referred to the Kings of Sicily as tyrants
who worked to accumulate the symbols and attributes of the Byzantine Emperors, t
he Caliphs, and the Popepowers that did not originate from the Western warrior ar
istocracy but from an autocratic tradition.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SICILY_TITLE}Kingdom of Sicily
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SPAIN_DESCR}King Alfonso VII of Burgundy\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the A
ssembly of the Kingdom of Leon conferred on King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) the tit
le of Emperor of Spain, a title already taken by his grandfather Alfonso VI, and
declared themselves his vassals. The assumption of such a prestigious title did
not mean that Alfonso VII had reached the limit of his power, but that he inten
ded to be a force pushing for the Reconquista. The Kingdom of Len and Castile, in
fact, continuously pressured Cordoba, Seville, Malaga, Valencia and Murcia. Thi
s fact led Muslims to leave behind the inertia that had long weakened them, reac
ting with a powerful and fast counter-offensive which captured Seville, Cordoba,
and Malaga in a short time and blocked the expansionist efforts of Alfonso VII
.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_SPAIN_TITLE}Kingdom of Castile-Leon
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_TIMURIDS_DESCR}Caliph al-Muqtafi \n\n\n\ nThe dynasty Abbasid
caliphs ruled the Islamic world from its headquarters in Baghdad (and, for some
decades, from Samarra) between 750 and 1258. The Abbasids take their name from
his paternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad and ancestor of the founder of the dy
nasty - you want it to be converted to the religion preached by his nephew in an
unspecified date and critics of the dynasty placed in the evening immediately p
rior to the conquest of Mecca by Muslims (630). When the opposition won out on A
lid Umayyads (weakened by continual revolts kharigite, dall irriducibile antagon
ism between southern and northern Arabs and infighting that squassarono the very
unity of their family structure), the Abbasids showed themselves as the most or
ganized and simply, is strongly suggested as the new dynasty caliph, arrogating
to itself any power, calling with a certain arrogance "blessed dynasty". Therefo
re not held in any account of the alleged "legitimist" Family of the Prophet (Ah
l al-Bayt) who had deluded that nothing was standing in for the recruitment of t
he supreme government of the Islamic Umma. From Here to break the unity between
the Abbasids and Alidi that, over time, will lay the ideological and theological
foundations for the emergence of a true Islamic movement which alternative will
be defined as "Shiite".
The first Abbasid caliph, Abu l- Abbas al-Saffah, although proclaimed in Kufa in
748-9, took only real power in 750, armed with its massive military support ele
ment Persian-khorasanico, carefully organized by Abu long clandestinely Muslim,
the leader of the Abbasid propaganda machine in the Umayyad period.
The dynasty, however, found his real skilful organizer and administrator in Abu
Ja far al-Mansur, the younger brother of Abu l- Abbas, who founded the firm foun
dations that allowed the Supreme Islamic judiciary to survive for half a millenn
ium or so, although after The Caliph al-Mutawakkil, the power of the dynasty beg
an to substantially empty, while remaining formally until its fall, as evident s
ymbol of unity For Islamic al-Mansur (reg. 754-775) who founded Baghdad in Meso
potamian area that had always expressed the deepest affection for the family of
the Prophet.
The apex of the Abbasid power was joined by his grandson Harun al-Rashid (reg. 7
86-809) and the latter s son al-Ma mun (reg. 813-833), under which the caliphate

touched limits extraordinary, both territorial and cultural. The enlargement of


the Abbasid domains, however, led to a gradual increase in difficulty of the Ca
liphate, in part caused by ethnic and cultural differences but, more simply, by
a certain inability to manage wisely the center of the suburbs. In the eighth ce
ntury al-Andalus and North Africa had already been posted by the caliphate, in p
art to share in the first exponent of a surviving Umayyad and partly because of
the indomitable Berber resistance. The century was Egypt tulunide to assert thei
r right to self-administration, and spending time with, then were the Iranian pr
ovinces to claim a right development model (without giving up the unifying trait
of Islam), then from Syria and Mesopotamia (IX-X century). From that moment on,
the caliphate was reduced gradually to the control of Iraq alone, then one of B
aghdad and, indeed, even to the entire capital city. Between 836 and 892 on the
capital (marked by the growing problems of public policy) was transferred to Sam
arra , however, to return again in Baghdad until the fall of the dynasty.
After suffering the "protection" of the Shia daylamiti buwaihidi or buyidi (cent
ury X-XI century) and then the Sunni Turkish Seljuks, the Abbasid Caliphate was
a revival of authority in the twelfth century. Al-Muqtafi, caliph from 1136, tak
en an anti-Seljuk with the ambition to extend its authority to the entire Iraq.
He is recognized as a wise ruler, virtuous and brave, defended by several Baghda
d attacks Seljuks, made some expeditions against neighboring enemies, and put th
e rebellion of a son of Seljuk Sultan. Participated in the "Jihad" of Zenghidi o
f Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders, but without much enthusiasm because of the c
ontinuing need for men to defend Baghdad from the mire of the Seljuks, had also
known his openness to the Christians in 1139 gave the patriarch a Abdisho III bi
ll of rights for the protection of minority Nestorian.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_TIMURIDS_TITLE}Abbasid Caliphate
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_TURKS_DESCR}Sultan Mesud I bin Kutalmish\n\n\n\nThe Seljuk co
nquest of Anatolia was opened by the battle of Mantzikert (1071), in which the B
yzantine Emperor was defeated and taken prisoner. The conquest was implemented b
y Suleyman Sah, a Prince descended from Selgiuq.
Sleyman Sah settled in Nicaea, dominating almost all of Anatolia until 1097. From
this moment the Crusaders learned to respect the Turks and to value their skill
s, considering them, along with themselves, some of the best riders in the world
. It was even said that both Franks and Turks shared a common ancestry: the Tro
jans, while the vile and greedy Byzantines are descended from the Greeks.
The successor of Sleyman Sah, Qilic Arslan, had to settle for dominating only Cen
tral Anatolia, with its capital at Ikonium, in practice the poorest regions of t
he country; the northeastern Turkish States, such as the Danishmends, and Menguc
echidi, limited its authority. Later the Seljuks of Rum, so called according to
the traditional name of Byzantine Anatolia, defeated the Crusaders participating
in the Second Crusade at Dorylaeum in 1147.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_TURKS_TITLE}Seljuk Sultanate
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_VENICE_DESCR}Doge Domenico Morosini\n\n\n\nTradition holds th
at the first Doge elected was a man named Paulicio, who ruled between 697 and 71
6; freely chosen by the Venetians, expressing their full political independence.
But things were otherwise, because that mythical Paulicio was probably a Byzant
ine official, or even a Lombard official. Far from being the expression of origi
nal independence, therefore, the Doge, for that initial phase of Venetian histor
y, was rather a sign of dependency on a greater empire. This, however, did not p
revent a gradual evolution of increased degrees of autonomy from Byzantium until
reaching real independence between the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Doge, wi
th the passage of time, began to embody the political will of Venice expressed i
n full autonomy and exalted by the construction of the Basilica di San Marco (co
nsecrated in 1094) and the Rialto market created in 1099.
Until 1032 (year in which Pietro Barbolano, was stripped of the title and ended
up as a monk in Constantinople) of the twenty-nine Dogi, only eight managed to d
ie in their beds and still in possession of the title. By the mid 11th century t
hings start to change and the risks of sudden interruptions is reduced almost to

disappear. In 1143 Pietro Polani exiled the Badoer family and razed the propert
ies of the Dandolo family, who along with the noble families of Falier, Michiel
and Morosini oppose a policy of friendship towards Byzantium. This also results
in an excommunication of Venice by Pope Eugenius III. Between the 10th and 13th
centuries, through a series of operations, Venice acquired dominion over the Adr
iatic and especially a strong position against Byzantium, gaining trading privil
eges in Jaffa, Haifa, Romania, and elsewhere.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_VENICE_TITLE}Rep. of Venice
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ZENGHIDS_DESCR}Atabeg Nur ad-Din\n\n\n\nThe rule of Atabeg Ze
ngi of Aleppo and Mosul (1129-1146) marked a turning point in the history of the
Crusades due to the return of the spirit of Jihad, Holy War, to the Muslims. Ze
ngi recalled that his father, was appointed Prince of Aleppo by Sultan Melik Sha
h and despite a period of interruption of about thirty years, he was restored wi
th the help of the last great Seljuk Ruler, the source of legitimacy in the Turk
ish world. Though he posed a strong resistance to the Christians, Zengi was assa
ssinated by his pages on September 14, 1146; an immediate consequence was a rebe
llion in Edessa and the kingdom was divided between two of his sons: Ghazi took
Mosul and Nur ad-Din received Aleppo and finally in 1154 Nur ad-Din finally ente
red Damascus.
{IMPERIAL_CAMPAIGN_ZENGHIDS_TITLE}Atabeg of Aleppo
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_NORMANS_DESCR}Lead William the Conqueror and his Norman army to
victory at the Battle of Hastings, then defeat the Saxons for control of the En
glish throne. \n\nEdward the Confessor s death saw England fall into a bitter po
wer struggle. With no heirs to the English throne, three competing powers arose
to stake their claim. Harold Godwinson was quick to seize power, with the suppor
t of the English Witan. However, the King of Norway, Harald Hardrada, felt the l
and his birthright and sailed from the North. The two kings clashed at Stamford
Bridge in a bloody battle.\n\nBut the late King Edward had promised the throne t
o the Duke of Normandy, who sought Papal blessing to launch an invasion of his o
wn.
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_NORMANS_TITLE}The Norman Conquest
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_TITLE}The Norman Conquest

FULL
{FULL_TITLE}2. Campagna Completa (Full)
{FULL_AZTECS_DESCR}King Demetrius Bagration\n\n\n\nThe early decades of the 9th
century AD saw the birth of new Georgian State, which was declared in South-West
ern region of Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot I Kuropalates, of the Bagration Royal family,
freed the territories of southern Iberia from Arab domination, including the pri
ncipalities of Tao and Klarjeti as well as the counties of Shavsheti, Khikhata,
Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formerly a part of the Byz
antine Empire under the pseudonym "Curopalatinato of Iberia."
Curopalates David Bagration expanded his domains annexing the city of Theodosiop
olis (known in the times as Karin or Karnukalaki, now Erzurum), the Armenian pro
vinces of Basiani, Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert and Khlat, formerly controlled b
y the Arab Emir Kaysithe.
In 978 all Georgian principalities were unified in the United Kingdom of Georgia
(978-1466) under the Bagration Dynasty, whose ancestor was Ashot I "the Great"
(9th century AD). Since then, Georgia remained independent for almost a thousand
years. The greatest representative of this dynasty was David "the Builder" (Dev
id IV Agmashenebeli), who reigned from 1089 to 1125, considered a Saint by the G
eorgian Orthodox Church. Under his leadership the Kingdom of Georgia also includ

ed territories of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the northern Caucasus.


David IV of Georgia, considered by tradition as the greatest Georgian ruler, is
celebrated for being able to repel from Georgian soil the invading Seljuks, winn
ing the battle of Didgori in 1121. Thanks to his military and administrative ref
orms, the strong Georgian nation managed to bring under its control much of the
Caucasus region. His tolerance and kindness towards other religions and other et
hnic groups marked the Armenian culture so deeply that this attitude became a co
nstant feature of this Kingdom even after the death of David IV. He died on Jan
uary 24, 1125 and his body, as it was stated in his will, was buried under a sto
ne placed at the main entrance to the Gelati monastery so that anyone coming int
o that place was forced to put his foot on his tomb, a demonstration of his deep
humility. David IV left three sons: the eldest son Demetrius was his successor
and follower of his policy of expansion and consolidation of the Kingdom.
{FULL_AZTECS_TITLE}Kingdom of Georgia
{FULL_ARAGON_DESCR}King Ramon Berenguer IV\n\n\n\nRamiro II was married on Novem
ber 13, 1135 in the Cathedral of Jaca with Ins of Poitou. The King was 60 years o
ld. Petronilla, their daughter, was bornAugust 11, 1136. Ramiro II knew that th
e independence of Aragon couldn t last very long with the powerful Kingdom of Ca
stile seeking to expand its lands and titles. It was necessary to look eastward
to the rich countryside of Barcelona and its Count Ramon Berenguer IV. The Coun
ty of Barcelona was created as a vassal of the Frankish Kings as part of the Mar
ca Hispanica during the reign of Charlemagne. King Ramiro of Aragon abdicated i
n 1137 in favor of his daughter Petronilla, who at one year of age was promised
to Ramon Berenguer IV, who was 23 years old.
Petronilla was educated at the Court of Barcelona and Ramiro II prepared a contr
act of marriage that count of Barcelona signed in all its clauses. Ramon Bereng
uer became Prince of Aragon holding the royal power and controlling the treasury
without the title of King. Basically Don Ramon Berenguer ruled both kingdoms.
The marriage between Queen Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer was celebrated when sh
e was 14 years of age in the Cathedral of Lleida, in the month of August 1150.
{FULL_ARAGON_TITLE}Kingdom of Aragon
{FULL_BYZANTIUM_DESCR}Basileus Manuel I Comnenus\n\n\n\nAt the time of the first
crusade, Alexios I Komnenos sat on the throne of Byzantium; a member of the mil
itary aristocracy, he came to power after a long period of crisis. He had conduc
ted a series of successful campaigns against the enemies of the Empire and reafi
rmed the role the Byzantine Empire as a great power. This project was brought to
a sudden standstill by the arrival of the Crusaders, who forced him to devote h
imself entirely to the new and unexpected problem of foreign policy.
After the death of Alexios, his son John became Emperor and continued the proces
s of restoring the power and lands of the Byzantine Empire. After Johns death in
1143, Manuel I Comnenus inherited the throne and a series of problems that had
begun to beset the Empire: to the east the Turks were a constan threat, the Lati
n Crusader States were a constant source of frustration for the Byzantines becau
se of the uneasy periods of alliance and hostility that existed between the Chri
stian factions. In the Balkans, the Sicilians, Hungarians and Slavs also posed
challenges for Emperor Manuel I.
{FULL_BYZANTIUM_TITLE}Byzantine Empire
{FULL_CUMANS_TITLE}Cuman Conf.
{FULL_CUMANS_DESCR}Khan Bonyak\n\n\n\nThe Cumans ("Kunok" in Hungarian, "Qipciaq
" in Turkish, "Polovtzy" in Russian) are a western branch of the Turkic Kipchaks
who traveled through the plains of Central Asia to settle around the Caspian Se
a, from where he emigrated during the 11th century to occupy the plains of the l
ower Danube, devastating Hungary to their path. Eventually the Cuman horde found
ed a semi-nomadic state in the 12th century around the Black Sea that conducted
business and diplomatic relationships with the Bulgarian Khanate, Khwarezm, Chin
a, Venice, Genoa and Europe through its ports in Crimea and the Sea of Azov. Th
roughout the first half of the 12th century, certain parts of Bulgarian territor

y served as strategic bases for attacks carried out against the Byzantine Empire
by Cumans settled in the regions bordering the Danube, which long retain the na
me Cumania. In 1122 Macedonia and Thrace were looted. The Polovtzy-Cumans were th
e dominant part of semi-sedentary or wandering ethnicities that clashed with the
Varangians of the Kievan Rus in their quest for expansion to the Black Sea.
After the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125, the Cumans sought to profit from t
he resulting anarchy in Kievan Russia (now shattered and torn apart from periodi
c revolts) through raids into the Rus territory , while to the North the city of
Novgorod is increasingly attracted to the commercial interests that gravitate a
round the Baltic.
The Cumans subdued many peoples of the steppe and since slavery did not compleme
nt the nomadic life, once subdued, the captives were incorporated into the army.
This was the case of Pechenegs, Khazars, the Ghuzz, and in later periods, the V
lachs.
The faction of the Cumans (as it happened historically) will have a wide choice
of cavalry, both heavy and light, many armed with bows. Their infantry will be l
ight and will be formed largely by the subjugated peoples.
{FULL_DENMARK_DESCR}King Valdemar I Lavard\n\n\n\nFor the Danes, the Norman Conq
uest of England put an almost definitive end to the attempts to conquer the Isla
nd1074 and 1085 baing the last dates of projected invasions. At the beginning of
the reign of Niels (1104-1134), Asser, Bishop of Lund, becomes the first Archbi
shop of Denmark, with ecclesiastical independence and full right to voice his op
inion in Christendom, though during the last years of his reign, a motion presen
ted to the feudal lords marks a regression of the royal authority. Canute Lavard
(son of Erik 1070-1103, predecessor and brother of Niels), the first Danish Duk
e and likely pretender, (1131) is assassinated by his cousin and rival Magnus "t
he Strong" (son of King Niels). The death of Canute Lavard marks the beginning
of a long civil war in which several members of the Danish Royal Family are mass
acred. The half-brother of Canute Lavard, Erik, attempts to avenge his death and
to secure the succession but has to temporarily take refuge in Sweden.
The state of crisis in Denmark encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II to retak
e the initiative and in 1133, the Archbishop of Lund loses his position as Archb
ishop to the benefit of the Archbishop of Bremen, only to reacquire it six month
s later, in 1134. Lothair II, on the pretext of ill treatment that German merch
ants suffered from the Danes, forced Magnus to pay homage in Halberstadt. In 11
34, at the battle of Fotevik (Fodevig) Magnus and Niels, determined to do away o
nce and for all with Erik, are taken by surprise by a contingent of German caval
ry hired by Erik. The army that served Niels is massacred before they can regro
up and Magnus is assassinated. King Niels manages to escape but inexplicably de
cides to head south and, near the city of Schleswig, is killed by the people loy
al to Erik. The new King known as Erik "the Memorable" turns out to be a tough
and unpopular ruler, and is finally killed in 1137 by a palace conspiracy which
brings to the throne his nephew, Erik the "Mild". Erik III "the Mild" abdicated
in 1146-47; he is succeeded by Sven III (or Sweyn), illegitimate son of Erik II
"the Memorable", but must share the Kingdom with his cousin Canute V (son of Pri
nce Magnus). Valdemar I is the son of Canute V.
{FULL_DENMARK_TITLE}Kingdom of Denmark
{FULL_EGYPT_DESCR}Imam al-Fa iz al-Fatimiyyun\n\n\n\n1130: the Fatimid Caliph al
-Amir is assassinated and power is assumed by his brother al Hafiz; the state fa
lls into anarchy and the dynasty begins to rapidly decline. Conspiracies and pal
ace revolutions from the barracks along with court intrigues marks this period a
s perhaps the most corrupt of all time.
In 1149 weak Caliph al-Hafiz dies and is succeeded by his son az-Zafir, but powe
r was soon usurped by the Kurdish vizier Ibn as-Sallar. The two are killed by Na
sr (1153), grandson of Caliph al-Hafiz; Abbas, who was the father of Nasr, becom
es vizier while the fortress of Ascalon falls into the hands of Baldwin III.
While the decay of the Fatimid regime has become irreversible, Nur ed-Din leads
the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul to the rescue against the invading Franks; it wil

l be a general of Nur ed-Din, Salah ad-Din, who will bring an end to the Shiite
dynasty of Egypt, establishing that of the Ayyubids, whilst formally recognizing
the supremacy of the Sultan of Damascus.
{FULL_EGYPT_TITLE}Fatimid Egypt
{FULL_ENGLAND_DESCR}King Henry II Plantagenet\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the King of England
Henry I, the last of the House of Normandy, died. The contenders for the throne
were his daughter Matilda, an illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester and his ne
phews Theobald and Stephen of Blois (sons of Adela, sister of the deceased King)
. Civil War soon broke out between the parties with several foreign powers gett
ing involved in the contest for the throne, including the Pope and the King of S
cotland.
Henry Plantagenet, son of Matilda and Godfrey V Count of Anjou and Maine, marrie
d Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux (formerly wife of Louis VII of France, whose
marriage had been dissolved for consanguinity) and received as dowry the lands f
rom Gascony in Aquitaine in South-Central France. Pope Eugenius III prohibits Ar
chbishop Theobald from crowning Eustace (son of Stephen) as King of England, bec
ause his father was considered a usurper, and accept the coronation of Henry II
Plantagenet as King of England (1154-1189). The name of the English Dynasty deri
ves from the Planta Genista, a shrub that Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and of Main
e known as "the beautiful" had as his insignia.
{FULL_ENGLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of England
{FULL_FRANCE_DESCR}King Louis VII Capet\n\n\n\nWhat was the Kingdom of France in
the 12th century and how was it perceived? A significant date: the first card o
f France will be designed only in 1525. At the time the French was perceived not
as a defined geographical territory but as an array of local political entities
(towns, castles, Lordships) whose Lords paid homage of faithfulness to the sove
reign. The personal ties of dependence and alliance formed the backbone of a uni
ted realm more than any abstract notion of territory. The formation of the Kingd
om, as a geographical space where the supreme authority of the Capetian kings wa
s recognized, progressed slowly outwards from the core lands of the family, in t
he le-de-France in Northern France.
The Capetian dynasty, one of the longest ruling houses of the middle ages, for t
hree centuries since the rule of Hugh Capet (938/41-996), held the reins of the
monarchy and expanded the kingdom. In 1100 it had been ruled for the past forty
years by the great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Philip I, who was succeeded by Louis
VI the Fat (r. 1108-1137). He in turn was succeeded by Louis VII who ruled until
1180.
{FULL_FRANCE_TITLE}Kingdom of France
{FULL_HRE_DESCR}Emperor Frederick I\n\n\n\nIn the heart of medieval Germany, Fre
derick I Barbarossa (reigned until 1190), succeeded Conrad III, Duke of Swabia a
nd Franconia of the House of Hohenstaufen (1138-1152), recently King of Germany,
and now, in the year 1155, is crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. Al
though his domains are extensive, he is not immune from the dangers and threats
to his authority represented by powerful princes that surround him and by multit
udes of settlers: Saxons, Franks, Flemish, and Lotharingi. Frederick faces a di
fficult position in his German lands as he tries to expand to the east while dea
ling with disobedient, self-serving nobles in his realm. To the south are his I
talian possessions, which are not always loyal and are forever seeking to break
away from Imperial control. The Italian issues are aggravated by the constant i
nterference of the Pope who feels threatened by the power of the Empire and the
challenges to Papal control of church matters.
{FULL_HRE_TITLE}H.R. Empire
{FULL_HUNGARY_DESCR}King Geza II Arpad\n\n\n\nIn the mid-11th century the Kingdo
m of Hungary was grappling with serious difficulties: two pagan revolts in 1046
and 1061, dynastic struggles, and interference by the German Emperors. The canon
ization of Saint Stephen in 1073 marked the beginning of a national renewal. Gza

