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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Electricity and engines powered by diesel makes modern trains move. In an electric
locomotive, electric motors turn the wheels. The electricity comes from the track or
from the overhead cables. In a diesel-electric locomotive, a powerful diesel engine
turns an electric generator. This created electricity, which in turn drives electric
motors.
A train consists of locomotives and rolling stock (carriages and goods wagons for
freight).
This report is based on the study of 3 electrical engine which were further
subdivided on the basis of their functions.
. All these three types are designed to perform distinct functions based upon their
construction.
In addition to the provision of latest 3-phase traction drive system, the 3-phase
locomotives have certain improved technical features as compared to the conventional
locomotives so being used. Three-phase AC locos such as WAP-5 use some fairly
new technology as compared to the earlier generations of diesel-electrics and
electrics. In most of the earlier locos, the traction motors driving the axles are DC
motors. DC motors were used because they afforded (in those days) far superior speed
and torque control compared to AC motors the latter require variation of input
frequency and voltage for effective control, which was not an easy matter earlier.
Modern microprocessor technology and the availability of efficient and compact
power components have changed that picture. In 3-phase AC locos, the input (single-
phase AC) from the OHE is rectified and then 3-phase AC is generated from it, whose
voltage, phase, and frequency can be manipulated widely, without regard to the
voltage, phase and frequency of the input power from the OHE. AC traction motors
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can thus be driven with a great degree of control over a wide range of speed and
torque.
This report gives an overview of these 3-phase AC locos, their construction and their
advantages over previously used engines. This report is basically concentrated on the
study of WAP series but a basic introduction of other series is also provided.
Different voltages are being used in electric AC locos traction, in which 25kv
overhead supply from a catenary is used throughout the rest of the country.
An overview of AC loco is shown in next figure.

FIG 1.1
MAIN COMPONENTS OF A 3-PHASE ELECTRIC LOCO:
1. FLASHER LIGHT 7.BUFFER 13.
DB (BC) eq. pipe
3

2. HORNS 8. CBC COUPLING
14.CATTLE GUARD
3. HEAD LIGHT 9. CBC OPERATING HANDLE
15.RAIL GAURD
4. MARKER LIGHT (W) 10.FEED PIPE
16.TS COUPLING
5. MARKER LIGHT (R) 11.BRAKE PIPE
17.CBC LOCK PIN
6. UIC SOCKET 12.MR Eq PIPE


1.1OVERVIEW OF ALL 3- AC LOCOS
WAP7[11/00] Identical to WAG-9 (see
below) with modified gear ratio (72:20) and
application software. 140km/h (130km/h?) top
speed. 6125hp max. Power; 6000hp continuous
at wheel rim. At 123t, it is much heavier than

FIG 1.2
the 78t WAP-5. Intended to haul heavier, 26-coach passenger trains and
passenger/parcel mixed trains. The first one, Navkiran, #30201, which was
commissioned in 2000, is homed at Gomoh although it has been seen [8/00] at
Ghaziabad as well.
Initial models were rated at 6125hp total power and 33000 kgf (323kN) tractive effort.
Modifications during continuing trials resulted in improved performance with the loco
now yielding 6350hp total power and 36000 kgf (352.8kN) tractive effort. In the trial
runs [7/02] the upgraded WAP-7 #30203 was shown able to take a 24-coach train to
110km/h in just 235 to 245 seconds (compare: 324 seconds for a WAP-5). Braking
4

