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KE-90.

2500 Basics in production


planning and control
Scheduling

Exercise 1
A job shop incurs a cost of C dollars per day for each
day a job is in the shop. At the beginning of a month,
there are five jobs in the shop. The data for these jobs
are given below:
a) If cost per day is $50 for each job, what schedule will
minimize total cost?.
Work task 1 2 3 4 5
Processing time 5 3 10 2 4
Due date 10 15 20 9 7
Exercise 1
b) Suppose job i costs C
i
dollars per day for each
day it is in the shop. What schedule will minimize
total cost?

Task 1 2 3 4 5
C
i
30 10 20 5 50
Exercise 1a - solution
All the jobs have the same cost per day
therefore the total cost is minimized when an
average flow time is minimized.
This can be done using Shortest Processing
Time (SPT)-method
The SPT method minimizes also an average
tardiness and an average queuing time.
SPT-method:
a schedule is obtained by sequencing jobs in
nondescending order of processing times
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
Exercise 1a - solution
Jobs are arranged from the shortest processing time to
the longest one:
<4,2,5,1,3>
Note, that jobs 5, 1, and 3 are tardy. There is no penalty
for a tardy job so we do not have to take this into
consideration.




Mean flow time, F
average
=(14+5+24+2+9)/5=10,8.


Task 4 2 5 1 3
Ready 2 2+3=5 5+4=9 9+5=14 14+10=24
Due date 9 15 7 10 20
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
Exercise 1b - solution
Now each job has a unique cost per day and the
total cost needs to be minimized.
Weighted Shortest Processing Time (WSPT)
procedure is more appropriate when the tasks
are not of equal importance.
At first all the weighted processing times (=P/C)
are calculated and then the jobs arranged from
the shortest weighted processing time to the
longest:
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
7 9 20 15 10 Due date
4 2 10 3 5 Processing time
5 4 3 2 1 Work task
Exercise 1b - solution
Task 1 2 3 4 5
P 5 3 10 2 4
C 30 10 20 5 50
P/C 0,17 0,33 0,50 0,40 0,08
Exercise 1b - solution
Task 5 1 2 4 3
Ready 4 4+5=9 9+3=12 12+2=14 14+10=24
Due
date
7 10 15 9 20
Schedule:
<5,1,2,4,3>.




Jobs 4 and 3 are tardy


Exercise 2
The following jobs are due in the next few days:

Task 1 2 3 4 5 6
Duration 5 4 3 1 0.5 2
Due date 11 10 16 2 1 3
Exercise 2
a) Can one person finish all these jobs on time? Justify.
b) Give the schedule that should be followed in processing
these jobs. Justify your choice of a schedule.
c) If the company pays a penalty of 10 per day for a job
that is tardy but receives no reward for jobs finished
early, what schedule would you recommend?
d) If the company receives a reward of 10 per day that a
job is finished early and a penalty of 10 per day that
a job is tardy, what schedule would you recommend?
Task 1 2 3 4 5 6
Duration 5 4 3 1 0.5 2
Due date 11 10 16 2 1 3
Exercise 2a - solution
The last job should be ready in 16 days; all jobs take
5+4+3+1+0,5+2=15,5 days
Therefore this is not restrictive, but for example
<5,4,6,...> will be tardy. One person cannot finish all
these jobs in time.
Exercise 2b - solution
Due Date (DD)-method could be used to minimize the
maximum tardiness:
DD-method: the jobs are sequenced in the order of
nondecreasing due dates.


1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
Exercise 2b - solution
The schedule with the DD method:
<5,4,6,2,1,3>

Task 5 4 6 2 1 3
Duration
0,5 0,5+1=1,5 1,5+2=3,5 3,5+4=7,5 7,5+5=12,5 12,5+3=15,5
Due date
1 2 3 10 11 16
1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
Exercise 2c - solution
The maximum tardiness should be minimized
and therefore DD-method might be the best
option since it minimizes the maximum
tardiness:
(see Item b)
0,5*10 +1,5*10 =20
You could also test all the possible
combinations.
Exercise 2d - solution
The average processing time needs to be minimized.
SPT method:
<5,4,6,3,2,1>

Task 5 4 6 3 2 1
Duration 0,5 0,5+1=1,5 1,5+2=3,5 3,5+3=6,5 6,5+4=10,5 10,5+5=15,5
Due date 1 2 3 16 10 11
1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
1
0.5
5
3
2
6
2 16 10 11 Due date
1 3 4 5 Duration
4 3 2 1 Task
Exercise 2d - solution
Cost: 0,5+0,5+4,5)*10 =55
Reward: (0,5+0,5+9,5)*10 =105
Profit: 50
DD-method:
Cost: 20
Reward: (0,5+0,5+2,5+0,5)*10 =40
Profit: 20
SPT method gives better results.

Exercise 3
The following data are given for a single processor,
static job shop:
Task 1 2 3 4 5 6
Processing time 3 2 9 4 2 4
Due date 17 21 5 12 15 24
Exercise 3
a) Give a schedule that minimizes the average flow time.
b) Give a schedule that minimizes the number of tardy
jobs.
Exercise 3a - solution
SPT-method:
<2,5,1,4,6,3>

Exercise 3b - solution
Minimizing the number of tardy jobs using Moore method
1) Start with DD method


Task 3 4 5 1 2 6
Ready 9 9+4=13 13+2=15 15+3=18 18+2=20 20+4=24
Due date 5 12 15 17 21 24
Exercise 3b - solution
2) The first tardy job is 3. No jobs to the left, remove job
3.
Obtained DD- schedule after removal:
Taks 4 5 1 2 6
Ready 4 4+2=6 6+3=9 9+2=11 11+4=15
Due date 12 15 17 21 24
Exercise 3b - solution
3) Now there are no tardy jobs. Deleted job number 3 is
now added at the end of the schedule:

Task 4 5 1 2 6 3
Ready 4 4+2=6 6+3=9 9+2=11 11+4=15 15+9=24
Due date 12 15 17 21 24 5
Exercise 4
Consider a production line with two production
machines, A and B. A job should be completed first on
machine A and then on machine B. The processing
times and due dates for each tasks are as follows:
Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A 2 7 9 0 3 10 1 5 6 8
B 6 8 4 10 9 7 5 1 2 3
Due date 25 19 30 25 16 55 60 32 45 39
Exercise 4
a) Determine the schedule that minimizes the flow time.
b) What is the minimum flow time for your schedule?
c) How many jobs are tardy in your schedule?
Exercise 4a - solution
Johnson method minimizes the flow time:
1) Define the shortest processing time (here:
job 4, machine A).
2)
a. If the job is on machine A, relocate it on the first
free position (here: <4,...>).
b. If the job is on machine B, relocate it on the last
free position.
3) Delete the job from the original list and
return to the section 1.
Exercise 4a - solution
<4,...>
<4,7,...>
<4,7,...,8>
<4,7,1,...,8>
<4,7,1,...,9,8>
<4,7,1,5,...,9,8>
<4,7,1,5,...,10,9,8>
<4,7,1,5,...,3,10,9,8>
<4,7,1,5,2,...,3,10,9,8>
<4,7,1,5,2,6,3,10,9,8>

Exercise 4b - solution





Flow time is 55 days.
Exercise 4c - solution



6 jobs will be tardy.
Task 4 7 1 5 2 6 3 10 9 8
Ready 10 10+5=
15
15+6
=21
21+9
=30
30+8
=38
38+7
=45
45+4
=49
49+3
=52
52+2
=54
54+1
=55
Due date 25 60 25 16 19 55 30 39 45 32