I (1074-1077) and Ladislaus I (1077-1095) supported Gregory VII in the investitu


re controversy and placed Hungary under the suzerainty of the Holy See, managing
to remain outside the orbit of the HRE. In the 12th century the Kings of Hungar
y used diplomacy to thrive between the HRE, the Papacy and the Byzantine Empire,
expanding their influence in Croatia, Romania and even in Serbia, but the fierc
e dynastic struggles continued and the power of the nobles established itself at
the expense of the monarchy.
Stephen II, having no descendants, recalled his cousin Bla II the blind (King of
Hungary from 1131 to 1141) from exile and designated him as his successor. His G
overnment, supported by the nobles, is generally considered peaceful despite the
tragic nature of his youth. After the benevolent reign of Bela II, his eldest s
on Gza II (1141-1161) ascended to the throne to pursue the work of consolidation
of royal power.
{FULL_HUNGARY_TITLE}Kingdom of Hungary
{FULL_MILAN_DESCR}Signore Ottone Visconti\n\n\n\nThe Kingdom of Italy, the domai
n of the German Emperors in their capacity as Kings of Italy, with administrativ
e capital in Pavia and religious capital at Monza (where the Kings of Italy surr
ounded the Lombard Iron Crown) witnessed the triumph of the city during the 12th
century.
In September of 1122 on the banks of the Rhine, the Concordat of Worms was promu
lgated: Henry V renounced his right to confer spiritual investitures (by means o
f the ring and staff), but his right to confer temporal rights to the clergy (by
scepter) was recognized by Pope Calixtus II. Conrad of Swabia, thanks to the su
pport of the Milanese, seized the Crown of King of Italy (1128) without being ab
le to exercise real power. He later became Holy Roman Emperor in 1138 and was s
ucceeded by his nephew Frederick I, called Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190). Born of a Gh
ibelline father Frederick, Duke of Swabia and Guelph mother, Judith of Bavaria,
he is hailed as the Prince of Peace. But peace presupposes a new and stable orde
r, based on the consolidation of the sovereign power in his relationship with th
e Italian city-states.
Frederick I and Adrian IV (1154-1159), the only English Pope in history, agree t
o condemn Arnold of Brescia to be burned at the stake (a Lombard that due to his
sincerity of faith followed the philosophical school of Abelard). In Exchange f
or the delivery of the heretic (who escaped from the city in a vain attempt to f
ind an agreement between the Pope and the Municipality) Frederick was crowned Em
peror (June 1155), but the people revolted and the Emperor, fearing to remain wi
thout food, was quick to withdraw ravaging and plundering Pontifical Umbria: aft
er this event one of the pillars of Papal policy will rely on the Communities of
the Po, under the influence of Milan, the richest, most powerful and aggressive
of them.
{FULL_MILAN_TITLE}Comune di Milano
{FULL_PISA_DESCR}Console Ranieri Caetani\n\n\n\nThe greatest Arab medieval histo
rian, Ibn-Khaldoun (1332-1406), wrote nostalgically of the ninth and tenth centu
ries "Then the Christians were not allowed to sail anything on the Mediterranean
, even the smallest boat". Of course like any absolute statement, this phrase sh
ould be clarified: Byzantium controlled Ionia and the Aegean and the Venetians i
n addition trading in Italy, maintained trade contacts with the Byzantines throu
gh the Adriatic Sea. Amalfi was present with its ships and merchants in the Byza
ntine and Islamic trade systems.
In 1135 the Pisans, allies of Lothair, sack Amalfi, is the only relevant fact of
the campaign led by the emperor. Two years later, in an Allied expedition of th
e Pope and the Emperor Lothair II, Pisa participates once again in the campaign
in the region of Almafi. Following a period of relative calm in which the Republ
ic binds itself even more to the German Emperors, from which it receives signifi
cant concessions in 1162 and 1165. With these the Emperor Frederick I recognizes
the citys jurisdiction over the region near Pisa and freedom of trade in the ter
ritories of the Empire.
With the Saracen threat in the Western Mediterranean abated, Pisa turned towards

the markets of the East and concentrated its efforts in the construction of new
trade depots and in attaining new diplomatic and economic relations simply usin
g force to secure more advantageous treaties or monopolies in competition with r
ival city. Such rivalry occurred at different times, with all the other republic
s but particularly with Genoa. The reason for the disputes with the Ligurian ci
ty were their positions in Sardinia and Corsica and the hoarding of the markets
of southern France and Spain, where Genoa took on a markedly predominant positio
n.
{FULL_PISA_TITLE}Repubblica di Pisa
{FULL_MONGOLS_DESCR}DO NOT TRANSLATE - MONGOLS NOT PLAYABLE IN CAMPAIGN
{FULL_MONGOLS_TITLE}Mongol Horde
{FULL_MOORS_DESCR}Amir Abd al-Mu min Masmuda\n\n\n\nIn 1130 the Berber Muhammad
ibn Tumart who proclaimed himself Mahads (sent by God) initiated a movement of dee
p religious renewal in southern Morocco. His sect, called Almohads (Unitarian),
fights against the accepted interpretation by the Almoravid theologians, who hol
d the fate of the empire founded by Yusuf ibn Taschfin (1060-1106). In 1147 Abd
al-Mu min (successor of Muhammad ibn Tumart) destroys the Almoravid army in Tlem
cen and conquers Ceuta, Fes, Tangier and Marrakech which becomes his capital. Im
mediately after these victories, the Almohad army crosses into Spain and reconqu
ers Seville, Cordoba, Jaen (1147-48) and Malaga (1152-53), relegating the last A
lmoravids to the Balearic Islands.
In 1152 Abd al-Mu min, already ruler of Morocco, defeated coalition forces of Ha
mmaditi and Beni-Hilal in Setif and conquers Algeria; the capture of Tripoli in
1160 completes the domain of Ifriqiyyah (Africa) by the Almohads. Abd al-Mu min
(or el Moumen) was able to impose his lordship within a short time, realizing fo
r the first time the political unification of the Maghreb and imposing his will
on most Muslim kingdoms or taifas into which al-Andalus was again divided. Durin
g the rule of three Almohad Caliphs (Abd al-Mu min, Abou Youssef Yacoub and Abou
Youssef Yacoub al Mansour) the Maghreb experienced one of the most important pe
riods in its history, in which religious and political purposes became closely t
ied to expansionist economic needs including monitoring the Saharan trade routes
and their outlets to the sea.
{FULL_MOORS_TITLE}Almohad Empire
{FULL_NORMANS_TITLE}K. of Jerusalem
{FULL_NORMANS_DESCR}King Baldwin III of Anjou\n\n\n\nJuly 17, 1099: the great ma
ssacre comes to an end. The "Franks" (name used by the local Arabs to designate
the crusaders) have gathered to elect their king. Amidst great sacrifices and su
btle power games, the choice falls on Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, the most pious
and harmless among the leaders of the expedition. Godfrey refuses to wear the cr
own and proclaims himself only "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchre (Defender of The Holy
Sepulcher)".
Outremer, as the holy land is called, is again an integral part of Christianity.
Upon the death of Godfrey, the crown that he refused is taken by his brother Ba
ldwin, the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118). As a feudal state organized acco
rding to the Assizes of Jerusalem, the kingdom consisted of the subordinate vass
al principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli, the fiefs of several distingu
ished nobles, and those of dozens of minor vassals. Several military orders of m
onastic knights created in the XII century (Knights of Jerusalem, Templars, Hosp
itallers, and Teutonic) enjoyed full autonomy within the kingdom while Pisa, Gen
oa, and Venice established separate quarters for their merchants in the coastal
cities. Formally elective, the crown of Jerusalem remained mostly in possession
of the descendants of Baldwin I and the counts of Anjou, finally passing in 1186
to the French noble Guy of Lusignan. After the loss of Edessa in 1144, the Crus
aders suffer the relentless attacks of the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul, and later
of Saladin, ruler of Egypt.
{FULL_PAPAL_STATES_DESCR}Pope Adrian IV\n\n\n\nA tradition holds that the Roman

Catholic Church had been granted the exclusive domain over certain territories i
n Italy thanks to the so-called Donation of Emperor Constantine (321). The autho
r of this concession, which would have assured the then Pope Sylvester I and sub
sequent pontiffs a kind of sovereignty over the Lateran Palace and the city of R
ome, with all of its properties and the Imperial regalia, would have been the sa
me, Constantine I. In reality the document of the Donation was a forgery dating
back at least to the 8th century, as was proven since 1440 by the humanist Loren
zo Valla.
While the claim to territorial sovereignty held no veracity, the cultural enviro
nment of the late Middle Ages granted broad authority to the Popes. Authority th
at was not only spiritual but also temporal. The Holy Roman emperors felt a need
to see their emperorship consecrated by the Pope and the latter needed to exert
their power over the sovereigns of Europe. The delicate situation turned to a m
ajor confrontation over the question of the election of Bishops (the Investiture
Controversy), which focused the differences of opinion about the possibility th
at the emperor would not be totally free of papal authority. Thus the Popes supp
orted the struggle of the Italian cities against Frederick Barbarossa in order t
o weaken the political authority of the HRE.
{FULL_PAPAL_STATES_TITLE}Papal States
{FULL_POLAND_DESCR}King Bolesaw IV the Curly\n\n\n\nThe enduring dynasty of Piast
(IX-XIV centuries, with royal dignity since the XII century) gives life in the
XI-XII centuries to ephemeral Empires, extending with uncertain boundaries towar
ds Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Russia.
Bolesaw III (1102-1139), relying on small and medium cavalry and court magistrate
s (as in the Hohenstaufen Empire), tries to avoid the onset of dynastic struggle
s by dividing the Kingdom among his sons in his testament, while subordinating t
he cadets to the moral authority of his first-born son Ladislaw II. This "senior
ity" becomes more and more fictitious and the state is fragmented into a group o
f virtually independent duchies: Great Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masovia , the D
uchy of Sandomierz, and Small Poland; Krakow has only a theoretical preeminence.
In 1146 King Ladislaw II is overthrown by his brothers and takes refuge at the c
ourt of his brother-in-law King Conrad III; he is replaced by his brother Bolesaw
IV the Curly (1120-1173). Meanwhile, the power of the princes and clergy contin
ues to grow: in 1136, the Archbishop of Gniezno (Episcopal created in 1000 over
the grave of the martyr Adalbert), has already more than a thousand dwellings an
d some five thousand servants. Among the chief towns include Krakow (capital), P
oznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw, surrounded by vast areas inhabited by a huge rural ma
ss with patriarchal customs that will remain pagan until the 13th century.
{FULL_POLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Poland
{FULL_PORTUGAL_DESCR}King Alfonso I Henriques\n\n\n\nIn 1093 Henry of Burgundy (
1066-1112) and Alfonso VI of Castile recovered Galicia and Northern Portugal as
far as the Tagus River, including Lisbon, Cintra and Santarm, from the Muslims. A
s a reward, King Alfonso agreed to have his daughter, Teresa of Len, marry Henry.
The couple had several children, who all died in childhood except the last, Alf
onso Henriques (1109-1185).
In 1128 the Count of Portugal, Alfonso Henriques, defeated the Castilian army at
the battle of So Mamede and laid the foundation for an independent kingdom. In 1
139, after the victory against the Muslims in the battle of Ourique, the victori
ous army of Portugal proclaimed Alfonso Henriques as King. In the fight against
the Almohads the monastic military orders of the Holy Land, Hospitallers and Tem
plars, play an important role. So do newly established Orders such as those of
Calatrava (1158), Evora (1162), Santiago de Compostela (1175) and Alcntara (1176)
, forming a veritable permanent army. During this period, the Christian kingdoms
often collaborate in joint ventures, ever more frequent in the last decades of
the century, coinciding with the declining power of the Almohads, absorbed by se
rious problems in Africa.
{FULL_PORTUGAL_TITLE}Kingdom of Portugal

{FULL_RUSSIA_DESCR}Grand Prince Yuri Dolgoruki Yurievich\n\n\n\nThe Principality


of Kiev had never been solidly unified and had already fragmented, in the 12th
century, into independent principalities. At the end of the reign of Vladimir Mo
nomach the struggle between Kiev and Novgorod marked the beginning of its destru
ction, the same city of Kiev, already threatened by nomadic Polovcy, fell prey t
o the savage looting of the Princes of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal, Yuri Dolgoru
ky and Andrei Bogolyubsky (1157-1174).
In 1147, during a meeting between the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Chernigov, we
hear of a rapidly expanding commercial village on the Moskva, name of the river
from which the settlement will be named Moscow. The struggles that took place in
the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal in the 12th century were similar to those of
the other principalities in the same era: the years 1136-1174 are considered yea
rs of crisis. Their violence bear witness to the turmoil within the principles,
especially the boyars and the clergy seizing control of lands.
But unlike the other principalities, Rostov-Suzdal was ruled by a Prince of grea
t authority, Yuri Dolgoruky. He fought against the Bulgars of the Volga, but al
so against the Slavs, managing to take over temporarily over Novgorod and Kiev,
where he was finally crowned Prince and where he died in 1157. This date marks t
he beginning of the age of Russia under the auspices of the Kievan Rus and the r
eal power switches to the Rus of the Northeast. The principality of Suzdal becam
e the nucleus of the future state of Moscow and what would eventually become the
huge Russian Empire.
{FULL_RUSSIA_TITLE}Princ. of Vladimir
{FULL_NOVGOROD_DESCR}Prince Konstantin Stepanich\n\n\n\nThe Principality of Novg
orod was significantly different from the character of other Russian principalit
ies, so different that we often speak of the land of Novgorod rather than Princip
ality. Different then was also the general regime of life because of the eminen
tly agricultural and aggressively militaristic character of other principalities
, while Novgorod was mainly a mercantile society.
The location of the city, at the meeting of the Volkhov River with the Lake Ilme
n, in one of the essential points of the ancient waterways towards the Black Sea
, favored the development of trade which originally consisted not only of goods
but also of slaves and workers. The territory of Novgorod was not fertile enough
for large-scale agriculture; this condition required the development of trade.
Other conditions conducive to such development was the ease of communication tow
ards the Germanic lands and Sweden; from Germany arrived twice yearly a caravan
of merchants to do business; there were less regular but more frequent visits to
Novgorod merchants, in particular from the Swedish island of Gotland and the Ba
ltic lands.
The regime of Novgorod, in the sense of the relationship between Prince and Asse
mbly, was different from that of other principalities as the Assembly, being in
the hands of boyars and merchants (but especially the first) instead of people,
often did not respect the interests of the latter. Also very limited were the po
wers of the Prince. The Principality of Novgorod was not fighting against nomadi
c peoples from the East (Cumans and Mongols), but rather the danger came from th
e West, when in the 12th century the Livonian Order of the Sword began the attem
pt to advance to the East.
{FULL_NOVGOROD_TITLE}Rep. of Novgorod
{FULL_SAXONS_DESCR}King Inge Gille\n\n\n\nFrom the mid-11th century the Kingdom
of Norway was consolidated and stabilized, gradually abandoning the old Viking t
radition linked to paganism and depredations. The first dioceses arose and laid
the foundations for a (albeit primitive) central management system, based on the
collection of taxes from the main towns in Norway (Oslo, Trondheim or Nidaros,
Bergen) and on the control of internal order through the force of a Royal Army.
In 1067 Olaf Kyrre came to the throne, the first ruler in history who knew how t
o read and write.\n\n The church quickly contributed to the eradication of the a
ncient pagan beliefs and rituals; however many Vikings gods persisted in remote
northern regions for many centuries to come. In 1152 the first Catholic Archdioc

ese in Nidaros was founded, which extended to the Northern Islands (Orkney, Shet
land, Faroe) under the control of the King, while Oslo hosted a Bishop. Also in
the Scottish Islands (Man and other) ruled Kings of Norwegian ancestry.\n\nThe 1
2th century however, was a period of internal tribulations for Norway. In the a
bsence of a specific regulation for the dynastic succession, every son of a rule
r was considered the legitimate heir, and this caused inevitable clashes between
factions on the death of the King. After the death of King Sigurd the Crusader
(1130), in particular, a violent struggle erupted between the supporters of the
four sons (all minors) that led to decades of civil war. The oldest of the four
was a bastard son Eystein, coming from Scotland; the second (and most accredited
pretender) was Inge, who opposed the younger brothers Sigurd and Magnus (the la
tter died young). At the beginning of 1155, the Crown is then evenly divided bet
ween Inge, Eystein and Sigurd.
{FULL_SAXONS_TITLE}Kingdom of Norway
{FULL_SCOTLAND_DESCR}King Malcolm IV\n\n\n\nMalcolm III (1058-1093), founder of
the House of Dunkeld, introduced feudalism for the first time in the region, rep
lacing the loyalty of consanguinity (clan), upon which Scottish society was base
d. David I (1124-1153), son of Malcolm III, aggravated the disputes with the Kin
gdom of England. In 1136 he embarked on a series of raids on English soil which
will continue the bitter disputes between the two crowns.
William I "the Rude", grandson of David I, assumed office as King of Scots after
the death of his brother Malcolm IV (1153-1165), he proved weak and deeply reli
gious. His reign is the second in order of longevity in Scottish history, after
James V (1567-1625). The posthumous nickname of "the lion" will be given to him
due to his coat of arms which will become the Royal Standard of Scotland used by
the rulers of Scotland. William I in 1152, inherited the title of Earl of North
umbria but will lose it to Henry II Plantagenet in 1157.
{FULL_SCOTLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Scotland
{FULL_SICILY_DESCR}Re Guglielmo I d Altavilla\n\n\n\nThe celebration of the coro
nation of Roger II (1130-1154) was a true display of grandeur, with gold, silver
, and a coronation mantle of fine silk. Roger II followed the example of his fat
her. William I, (1154-1166) and Wilhelm II (1166-1189) ruled after Roger II and
the history of their times comes from the chronicler Falcandus. The nobles and t
he literati of that age referred to the Kings of Sicily as tyrants who worked to
accumulate the symbols and attributes of the Byzantine Emperors, the Caliphs, a
nd the Popepowers that did not originate from the Western warrior aristocracy but
from an autocratic tradition.
{FULL_SICILY_TITLE}Kingdom of Sicily
{FULL_SPAIN_DESCR}King Alfonso VII of Burgundy\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the Assembly of th
e Kingdom of Leon conferred on King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) the title of Emperor
of Spain, a title already taken by his grandfather Alfonso VI, and declared the
mselves his vassals. The assumption of such a prestigious title did not mean tha
t Alfonso VII had reached the limit of his power, but that he intended to be a f
orce pushing for the Reconquista. The Kingdom of Len and Castile, in fact, contin
uously pressured Cordoba, Seville, Malaga, Valencia and Murcia. This fact led Mu
slims to leave behind the inertia that had long weakened them, reacting with a p
owerful and fast counter-offensive which captured Seville, Cordoba, and Malaga
in a short time and blocked the expansionist efforts of Alfonso VII.
{FULL_SPAIN_TITLE}Kingdom of Castile-Leon
{FULL_TIMURIDS_DESCR}Caliph al-Muqtafi \n\n\n\nThe dynasty Abbasid caliphs ruled
the Islamic world from its headquarters in Baghdad (and, for some decades, from
Samarra) between 750 and 1258. The Abbasids take their name from his paternal u
ncle of the prophet Muhammad and ancestor of the founder of the dynasty - you wa
nt it to be converted to the religion preached by his nephew in an unspecified d
ate and critics of the dynasty placed in the evening immediately prior to the co
nquest of Mecca by Muslims (630). When the opposition won out on Alid Umayyads (