systems as in the WAP-5, with regenerative braking rated at 183kN in the first units
and 260kN in the later ones.
Earlier trials with WAP-7 locos had yielded times around 390 seconds for the same
test, which had cast doubts on the future of this loco class which was designed to
perform better than the WAP-5. After some trials with the Prayagraj Exp. in early
2002, now [11/02] the WAP-7 is being used to haul the 24-coach rake of ER's Poorva
Exp. and will presumably soon be used for other trains as well. Max. tested speed is
160km/h, rated for 140km/h.
Better performing variants of the WAP-7 have been under development [9/04];
changes are said to include higher capacity components (including the main
transformer) to allow stall-free running on 1:100 gradients, and a higher tractive effort
of 42000 kgf (411kN). Some of the units starting around #30212 are also thought to
have some enhancements in comparison to the very first ones. [11/04] Other plans by
CLW for this loco class are said to include the provision of IGBT control, greater
automation of some control tasks, and in-cab signaling. MU operation possible with a
maximum of two locos.
The WAP-7 appears to have returned to the older (WAM, earlier WAP) style of
pantograph with a single collector bar instead of the double collector bar used for the
WAG-9.
Manufacturers: CLW
Traction Motors: 6FRA 6068 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (850kW,
2180V, 1283/2484 rpm, 270/310A. Weight 2100kg, forced-air ventilation, axle-hung,
nose-suspended. Torque 6330/7140Nm. 95% efficiency.)
Gear Ratio: 72:20
Axle load: 20.5t
Wheel diameter: 1092mm new, 1016mm worn
Wheel base: 15700mm
Bogies: Co-Co, ABB bogies; bogie wheel base 1850mm + 1850mm
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Unsprung mass per axle: 3.984t
Length over buffers: 20562mm
Length over headstocks: 19280mm
Body width: 3152mmn
Cab length: 2434mm
Pantograph locked down height: 4525mm
Tractive Effort: 36.0t
A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 240 seconds
(over 4.7km) by a WAP-7; to 120km/h in 304 sec. (6.7km); and to 130km/h in 394
sec. (9.9km).
1.2 GENERAL FEATURES OF 3- PHASE AC LOCO
1. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS BASED REAL TIME TRACTION CONTROL
SYSTEM: - TO OBTAIN PRECISE CONTROL OVER TRACTIIVE EFFORT
AND SPEED IN NORMAL MODE AND CONSTANT SPEED CONTROL MODE
OF OPERATION RESPECTIVELY.
2. ELECTRICAL WEIGHT TRANSFER CONTROL SYSTEM: - TO
AUTOMATICALLY REDUCE THE TRACTIVE EFFORT IN LEADING
BOGIE AND INCREASE THE SAME IN TRAILING BOGIE TO TAKE CARE
OF WEIGHT TRANSFER EFFECT.
3. ANTI SPIN PROTECTION: - WHEN THE RATIO OF REQUESTED AND
EFFECTED TRACTIVE EFFORT GOES BELOW 0.5, ANTISPIN
PROTECTION INITIATED, WHEN REDUCE THE TE AND APPLY LOCO
BRAKES TO STOP SPINNING.
4. ON-BOARD FAULT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM: - TO ELIMINATE
TROUBLE AND ALSO TO HELP MAINTENANCE STAFF TO TRACE
FAULTS.
5. SIMULATION MODE OF OPERATION: - TO FACILITATE A COMPLETE
FUNCTIONAL TESTING OF THE LOCOMOTIVE WIHOUT RAISING
PANTOGRAPH.
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6. AN EXCLUSIVE HARMONIC FILTER CIRCUIT: - TO REDUCE
HARMONICS IN THE LOCO CURRENT.
7. STATIC AUXILIARY CONVERTER: - TO SUPPLY AUXILIARY 3
MOTORS. THE AUXILIARY CONVERTER, DEPENDING ON THE
TRACTION LOAD, OPERATES AT AN OPTIMUM FREQUENCY TO
MINIMIZE POWER CONSUMED BY AUXILIARIES.
8. ELECTRONIC SPEEDOMETER: - PAPERLESS SPEED RECORDING
SYSTEM. AN OVER SPEED ALARM SYSTEM IS BUILT IN.
9. ELECTRONIC ENERGY METER:- FOR INFORMATION OF ENERGY
GENERATED AND ENERGY CONSUMED.
10. FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM: - FOR THE MACHINE
ROOM












7

CHAPTER 2
2.PANTOGRAPH
A pantograph (or "pan") is an apparatus mounted on the roof of an electric train to
collect power through contact with an overhead catenary wire. It is a common type
of current collector.