weakened by continual revolts kharigite, dall irriducibile antagonism between so


uthern and northern Arabs and infighting that squassarono the very unity of thei
r family structure), the Abbasids showed themselves as the most organized and si
mply, is strongly suggested as the new dynasty caliph, arrogating to itself any
power, calling with a certain arrogance "blessed dynasty". Therefore not held in
any account of the alleged "legitimist" Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) who
had deluded that nothing was standing in for the recruitment of the supreme gov
ernment of the Islamic Umma. From Here to break the unity between the Abbasids a
nd Alidi that, over time, will lay the ideological and theological foundations f
or the emergence of a true Islamic movement which alternative will be defined as
"Shiite".
The first Abbasid caliph, Abu l- Abbas al-Saffah, although proclaimed in Kufa in
748-9, took only real power in 750, armed with its massive military support ele
ment Persian-khorasanico, carefully organized by Abu long clandestinely Muslim,
the leader of the Abbasid propaganda machine in the Umayyad period.
The dynasty, however, found his real skilful organizer and administrator in Abu
Ja far al-Mansur, the younger brother of Abu l- Abbas, who founded the firm foun
dations that allowed the Supreme Islamic judiciary to survive for half a millenn
ium or so, although after The Caliph al-Mutawakkil, the power of the dynasty beg
an to substantially empty, while remaining formally until its fall, as evident s
ymbol of unity For Islamic al-Mansur (reg. 754-775) who founded Baghdad in Meso
potamian area that had always expressed the deepest affection for the family of
the Prophet.
The apex of the Abbasid power was joined by his grandson Harun al-Rashid (reg. 7
86-809) and the latter s son al-Ma mun (reg. 813-833), under which the caliphate
touched limits extraordinary, both territorial and cultural. The enlargement of
the Abbasid domains, however, led to a gradual increase in difficulty of the Ca
liphate, in part caused by ethnic and cultural differences but, more simply, by
a certain inability to manage wisely the center of the suburbs. In the eighth ce
ntury al-Andalus and North Africa had already been posted by the caliphate, in p
art to share in the first exponent of a surviving Umayyad and partly because of
the indomitable Berber resistance. The century was Egypt tulunide to assert thei
r right to self-administration, and spending time with, then were the Iranian pr
ovinces to claim a right development model (without giving up the unifying trait
of Islam), then from Syria and Mesopotamia (IX-X century). From that moment on,
the caliphate was reduced gradually to the control of Iraq alone, then one of B
aghdad and, indeed, even to the entire capital city. Between 836 and 892 on the
capital (marked by the growing problems of public policy) was transferred to Sam
arra , however, to return again in Baghdad until the fall of the dynasty.
After suffering the "protection" of the Shia daylamiti buwaihidi or buyidi (cent
ury X-XI century) and then the Sunni Turkish Seljuks, the Abbasid Caliphate was
a revival of authority in the twelfth century. Al-Muqtafi, caliph from 1136, tak
en an anti-Seljuk with the ambition to extend its authority to the entire Iraq.
He is recognized as a wise ruler, virtuous and brave, defended by several Baghda
d attacks Seljuks, made some expeditions against neighboring enemies, and put th
e rebellion of a son of Seljuk Sultan. Participated in the "Jihad" of Zenghidi o
f Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders, but without much enthusiasm because of the c
ontinuing need for men to defend Baghdad from the mire of the Seljuks, had also
known his openness to the Christians in 1139 gave the patriarch a Abdisho III bi
ll of rights for the protection of minority Nestorian.
{FULL_TIMURIDS_TITLE}Abbasid Caliphate
{FULL_TURKS_DESCR}Sultan Mesud I bin Kutalmish\n\n\n\nThe Seljuk conquest of Ana
tolia was opened by the battle of Mantzikert (1071), in which the Byzantine Empe
ror was defeated and taken prisoner. The conquest was implemented by Suleyman Sa
h, a Prince descended from Selgiuq.
Sleyman Sah settled in Nicaea, dominating almost all of Anatolia until 1097. From
this moment the Crusaders learned to respect the Turks and to value their skill
s, considering them, along with themselves, some of the best riders in the world
. It was even said that both Franks and Turks shared a common ancestry: the Tro

jans, while the vile and greedy Byzantines are descended from the Greeks.
The successor of Sleyman Sah, Qilic Arslan, had to settle for dominating only Cen
tral Anatolia, with its capital at Ikonium, in practice the poorest regions of t
he country; the northeastern Turkish States, such as the Danishmends, and Menguc
echidi, limited its authority. Later the Seljuks of Rum, so called according to
the traditional name of Byzantine Anatolia, defeated the Crusaders participating
in the Second Crusade at Dorylaeum in 1147.
{FULL_TURKS_TITLE}Seljuk Sultanate
{FULL_VENICE_DESCR}Doge Domenico Morosini\n\n\n\nTradition holds that the first
Doge elected was a man named Paulicio, who ruled between 697 and 716; freely cho
sen by the Venetians, expressing their full political independence. But things w
ere otherwise, because that mythical Paulicio was probably a Byzantine official,
or even a Lombard official. Far from being the expression of original independe
nce, therefore, the Doge, for that initial phase of Venetian history, was rather
a sign of dependency on a greater empire. This, however, did not prevent a grad
ual evolution of increased degrees of autonomy from Byzantium until reaching rea
l independence between the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Doge, with the passag
e of time, began to embody the political will of Venice expressed in full autono
my and exalted by the construction of the Basilica di San Marco (consecrated in
1094) and the Rialto market created in 1099.
Until 1032 (year in which Pietro Barbolano, was stripped of the title and ended
up as a monk in Constantinople) of the twenty-nine Dogi, only eight managed to d
ie in their beds and still in possession of the title. By the mid 11th century t
hings start to change and the risks of sudden interruptions is reduced almost to
disappear. In 1143 Pietro Polani exiled the Badoer family and razed the propert
ies of the Dandolo family, who along with the noble families of Falier, Michiel
and Morosini oppose a policy of friendship towards Byzantium. This also results
in an excommunication of Venice by Pope Eugenius III. Between the 10th and 13th
centuries, through a series of operations, Venice acquired dominion over the Adr
iatic and especially a strong position against Byzantium, gaining trading privil
eges in Jaffa, Haifa, Romania, and elsewhere.
{FULL_VENICE_TITLE}Rep. of Venice
{FULL_ZENGHIDS_DESCR}Atabeg Nur ad-Din\n\n\n\nThe rule of Atabeg Zengi of Aleppo
and Mosul (1129-1146) marked a turning point in the history of the Crusades due
to the return of the spirit of Jihad, Holy War, to the Muslims. Zengi recalled
that his father, was appointed Prince of Aleppo by Sultan Melik Shah and despite
a period of interruption of about thirty years, he was restored with the help o
f the last great Seljuk Ruler, the source of legitimacy in the Turkish world. Th
ough he posed a strong resistance to the Christians, Zengi was assassinated by h
is pages on September 14, 1146; an immediate consequence was a rebellion in Edes
sa and the kingdom was divided between two of his sons: Ghazi took Mosul and Nur
ad-Din received Aleppo and finally in 1154 Nur ad-Din finally entered Damascus.
{FULL_ZENGHIDS_TITLE}Atabeg of Aleppo
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_NORMANS_DESCR}Lead William the Conqueror and his Norman army to
victory at the Battle of Hastings, then defeat the Saxons for control of the En
glish throne.\n\nEdward the Confessor s death saw England fall into a bitter pow
er struggle. With no heirs to the English throne, three competing powers arose t
o stake their claim. Harold Godwinson was quick to seize power, with the support
of the English Witan. However, the King of Norway, Harald Hardrada, felt the la
nd his birthright and sailed from the North. The two kings clashed at Stamford B
ridge in a bloody battle.\n\nBut the late King Edward had promised the throne to
the Duke of Normandy, who sought Papal blessing to launch an invasion of his ow
n.
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_NORMANS_TITLE}The Norman Conquest
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_TITLE}The Norman Conquest

LIGHT
{LIGHT_TITLE}4. Campagna Ridotta (Light)
{LIGHT_AZTECS_DESCR}King Demetrius Bagration\n\n\n\nThe early decades of the 9th
century AD saw the birth of new Georgian State, which was declared in South-Wes
tern region of Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot I Kuropalates, of the Bagration Royal family,
freed the territories of southern Iberia from Arab domination, including the pr
incipalities of Tao and Klarjeti as well as the counties of Shavsheti, Khikhata,
Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formerly a part of the By
zantine Empire under the pseudonym "Curopalatinato of Iberia."
Curopalates David Bagration expanded his domains annexing the city of Theodosiop
olis (known in the times as Karin or Karnukalaki, now Erzurum), the Armenian pro
vinces of Basiani, Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert and Khlat, formerly controlled b
y the Arab Emir Kaysithe.
In 978 all Georgian principalities were unified in the United Kingdom of Georgia
(978-1466) under the Bagration Dynasty, whose ancestor was Ashot I "the Great"
(9th century AD). Since then, Georgia remained independent for almost a thousand
years. The greatest representative of this dynasty was David "the Builder" (Dev
id IV Agmashenebeli), who reigned from 1089 to 1125, considered a Saint by the G
eorgian Orthodox Church. Under his leadership the Kingdom of Georgia also includ
ed territories of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the northern Caucasus.
David IV of Georgia, considered by tradition as the greatest Georgian ruler, is
celebrated for being able to repel from Georgian soil the invading Seljuks, winn
ing the battle of Didgori in 1121. Thanks to his military and administrative ref
orms, the strong Georgian nation managed to bring under its control much of the
Caucasus region. His tolerance and kindness towards other religions and other et
hnic groups marked the Armenian culture so deeply that this attitude became a co
nstant feature of this Kingdom even after the death of David IV. He died on Jan
uary 24, 1125 and his body, as it was stated in his will, was buried under a sto
ne placed at the main entrance to the Gelati monastery so that anyone coming int
o that place was forced to put his foot on his tomb, a demonstration of his deep
humility. David IV left three sons: the eldest son Demetrius was his successor
and follower of his policy of expansion and consolidation of the Kingdom.
{LIGHT_AZTECS_TITLE}Kingdom of Georgia
{LIGHT_ARAGON_DESCR}King Ramon Berenguer IV\n\n\n\nRamiro II was married on Nove
mber 13, 1135 in the Cathedral of Jaca with Ins of Poitou. The King was 60 years
old. Petronilla, their daughter, was bornAugust 11, 1136. Ramiro II knew that t
he independence of Aragon couldn t last very long with the powerful Kingdom of C
astile seeking to expand its lands and titles. It was necessary to look eastward
to the rich countryside of Barcelona and its Count Ramon Berenguer IV. The Cou
nty of Barcelona was created as a vassal of the Frankish Kings as part of the Ma
rca Hispanica during the reign of Charlemagne. King Ramiro of Aragon abdicated
in 1137 in favor of his daughter Petronilla, who at one year of age was promised
to Ramon Berenguer IV, who was 23 years old.
Petronilla was educated at the Court of Barcelona and Ramiro II prepared a contr
act of marriage that count of Barcelona signed in all its clauses. Ramon Bereng
uer became Prince of Aragon holding the royal power and controlling the treasury
without the title of King. Basically Don Ramon Berenguer ruled both kingdoms.
The marriage between Queen Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer was celebrated when sh
e was 14 years of age in the Cathedral of Lleida, in the month of August 1150.
{LIGHT_ARAGON_TITLE}Kingdom of Aragon
{LIGHT_BYZANTIUM_DESCR}Basileus Manuel I Comnenus\n\n\n\nAt the time of the firs
t crusade, Alexios I Komnenos sat on the throne of Byzantium; a member of the mi
litary aristocracy, he came to power after a long period of crisis. He had condu
cted a series of successful campaigns against the enemies of the Empire and reaf

irmed the role the Byzantine Empire as a great power. This project was brought t
o a sudden standstill by the arrival of the Crusaders, who forced him to devote
himself entirely to the new and unexpected problem of foreign policy.
After the death of Alexios, his son John became Emperor and continued the proces
s of restoring the power and lands of the Byzantine Empire. After Johns death in
1143, Manuel I Comnenus inherited the throne and a series of problems that had
begun to beset the Empire: to the east the Turks were a constan threat, the Lati
n Crusader States were a constant source of frustration for the Byzantines becau
se of the uneasy periods of alliance and hostility that existed between the Chri
stian factions. In the Balkans, the Sicilians, Hungarians and Slavs also posed
challenges for Emperor Manuel I.
{LIGHT_BYZANTIUM_TITLE}Byzantine Empire
{LIGHT_CUMANS_TITLE}Cuman Conf.
{LIGHT_CUMANS_DESCR}Khan Bonyak\n\n\n\nThe Cumans ("Kunok" in Hungarian, "Qipcia
q" in Turkish, "Polovtzy" in Russian) are a western branch of the Turkic Kipchak
s who traveled through the plains of Central Asia to settle around the Caspian S
ea, from where he emigrated during the 11th century to occupy the plains of the
lower Danube, devastating Hungary to their path. Eventually the Cuman horde foun
ded a semi-nomadic state in the 12th century around the Black Sea that conducted
business and diplomatic relationships with the Bulgarian Khanate, Khwarezm, Chi
na, Venice, Genoa and Europe through its ports in Crimea and the Sea of Azov. T
hroughout the first half of the 12th century, certain parts of Bulgarian territo
ry served as strategic bases for attacks carried out against the Byzantine Empir
e by Cumans settled in the regions bordering the Danube, which long retain the n
ame Cumania. In 1122 Macedonia and Thrace were looted. The Polovtzy-Cumans were t
he dominant part of semi-sedentary or wandering ethnicities that clashed with th
in their quest for expansion to the Black Sea.
e Varangians of the Kievan Rus
After the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125, the Cumans sought to profit from
the resulting anarchy in Kievan Russia (now shattered and torn apart from period
ic revolts) through raids into the Rus territory , while to the North the city o
f Novgorod is increasingly attracted to the commercial interests that gravitate
around the Baltic.
The Cumans subdued many peoples of the steppe and since slavery did not compleme
nt the nomadic life, once subdued, the captives were incorporated into the army.
This was the case of Pechenegs, Khazars, the Ghuzz, and in later periods, the V
lachs.
The faction of the Cumans (as it happened historically) will have a wide choice
of cavalry, both heavy and light, many armed with bows. Their infantry will be l
ight and will be formed largely by the subjugated peoples.
{LIGHT_DENMARK_DESCR}King Valdemar I Lavard\n\n\n\nFor the Danes, the Norman Con
quest of England put an almost definitive end to the attempts to conquer the Isl
and1074 and 1085 baing the last dates of projected invasions. At the beginning o
f the reign of Niels (1104-1134), Asser, Bishop of Lund, becomes the first Archb
ishop of Denmark, with ecclesiastical independence and full right to voice his o
pinion in Christendom, though during the last years of his reign, a motion prese
nted to the feudal lords marks a regression of the royal authority. Canute Lavar
d (son of Erik 1070-1103, predecessor and brother of Niels), the first Danish Du
ke and likely pretender, (1131) is assassinated by his cousin and rival Magnus "
the Strong" (son of King Niels). The death of Canute Lavard marks the beginning
of a long civil war in which several members of the Danish Royal Family are mas
sacred. The half-brother of Canute Lavard, Erik, attempts to avenge his death an
d to secure the succession but has to temporarily take refuge in Sweden.
The state of crisis in Denmark encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II to retak
e the initiative and in 1133, the Archbishop of Lund loses his position as Archb
ishop to the benefit of the Archbishop of Bremen, only to reacquire it six month
s later, in 1134. Lothair II, on the pretext of ill treatment that German merch
ants suffered from the Danes, forced Magnus to pay homage in Halberstadt. In 11
34, at the battle of Fotevik (Fodevig) Magnus and Niels, determined to do away o

nce and for all with Erik, are taken by surprise by a contingent of German caval
ry hired by Erik. The army that served Niels is massacred before they can regro
up and Magnus is assassinated. King Niels manages to escape but inexplicably de
cides to head south and, near the city of Schleswig, is killed by the people loy
al to Erik. The new King known as Erik "the Memorable" turns out to be a tough
and unpopular ruler, and is finally killed in 1137 by a palace conspiracy which
brings to the throne his nephew, Erik the "Mild". Erik III "the Mild" abdicated
in 1146-47; he is succeeded by Sven III (or Sweyn), illegitimate son of Erik II
"the Memorable", but must share the Kingdom with his cousin Canute V (son of Pri
nce Magnus). Valdemar I is the son of Canute V.
{LIGHT_DENMARK_TITLE}Kingdom of Denmark
{LIGHT_EGYPT_DESCR}Imam al-Fa iz al-Fatimiyyun\n\n\n\n1130: the Fatimid Caliph a
l-Amir is assassinated and power is assumed by his brother al Hafiz; the state f
alls into anarchy and the dynasty begins to rapidly decline. Conspiracies and pa
lace revolutions from the barracks along with court intrigues marks this period
as perhaps the most corrupt of all time.
In 1149 weak Caliph al-Hafiz dies and is succeeded by his son az-Zafir, but powe
r was soon usurped by the Kurdish vizier Ibn as-Sallar. The two are killed by Na
sr (1153), grandson of Caliph al-Hafiz; Abbas, who was the father of Nasr, becom
es vizier while the fortress of Ascalon falls into the hands of Baldwin III.
While the decay of the Fatimid regime has become irreversible, Nur ed-Din leads
the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul to the rescue against the invading Franks; it wil
l be a general of Nur ed-Din, Salah ad-Din, who will bring an end to the Shiite
dynasty of Egypt, establishing that of the Ayyubids, whilst formally recognizing
the supremacy of the Sultan of Damascus.
{LIGHT_EGYPT_TITLE}Fatimid Egypt
{LIGHT_ENGLAND_DESCR}King Henry II Plantagenet\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the King of Englan
d Henry I, the last of the House of Normandy, died. The contenders for the thron
e were his daughter Matilda, an illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester and his n
ephews Theobald and Stephen of Blois (sons of Adela, sister of the deceased King
). Civil War soon broke out between the parties with several foreign powers get
ting involved in the contest for the throne, including the Pope and the King of
Scotland.
Henry Plantagenet, son of Matilda and Godfrey V Count of Anjou and Maine, marrie
d Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux (formerly wife of Louis VII of France, whose
marriage had been dissolved for consanguinity) and received as dowry the lands f
rom Gascony in Aquitaine in South-Central France. Pope Eugenius III prohibits Ar
chbishop Theobald from crowning Eustace (son of Stephen) as King of England, bec
ause his father was considered a usurper, and accept the coronation of Henry II
Plantagenet as King of England (1154-1189). The name of the English Dynasty deri
ves from the Planta Genista, a shrub that Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and of Main
e known as "the beautiful" had as his insignia.
{LIGHT_ENGLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of England
{LIGHT_FRANCE_DESCR}King Louis VII Capet\n\n\n\nWhat was the Kingdom of France i
n the 12th century and how was it perceived? A significant date: the first card
of France will be designed only in 1525. At the time the French was perceived no
t as a defined geographical territory but as an array of local political entitie
s (towns, castles, Lordships) whose Lords paid homage of faithfulness to the sov
ereign. The personal ties of dependence and alliance formed the backbone of a un
ited realm more than any abstract notion of territory. The formation of the King
dom, as a geographical space where the supreme authority of the Capetian kings w
as recognized, progressed slowly outwards from the core lands of the family, in
the le-de-France in Northern France.
The Capetian dynasty, one of the longest ruling houses of the middle ages, for t
hree centuries since the rule of Hugh Capet (938/41-996), held the reins of the
monarchy and expanded the kingdom. In 1100 it had been ruled for the past forty
years by the great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Philip I, who was succeeded by Louis