FIG 2.1
The electric transmission system for modern electric rail systems consists of an upper
weight carrying wire (known as a catenary) from which is suspended a contact wire.
The pantograph is spring-loaded and pushes a contact shoe up against the underside of
the contact wire to draw the electricity needed to run the train. The steel rails of the
tracks act as the electrical return. As the train moves, the contact shoe slides along the
wire and can set up acoustical standing waves in the wires which break the contact
and degrade current collection.
2.1Auxiliary Machines and Equipments in Electric
Locomotives
Electric locos derive tractive effort from Traction Motors which are usually placed in
the bogie of the locomotive. Usually one motor is provided per axle but in some older
generation of locos two axles were driven by a single Traction Motor also.
However apart from Traction Motors, many other motors and equipments are
provided in electric locos. These motors are collectively known as the Auxiliaries.
The aim of this article is to provide an insight into the various Auxiliary Machines
provided in the Electric Locos operational on the Indian Railways.
But to understand the reasons why these auxiliaries are needed, it is necessary to
understand the manner in which the electric locos operate. An important part of the
8

electric loco is the Power Circuit. A short description of the power circuit of Electric
Locos operational on the Indian Railways can be seen here. The article referred to
describes the main components of the Power Circuit of the Electric Locomotive
comprising of the following parts:
1. Transformer (including Tap-Changer)
2. Rectifier
3. Smoothing Reactor
4. Traction Motors
5. Main Starting Resistances (in DC Traction on Dual Power Locos only)
6. Dynamic Braking Resistance Cooling Blower
A common feature running through all the above electrical equipments is that all of
these generate a lot of heat during their normal operation. Even when they are not in
use, they might generate a nominal amount of heat. Normally any electrical
equipment generates heat as by-product during operation. But traction vehicles tend to
generate more heat than normal. This is because day-by-day the demand on traction
vehicles is increasing. But an increase in the power output more or less translates into
increased size of the relevant equipments too. But a major problem with traction
vehicles is that you cannot increase their size beyond a certain limit. This is due to
"Loading Gauge Restrictions". Hence, the power output of the locomotives has to be
increased indirectly without increasing their size. This is done by "pumping more
power through the equipments and cooling them at a suitable rate at the same time.
Hence the different auxiliaries provided for cooling and other purposes in these locos
are described below. All the motors are of the AC 3 Phase squirrel cage induction
type and require very little maintenance and are simple and robust. They are described
with regard to their relationship to the major power equipments
2.1.1Auxiliaries of the Transformer
2.1.1.1Transformer Oil Circulating Pump (MPH)
The transformer tank is filled with oil which serves two purposes. It provides
enhanced insulation to the transformer and its surroundings and the oil absorbs the
heat generated in the transformer and takes it away to the Transformer Oil Cooling
Radiator. The circulation of this oil is carried out by the MPH.
A flow valve with an electrical contact is provided in the oil circulating pipe. As long
as the oil is circulating properly, the contacts on the relay remain closed. However, in
case the MPH fails or stops the relay contacts open which in turn trips master
auxiliary protection relay Q-118. This trips the main circuit-breaker(DJ) of the loco.
Thus the transformer is protected.


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2.1.1.2Transformer Oil Cooling Radiator Blower (MVRH)
The MPH circulates the transformer oil through a radiator array on top of the
transformer. Air is blown over the radiator by the MVRH. This discharges the heat
from the radiator into the atmosphere. A flow detecting relay is provided in the air-
stream of the MVRH. The flow detector is a diaphragm type device. The flow of air
presses the diaphragm which closes an electrical contact. This relay is known as the
QVRH. In case the MVRH blower fails the QVRH releases and trips the DJ through
the relay Q-118.

FIG 2.2
The transformer and its cooling equipment. The small vertical motor on top left is the
MPH and the horizontal larger motor in the top center is the MVRH and behind it is
the oil cooling radiator.