VI the Fat (r. 1108-1137). He in turn was succeeded by Louis VII who ruled until
1180.
{LIGHT_FRANCE_TITLE}Kingdom of France
{LIGHT_HRE_DESCR}Emperor Frederick I\n\n\n\nIn the heart of medieval Germany, Fr
ederick I Barbarossa (reigned until 1190), succeeded Conrad III, Duke of Swabia
and Franconia of the House of Hohenstaufen (1138-1152), recently King of Germany
, and now, in the year 1155, is crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. A
lthough his domains are extensive, he is not immune from the dangers and threats
to his authority represented by powerful princes that surround him and by multi
tudes of settlers: Saxons, Franks, Flemish, and Lotharingi. Frederick faces a d
ifficult position in his German lands as he tries to expand to the east while de
aling with disobedient, self-serving nobles in his realm. To the south are his
Italian possessions, which are not always loyal and are forever seeking to break
away from Imperial control. The Italian issues are aggravated by the constant
interference of the Pope who feels threatened by the power of the Empire and the
challenges to Papal control of church matters.
{LIGHT_HRE_TITLE}H.R. Empire
{LIGHT_HUNGARY_DESCR}King Geza II Arpad\n\n\n\nIn the mid-11th century the Kingd
om of Hungary was grappling with serious difficulties: two pagan revolts in 1046
and 1061, dynastic struggles, and interference by the German Emperors. The cano
nization of Saint Stephen in 1073 marked the beginning of a national renewal. Gza
I (1074-1077) and Ladislaus I (1077-1095) supported Gregory VII in the investit
ure controversy and placed Hungary under the suzerainty of the Holy See, managin
g to remain outside the orbit of the HRE. In the 12th century the Kings of Hunga
ry used diplomacy to thrive between the HRE, the Papacy and the Byzantine Empire
, expanding their influence in Croatia, Romania and even in Serbia, but the fier
ce dynastic struggles continued and the power of the nobles established itself a
t the expense of the monarchy.
Stephen II, having no descendants, recalled his cousin Bla II the blind (King of
Hungary from 1131 to 1141) from exile and designated him as his successor. His G
overnment, supported by the nobles, is generally considered peaceful despite the
tragic nature of his youth. After the benevolent reign of Bela II, his eldest s
on Gza II (1141-1161) ascended to the throne to pursue the work of consolidation
of royal power.
{LIGHT_HUNGARY_TITLE}Kingdom of Hungary
{LIGHT_MILAN_DESCR}Signore Ottone Visconti\n\n\n\nThe Kingdom of Italy, the doma
in of the German Emperors in their capacity as Kings of Italy, with administrati
ve capital in Pavia and religious capital at Monza (where the Kings of Italy sur
rounded the Lombard Iron Crown) witnessed the triumph of the city during the 12t
h century.
In September of 1122 on the banks of the Rhine, the Concordat of Worms was promu
lgated: Henry V renounced his right to confer spiritual investitures (by means o
f the ring and staff), but his right to confer temporal rights to the clergy (by
scepter) was recognized by Pope Calixtus II. Conrad of Swabia, thanks to the su
pport of the Milanese, seized the Crown of King of Italy (1128) without being ab
le to exercise real power. He later became Holy Roman Emperor in 1138 and was s
ucceeded by his nephew Frederick I, called Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190). Born of a Gh
ibelline father Frederick, Duke of Swabia and Guelph mother, Judith of Bavaria,
he is hailed as the Prince of Peace. But peace presupposes a new and stable orde
r, based on the consolidation of the sovereign power in his relationship with th
e Italian city-states.
Frederick I and Adrian IV (1154-1159), the only English Pope in history, agree t
o condemn Arnold of Brescia to be burned at the stake (a Lombard that due to his
sincerity of faith followed the philosophical school of Abelard). In Exchange f
or the delivery of the heretic (who escaped from the city in a vain attempt to f
ind an agreement between the Pope and the Municipality) Frederick was crowned Em
peror (June 1155), but the people revolted and the Emperor, fearing to remain wi

thout food, was quick to withdraw ravaging and plundering Pontifical Umbria: aft
er this event one of the pillars of Papal policy will rely on the Communities of
the Po, under the influence of Milan, the richest, most powerful and aggressive
of them.
{LIGHT_MILAN_TITLE}Comune di Milano
{LIGHT_PISA_DESCR}Console Ranieri Caetani\n\n\n\nThe greatest Arab medieval hist
orian, Ibn-Khaldoun (1332-1406), wrote nostalgically of the ninth and tenth cent
uries "Then the Christians were not allowed to sail anything on the Mediterranea
n, even the smallest boat". Of course like any absolute statement, this phrase s
hould be clarified: Byzantium controlled Ionia and the Aegean and the Venetians
in addition trading in Italy, maintained trade contacts with the Byzantines thro
ugh the Adriatic Sea. Amalfi was present with its ships and merchants in the Byz
antine and Islamic trade systems.
In 1135 the Pisans, allies of Lothair, sack Amalfi, is the only relevant fact of
the campaign led by the emperor. Two years later, in an Allied expedition of th
e Pope and the Emperor Lothair II, Pisa participates once again in the campaign
in the region of Almafi. Following a period of relative calm in which the Republ
ic binds itself even more to the German Emperors, from which it receives signifi
cant concessions in 1162 and 1165. With these the Emperor Frederick I recognizes
the citys jurisdiction over the region near Pisa and freedom of trade in the ter
ritories of the Empire.
With the Saracen threat in the Western Mediterranean abated, Pisa turned towards
the markets of the East and concentrated its efforts in the construction of new
trade depots and in attaining new diplomatic and economic relations simply usin
g force to secure more advantageous treaties or monopolies in competition with r
ival city. Such rivalry occurred at different times, with all the other republic
s but particularly with Genoa. The reason for the disputes with the Ligurian ci
ty were their positions in Sardinia and Corsica and the hoarding of the markets
of southern France and Spain, where Genoa took on a markedly predominant positio
n.
{LIGHT_PISA_TITLE}Repubblica di Pisa
{LIGHT_MONGOLS_DESCR}DO NOT TRANSLATE - MONGOLS NOT PLAYABLE IN CAMPAIGN
{LIGHT_MONGOLS_TITLE}Mongol Horde
{LIGHT_MOORS_DESCR}Amir Abd al-Mu min Masmuda\n\n\n\nIn 1130 the Berber Muhammad
ibn Tumart who proclaimed himself Mahads (sent by God) initiated a movement of de
ep religious renewal in southern Morocco. His sect, called Almohads (Unitarian),
fights against the accepted interpretation by the Almoravid theologians, who ho
ld the fate of the empire founded by Yusuf ibn Taschfin (1060-1106). In 1147 Abd
al-Mu min (successor of Muhammad ibn Tumart) destroys the Almoravid army in Tle
mcen and conquers Ceuta, Fes, Tangier and Marrakech which becomes his capital. I
mmediately after these victories, the Almohad army crosses into Spain and reconq
uers Seville, Cordoba, Jaen (1147-48) and Malaga (1152-53), relegating the last
Almoravids to the Balearic Islands.
In 1152 Abd al-Mu min, already ruler of Morocco, defeated coalition forces of Ha
mmaditi and Beni-Hilal in Setif and conquers Algeria; the capture of Tripoli in
1160 completes the domain of Ifriqiyyah (Africa) by the Almohads. Abd al-Mu min
(or el Moumen) was able to impose his lordship within a short time, realizing fo
r the first time the political unification of the Maghreb and imposing his will
on most Muslim kingdoms or taifas into which al-Andalus was again divided. Durin
g the rule of three Almohad Caliphs (Abd al-Mu min, Abou Youssef Yacoub and Abou
Youssef Yacoub al Mansour) the Maghreb experienced one of the most important pe
riods in its history, in which religious and political purposes became closely t
ied to expansionist economic needs including monitoring the Saharan trade routes
and their outlets to the sea.
{LIGHT_MOORS_TITLE}Almohad Empire
{LIGHT_NORMANS_TITLE}K. of Jerusalem

{LIGHT_NORMANS_DESCR}King Baldwin III of Anjou\n\n\n\nJuly 17, 1099: the great m


assacre comes to an end. The "Franks" (name used by the local Arabs to designate
the crusaders) have gathered to elect their king. Amidst great sacrifices and s
ubtle power games, the choice falls on Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, the most pious
and harmless among the leaders of the expedition. Godfrey refuses to wear the c
rown and proclaims himself only "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchre (Defender of The Hol
y Sepulcher)".
Outremer, as the holy land is called, is again an integral part of Christianity.
Upon the death of Godfrey, the crown that he refused is taken by his brother Ba
ldwin, the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118). As a feudal state organized acco
rding to the Assizes of Jerusalem, the kingdom consisted of the subordinate vass
al principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli, the fiefs of several distingu
ished nobles, and those of dozens of minor vassals. Several military orders of m
onastic knights created in the XII century (Knights of Jerusalem, Templars, Hosp
itallers, and Teutonic) enjoyed full autonomy within the kingdom while Pisa, Gen
oa, and Venice established separate quarters for their merchants in the coastal
cities. Formally elective, the crown of Jerusalem remained mostly in possession
of the descendants of Baldwin I and the counts of Anjou, finally passing in 1186
to the French noble Guy of Lusignan. After the loss of Edessa in 1144, the Crus
aders suffer the relentless attacks of the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul, and later
of Saladin, ruler of Egypt.
{LIGHT_PAPAL_STATES_DESCR}Pope Adrian IV\n\n\n\nA tradition holds that the Roman
Catholic Church had been granted the exclusive domain over certain territories
in Italy thanks to the so-called Donation of Emperor Constantine (321). The auth
or of this concession, which would have assured the then Pope Sylvester I and su
bsequent pontiffs a kind of sovereignty over the Lateran Palace and the city of
Rome, with all of its properties and the Imperial regalia, would have been the s
ame, Constantine I. In reality the document of the Donation was a forgery dating
back at least to the 8th century, as was proven since 1440 by the humanist Lore
nzo Valla.
While the claim to territorial sovereignty held no veracity, the cultural enviro
nment of the late Middle Ages granted broad authority to the Popes. Authority th
at was not only spiritual but also temporal. The Holy Roman emperors felt a need
to see their emperorship consecrated by the Pope and the latter needed to exert
their power over the sovereigns of Europe. The delicate situation turned to a m
ajor confrontation over the question of the election of Bishops (the Investiture
Controversy), which focused the differences of opinion about the possibility th
at the emperor would not be totally free of papal authority. Thus the Popes supp
orted the struggle of the Italian cities against Frederick Barbarossa in order t
o weaken the political authority of the HRE.
{LIGHT_PAPAL_STATES_TITLE}Papal States
{LIGHT_POLAND_DESCR}King Bolesaw IV the Curly\n\n\n\nThe enduring dynasty of Pias
t (IX-XIV centuries, with royal dignity since the XII century) gives life in the
XI-XII centuries to ephemeral Empires, extending with uncertain boundaries towa
rds Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Russia.
Bolesaw III (1102-1139), relying on small and medium cavalry and court magistrate
s (as in the Hohenstaufen Empire), tries to avoid the onset of dynastic struggle
s by dividing the Kingdom among his sons in his testament, while subordinating t
he cadets to the moral authority of his first-born son Ladislaw II. This "senior
ity" becomes more and more fictitious and the state is fragmented into a group o
f virtually independent duchies: Great Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masovia , the D
uchy of Sandomierz, and Small Poland; Krakow has only a theoretical preeminence.
In 1146 King Ladislaw II is overthrown by his brothers and takes refuge at the c
ourt of his brother-in-law King Conrad III; he is replaced by his brother Bolesaw
IV the Curly (1120-1173). Meanwhile, the power of the princes and clergy contin
ues to grow: in 1136, the Archbishop of Gniezno (Episcopal created in 1000 over
the grave of the martyr Adalbert), has already more than a thousand dwellings an
d some five thousand servants. Among the chief towns include Krakow (capital), P

oznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw, surrounded by vast areas inhabited by a huge rural ma
ss with patriarchal customs that will remain pagan until the 13th century.
{LIGHT_POLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Poland
{LIGHT_PORTUGAL_DESCR}King Alfonso I Henriques\n\n\n\nIn 1093 Henry of Burgundy
(1066-1112) and Alfonso VI of Castile recovered Galicia and Northern Portugal as
far as the Tagus River, including Lisbon, Cintra and Santarm, from the Muslims.
As a reward, King Alfonso agreed to have his daughter, Teresa of Len, marry Henry
. The couple had several children, who all died in childhood except the last, Al
fonso Henriques (1109-1185).
In 1128 the Count of Portugal, Alfonso Henriques, defeated the Castilian army at
the battle of So Mamede and laid the foundation for an independent kingdom. In 1
139, after the victory against the Muslims in the battle of Ourique, the victori
ous army of Portugal proclaimed Alfonso Henriques as King. In the fight against
the Almohads the monastic military orders of the Holy Land, Hospitallers and Tem
plars, play an important role. So do newly established Orders such as those of
Calatrava (1158), Evora (1162), Santiago de Compostela (1175) and Alcntara (1176)
, forming a veritable permanent army. During this period, the Christian kingdoms
often collaborate in joint ventures, ever more frequent in the last decades of
the century, coinciding with the declining power of the Almohads, absorbed by se
rious problems in Africa.
{LIGHT_PORTUGAL_TITLE}Kingdom of Portugal
{LIGHT_RUSSIA_DESCR}Grand Prince Yuri Dolgoruki Yurievich\n\n\n\nThe Principalit
y of Kiev had never been solidly unified and had already fragmented, in the 12th
century, into independent principalities. At the end of the reign of Vladimir M
onomach the struggle between Kiev and Novgorod marked the beginning of its destr
uction, the same city of Kiev, already threatened by nomadic Polovcy, fell prey
to the savage looting of the Princes of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal, Yuri Dolgor
uky and Andrei Bogolyubsky (1157-1174).
In 1147, during a meeting between the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Chernigov, we
hear of a rapidly expanding commercial village on the Moskva, name of the river
from which the settlement will be named Moscow. The struggles that took place in
the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal in the 12th century were similar to those of
the other principalities in the same era: the years 1136-1174 are considered yea
rs of crisis. Their violence bear witness to the turmoil within the principles,
especially the boyars and the clergy seizing control of lands.
But unlike the other principalities, Rostov-Suzdal was ruled by a Prince of grea
t authority, Yuri Dolgoruky. He fought against the Bulgars of the Volga, but al
so against the Slavs, managing to take over temporarily over Novgorod and Kiev,
where he was finally crowned Prince and where he died in 1157. This date marks t
he beginning of the age of Russia under the auspices of the Kievan Rus and the r
eal power switches to the Rus of the Northeast. The principality of Suzdal becam
e the nucleus of the future state of Moscow and what would eventually become the
huge Russian Empire.
{LIGHT_RUSSIA_TITLE}Princ. of Vladimir
{LIGHT_NOVGOROD_DESCR}Prince Konstantin Stepanich\n\n\n\nThe Principality of Nov
gorod was significantly different from the character of other Russian principali
ties, so different that we often speak of the land of Novgorod rather than Princi
pality. Different then was also the general regime of life because of the emine
ntly agricultural and aggressively militaristic character of other principalitie
s, while Novgorod was mainly a mercantile society.
The location of the city, at the meeting of the Volkhov River with the Lake Ilme
n, in one of the essential points of the ancient waterways towards the Black Sea
, favored the development of trade which originally consisted not only of goods
but also of slaves and workers. The territory of Novgorod was not fertile enough
for large-scale agriculture; this condition required the development of trade.
Other conditions conducive to such development was the ease of communication tow
ards the Germanic lands and Sweden; from Germany arrived twice yearly a caravan

of merchants to do business; there were less regular but more frequent visits to
Novgorod merchants, in particular from the Swedish island of Gotland and the Ba
ltic lands.
The regime of Novgorod, in the sense of the relationship between Prince and Asse
mbly, was different from that of other principalities as the Assembly, being in
the hands of boyars and merchants (but especially the first) instead of people,
often did not respect the interests of the latter. Also very limited were the po
wers of the Prince. The Principality of Novgorod was not fighting against nomadi
c peoples from the East (Cumans and Mongols), but rather the danger came from th
e West, when in the 12th century the Livonian Order of the Sword began the attem
pt to advance to the East.
{LIGHT_NOVGOROD_TITLE}Rep. of Novgorod
{LIGHT_SAXONS_DESCR}King Inge Gille\n\n\n\nFrom the mid-11th century the Kingdom
of Norway was consolidated and stabilized, gradually abandoning the old Viking
tradition linked to paganism and depredations. The first dioceses arose and laid
the foundations for a (albeit primitive) central management system, based on th
e collection of taxes from the main towns in Norway (Oslo, Trondheim or Nidaros,
Bergen) and on the control of internal order through the force of a Royal Army.
In 1067 Olaf Kyrre came to the throne, the first ruler in history who knew how
to read and write.\n\n The church quickly contributed to the eradication of the
ancient pagan beliefs and rituals; however many Vikings gods persisted in remote
northern regions for many centuries to come. In 1152 the first Catholic Archdio
cese in Nidaros was founded, which extended to the Northern Islands (Orkney, She
tland, Faroe) under the control of the King, while Oslo hosted a Bishop. Also in
the Scottish Islands (Man and other) ruled Kings of Norwegian ancestry.\n\nThe
12th century however, was a period of internal tribulations for Norway. In the
absence of a specific regulation for the dynastic succession, every son of a rul
er was considered the legitimate heir, and this caused inevitable clashes betwee
n factions on the death of the King. After the death of King Sigurd the Crusader
(1130), in particular, a violent struggle erupted between the supporters of the
four sons (all minors) that led to decades of civil war. The oldest of the four
was a bastard son Eystein, coming from Scotland; the second (and most accredite
d pretender) was Inge, who opposed the younger brothers Sigurd and Magnus (the l
atter died young). At the beginning of 1155, the Crown is then evenly divided be
tween Inge, Eystein and Sigurd.
{LIGHT_SAXONS_TITLE}Kingdom of Norway
{LIGHT_SCOTLAND_DESCR}King Malcolm IV\n\n\n\nMalcolm III (1058-1093), founder of
the House of Dunkeld, introduced feudalism for the first time in the region, re
placing the loyalty of consanguinity (clan), upon which Scottish society was bas
ed. David I (1124-1153), son of Malcolm III, aggravated the disputes with the Ki
ngdom of England. In 1136 he embarked on a series of raids on English soil which
will continue the bitter disputes between the two crowns.
William I "the Rude", grandson of David I, assumed office as King of Scots after
the death of his brother Malcolm IV (1153-1165), he proved weak and deeply reli
gious. His reign is the second in order of longevity in Scottish history, after
James V (1567-1625). The posthumous nickname of "the lion" will be given to him
due to his coat of arms which will become the Royal Standard of Scotland used by
the rulers of Scotland. William I in 1152, inherited the title of Earl of North
umbria but will lose it to Henry II Plantagenet in 1157.
{LIGHT_SCOTLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Scotland
{LIGHT_SICILY_DESCR}Re Guglielmo I d Altavilla\n\n\n\nThe celebration of the cor
onation of Roger II (1130-1154) was a true display of grandeur, with gold, silve
r, and a coronation mantle of fine silk. Roger II followed the example of his fa
ther. William I, (1154-1166) and Wilhelm II (1166-1189) ruled after Roger II and
the history of their times comes from the chronicler Falcandus. The nobles and
the literati of that age referred to the Kings of Sicily as tyrants who worked t
o accumulate the symbols and attributes of the Byzantine Emperors, the Caliphs,

and the Popepowers that did not originate from the Western warrior aristocracy bu
t from an autocratic tradition.
{LIGHT_SICILY_TITLE}Kingdom of Sicily
{LIGHT_SPAIN_DESCR}King Alfonso VII of Burgundy\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the Assembly of t
he Kingdom of Leon conferred on King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) the title of Empero
r of Spain, a title already taken by his grandfather Alfonso VI, and declared th
emselves his vassals. The assumption of such a prestigious title did not mean th
at Alfonso VII had reached the limit of his power, but that he intended to be a
force pushing for the Reconquista. The Kingdom of Len and Castile, in fact, conti
nuously pressured Cordoba, Seville, Malaga, Valencia and Murcia. This fact led M
uslims to leave behind the inertia that had long weakened them, reacting with a
powerful and fast counter-offensive which captured Seville, Cordoba, and Malaga
in a short time and blocked the expansionist efforts of Alfonso VII.
{LIGHT_SPAIN_TITLE}Kingdom of Castile-Leon
{LIGHT_TIMURIDS_DESCR}Caliph al-Muqtafi \n\n\n\nThe dynasty Abbasid caliphs rule
d the Islamic world from its headquarters in Baghdad (and, for some decades, fro
m Samarra) between 750 and 1258. The Abbasids take their name from his paternal
uncle of the prophet Muhammad and ancestor of the founder of the dynasty - you w
ant it to be converted to the religion preached by his nephew in an unspecified
date and critics of the dynasty placed in the evening immediately prior to the c
onquest of Mecca by Muslims (630). When the opposition won out on Alid Umayyads
(weakened by continual revolts kharigite, dall irriducibile antagonism between s
outhern and northern Arabs and infighting that squassarono the very unity of the
ir family structure), the Abbasids showed themselves as the most organized and s
imply, is strongly suggested as the new dynasty caliph, arrogating to itself any
power, calling with a certain arrogance "blessed dynasty". Therefore not held i
n any account of the alleged "legitimist" Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) wh
o had deluded that nothing was standing in for the recruitment of the supreme go
vernment of the Islamic Umma. From Here to break the unity between the Abbasids
and Alidi that, over time, will lay the ideological and theological foundations
for the emergence of a true Islamic movement which alternative will be defined a
s "Shiite".
The first Abbasid caliph, Abu l- Abbas al-Saffah, although proclaimed in Kufa in
748-9, took only real power in 750, armed with its massive military support ele
ment Persian-khorasanico, carefully organized by Abu long clandestinely Muslim,
the leader of the Abbasid propaganda machine in the Umayyad period.
The dynasty, however, found his real skilful organizer and administrator in Abu
Ja far al-Mansur, the younger brother of Abu l- Abbas, who founded the firm foun
dations that allowed the Supreme Islamic judiciary to survive for half a millenn
ium or so, although after The Caliph al-Mutawakkil, the power of the dynasty beg
an to substantially empty, while remaining formally until its fall, as evident s
ymbol of unity For Islamic al-Mansur (reg. 754-775) who founded Baghdad in Meso
potamian area that had always expressed the deepest affection for the family of
the Prophet.
The apex of the Abbasid power was joined by his grandson Harun al-Rashid (reg. 7
86-809) and the latter s son al-Ma mun (reg. 813-833), under which the caliphate
touched limits extraordinary, both territorial and cultural. The enlargement of
the Abbasid domains, however, led to a gradual increase in difficulty of the Ca
liphate, in part caused by ethnic and cultural differences but, more simply, by
a certain inability to manage wisely the center of the suburbs. In the eighth ce
ntury al-Andalus and North Africa had already been posted by the caliphate, in p
art to share in the first exponent of a surviving Umayyad and partly because of
the indomitable Berber resistance. The century was Egypt tulunide to assert thei
r right to self-administration, and spending time with, then were the Iranian pr
ovinces to claim a right development model (without giving up the unifying trait
of Islam), then from Syria and Mesopotamia (IX-X century). From that moment on,
the caliphate was reduced gradually to the control of Iraq alone, then one of B
aghdad and, indeed, even to the entire capital city. Between 836 and 892 on the