2.1.1.3Auxiliaries of the Rectifier Block (RSI 1 & 2)
Rectifier Cooling Blowers-MVSI-1 and MVSI-2
One blower is provided for each of the rectifier blocks. As rectifiers are
semiconductor devices, they are very sensitive to heat and hence must be cooled
continuously. The switching sequence of the MVSI blowers is setup in such a way
that unless the blowers are running, traction cannot be achieved. A detection relay of
diaphragm type is also provided in the air stream of these blowers. However, the
detection relay (QVSI-1 & 2) is interlocked with a different relay known as Q-44.
This is a much faster acting relay with a time delay of only 0.6 seconds. Hence the
failure of a MVSI blower would trip the DJ in less than 1 second.
10


FIG 2.3
2.1.1.4Auxiliaries of the Smoothing Reactors (MVSL 1 & 2)
In WAM-4 locos only one MVSL blower is provided for the cooling of the
Smoothing Reactors SL 1 & 2. However in WAG-5 and other locos two blowers
namely MVSL 1&2 are provided for each of the SL's. Their running is "proved*"by
the Q-118 relay.
*In railway parlance Proving means to verify whether an equipment or device is working properly.
2.1.1.5 Auxiliaries of Traction Motors (MVMT 1 & 2)
In the course of normal operation the traction motors also generate a lot of heat. This
heat is dissipated by two blowers namely MVMT 1 & 2 which force air through a
duct into the traction motors of Bogie-1 namely TM-1, TM-2, TM-3 and Bogie-2
namely TM-4, 5, 6 respectively. The traction motor cooling blowers require a large
quantity of air which is taken from vents in the side-wall of the loco. Body-side filters
are provided to minimize the ingress of dust into the loco. Their running is detected
by Air-Flow sensing relay QVMT 1 & 2 (Pic-2) which in turn gives there feed to the
Q-118 relay.
MVMT-Traction motor cooling blower
motor and impeller covered by a hood.

FIG 2.4


11

CHAPTER 3
3.OTHER AUXILIARIES
Air Compressors (MCP 1, MCP-2, MCP-3)
Electric locos need compressed at a pressure ranging from 6 kg/cm
2
to 10 kg/cm
2
.
Compressed air is used for the loco's own air brake system as also for the train brakes,
for raising the pantograph, for operating the power switchgear inside the loco such as
the power contactors, change-over switches, windscreen wipers, sanders, etc.
This compressed air is obtained by providing three air compressors, each having a
capacity to pump 1000 liters of air per minute. However depending on the current
requirement, more than two compressors are rarely needed.

FIG 3.1
3.1Vacuum Pumps (MPV 1 & 2)
In locos equipped to haul vacuum braked trains, two vacuum pumps are also provided
of which at least one is running in normal service and sometimes both may have to be
run if train brakes are required to be released in a hurry.
3.2Dynamic Braking resistance Cooling Blower (MVRF)
In locos equipped with internal dynamic braking resistances, MVRF blower is
provided for cooling the resistances during braking. While all the Auxiliary machines
run on the power supply provided by the Arno convertor / Static Convertor / Motor-
Alternator set, the MVRF blower runs off the supply derived from the output of the
Traction Motor itself and is connected in parallel to the Dynamic Braking
Resistances.
3.3Main Starting Resistance Cooling Blowers (MVMSR)
These blowers(four in number)are provided in WCAM-1, WCAM-2, WCAM-3 locos
and are used during DC line working to cool the Main Starting Resistances(MSR).
12

The MSR is used for regulating the voltage supplied to the Traction Motors during
DC line working and carry the whole current of the traction motors which results in a
lot of heat generation which must be continously dissipated. The working of the
MVMSR's is also proved by respective sensing relays(QVMSR's) of the diaphragm
type which in turn are interlocked with the relay Q-118 in the manner described later
in this article.
3.4Switching and operational sequence
The auxiliary machines mentioned above are energised as per the requirements in the
loco. Some of them are run continously while some may only be required
intermittanly while in rare cases, some may not be required at all during the whole run
of the loco. Also the working sequences of the same auxiliary machines may differ
across different models of locomotives as also in different working environments. For
the purpose of this article, I've described the switching sequences of the WAG-5 loco
except for the case of dual power locos such as the WCAM-1, WCAM-2, WCAM-3
which will be described seperately.
It should be kept in mind that all the above mentioned machines are of large
horsepower and hence consume a lot of power and draw a lot of current from the
power supply. In addition when any motor starts, initially it draws a current which
may be up to 3-10 times its normal current. Hence, if all the motors or even a few
motors are started simultaneously, it would cause a tremendous demand on the power
supply in terms of the current drawn. This might also cause the power supply to trip
because the supply is only equipped to deal with the normal running current of the
machines and not such a huge current. To prevent such a situation, the starting of
some of the motors is staggered which prevents heavy load currents from being
drawn.