capital (marked by the growing problems of public policy) was transferred to Sam
arra , however, to return again in Baghdad until the fall of the dynasty.
After suffering the "protection" of the Shia daylamiti buwaihidi or buyidi (cent
ury X-XI century) and then the Sunni Turkish Seljuks, the Abbasid Caliphate was
a revival of authority in the twelfth century. Al-Muqtafi, caliph from 1136, tak
en an anti-Seljuk with the ambition to extend its authority to the entire Iraq.
He is recognized as a wise ruler, virtuous and brave, defended by several Baghda
d attacks Seljuks, made some expeditions against neighboring enemies, and put th
e rebellion of a son of Seljuk Sultan. Participated in the "Jihad" of Zenghidi o
f Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders, but without much enthusiasm because of the c
ontinuing need for men to defend Baghdad from the mire of the Seljuks, had also
known his openness to the Christians in 1139 gave the patriarch a Abdisho III bi
ll of rights for the protection of minority Nestorian.
{LIGHT_TIMURIDS_TITLE}Abbasid Caliphate
{LIGHT_TURKS_DESCR}Sultan Mesud I bin Kutalmish\n\n\n\nThe Seljuk conquest of An
atolia was opened by the battle of Mantzikert (1071), in which the Byzantine Emp
eror was defeated and taken prisoner. The conquest was implemented by Suleyman S
ah, a Prince descended from Selgiuq.
Sleyman Sah settled in Nicaea, dominating almost all of Anatolia until 1097. From
this moment the Crusaders learned to respect the Turks and to value their skill
s, considering them, along with themselves, some of the best riders in the world
. It was even said that both Franks and Turks shared a common ancestry: the Tro
jans, while the vile and greedy Byzantines are descended from the Greeks.
The successor of Sleyman Sah, Qilic Arslan, had to settle for dominating only Cen
tral Anatolia, with its capital at Ikonium, in practice the poorest regions of t
he country; the northeastern Turkish States, such as the Danishmends, and Menguc
echidi, limited its authority. Later the Seljuks of Rum, so called according to
the traditional name of Byzantine Anatolia, defeated the Crusaders participating
in the Second Crusade at Dorylaeum in 1147.
{LIGHT_TURKS_TITLE}Seljuk Sultanate
{LIGHT_VENICE_DESCR}Doge Domenico Morosini\n\n\n\nTradition holds that the first
Doge elected was a man named Paulicio, who ruled between 697 and 716; freely ch
osen by the Venetians, expressing their full political independence. But things
were otherwise, because that mythical Paulicio was probably a Byzantine official
, or even a Lombard official. Far from being the expression of original independ
ence, therefore, the Doge, for that initial phase of Venetian history, was rathe
r a sign of dependency on a greater empire. This, however, did not prevent a gra
dual evolution of increased degrees of autonomy from Byzantium until reaching re
al independence between the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Doge, with the passa
ge of time, began to embody the political will of Venice expressed in full auton
omy and exalted by the construction of the Basilica di San Marco (consecrated in
1094) and the Rialto market created in 1099.
Until 1032 (year in which Pietro Barbolano, was stripped of the title and ended
up as a monk in Constantinople) of the twenty-nine Dogi, only eight managed to d
ie in their beds and still in possession of the title. By the mid 11th century t
hings start to change and the risks of sudden interruptions is reduced almost to
disappear. In 1143 Pietro Polani exiled the Badoer family and razed the propert
ies of the Dandolo family, who along with the noble families of Falier, Michiel
and Morosini oppose a policy of friendship towards Byzantium. This also results
in an excommunication of Venice by Pope Eugenius III. Between the 10th and 13th
centuries, through a series of operations, Venice acquired dominion over the Adr
iatic and especially a strong position against Byzantium, gaining trading privil
eges in Jaffa, Haifa, Romania, and elsewhere.
{LIGHT_VENICE_TITLE}Rep. of Venice
{LIGHT_ZENGHIDS_DESCR}Atabeg Nur ad-Din\n\n\n\nThe rule of Atabeg Zengi of Alepp
o and Mosul (1129-1146) marked a turning point in the history of the Crusades du
e to the return of the spirit of Jihad, Holy War, to the Muslims. Zengi recalled

that his father, was appointed Prince of Aleppo by Sultan Melik Shah and despit
e a period of interruption of about thirty years, he was restored with the help
of the last great Seljuk Ruler, the source of legitimacy in the Turkish world. T
hough he posed a strong resistance to the Christians, Zengi was assassinated by
his pages on September 14, 1146; an immediate consequence was a rebellion in Ede
ssa and the kingdom was divided between two of his sons: Ghazi took Mosul and Nu
r ad-Din received Aleppo and finally in 1154 Nur ad-Din finally entered Damascus
.
{LIGHT_ZENGHIDS_TITLE}Atabeg of Aleppo
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_ENGLAND_DESCR}Lead William the Conqueror and his Norman army to
victory at the Battle of Hastings, then defeat the Saxons for control of the En
glish throne. \n\nEdward the Confessor s death saw England fall into a bitter po
wer struggle. With no heirs to the English throne, three competing powers arose
to stake their claim. Harold Godwinson was quick to seize power, with the suppor
t of the English Witan. However, the King of Norway, Harald Hardrada, felt the l
and his birthright and sailed from the North. The two kings clashed at Stamford
Bridge in a bloody battle.\n\nBut the late King Edward had promised the throne t
o the Duke of Normandy, who sought Papal blessing to launch an invasion of his o
wn.
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_ENGLAND_TITLE}The Norman Conquest
{NORMAN_PROLOGUE_TITLE}The Norman Conquest

FEUDAL FULL
{FEUDAL_FULL_TITLE}1. Feudal Campaign(Feudal-Full)
{FEUDAL_FULL_AZTECS_DESCR}King Demetrius Bagration\n\n\n\nThe early decades of t
he 9th century AD saw the birth of new Georgian State, which was declared in Sou
th-Western region of Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot I Kuropalates, of the Bagration Royal f
amily, freed the territories of southern Iberia from Arab domination, including
the principalities of Tao and Klarjeti as well as the counties of Shavsheti, Khi
khata, Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formerly a part of
the Byzantine Empire under the pseudonym "Curopalatinato of Iberia."
Curopalates David Bagration expanded his domains annexing the city of Theodosiop
olis (known in the times as Karin or Karnukalaki, now Erzurum), the Armenian pro
vinces of Basiani, Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert and Khlat, formerly controlled b
y the Arab Emir Kaysithe.
In 978 all Georgian principalities were unified in the United Kingdom of Georgia
(978-1466) under the Bagration Dynasty, whose ancestor was Ashot I "the Great"
(9th century AD). Since then, Georgia remained independent for almost a thousand
years. The greatest representative of this dynasty was David "the Builder" (Dev
id IV Agmashenebeli), who reigned from 1089 to 1125, considered a Saint by the G
eorgian Orthodox Church. Under his leadership the Kingdom of Georgia also includ
ed territories of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the northern Caucasus.
David IV of Georgia, considered by tradition as the greatest Georgian ruler, is
celebrated for being able to repel from Georgian soil the invading Seljuks, winn
ing the battle of Didgori in 1121. Thanks to his military and administrative ref
orms, the strong Georgian nation managed to bring under its control much of the
Caucasus region. His tolerance and kindness towards other religions and other et
hnic groups marked the Armenian culture so deeply that this attitude became a co
nstant feature of this Kingdom even after the death of David IV. He died on Jan
uary 24, 1125 and his body, as it was stated in his will, was buried under a sto
ne placed at the main entrance to the Gelati monastery so that anyone coming int
o that place was forced to put his foot on his tomb, a demonstration of his deep
humility. David IV left three sons: the eldest son Demetrius was his successor

and follower of his policy of expansion and consolidation of the Kingdom.


{FEUDAL_FULL_AZTECS_TITLE}Kingdom of Georgia
{FEUDAL_FULL_ARAGON_DESCR}King Ramon Berenguer IV\n\n\n\nRamiro II was married o
n November 13, 1135 in the Cathedral of Jaca with Ins of Poitou. The King was 60
years old. Petronilla, their daughter, was bornAugust 11, 1136. Ramiro II knew
that the independence of Aragon couldn t last very long with the powerful Kingdo
m of Castile seeking to expand its lands and titles. It was necessary to look ea
stward to the rich countryside of Barcelona and its Count Ramon Berenguer IV. T
he County of Barcelona was created as a vassal of the Frankish Kings as part of
the Marca Hispanica during the reign of Charlemagne. King Ramiro of Aragon abdi
cated in 1137 in favor of his daughter Petronilla, who at one year of age was pr
omised to Ramon Berenguer IV, who was 23 years old.
Petronilla was educated at the Court of Barcelona and Ramiro II prepared a contr
act of marriage that count of Barcelona signed in all its clauses. Ramon Bereng
uer became Prince of Aragon holding the royal power and controlling the treasury
without the title of King. Basically Don Ramon Berenguer ruled both kingdoms.
The marriage between Queen Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer was celebrated when sh
e was 14 years of age in the Cathedral of Lleida, in the month of August 1150.
{FEUDAL_FULL_ARAGON_TITLE}Kingdom of Aragon
{FEUDAL_FULL_BYZANTIUM_DESCR}Basileus Manuel I Comnenus\n\n\n\nAt the time of th
e first crusade, Alexios I Komnenos sat on the throne of Byzantium; a member of
the military aristocracy, he came to power after a long period of crisis. He had
conducted a series of successful campaigns against the enemies of the Empire an
d reafirmed the role the Byzantine Empire as a great power. This project was bro
ught to a sudden standstill by the arrival of the Crusaders, who forced him to d
evote himself entirely to the new and unexpected problem of foreign policy.
After the death of Alexios, his son John became Emperor and continued the proces
s of restoring the power and lands of the Byzantine Empire. After Johns death in
1143, Manuel I Comnenus inherited the throne and a series of problems that had
begun to beset the Empire: to the east the Turks were a constan threat, the Lati
n Crusader States were a constant source of frustration for the Byzantines becau
se of the uneasy periods of alliance and hostility that existed between the Chri
stian factions. In the Balkans, the Sicilians, Hungarians and Slavs also posed
challenges for Emperor Manuel I.
{FEUDAL_FULL_BYZANTIUM_TITLE}Byzantine Empire
{FEUDAL_FULL_CUMANS_TITLE}Cuman Conf.
{FEUDAL_FULL_CUMANS_DESCR}Khan Bonyak\n\n\n\nThe Cumans ("Kunok" in Hungarian, "
Qipciaq" in Turkish, "Polovtzy" in Russian) are a western branch of the Turkic K
ipchaks who traveled through the plains of Central Asia to settle around the Cas
pian Sea, from where he emigrated during the 11th century to occupy the plains o
f the lower Danube, devastating Hungary to their path. Eventually the Cuman hord
e founded a semi-nomadic state in the 12th century around the Black Sea that con
ducted business and diplomatic relationships with the Bulgarian Khanate, Khwarez
m, China, Venice, Genoa and Europe through its ports in Crimea and the Sea of Az
ov. Throughout the first half of the 12th century, certain parts of Bulgarian t
erritory served as strategic bases for attacks carried out against the Byzantine
Empire by Cumans settled in the regions bordering the Danube, which long retain
the name Cumania. In 1122 Macedonia and Thrace were looted. The Polovtzy-Cumans
were the dominant part of semi-sedentary or wandering ethnicities that clashed w
in their quest for expansion to the Black
ith the Varangians of the Kievan Rus
Sea. After the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125, the Cumans sought to profit
from the resulting anarchy in Kievan Russia (now shattered and torn apart from
periodic revolts) through raids into the Rus territory , while to the North the
city of Novgorod is increasingly attracted to the commercial interests that grav
itate around the Baltic.
The Cumans subdued many peoples of the steppe and since slavery did not compleme
nt the nomadic life, once subdued, the captives were incorporated into the army.

This was the case of Pechenegs, Khazars, the Ghuzz, and in later periods, the V
lachs.
The faction of the Cumans (as it happened historically) will have a wide choice
of cavalry, both heavy and light, many armed with bows. Their infantry will be l
ight and will be formed largely by the subjugated peoples.
{FEUDAL_FULL_DENMARK_DESCR}King Valdemar I Lavard\n\n\n\nFor the Danes, the Norm
an Conquest of England put an almost definitive end to the attempts to conquer t
he Island1074 and 1085 baing the last dates of projected invasions. At the begin
ning of the reign of Niels (1104-1134), Asser, Bishop of Lund, becomes the first
Archbishop of Denmark, with ecclesiastical independence and full right to voice
his opinion in Christendom, though during the last years of his reign, a motion
presented to the feudal lords marks a regression of the royal authority. Canute
Lavard (son of Erik 1070-1103, predecessor and brother of Niels), the first Dan
ish Duke and likely pretender, (1131) is assassinated by his cousin and rival Ma
gnus "the Strong" (son of King Niels). The death of Canute Lavard marks the beg
inning of a long civil war in which several members of the Danish Royal Family a
re massacred. The half-brother of Canute Lavard, Erik, attempts to avenge his de
ath and to secure the succession but has to temporarily take refuge in Sweden.
The state of crisis in Denmark encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II to retak
e the initiative and in 1133, the Archbishop of Lund loses his position as Archb
ishop to the benefit of the Archbishop of Bremen, only to reacquire it six month
s later, in 1134. Lothair II, on the pretext of ill treatment that German merch
ants suffered from the Danes, forced Magnus to pay homage in Halberstadt. In 11
34, at the battle of Fotevik (Fodevig) Magnus and Niels, determined to do away o
nce and for all with Erik, are taken by surprise by a contingent of German caval
ry hired by Erik. The army that served Niels is massacred before they can regro
up and Magnus is assassinated. King Niels manages to escape but inexplicably de
cides to head south and, near the city of Schleswig, is killed by the people loy
al to Erik. The new King known as Erik "the Memorable" turns out to be a tough
and unpopular ruler, and is finally killed in 1137 by a palace conspiracy which
brings to the throne his nephew, Erik the "Mild". Erik III "the Mild" abdicated
in 1146-47; he is succeeded by Sven III (or Sweyn), illegitimate son of Erik II
"the Memorable", but must share the Kingdom with his cousin Canute V (son of Pri
nce Magnus). Valdemar I is the son of Canute V.
{FEUDAL_FULL_DENMARK_TITLE}Kingdom of Denmark
{FEUDAL_FULL_EGYPT_DESCR}Imam al-Fa iz al-Fatimiyyun\n\n\n\n1130: the Fatimid Ca
liph al-Amir is assassinated and power is assumed by his brother al Hafiz; the s
tate falls into anarchy and the dynasty begins to rapidly decline. Conspiracies
and palace revolutions from the barracks along with court intrigues marks this p
eriod as perhaps the most corrupt of all time.
In 1149 weak Caliph al-Hafiz dies and is succeeded by his son az-Zafir, but powe
r was soon usurped by the Kurdish vizier Ibn as-Sallar. The two are killed by Na
sr (1153), grandson of Caliph al-Hafiz; Abbas, who was the father of Nasr, becom
es vizier while the fortress of Ascalon falls into the hands of Baldwin III.
While the decay of the Fatimid regime has become irreversible, Nur ed-Din leads
the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul to the rescue against the invading Franks; it wil
l be a general of Nur ed-Din, Salah ad-Din, who will bring an end to the Shiite
dynasty of Egypt, establishing that of the Ayyubids, whilst formally recognizing
the supremacy of the Sultan of Damascus.
{FEUDAL_FULL_EGYPT_TITLE}Fatimid Egypt
{FEUDAL_FULL_ENGLAND_DESCR}King Henry II Plantagenet\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the King of
England Henry I, the last of the House of Normandy, died. The contenders for the
throne were his daughter Matilda, an illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester and
his nephews Theobald and Stephen of Blois (sons of Adela, sister of the decease
d King). Civil War soon broke out between the parties with several foreign powe
rs getting involved in the contest for the throne, including the Pope and the Ki
ng of Scotland.

Henry Plantagenet, son of Matilda and Godfrey V Count of Anjou and Maine, marrie
d Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux (formerly wife of Louis VII of France, whose
marriage had been dissolved for consanguinity) and received as dowry the lands f
rom Gascony in Aquitaine in South-Central France. Pope Eugenius III prohibits Ar
chbishop Theobald from crowning Eustace (son of Stephen) as King of England, bec
ause his father was considered a usurper, and accept the coronation of Henry II
Plantagenet as King of England (1154-1189). The name of the English Dynasty deri
ves from the Planta Genista, a shrub that Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and of Main
e known as "the beautiful" had as his insignia.
{FEUDAL_FULL_ENGLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of England
{FEUDAL_FULL_FRANCE_DESCR}King Louis VII Capet\n\n\n\nWhat was the Kingdom of Fr
ance in the 12th century and how was it perceived? A significant date: the first
card of France will be designed only in 1525. At the time the French was percei
ved not as a defined geographical territory but as an array of local political e
ntities (towns, castles, Lordships) whose Lords paid homage of faithfulness to t
he sovereign. The personal ties of dependence and alliance formed the backbone o
f a united realm more than any abstract notion of territory. The formation of th
e Kingdom, as a geographical space where the supreme authority of the Capetian k
ings was recognized, progressed slowly outwards from the core lands of the famil
y, in the le-de-France in Northern France.
The Capetian dynasty, one of the longest ruling houses of the middle ages, for t
hree centuries since the rule of Hugh Capet (938/41-996), held the reins of the
monarchy and expanded the kingdom. In 1100 it had been ruled for the past forty
years by the great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Philip I, who was succeeded by Louis
VI the Fat (r. 1108-1137). He in turn was succeeded by Louis VII who ruled until
1180.
{FEUDAL_FULL_FRANCE_TITLE}Kingdom of France
{FEUDAL_FULL_HRE_DESCR}Emperor Frederick I\n\n\n\nIn the heart of medieval Germa
ny, Frederick I Barbarossa (reigned until 1190), succeeded Conrad III, Duke of S
wabia and Franconia of the House of Hohenstaufen (1138-1152), recently King of G
ermany, and now, in the year 1155, is crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emper
or. Although his domains are extensive, he is not immune from the dangers and t
hreats to his authority represented by powerful princes that surround him and by
multitudes of settlers: Saxons, Franks, Flemish, and Lotharingi. Frederick fac
es a difficult position in his German lands as he tries to expand to the east wh
ile dealing with disobedient, self-serving nobles in his realm. To the south ar
e his Italian possessions, which are not always loyal and are forever seeking to
break away from Imperial control. The Italian issues are aggravated by the con
stant interference of the Pope who feels threatened by the power of the Empire a
nd the challenges to Papal control of church matters.
{FEUDAL_FULL_HRE_TITLE}H.R. Empire
{FEUDAL_FULL_HUNGARY_DESCR}King Geza II Arpad\n\n\n\nIn the mid-11th century the
Kingdom of Hungary was grappling with serious difficulties: two pagan revolts i
n 1046 and 1061, dynastic struggles, and interference by the German Emperors. Th
e canonization of Saint Stephen in 1073 marked the beginning of a national renew
al. Gza I (1074-1077) and Ladislaus I (1077-1095) supported Gregory VII in the in
vestiture controversy and placed Hungary under the suzerainty of the Holy See, m
anaging to remain outside the orbit of the HRE. In the 12th century the Kings of
Hungary used diplomacy to thrive between the HRE, the Papacy and the Byzantine
Empire, expanding their influence in Croatia, Romania and even in Serbia, but th
e fierce dynastic struggles continued and the power of the nobles established it
self at the expense of the monarchy.
Stephen II, having no descendants, recalled his cousin Bla II the blind (King of
Hungary from 1131 to 1141) from exile and designated him as his successor. His G
overnment, supported by the nobles, is generally considered peaceful despite the
tragic nature of his youth. After the benevolent reign of Bela II, his eldest s
on Gza II (1141-1161) ascended to the throne to pursue the work of consolidation

of royal power.
{FEUDAL_FULL_HUNGARY_TITLE}Kingdom of Hungary
{FEUDAL_FULL_MILAN_DESCR}Signore Ottone Visconti\n\n\n\nThe Kingdom of Italy, th
e domain of the German Emperors in their capacity as Kings of Italy, with admini
strative capital in Pavia and religious capital at Monza (where the Kings of Ita
ly surrounded the Lombard Iron Crown) witnessed the triumph of the city during t
he 12th century.
In September of 1122 on the banks of the Rhine, the Concordat of Worms was promu
lgated: Henry V renounced his right to confer spiritual investitures (by means o
f the ring and staff), but his right to confer temporal rights to the clergy (by
scepter) was recognized by Pope Calixtus II. Conrad of Swabia, thanks to the su
pport of the Milanese, seized the Crown of King of Italy (1128) without being ab
le to exercise real power. He later became Holy Roman Emperor in 1138 and was s
ucceeded by his nephew Frederick I, called Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190). Born of a Gh
ibelline father Frederick, Duke of Swabia and Guelph mother, Judith of Bavaria,
he is hailed as the Prince of Peace. But peace presupposes a new and stable orde
r, based on the consolidation of the sovereign power in his relationship with th
e Italian city-states.
Frederick I and Adrian IV (1154-1159), the only English Pope in history, agree t
o condemn Arnold of Brescia to be burned at the stake (a Lombard that due to his
sincerity of faith followed the philosophical school of Abelard). In Exchange f
or the delivery of the heretic (who escaped from the city in a vain attempt to f
ind an agreement between the Pope and the Municipality) Frederick was crowned Em
peror (June 1155), but the people revolted and the Emperor, fearing to remain wi
thout food, was quick to withdraw ravaging and plundering Pontifical Umbria: aft
er this event one of the pillars of Papal policy will rely on the Communities of
the Po, under the influence of Milan, the richest, most powerful and aggressive
of them.
{FEUDAL_FULL_MILAN_TITLE}Comune di Milano
{FEUDAL_FULL_PISA_DESCR}Console Ranieri Caetani\n\n\n\nThe greatest Arab medieva
l historian, Ibn-Khaldoun (1332-1406), wrote nostalgically of the ninth and tent
h centuries "Then the Christians were not allowed to sail anything on the Medite
rranean, even the smallest boat". Of course like any absolute statement, this ph
rase should be clarified: Byzantium controlled Ionia and the Aegean and the Vene
tians in addition trading in Italy, maintained trade contacts with the Byzantine
s through the Adriatic Sea. Amalfi was present with its ships and merchants in t
he Byzantine and Islamic trade systems.
In 1135 the Pisans, allies of Lothair, sack Amalfi, is the only relevant fact of
the campaign led by the emperor. Two years later, in an Allied expedition of th
e Pope and the Emperor Lothair II, Pisa participates once again in the campaign
in the region of Almafi. Following a period of relative calm in which the Republ
ic binds itself even more to the German Emperors, from which it receives signifi
cant concessions in 1162 and 1165. With these the Emperor Frederick I recognizes
the citys jurisdiction over the region near Pisa and freedom of trade in the ter
ritories of the Empire.
With the Saracen threat in the Western Mediterranean abated, Pisa turned towards
the markets of the East and concentrated its efforts in the construction of new
trade depots and in attaining new diplomatic and economic relations simply usin
g force to secure more advantageous treaties or monopolies in competition with r
ival city. Such rivalry occurred at different times, with all the other republic
s but particularly with Genoa. The reason for the disputes with the Ligurian ci
ty were their positions in Sardinia and Corsica and the hoarding of the markets
of southern France and Spain, where Genoa took on a markedly predominant positio
n.
{FEUDAL_FULL_PISA_TITLE}Repubblica di Pisa
{FEUDAL_FULL_MONGOLS_DESCR}DO NOT TRANSLATE - MONGOLS NOT PLAYABLE IN CAMPAIGN
{FEUDAL_FULL_MONGOLS_TITLE}Mongol Horde

{FEUDAL_FULL_MOORS_DESCR}Amir Abd al-Mu min Masmuda\n\n\n\nIn 1130 the Berber Mu


hammad ibn Tumart who proclaimed himself Mahads (sent by God) initiated a movement
of deep religious renewal in southern Morocco. His sect, called Almohads (Unita
rian), fights against the accepted interpretation by the Almoravid theologians,
who hold the fate of the empire founded by Yusuf ibn Taschfin (1060-1106). In 11
47 Abd al-Mu min (successor of Muhammad ibn Tumart) destroys the Almoravid army
in Tlemcen and conquers Ceuta, Fes, Tangier and Marrakech which becomes his capi
tal. Immediately after these victories, the Almohad army crosses into Spain and
reconquers Seville, Cordoba, Jaen (1147-48) and Malaga (1152-53), relegating the
last Almoravids to the Balearic Islands.
In 1152 Abd al-Mu min, already ruler of Morocco, defeated coalition forces of Ha
mmaditi and Beni-Hilal in Setif and conquers Algeria; the capture of Tripoli in
1160 completes the domain of Ifriqiyyah (Africa) by the Almohads. Abd al-Mu min
(or el Moumen) was able to impose his lordship within a short time, realizing fo
r the first time the political unification of the Maghreb and imposing his will
on most Muslim kingdoms or taifas into which al-Andalus was again divided. Durin
g the rule of three Almohad Caliphs (Abd al-Mu min, Abou Youssef Yacoub and Abou
Youssef Yacoub al Mansour) the Maghreb experienced one of the most important pe
riods in its history, in which religious and political purposes became closely t
ied to expansionist economic needs including monitoring the Saharan trade routes
and their outlets to the sea.
{FEUDAL_FULL_MOORS_TITLE}Almohad Empire
{FEUDAL_FULL_NORMANS_TITLE}K. of Jerusalem
{FEUDAL_FULL_NORMANS_DESCR}King Baldwin III of Anjou\n\n\n\nJuly 17, 1099: the g
reat massacre comes to an end. The "Franks" (name used by the local Arabs to des
ignate the crusaders) have gathered to elect their king. Amidst great sacrifices
and subtle power games, the choice falls on Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, the most
pious and harmless among the leaders of the expedition. Godfrey refuses to wear
the crown and proclaims himself only "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchre (Defender of T
he Holy Sepulcher)".
Outremer, as the holy land is called, is again an integral part of Christianity.
Upon the death of Godfrey, the crown that he refused is taken by his brother Ba
ldwin, the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118). As a feudal state organized acco
rding to the Assizes of Jerusalem, the kingdom consisted of the subordinate vass
al principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli, the fiefs of several distingu
ished nobles, and those of dozens of minor vassals. Several military orders of m
onastic knights created in the XII century (Knights of Jerusalem, Templars, Hosp
itallers, and Teutonic) enjoyed full autonomy within the kingdom while Pisa, Gen
oa, and Venice established separate quarters for their merchants in the coastal
cities. Formally elective, the crown of Jerusalem remained mostly in possession
of the descendants of Baldwin I and the counts of Anjou, finally passing in 1186
to the French noble Guy of Lusignan. After the loss of Edessa in 1144, the Crus
aders suffer the relentless attacks of the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul, and later
of Saladin, ruler of Egypt.
{FEUDAL_FULL_PAPAL_STATES_DESCR}Pope Adrian IV\n\n\n\nA tradition holds that the
Roman Catholic Church had been granted the exclusive domain over certain territ
ories in Italy thanks to the so-called Donation of Emperor Constantine (321). Th
e author of this concession, which would have assured the then Pope Sylvester I
and subsequent pontiffs a kind of sovereignty over the Lateran Palace and the ci
ty of Rome, with all of its properties and the Imperial regalia, would have been
the same, Constantine I. In reality the document of the Donation was a forgery
dating back at least to the 8th century, as was proven since 1440 by the humanis
t Lorenzo Valla.
While the claim to territorial sovereignty held no veracity, the cultural enviro
nment of the late Middle Ages granted broad authority to the Popes. Authority th
at was not only spiritual but also temporal. The Holy Roman emperors felt a need
to see their emperorship consecrated by the Pope and the latter needed to exert

their power over the sovereigns of Europe. The delicate situation turned to a m
ajor confrontation over the question of the election of Bishops (the Investiture
Controversy), which focused the differences of opinion about the possibility th
at the emperor would not be totally free of papal authority. Thus the Popes supp
orted the struggle of the Italian cities against Frederick Barbarossa in order t
o weaken the political authority of the HRE.
{FEUDAL_FULL_PAPAL_STATES_TITLE}Papal States
{FEUDAL_FULL_POLAND_DESCR}King Bolesaw IV the Curly\n\n\n\nThe enduring dynasty o
f Piast (IX-XIV centuries, with royal dignity since the XII century) gives life
in the XI-XII centuries to ephemeral Empires, extending with uncertain boundarie
s towards Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Russia.
Bolesaw III (1102-1139), relying on small and medium cavalry and court magistrate
s (as in the Hohenstaufen Empire), tries to avoid the onset of dynastic struggle
s by dividing the Kingdom among his sons in his testament, while subordinating t
he cadets to the moral authority of his first-born son Ladislaw II. This "senior
ity" becomes more and more fictitious and the state is fragmented into a group o
f virtually independent duchies: Great Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masovia , the D
uchy of Sandomierz, and Small Poland; Krakow has only a theoretical preeminence.
In 1146 King Ladislaw II is overthrown by his brothers and takes refuge at the c
ourt of his brother-in-law King Conrad III; he is replaced by his brother Bolesaw
IV the Curly (1120-1173). Meanwhile, the power of the princes and clergy contin
ues to grow: in 1136, the Archbishop of Gniezno (Episcopal created in 1000 over
the grave of the martyr Adalbert), has already more than a thousand dwellings an
d some five thousand servants. Among the chief towns include Krakow (capital), P
oznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw, surrounded by vast areas inhabited by a huge rural ma
ss with patriarchal customs that will remain pagan until the 13th century.
{FEUDAL_FULL_POLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Poland
{FEUDAL_FULL_PORTUGAL_DESCR}King Alfonso I Henriques\n\n\n\nIn 1093 Henry of Bur
gundy (1066-1112) and Alfonso VI of Castile recovered Galicia and Northern Portu
gal as far as the Tagus River, including Lisbon, Cintra and Santarm, from the Mus
lims. As a reward, King Alfonso agreed to have his daughter, Teresa of Len, marry
Henry. The couple had several children, who all died in childhood except the la
st, Alfonso Henriques (1109-1185).
In 1128 the Count of Portugal, Alfonso Henriques, defeated the Castilian army at
the battle of So Mamede and laid the foundation for an independent kingdom. In 1
139, after the victory against the Muslims in the battle of Ourique, the victori
ous army of Portugal proclaimed Alfonso Henriques as King. In the fight against
the Almohads the monastic military orders of the Holy Land, Hospitallers and Tem
plars, play an important role. So do newly established Orders such as those of
Calatrava (1158), Evora (1162), Santiago de Compostela (1175) and Alcntara (1176)
, forming a veritable permanent army. During this period, the Christian kingdoms
often collaborate in joint ventures, ever more frequent in the last decades of
the century, coinciding with the declining power of the Almohads, absorbed by se
rious problems in Africa.
{FEUDAL_FULL_PORTUGAL_TITLE}Kingdom of Portugal
{FEUDAL_FULL_RUSSIA_DESCR}Grand Prince Yuri Dolgoruki Yurievich\n\n\n\nThe Princ
ipality of Kiev had never been solidly unified and had already fragmented, in th
e 12th century, into independent principalities. At the end of the reign of Vlad
imir Monomach the struggle between Kiev and Novgorod marked the beginning of its
destruction, the same city of Kiev, already threatened by nomadic Polovcy, fell
prey to the savage looting of the Princes of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal, Yuri
Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky (1157-1174).
In 1147, during a meeting between the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Chernigov, we
hear of a rapidly expanding commercial village on the Moskva, name of the river

from which the settlement will be named Moscow. The struggles that took place in
the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal in the 12th century were similar to those of
the other principalities in the same era: the years 1136-1174 are considered yea
rs of crisis. Their violence bear witness to the turmoil within the principles,
especially the boyars and the clergy seizing control of lands.
But unlike the other principalities, Rostov-Suzdal was ruled by a Prince of grea
t authority, Yuri Dolgoruky. He fought against the Bulgars of the Volga, but al
so against the Slavs, managing to take over temporarily over Novgorod and Kiev,
where he was finally crowned Prince and where he died in 1157. This date marks t
he beginning of the age of Russia under the auspices of the Kievan Rus and the r
eal power switches to the Rus of the Northeast. The principality of Suzdal becam
e the nucleus of the future state of Moscow and what would eventually become the
huge Russian Empire.
{FEUDAL_FULL_RUSSIA_TITLE}Princ. of Vladimir
{FEUDAL_FULL_NOVGOROD_DESCR}Prince Konstantin Stepanich\n\n\n\nThe Principality
of Novgorod was significantly different from the character of other Russian prin
cipalities, so different that we often speak of the land of Novgorod rather than
Principality. Different then was also the general regime of life because of the
eminently agricultural and aggressively militaristic character of other princip
alities, while Novgorod was mainly a mercantile society.
The location of the city, at the meeting of the Volkhov River with the Lake Ilme
n, in one of the essential points of the ancient waterways towards the Black Sea
, favored the development of trade which originally consisted not only of goods
but also of slaves and workers. The territory of Novgorod was not fertile enough
for large-scale agriculture; this condition required the development of trade.
Other conditions conducive to such development was the ease of communication tow
ards the Germanic lands and Sweden; from Germany arrived twice yearly a caravan
of merchants to do business; there were less regular but more frequent visits to
Novgorod merchants, in particular from the Swedish island of Gotland and the Ba
ltic lands.
The regime of Novgorod, in the sense of the relationship between Prince and Asse
mbly, was different from that of other principalities as the Assembly, being in
the hands of boyars and merchants (but especially the first) instead of people,
often did not respect the interests of the latter. Also very limited were the po
wers of the Prince. The Principality of Novgorod was not fighting against nomadi
c peoples from the East (Cumans and Mongols), but rather the danger came from th
e West, when in the 12th century the Livonian Order of the Sword began the attem
pt to advance to the East.
{FEUDAL_FULL_NOVGOROD_TITLE}Rep. of Novgorod
{FEUDAL_FULL_SAXONS_DESCR}King Inge Gille\n\n\n\nFrom the mid-11th century the K
ingdom of Norway was consolidated and stabilized, gradually abandoning the old V
iking tradition linked to paganism and depredations. The first dioceses arose an
d laid the foundations for a (albeit primitive) central management system, based
on the collection of taxes from the main towns in Norway (Oslo, Trondheim or Ni
daros, Bergen) and on the control of internal order through the force of a Royal
Army. In 1067 Olaf Kyrre came to the throne, the first ruler in history who kne
w how to read and write.\n\n The church quickly contributed to the eradication o
f the ancient pagan beliefs and rituals; however many Vikings gods persisted in
remote northern regions for many centuries to come. In 1152 the first Catholic A
rchdiocese in Nidaros was founded, which extended to the Northern Islands (Orkne
y, Shetland, Faroe) under the control of the King, while Oslo hosted a Bishop. A
lso in the Scottish Islands (Man and other) ruled Kings of Norwegian ancestry.\n
\nThe 12th century however, was a period of internal tribulations for Norway. I
n the absence of a specific regulation for the dynastic succession, every son of
a ruler was considered the legitimate heir, and this caused inevitable clashes
between factions on the death of the King. After the death of King Sigurd the Cr
usader (1130), in particular, a violent struggle erupted between the supporters
of the four sons (all minors) that led to decades of civil war. The oldest of th

e four was a bastard son Eystein, coming from Scotland; the second (and most acc
redited pretender) was Inge, who opposed the younger brothers Sigurd and Magnus
(the latter died young). At the beginning of 1155, the Crown is then evenly divi
ded between Inge, Eystein and Sigurd.
{FEUDAL_FULL_SAXONS_TITLE}Kingdom of Norway
{FEUDAL_FULL_SCOTLAND_DESCR}King Malcolm IV\n\n\n\nMalcolm III (1058-1093), foun
der of the House of Dunkeld, introduced feudalism for the first time in the regi
on, replacing the loyalty of consanguinity (clan), upon which Scottish society w
as based. David I (1124-1153), son of Malcolm III, aggravated the disputes with
the Kingdom of England. In 1136 he embarked on a series of raids on English soil
which will continue the bitter disputes between the two crowns.
William I "the Rude", grandson of David I, assumed office as King of Scots after
the death of his brother Malcolm IV (1153-1165), he proved weak and deeply reli
gious. His reign is the second in order of longevity in Scottish history, after
James V (1567-1625). The posthumous nickname of "the lion" will be given to him
due to his coat of arms which will become the Royal Standard of Scotland used by
the rulers of Scotland. William I in 1152, inherited the title of Earl of North
umbria but will lose it to Henry II Plantagenet in 1157.
{FEUDAL_FULL_SCOTLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Scotland
{FEUDAL_FULL_SICILY_DESCR}Re Guglielmo I d Altavilla\n\n\n\nThe celebration of t
he coronation of Roger II (1130-1154) was a true display of grandeur, with gold,
silver, and a coronation mantle of fine silk. Roger II followed the example of
his father. William I, (1154-1166) and Wilhelm II (1166-1189) ruled after Roger
II and the history of their times comes from the chronicler Falcandus. The noble
s and the literati of that age referred to the Kings of Sicily as tyrants who wo
rked to accumulate the symbols and attributes of the Byzantine Emperors, the Cal
iphs, and the Popepowers that did not originate from the Western warrior aristocr
acy but from an autocratic tradition.
{FEUDAL_FULL_SICILY_TITLE}Kingdom of Sicily
{FEUDAL_FULL_SPAIN_DESCR}King Alfonso VII of Burgundy\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the Assembl
y of the Kingdom of Leon conferred on King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) the title of
Emperor of Spain, a title already taken by his grandfather Alfonso VI, and decla
red themselves his vassals. The assumption of such a prestigious title did not m
ean that Alfonso VII had reached the limit of his power, but that he intended to
be a force pushing for the Reconquista. The Kingdom of Len and Castile, in fact,
continuously pressured Cordoba, Seville, Malaga, Valencia and Murcia. This fact
led Muslims to leave behind the inertia that had long weakened them, reacting w
ith a powerful and fast counter-offensive which captured Seville, Cordoba, and
Malaga in a short time and blocked the expansionist efforts of Alfonso VII.
{FEUDAL_FULL_SPAIN_TITLE}Kingdom of Castile-Leon
{FEUDAL_FULL_TIMURIDS_DESCR}CCaliph al-Muqtafi \n\n\n\nThe dynasty Abbasid calip
hs ruled the Islamic world from its headquarters in Baghdad (and, for some decad
es, from Samarra) between 750 and 1258. The Abbasids take their name from his pa
ternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad and ancestor of the founder of the dynasty
- you want it to be converted to the religion preached by his nephew in an unspe
cified date and critics of the dynasty placed in the evening immediately prior t
o the conquest of Mecca by Muslims (630). When the opposition won out on Alid Um
ayyads (weakened by continual revolts kharigite, dall irriducibile antagonism be
tween southern and northern Arabs and infighting that squassarono the very unity
of their family structure), the Abbasids showed themselves as the most organize
d and simply, is strongly suggested as the new dynasty caliph, arrogating to its
elf any power, calling with a certain arrogance "blessed dynasty". Therefore not
held in any account of the alleged "legitimist" Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-B
ayt) who had deluded that nothing was standing in for the recruitment of the sup
reme government of the Islamic Umma. From Here to break the unity between the Ab
basids and Alidi that, over time, will lay the ideological and theological found

ations for the emergence of a true Islamic movement which alternative will be de
fined as "Shiite".
The first Abbasid caliph, Abu l- Abbas al-Saffah, although proclaimed in Kufa in
748-9, took only real power in 750, armed with its massive military support ele
ment Persian-khorasanico, carefully organized by Abu long clandestinely Muslim,
the leader of the Abbasid propaganda machine in the Umayyad period.
The dynasty, however, found his real skilful organizer and administrator in Abu
Ja far al-Mansur, the younger brother of Abu l- Abbas, who founded the firm foun
dations that allowed the Supreme Islamic judiciary to survive for half a millenn
ium or so, although after The Caliph al-Mutawakkil, the power of the dynasty beg
an to substantially empty, while remaining formally until its fall, as evident s
ymbol of unity For Islamic al-Mansur (reg. 754-775) who founded Baghdad in Meso
potamian area that had always expressed the deepest affection for the family of
the Prophet.
The apex of the Abbasid power was joined by his grandson Harun al-Rashid (reg. 7
86-809) and the latter s son al-Ma mun (reg. 813-833), under which the caliphate
touched limits extraordinary, both territorial and cultural. The enlargement of
the Abbasid domains, however, led to a gradual increase in difficulty of the Ca
liphate, in part caused by ethnic and cultural differences but, more simply, by
a certain inability to manage wisely the center of the suburbs. In the eighth ce
ntury al-Andalus and North Africa had already been posted by the caliphate, in p
art to share in the first exponent of a surviving Umayyad and partly because of
the indomitable Berber resistance. The century was Egypt tulunide to assert thei
r right to self-administration, and spending time with, then were the Iranian pr
ovinces to claim a right development model (without giving up the unifying trait
of Islam), then from Syria and Mesopotamia (IX-X century). From that moment on,
the caliphate was reduced gradually to the control of Iraq alone, then one of B
aghdad and, indeed, even to the entire capital city. Between 836 and 892 on the
capital (marked by the growing problems of public policy) was transferred to Sam
arra , however, to return again in Baghdad until the fall of the dynasty.
After suffering the "protection" of the Shia daylamiti buwaihidi or buyidi (cent
ury X-XI century) and then the Sunni Turkish Seljuks, the Abbasid Caliphate was
a revival of authority in the twelfth century. Al-Muqtafi, caliph from 1136, tak
en an anti-Seljuk with the ambition to extend its authority to the entire Iraq.
He is recognized as a wise ruler, virtuous and brave, defended by several Baghda
d attacks Seljuks, made some expeditions against neighboring enemies, and put th
e rebellion of a son of Seljuk Sultan. Participated in the "Jihad" of Zenghidi o
f Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders, but without much enthusiasm because of the c
ontinuing need for men to defend Baghdad from the mire of the Seljuks, had also
known his openness to the Christians in 1139 gave the patriarch a Abdisho III bi
ll of rights for the protection of minority Nestorian.
{FEUDAL_FULL_TIMURIDS_TITLE}Abbasid Caliphate
{FEUDAL_FULL_TURKS_DESCR}Sultan Mesud I bin Kutalmish\n\n\n\nThe Seljuk conquest
of Anatolia was opened by the battle of Mantzikert (1071), in which the Byzanti
ne Emperor was defeated and taken prisoner. The conquest was implemented by Sule
yman Sah, a Prince descended from Selgiuq.
Sleyman Sah settled in Nicaea, dominating almost all of Anatolia until 1097. From
this moment the Crusaders learned to respect the Turks and to value their skill
s, considering them, along with themselves, some of the best riders in the world
. It was even said that both Franks and Turks shared a common ancestry: the Tro
jans, while the vile and greedy Byzantines are descended from the Greeks.
The successor of Sleyman Sah, Qilic Arslan, had to settle for dominating only Cen
tral Anatolia, with its capital at Ikonium, in practice the poorest regions of t
he country; the northeastern Turkish States, such as the Danishmends, and Menguc
echidi, limited its authority. Later the Seljuks of Rum, so called according to
the traditional name of Byzantine Anatolia, defeated the Crusaders participating
in the Second Crusade at Dorylaeum in 1147.
{FEUDAL_FULL_TURKS_TITLE}Seljuk Sultanate

{FEUDAL_FULL_VENICE_DESCR}Doge Domenico Morosini\n\n\n\nTradition holds that the


first Doge elected was a man named Paulicio, who ruled between 697 and 716; fre
ely chosen by the Venetians, expressing their full political independence. But t
hings were otherwise, because that mythical Paulicio was probably a Byzantine of
ficial, or even a Lombard official. Far from being the expression of original in
dependence, therefore, the Doge, for that initial phase of Venetian history, was
rather a sign of dependency on a greater empire. This, however, did not prevent
a gradual evolution of increased degrees of autonomy from Byzantium until reach
ing real independence between the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Doge, with the
passage of time, began to embody the political will of Venice expressed in full
autonomy and exalted by the construction of the Basilica di San Marco (consecra
ted in 1094) and the Rialto market created in 1099.
Until 1032 (year in which Pietro Barbolano, was stripped of the title and ended
up as a monk in Constantinople) of the twenty-nine Dogi, only eight managed to d
ie in their beds and still in possession of the title. By the mid 11th century t
hings start to change and the risks of sudden interruptions is reduced almost to
disappear. In 1143 Pietro Polani exiled the Badoer family and razed the propert
ies of the Dandolo family, who along with the noble families of Falier, Michiel
and Morosini oppose a policy of friendship towards Byzantium. This also results
in an excommunication of Venice by Pope Eugenius III. Between the 10th and 13th
centuries, through a series of operations, Venice acquired dominion over the Adr
iatic and especially a strong position against Byzantium, gaining trading privil
eges in Jaffa, Haifa, Romania, and elsewhere.
{FEUDAL_FULL_VENICE_TITLE}Rep. of Venice
{FEUDAL_FULL_ZENGHIDS_DESCR}Atabeg Nur ad-Din\n\n\n\nThe rule of Atabeg Zengi of
Aleppo and Mosul (1129-1146) marked a turning point in the history of the Crusa
des due to the return of the spirit of Jihad, Holy War, to the Muslims. Zengi re
called that his father, was appointed Prince of Aleppo by Sultan Melik Shah and
despite a period of interruption of about thirty years, he was restored with the
help of the last great Seljuk Ruler, the source of legitimacy in the Turkish wo
rld. Though he posed a strong resistance to the Christians, Zengi was assassinat
ed by his pages on September 14, 1146; an immediate consequence was a rebellion
in Edessa and the kingdom was divided between two of his sons: Ghazi took Mosul
and Nur ad-Din received Aleppo and finally in 1154 Nur ad-Din finally entered Da
mascus.
{FEUDAL_FULL_ZENGHIDS_TITLE}Atabeg of Aleppo

FEUDAL LIGHT
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_TITLE}3. Campagna Feudale Ridotta (Feudal-Light)
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_AZTECS_DESCR}King Demetrius Bagration\n\n\n\nThe early decades of
the 9th century AD saw the birth of new Georgian State, which was declared in So
uth-Western region of Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot I Kuropalates, of the Bagration Royal
family, freed the territories of southern Iberia from Arab domination, including
the principalities of Tao and Klarjeti as well as the counties of Shavsheti, Kh
ikhata, Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formerly a part of
the Byzantine Empire under the pseudonym "Curopalatinato of Iberia."
Curopalates David Bagration expanded his domains annexing the city of Theodosiop
olis (known in the times as Karin or Karnukalaki, now Erzurum), the Armenian pro
vinces of Basiani, Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert and Khlat, formerly controlled b
y the Arab Emir Kaysithe.
In 978 all Georgian principalities were unified in the United Kingdom of Georgia
(978-1466) under the Bagration Dynasty, whose ancestor was Ashot I "the Great"
(9th century AD). Since then, Georgia remained independent for almost a thousand
years. The greatest representative of this dynasty was David "the Builder" (Dev
id IV Agmashenebeli), who reigned from 1089 to 1125, considered a Saint by the G

eorgian Orthodox Church. Under his leadership the Kingdom of Georgia also includ
ed territories of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the northern Caucasus.
David IV of Georgia, considered by tradition as the greatest Georgian ruler, is
celebrated for being able to repel from Georgian soil the invading Seljuks, winn
ing the battle of Didgori in 1121. Thanks to his military and administrative ref
orms, the strong Georgian nation managed to bring under its control much of the
Caucasus region. His tolerance and kindness towards other religions and other et
hnic groups marked the Armenian culture so deeply that this attitude became a co
nstant feature of this Kingdom even after the death of David IV. He died on Jan
uary 24, 1125 and his body, as it was stated in his will, was buried under a sto
ne placed at the main entrance to the Gelati monastery so that anyone coming int
o that place was forced to put his foot on his tomb, a demonstration of his deep
humility. David IV left three sons: the eldest son Demetrius was his successor
and follower of his policy of expansion and consolidation of the Kingdom.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_AZTECS_TITLE}Kingdom of Georgia
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ARAGON_DESCR}King Ramon Berenguer IV\n\n\n\nRamiro II was married
on November 13, 1135 in the Cathedral of Jaca with Ins of Poitou. The King was 60
years old. Petronilla, their daughter, was bornAugust 11, 1136. Ramiro II knew
that the independence of Aragon couldn t last very long with the powerful Kingd
om of Castile seeking to expand its lands and titles. It was necessary to look e
astward to the rich countryside of Barcelona and its Count Ramon Berenguer IV.
The County of Barcelona was created as a vassal of the Frankish Kings as part of
the Marca Hispanica during the reign of Charlemagne. King Ramiro of Aragon abd
icated in 1137 in favor of his daughter Petronilla, who at one year of age was p
romised to Ramon Berenguer IV, who was 23 years old.
Petronilla was educated at the Court of Barcelona and Ramiro II prepared a contr
act of marriage that count of Barcelona signed in all its clauses. Ramon Bereng
uer became Prince of Aragon holding the royal power and controlling the treasury
without the title of King. Basically Don Ramon Berenguer ruled both kingdoms.
The marriage between Queen Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer was celebrated when sh
e was 14 years of age in the Cathedral of Lleida, in the month of August 1150.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ARAGON_TITLE}Kingdom of Aragon
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_BYZANTIUM_DESCR}Basileus Manuel I Comnenus\n\n\n\nAt the time of t
he first crusade, Alexios I Komnenos sat on the throne of Byzantium; a member of
the military aristocracy, he came to power after a long period of crisis. He ha
d conducted a series of successful campaigns against the enemies of the Empire a
nd reafirmed the role the Byzantine Empire as a great power. This project was br
ought to a sudden standstill by the arrival of the Crusaders, who forced him to
devote himself entirely to the new and unexpected problem of foreign policy.
After the death of Alexios, his son John became Emperor and continued the proces
s of restoring the power and lands of the Byzantine Empire. After Johns death in
1143, Manuel I Comnenus inherited the throne and a series of problems that had
begun to beset the Empire: to the east the Turks were a constan threat, the Lati
n Crusader States were a constant source of frustration for the Byzantines becau
se of the uneasy periods of alliance and hostility that existed between the Chri
stian factions. In the Balkans, the Sicilians, Hungarians and Slavs also posed
challenges for Emperor Manuel I.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_BYZANTIUM_TITLE}Byzantine Empire
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_CUMANS_TITLE}Cuman Conf.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_CUMANS_DESCR}Khan Bonyak\n\n\n\nThe Cumans ("Kunok" in Hungarian,
"Qipciaq" in Turkish, "Polovtzy" in Russian) are a western branch of the Turkic
Kipchaks who traveled through the plains of Central Asia to settle around the Ca
spian Sea, from where he emigrated during the 11th century to occupy the plains
of the lower Danube, devastating Hungary to their path. Eventually the Cuman hor
de founded a semi-nomadic state in the 12th century around the Black Sea that co
nducted business and diplomatic relationships with the Bulgarian Khanate, Khware
zm, China, Venice, Genoa and Europe through its ports in Crimea and the Sea of A

zov. Throughout the first half of the 12th century, certain parts of Bulgarian
territory served as strategic bases for attacks carried out against the Byzantin
e Empire by Cumans settled in the regions bordering the Danube, which long retai
n the name Cumania. In 1122 Macedonia and Thrace were looted. The Polovtzy-Cumans
were the dominant part of semi-sedentary or wandering ethnicities that clashed
with the Varangians of the Kievan Rus in their quest for expansion to the Blac
k Sea. After the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125, the Cumans sought to profi
t from the resulting anarchy in Kievan Russia (now shattered and torn apart from
periodic revolts) through raids into the Rus territory , while to the North the
city of Novgorod is increasingly attracted to the commercial interests that gra
vitate around the Baltic.
The Cumans subdued many peoples of the steppe and since slavery did not compleme
nt the nomadic life, once subdued, the captives were incorporated into the army.
This was the case of Pechenegs, Khazars, the Ghuzz, and in later periods, the V
lachs.
The faction of the Cumans (as it happened historically) will have a wide choice
of cavalry, both heavy and light, many armed with bows. Their infantry will be l
ight and will be formed largely by the subjugated peoples.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_DENMARK_DESCR}King Valdemar I Lavard\n\n\n\nFor the Danes, the Nor
man Conquest of England put an almost definitive end to the attempts to conquer
the Island1074 and 1085 baing the last dates of projected invasions. At the begi
nning of the reign of Niels (1104-1134), Asser, Bishop of Lund, becomes the firs
t Archbishop of Denmark, with ecclesiastical independence and full right to voic
e his opinion in Christendom, though during the last years of his reign, a motio
n presented to the feudal lords marks a regression of the royal authority. Canut
e Lavard (son of Erik 1070-1103, predecessor and brother of Niels), the first Da
nish Duke and likely pretender, (1131) is assassinated by his cousin and rival M
agnus "the Strong" (son of King Niels). The death of Canute Lavard marks the be
ginning of a long civil war in which several members of the Danish Royal Family
are massacred. The half-brother of Canute Lavard, Erik, attempts to avenge his d
eath and to secure the succession but has to temporarily take refuge in Sweden.
The state of crisis in Denmark encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II to retak
e the initiative and in 1133, the Archbishop of Lund loses his position as Archb
ishop to the benefit of the Archbishop of Bremen, only to reacquire it six month
s later, in 1134. Lothair II, on the pretext of ill treatment that German merch
ants suffered from the Danes, forced Magnus to pay homage in Halberstadt. In 11
34, at the battle of Fotevik (Fodevig) Magnus and Niels, determined to do away o
nce and for all with Erik, are taken by surprise by a contingent of German caval
ry hired by Erik. The army that served Niels is massacred before they can regro
up and Magnus is assassinated. King Niels manages to escape but inexplicably de
cides to head south and, near the city of Schleswig, is killed by the people loy
al to Erik. The new King known as Erik "the Memorable" turns out to be a tough
and unpopular ruler, and is finally killed in 1137 by a palace conspiracy which
brings to the throne his nephew, Erik the "Mild". Erik III "the Mild" abdicated
in 1146-47; he is succeeded by Sven III (or Sweyn), illegitimate son of Erik II
"the Memorable", but must share the Kingdom with his cousin Canute V (son of Pri
nce Magnus). Valdemar I is the son of Canute V.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_DENMARK_TITLE}Kingdom of Denmark
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_EGYPT_DESCR}Imam al-Fa iz al-Fatimiyyun\n\n\n\n1130: the Fatimid C
aliph al-Amir is assassinated and power is assumed by his brother al Hafiz; the
state falls into anarchy and the dynasty begins to rapidly decline. Conspiracies
and palace revolutions from the barracks along with court intrigues marks this
period as perhaps the most corrupt of all time.
In 1149 weak Caliph al-Hafiz dies and is succeeded by his son az-Zafir, but powe
r was soon usurped by the Kurdish vizier Ibn as-Sallar. The two are killed by Na
sr (1153), grandson of Caliph al-Hafiz; Abbas, who was the father of Nasr, becom
es vizier while the fortress of Ascalon falls into the hands of Baldwin III.
While the decay of the Fatimid regime has become irreversible, Nur ed-Din leads

the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul to the rescue against the invading Franks; it wil
l be a general of Nur ed-Din, Salah ad-Din, who will bring an end to the Shiite
dynasty of Egypt, establishing that of the Ayyubids, whilst formally recognizing
the supremacy of the Sultan of Damascus.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_EGYPT_TITLE}Fatimid Egypt
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ENGLAND_DESCR}King Henry II Plantagenet\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the King of
England Henry I, the last of the House of Normandy, died. The contenders for th
e throne were his daughter Matilda, an illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester an
d his nephews Theobald and Stephen of Blois (sons of Adela, sister of the deceas
ed King). Civil War soon broke out between the parties with several foreign pow
ers getting involved in the contest for the throne, including the Pope and the K
ing of Scotland.
Henry Plantagenet, son of Matilda and Godfrey V Count of Anjou and Maine, marrie
d Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux (formerly wife of Louis VII of France, whose
marriage had been dissolved for consanguinity) and received as dowry the lands f
rom Gascony in Aquitaine in South-Central France. Pope Eugenius III prohibits Ar
chbishop Theobald from crowning Eustace (son of Stephen) as King of England, bec
ause his father was considered a usurper, and accept the coronation of Henry II
Plantagenet as King of England (1154-1189). The name of the English Dynasty deri
ves from the Planta Genista, a shrub that Geoffrey V, count of Anjou and of Main
e known as "the beautiful" had as his insignia.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ENGLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of England
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_FRANCE_DESCR}King Louis VII Capet\n\n\n\nWhat was the Kingdom of F
rance in the 12th century and how was it perceived? A significant date: the firs
t card of France will be designed only in 1525. At the time the French was perce
ived not as a defined geographical territory but as an array of local political
entities (towns, castles, Lordships) whose Lords paid homage of faithfulness to
the sovereign. The personal ties of dependence and alliance formed the backbone
of a united realm more than any abstract notion of territory. The formation of t
he Kingdom, as a geographical space where the supreme authority of the Capetian
kings was recognized, progressed slowly outwards from the core lands of the fami
ly, in the le-de-France in Northern France.
The Capetian dynasty, one of the longest ruling houses of the middle ages, for t
hree centuries since the rule of Hugh Capet (938/41-996), held the reins of the
monarchy and expanded the kingdom. In 1100 it had been ruled for the past forty
years by the great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Philip I, who was succeeded by Louis
VI the Fat (r. 1108-1137). He in turn was succeeded by Louis VII who ruled until
1180.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_FRANCE_TITLE}Kingdom of France
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_HRE_DESCR}Emperor Frederick I\n\n\n\nIn the heart of medieval Germ
any, Frederick I Barbarossa (reigned until 1190), succeeded Conrad III, Duke of
Swabia and Franconia of the House of Hohenstaufen (1138-1152), recently King of
Germany, and now, in the year 1155, is crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Empe
ror. Although his domains are extensive, he is not immune from the dangers and
threats to his authority represented by powerful princes that surround him and b
y multitudes of settlers: Saxons, Franks, Flemish, and Lotharingi. Frederick fa
ces a difficult position in his German lands as he tries to expand to the east w
hile dealing with disobedient, self-serving nobles in his realm. To the south a
re his Italian possessions, which are not always loyal and are forever seeking t
o break away from Imperial control. The Italian issues are aggravated by the co
nstant interference of the Pope who feels threatened by the power of the Empire
and the challenges to Papal control of church matters.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_HRE_TITLE}H.R. Empire
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_HUNGARY_DESCR}King Geza II Arpad\n\n\n\nIn the mid-11th century th
e Kingdom of Hungary was grappling with serious difficulties: two pagan revolts
in 1046 and 1061, dynastic struggles, and interference by the German Emperors. T

he canonization of Saint Stephen in 1073 marked the beginning of a national rene


wal. Gza I (1074-1077) and Ladislaus I (1077-1095) supported Gregory VII in the i
nvestiture controversy and placed Hungary under the suzerainty of the Holy See,
managing to remain outside the orbit of the HRE. In the 12th century the Kings o
f Hungary used diplomacy to thrive between the HRE, the Papacy and the Byzantine
Empire, expanding their influence in Croatia, Romania and even in Serbia, but t
he fierce dynastic struggles continued and the power of the nobles established i
tself at the expense of the monarchy.
Stephen II, having no descendants, recalled his cousin Bla II the blind (King of
Hungary from 1131 to 1141) from exile and designated him as his successor. His G
overnment, supported by the nobles, is generally considered peaceful despite the
tragic nature of his youth. After the benevolent reign of Bela II, his eldest s
on Gza II (1141-1161) ascended to the throne to pursue the work of consolidation
of royal power.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_HUNGARY_TITLE}Kingdom of Hungary
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MILAN_DESCR}Signore Ottone Visconti\n\n\n\nThe Kingdom of Italy, t
he domain of the German Emperors in their capacity as Kings of Italy, with admin
istrative capital in Pavia and religious capital at Monza (where the Kings of It
aly surrounded the Lombard Iron Crown) witnessed the triumph of the city during
the 12th century.
In September of 1122 on the banks of the Rhine, the Concordat of Worms was promu
lgated: Henry V renounced his right to confer spiritual investitures (by means o
f the ring and staff), but his right to confer temporal rights to the clergy (by
scepter) was recognized by Pope Calixtus II. Conrad of Swabia, thanks to the su
pport of the Milanese, seized the Crown of King of Italy (1128) without being ab
le to exercise real power. He later became Holy Roman Emperor in 1138 and was s
ucceeded by his nephew Frederick I, called Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190). Born of a Gh
ibelline father Frederick, Duke of Swabia and Guelph mother, Judith of Bavaria,
he is hailed as the Prince of Peace. But peace presupposes a new and stable orde
r, based on the consolidation of the sovereign power in his relationship with th
e Italian city-states.
Frederick I and Adrian IV (1154-1159), the only English Pope in history, agree t
o condemn Arnold of Brescia to be burned at the stake (a Lombard that due to his
sincerity of faith followed the philosophical school of Abelard). In Exchange f
or the delivery of the heretic (who escaped from the city in a vain attempt to f
ind an agreement between the Pope and the Municipality) Frederick was crowned Em
peror (June 1155), but the people revolted and the Emperor, fearing to remain wi
thout food, was quick to withdraw ravaging and plundering Pontifical Umbria: aft
er this event one of the pillars of Papal policy will rely on the Communities of
the Po, under the influence of Milan, the richest, most powerful and aggressive
of them.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MILAN_TITLE}Comune di Milano
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PISA_DESCR}Console Ranieri Caetani\n\n\n\nThe greatest Arab mediev
al historian, Ibn-Khaldoun (1332-1406), wrote nostalgically of the ninth and ten
th centuries "Then the Christians were not allowed to sail anything on the Medit
erranean, even the smallest boat". Of course like any absolute statement, this p
hrase should be clarified: Byzantium controlled Ionia and the Aegean and the Ven
etians in addition trading in Italy, maintained trade contacts with the Byzantin
es through the Adriatic Sea. Amalfi was present with its ships and merchants in
the Byzantine and Islamic trade systems.
In 1135 the Pisans, allies of Lothair, sack Amalfi, is the only relevant fact of
the campaign led by the emperor. Two years later, in an Allied expedition of th
e Pope and the Emperor Lothair II, Pisa participates once again in the campaign
in the region of Almafi. Following a period of relative calm in which the Republ
ic binds itself even more to the German Emperors, from which it receives signifi
cant concessions in 1162 and 1165. With these the Emperor Frederick I recognizes
the citys jurisdiction over the region near Pisa and freedom of trade in the ter
ritories of the Empire.

With the Saracen threat in the Western Mediterranean abated, Pisa turned towards
the markets of the East and concentrated its efforts in the construction of new
trade depots and in attaining new diplomatic and economic relations simply usin
g force to secure more advantageous treaties or monopolies in competition with r
ival city. Such rivalry occurred at different times, with all the other republic
s but particularly with Genoa. The reason for the disputes with the Ligurian ci
ty were their positions in Sardinia and Corsica and the hoarding of the markets
of southern France and Spain, where Genoa took on a markedly predominant positio
n.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PISA_TITLE}Repubblica di Pisa
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MONGOLS_DESCR}DO NOT TRANSLATE - MONGOLS NOT PLAYABLE IN CAMPAIGN
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MONGOLS_TITLE}Mongol Horde
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MOORS_DESCR}Amir Abd al-Mu min Masmuda\n\n\n\nIn 1130 the Berber M
uhammad ibn Tumart who proclaimed himself Mahads (sent by God) initiated a movemen
t of deep religious renewal in southern Morocco. His sect, called Almohads (Unit
arian), fights against the accepted interpretation by the Almoravid theologians,
who hold the fate of the empire founded by Yusuf ibn Taschfin (1060-1106). In 1
147 Abd al-Mu min (successor of Muhammad ibn Tumart) destroys the Almoravid army
in Tlemcen and conquers Ceuta, Fes, Tangier and Marrakech which becomes his cap
ital. Immediately after these victories, the Almohad army crosses into Spain and
reconquers Seville, Cordoba, Jaen (1147-48) and Malaga (1152-53), relegating th
e last Almoravids to the Balearic Islands.
In 1152 Abd al-Mu min, already ruler of Morocco, defeated coalition forces of Ha
mmaditi and Beni-Hilal in Setif and conquers Algeria; the capture of Tripoli in
1160 completes the domain of Ifriqiyyah (Africa) by the Almohads. Abd al-Mu min
(or el Moumen) was able to impose his lordship within a short time, realizing fo
r the first time the political unification of the Maghreb and imposing his will
on most Muslim kingdoms or taifas into which al-Andalus was again divided. Durin
g the rule of three Almohad Caliphs (Abd al-Mu min, Abou Youssef Yacoub and Abou
Youssef Yacoub al Mansour) the Maghreb experienced one of the most important pe
riods in its history, in which religious and political purposes became closely t
ied to expansionist economic needs including monitoring the Saharan trade routes
and their outlets to the sea.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_MOORS_TITLE}Almohad Empire
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_NORMANS_TITLE}K. of Jerusalem
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_NORMANS_DESCR}King Baldwin III of Anjou\n\n\n\nJuly 17, 1099: the
great massacre comes to an end. The "Franks" (name used by the local Arabs to de
signate the crusaders) have gathered to elect their king. Amidst great sacrifice
s and subtle power games, the choice falls on Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, the mos
t pious and harmless among the leaders of the expedition. Godfrey refuses to wea
r the crown and proclaims himself only "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchre (Defender of
The Holy Sepulcher)".
Outremer, as the holy land is called, is again an integral part of Christianity.
Upon the death of Godfrey, the crown that he refused is taken by his brother Ba
ldwin, the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118). As a feudal state organized acco
rding to the Assizes of Jerusalem, the kingdom consisted of the subordinate vass
al principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli, the fiefs of several distingu
ished nobles, and those of dozens of minor vassals. Several military orders of m
onastic knights created in the XII century (Knights of Jerusalem, Templars, Hosp
itallers, and Teutonic) enjoyed full autonomy within the kingdom while Pisa, Gen
oa, and Venice established separate quarters for their merchants in the coastal
cities. Formally elective, the crown of Jerusalem remained mostly in possession
of the descendants of Baldwin I and the counts of Anjou, finally passing in 1186
to the French noble Guy of Lusignan. After the loss of Edessa in 1144, the Crus
aders suffer the relentless attacks of the Atabeg of Aleppo and Mosul, and later
of Saladin, ruler of Egypt.

{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PAPAL_STATES_DESCR}Pope Adrian IV\n\n\n\nA tradition holds that th


e Roman Catholic Church had been granted the exclusive domain over certain terri
tories in Italy thanks to the so-called Donation of Emperor Constantine (321). T
he author of this concession, which would have assured the then Pope Sylvester I
and subsequent pontiffs a kind of sovereignty over the Lateran Palace and the c
ity of Rome, with all of its properties and the Imperial regalia, would have bee
n the same, Constantine I. In reality the document of the Donation was a forgery
dating back at least to the 8th century, as was proven since 1440 by the humani
st Lorenzo Valla.
While the claim to territorial sovereignty held no veracity, the cultural enviro
nment of the late Middle Ages granted broad authority to the Popes. Authority th
at was not only spiritual but also temporal. The Holy Roman emperors felt a need
to see their emperorship consecrated by the Pope and the latter needed to exert
their power over the sovereigns of Europe. The delicate situation turned to a m
ajor confrontation over the question of the election of Bishops (the Investiture
Controversy), which focused the differences of opinion about the possibility th
at the emperor would not be totally free of papal authority. Thus the Popes supp
orted the struggle of the Italian cities against Frederick Barbarossa in order t
o weaken the political authority of the HRE.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PAPAL_STATES_TITLE}Papal States
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_POLAND_DESCR}King Bolesaw IV the Curly\n\n\n\nThe enduring dynasty
of Piast (IX-XIV centuries, with royal dignity since the XII century) gives life
in the XI-XII centuries to ephemeral Empires, extending with uncertain boundari
es towards Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Russia.
Bolesaw III (1102-1139), relying on small and medium cavalry and court magistrate
s (as in the Hohenstaufen Empire), tries to avoid the onset of dynastic struggle
s by dividing the Kingdom among his sons in his testament, while subordinating t
he cadets to the moral authority of his first-born son Ladislaw II. This "senior
ity" becomes more and more fictitious and the state is fragmented into a group o
f virtually independent duchies: Great Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masovia , the D
uchy of Sandomierz, and Small Poland; Krakow has only a theoretical preeminence.
In 1146 King Ladislaw II is overthrown by his brothers and takes refuge at the c
ourt of his brother-in-law King Conrad III; he is replaced by his brother Bolesaw
IV the Curly (1120-1173). Meanwhile, the power of the princes and clergy contin
ues to grow: in 1136, the Archbishop of Gniezno (Episcopal created in 1000 over
the grave of the martyr Adalbert), has already more than a thousand dwellings an
d some five thousand servants. Among the chief towns include Krakow (capital), P
oznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw, surrounded by vast areas inhabited by a huge rural ma
ss with patriarchal customs that will remain pagan until the 13th century.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_POLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Poland
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PORTUGAL_DESCR}King Alfonso I Henriques\n\n\n\nIn 1093 Henry of Bu
rgundy (1066-1112) and Alfonso VI of Castile recovered Galicia and Northern Port
ugal as far as the Tagus River, including Lisbon, Cintra and Santarm, from the Mu
slims. As a reward, King Alfonso agreed to have his daughter, Teresa of Len, marr
y Henry. The couple had several children, who all died in childhood except the l
ast, Alfonso Henriques (1109-1185).
In 1128 the Count of Portugal, Alfonso Henriques, defeated the Castilian army at
the battle of So Mamede and laid the foundation for an independent kingdom. In 1
139, after the victory against the Muslims in the battle of Ourique, the victori
ous army of Portugal proclaimed Alfonso Henriques as King. In the fight against
the Almohads the monastic military orders of the Holy Land, Hospitallers and Tem
plars, play an important role. So do newly established Orders such as those of
Calatrava (1158), Evora (1162), Santiago de Compostela (1175) and Alcntara (1176)
, forming a veritable permanent army. During this period, the Christian kingdoms
often collaborate in joint ventures, ever more frequent in the last decades of
the century, coinciding with the declining power of the Almohads, absorbed by se

rious problems in Africa.


{FEUDAL_LIGHT_PORTUGAL_TITLE}Kingdom of Portugal
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_RUSSIA_DESCR}Grand Prince Yuri Dolgoruki Yurievich\n\n\n\nThe Prin
cipality of Kiev had never been solidly unified and had already fragmented, in t
he 12th century, into independent principalities. At the end of the reign of Vla
dimir Monomach the struggle between Kiev and Novgorod marked the beginning of it
s destruction, the same city of Kiev, already threatened by nomadic Polovcy, fel
l prey to the savage looting of the Princes of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal, Yuri
Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky (1157-1174).
In 1147, during a meeting between the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Chernigov, we
hear of a rapidly expanding commercial village on the Moskva, name of the river
from which the settlement will be named Moscow. The struggles that took place in
the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal in the 12th century were similar to those of
the other principalities in the same era: the years 1136-1174 are considered yea
rs of crisis. Their violence bear witness to the turmoil within the principles,
especially the boyars and the clergy seizing control of lands.
But unlike the other principalities, Rostov-Suzdal was ruled by a Prince of grea
t authority, Yuri Dolgoruky. He fought against the Bulgars of the Volga, but al
so against the Slavs, managing to take over temporarily over Novgorod and Kiev,
where he was finally crowned Prince and where he died in 1157. This date marks t
he beginning of the age of Russia under the auspices of the Kievan Rus and the r
eal power switches to the Rus of the Northeast. The principality of Suzdal becam
e the nucleus of the future state of Moscow and what would eventually become the
huge Russian Empire.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_RUSSIA_TITLE}Princ. of Vladimir
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_NOVGOROD_DESCR}Prince Konstantin Stepanich\n\n\n\nThe Principality
of Novgorod was significantly different from the character of other Russian pri
ncipalities, so different that we often speak of the land of Novgorod rather than
Principality. Different then was also the general regime of life because of th
e eminently agricultural and aggressively militaristic character of other princi
palities, while Novgorod was mainly a mercantile society.
The location of the city, at the meeting of the Volkhov River with the Lake Ilme
n, in one of the essential points of the ancient waterways towards the Black Sea
, favored the development of trade which originally consisted not only of goods
but also of slaves and workers. The territory of Novgorod was not fertile enough
for large-scale agriculture; this condition required the development of trade.
Other conditions conducive to such development was the ease of communication tow
ards the Germanic lands and Sweden; from Germany arrived twice yearly a caravan
of merchants to do business; there were less regular but more frequent visits to
Novgorod merchants, in particular from the Swedish island of Gotland and the Ba
ltic lands.
The regime of Novgorod, in the sense of the relationship between Prince and Asse
mbly, was different from that of other principalities as the Assembly, being in
the hands of boyars and merchants (but especially the first) instead of people,
often did not respect the interests of the latter. Also very limited were the po
wers of the Prince. The Principality of Novgorod was not fighting against nomadi
c peoples from the East (Cumans and Mongols), but rather the danger came from th
e West, when in the 12th century the Livonian Order of the Sword began the attem
pt to advance to the East.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_NOVGOROD_TITLE}Rep. of Novgorod
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SAXONS_DESCR}King Inge Gille\n\n\n\nFrom the mid-11th century the
Kingdom of Norway was consolidated and stabilized, gradually abandoning the old
Viking tradition linked to paganism and depredations. The first dioceses arose a
nd laid the foundations for a (albeit primitive) central management system, base
d on the collection of taxes from the main towns in Norway (Oslo, Trondheim or N
idaros, Bergen) and on the control of internal order through the force of a Roya

l Army. In 1067 Olaf Kyrre came to the throne, the first ruler in history who kn
ew how to read and write.\n\n The church quickly contributed to the eradication
of the ancient pagan beliefs and rituals; however many Vikings gods persisted in
remote northern regions for many centuries to come. In 1152 the first Catholic
Archdiocese in Nidaros was founded, which extended to the Northern Islands (Orkn
ey, Shetland, Faroe) under the control of the King, while Oslo hosted a Bishop.
Also in the Scottish Islands (Man and other) ruled Kings of Norwegian ancestry.\
n\nThe 12th century however, was a period of internal tribulations for Norway.
In the absence of a specific regulation for the dynastic succession, every son o
f a ruler was considered the legitimate heir, and this caused inevitable clashes
between factions on the death of the King. After the death of King Sigurd the C
rusader (1130), in particular, a violent struggle erupted between the supporters
of the four sons (all minors) that led to decades of civil war. The oldest of t
he four was a bastard son Eystein, coming from Scotland; the second (and most ac
credited pretender) was Inge, who opposed the younger brothers Sigurd and Magnus
(the latter died young). At the beginning of 1155, the Crown is then evenly div
ided between Inge, Eystein and Sigurd.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SAXONS_TITLE}Kingdom of Norway
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SCOTLAND_DESCR}King Malcolm IV\n\n\n\nMalcolm III (1058-1093), fou
nder of the House of Dunkeld, introduced feudalism for the first time in the reg
ion, replacing the loyalty of consanguinity (clan), upon which Scottish society
was based. David I (1124-1153), son of Malcolm III, aggravated the disputes with
the Kingdom of England. In 1136 he embarked on a series of raids on English soi
l which will continue the bitter disputes between the two crowns.
William I "the Rude", grandson of David I, assumed office as King of Scots after
the death of his brother Malcolm IV (1153-1165), he proved weak and deeply reli
gious. His reign is the second in order of longevity in Scottish history, after
James V (1567-1625). The posthumous nickname of "the lion" will be given to him
due to his coat of arms which will become the Royal Standard of Scotland used by
the rulers of Scotland. William I in 1152, inherited the title of Earl of North
umbria but will lose it to Henry II Plantagenet in 1157.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SCOTLAND_TITLE}Kingdom of Scotland
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SICILY_DESCR}Re Guglielmo I d Altavilla\n\n\n\nThe celebration of
the coronation of Roger II (1130-1154) was a true display of grandeur, with gold
, silver, and a coronation mantle of fine silk. Roger II followed the example of
his father. William I, (1154-1166) and Wilhelm II (1166-1189) ruled after Roger
II and the history of their times comes from the chronicler Falcandus. The nobl
es and the literati of that age referred to the Kings of Sicily as tyrants who w
orked to accumulate the symbols and attributes of the Byzantine Emperors, the Ca
liphs, and the Popepowers that did not originate from the Western warrior aristoc
racy but from an autocratic tradition.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SICILY_TITLE}Kingdom of Sicily
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SPAIN_DESCR}King Alfonso VII of Burgundy\n\n\n\nIn 1135 the Assemb
ly of the Kingdom of Leon conferred on King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) the title of
Emperor of Spain, a title already taken by his grandfather Alfonso VI, and decl
ared themselves his vassals. The assumption of such a prestigious title did not
mean that Alfonso VII had reached the limit of his power, but that he intended t
o be a force pushing for the Reconquista. The Kingdom of Len and Castile, in fact
, continuously pressured Cordoba, Seville, Malaga, Valencia and Murcia. This fac
t led Muslims to leave behind the inertia that had long weakened them, reacting
with a powerful and fast counter-offensive which captured Seville, Cordoba, and
Malaga in a short time and blocked the expansionist efforts of Alfonso VII.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_SPAIN_TITLE}Kingdom of Castile-Leon
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_TIMURIDS_DESCR}Caliph al-Muqtafi \n\n\n\nThe dynasty Abbasid calip
hs ruled the Islamic world from its headquarters in Baghdad (and, for some decad
es, from Samarra) between 750 and 1258. The Abbasids take their name from his pa

ternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad and ancestor of the founder of the dynasty
- you want it to be converted to the religion preached by his nephew in an unspe
cified date and critics of the dynasty placed in the evening immediately prior t
o the conquest of Mecca by Muslims (630). When the opposition won out on Alid Um
ayyads (weakened by continual revolts kharigite, dall irriducibile antagonism be
tween southern and northern Arabs and infighting that squassarono the very unity
of their family structure), the Abbasids showed themselves as the most organize
d and simply, is strongly suggested as the new dynasty caliph, arrogating to its
elf any power, calling with a certain arrogance "blessed dynasty". Therefore not
held in any account of the alleged "legitimist" Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-B
ayt) who had deluded that nothing was standing in for the recruitment of the sup
reme government of the Islamic Umma. From Here to break the unity between the Ab
basids and Alidi that, over time, will lay the ideological and theological found
ations for the emergence of a true Islamic movement which alternative will be de
fined as "Shiite".
The first Abbasid caliph, Abu l- Abbas al-Saffah, although proclaimed in Kufa in
748-9, took only real power in 750, armed with its massive military support ele
ment Persian-khorasanico, carefully organized by Abu long clandestinely Muslim,
the leader of the Abbasid propaganda machine in the Umayyad period.
The dynasty, however, found his real skilful organizer and administrator in Abu
Ja far al-Mansur, the younger brother of Abu l- Abbas, who founded the firm foun
dations that allowed the Supreme Islamic judiciary to survive for half a millenn
ium or so, although after The Caliph al-Mutawakkil, the power of the dynasty beg
an to substantially empty, while remaining formally until its fall, as evident s
ymbol of unity For Islamic al-Mansur (reg. 754-775) who founded Baghdad in Meso
potamian area that had always expressed the deepest affection for the family of
the Prophet.
The apex of the Abbasid power was joined by his grandson Harun al-Rashid (reg. 7
86-809) and the latter s son al-Ma mun (reg. 813-833), under which the caliphate
touched limits extraordinary, both territorial and cultural. The enlargement of
the Abbasid domains, however, led to a gradual increase in difficulty of the Ca
liphate, in part caused by ethnic and cultural differences but, more simply, by
a certain inability to manage wisely the center of the suburbs. In the eighth ce
ntury al-Andalus and North Africa had already been posted by the caliphate, in p
art to share in the first exponent of a surviving Umayyad and partly because of
the indomitable Berber resistance. The century was Egypt tulunide to assert thei
r right to self-administration, and spending time with, then were the Iranian pr
ovinces to claim a right development model (without giving up the unifying trait
of Islam), then from Syria and Mesopotamia (IX-X century). From that moment on,
the caliphate was reduced gradually to the control of Iraq alone, then one of B
aghdad and, indeed, even to the entire capital city. Between 836 and 892 on the
capital (marked by the growing problems of public policy) was transferred to Sam
arra , however, to return again in Baghdad until the fall of the dynasty.
After suffering the "protection" of the Shia daylamiti buwaihidi or buyidi (cent
ury X-XI century) and then the Sunni Turkish Seljuks, the Abbasid Caliphate was
a revival of authority in the twelfth century. Al-Muqtafi, caliph from 1136, tak
en an anti-Seljuk with the ambition to extend its authority to the entire Iraq.
He is recognized as a wise ruler, virtuous and brave, defended by several Baghda
d attacks Seljuks, made some expeditions against neighboring enemies, and put th
e rebellion of a son of Seljuk Sultan. Participated in the "Jihad" of Zenghidi o
f Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders, but without much enthusiasm because of the c
ontinuing need for men to defend Baghdad from the mire of the Seljuks, had also
known his openness to the Christians in 1139 gave the patriarch a Abdisho III bi
ll of rights for the protection of minority Nestorian.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_TIMURIDS_TITLE}Abbasid Caliphate
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_TURKS_DESCR}Sultan Mesud I bin Kutalmish\n\n\n\nThe Seljuk conques
t of Anatolia was opened by the battle of Mantzikert (1071), in which the Byzant
ine Emperor was defeated and taken prisoner. The conquest was implemented by Sul
eyman Sah, a Prince descended from Selgiuq.

Sleyman Sah settled in Nicaea, dominating almost all of Anatolia until 1097. From
this moment the Crusaders learned to respect the Turks and to value their skill
s, considering them, along with themselves, some of the best riders in the world
. It was even said that both Franks and Turks shared a common ancestry: the Tro
jans, while the vile and greedy Byzantines are descended from the Greeks.
The successor of Sleyman Sah, Qilic Arslan, had to settle for dominating only Cen
tral Anatolia, with its capital at Ikonium, in practice the poorest regions of t
he country; the northeastern Turkish States, such as the Danishmends, and Menguc
echidi, limited its authority. Later the Seljuks of Rum, so called according to
the traditional name of Byzantine Anatolia, defeated the Crusaders participating
in the Second Crusade at Dorylaeum in 1147.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_TURKS_TITLE}Seljuk Sultanate
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_VENICE_DESCR}Doge Domenico Morosini\n\n\n\nTradition holds that th
e first Doge elected was a man named Paulicio, who ruled between 697 and 716; fr
eely chosen by the Venetians, expressing their full political independence. But
things were otherwise, because that mythical Paulicio was probably a Byzantine o
fficial, or even a Lombard official. Far from being the expression of original i
ndependence, therefore, the Doge, for that initial phase of Venetian history, wa
s rather a sign of dependency on a greater empire. This, however, did not preven
t a gradual evolution of increased degrees of autonomy from Byzantium until reac
hing real independence between the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Doge, with th
e passage of time, began to embody the political will of Venice expressed in ful
l autonomy and exalted by the construction of the Basilica di San Marco (consecr
ated in 1094) and the Rialto market created in 1099.
Until 1032 (year in which Pietro Barbolano, was stripped of the title and ended
up as a monk in Constantinople) of the twenty-nine Dogi, only eight managed to d
ie in their beds and still in possession of the title. By the mid 11th century t
hings start to change and the risks of sudden interruptions is reduced almost to
disappear. In 1143 Pietro Polani exiled the Badoer family and razed the propert
ies of the Dandolo family, who along with the noble families of Falier, Michiel
and Morosini oppose a policy of friendship towards Byzantium. This also results
in an excommunication of Venice by Pope Eugenius III. Between the 10th and 13th
centuries, through a series of operations, Venice acquired dominion over the Adr
iatic and especially a strong position against Byzantium, gaining trading privil
eges in Jaffa, Haifa, Romania, and elsewhere.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_VENICE_TITLE}Rep. of Venice
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ZENGHIDS_DESCR}Atabeg Nur ad-Din\n\n\n\nThe rule of Atabeg Zengi o
f Aleppo and Mosul (1129-1146) marked a turning point in the history of the Crus
ades due to the return of the spirit of Jihad, Holy War, to the Muslims. Zengi r
ecalled that his father, was appointed Prince of Aleppo by Sultan Melik Shah and
despite a period of interruption of about thirty years, he was restored with th
e help of the last great Seljuk Ruler, the source of legitimacy in the Turkish w
orld. Though he posed a strong resistance to the Christians, Zengi was assassina
ted by his pages on September 14, 1146; an immediate consequence was a rebellion
in Edessa and the kingdom was divided between two of his sons: Ghazi took Mosul
and Nur ad-Din received Aleppo and finally in 1154 Nur ad-Din finally entered D
amascus.
{FEUDAL_LIGHT_ZENGHIDS_TITLE}Atabeg of Aleppo