FIG 3.2
Electronic time delay relays for sequential starting of auxiliary machine


13




In the following table the starting and running sequence of the
auxiliary machines is laid out:
AUXILIARY
STARTS
(CONTACTOR NO.)
PROGRA
M
SWITCH
PROGRA
M
SWITCH
POSITION
0
PROGRAM
SWITCH
POSITION
1
PROGRAM
SWITCH
POSITION
2
PROGRAM
SWITCH
POSITION
3
REMARK
S
MPH
On DJ being closed
(Direct supply from
Three-Phase Busbar
via HPH)
HPH
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MVRH
MPJ in
Forward/Reverse or
BLVMT being
closed
(C-107)
HVRH
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MVSI 1&2
On DJ being closed
(Direct supply from
Three-Phase Busbar
via HVSI 1&2)
HVSI 1&2
(Provided
on
respective
RSI block
itself)
OFF
(Traction
Motors
also
isolated)
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MVSL 1&2
On DJ being closed
(Direct supply from
Three-Phase Busbar
via HVSL)
HVSL
1&2
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MVMT 1
Five seconds after
MVRH starting
(C-105)
HVMT 1
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MVMT 2
Five seconds after
MVMT-1 starting
(C-105)
HVMT 2
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated

MCP-1, MCP-
2, MCP-3
On closing
BLCP/BLCPD/RGC
P (C-101, C-102, C-
103)
HCP
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
HCP at position-1 - MCP 1/2/3 running
HCP at position-2 - MCP 2/3 running
HCP at position-3 - MCP 1/3 running
(In dual-brake locos, an interlock is
provided wherein only one compressor
can be run if the Vacuum Exhauster is
RGCP is
the auto
pressure
switch
which
normally
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running while working vacuum braked
trains. In such cases compressed air is
needed only for the loco and one
compressor is sufficient for the purpose
and also prevents excess load on the
power supply system).
regulates
the
running of
the
compresso
rs
MPV-1, MPV-
2
On closing BLPV
(C111/C112 for low
speed and C121 and
C122 for high speed)
ZPV and
other brake
interlocks
OFF
MVRF
(In locos
provided with
internal DBR)
On the initiation of
dynamic braking
from master
controller
(Is in parallel with
the DBR load
resistances and also
constitutes part of
the load on the
traction motors)

Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated
New locos
being
turned out
by CLW
have a
three-
phase
motor to
run the
MVRF
blower
and it
takes
supply
from the
Static
Convertor.
MVMSR-1-4
(In dual power
locos only)
On DS being closed
HVMSR 1
and 2
(Provided
on the
Auxiliary
panel)
OFF
Normal
Running
Motor
isolated and
detecting
relay in
circuit
Motor
running and
detecting
relay
isolated


Note: The control circuit of MVMSR has been modified in WCAM-1 locos and
HVMSR switches have been removed. In case of failure of any MVMSR, the loco
must be declared failed. However the same loco in this condition may be energized
and run normally in AC line working.

FIG 3.3
15

3.5 Power Supply
Depending on the locomotive, power for the auxiliary machines is obtained through
three different methods. A separate power supply arrangement is needed because the
motors require three phase supply while the OHE supply is of the single phase type.
So the main requirement of the power supply for the auxiliary machines is for a
device which can convert single phase AC into three phase AC. It becomes a little
more complicated for the dual power locomotives such as the WCAM-1, WCAM-2,
WCAM-3.
The three main types of equipments used to supply power to the auxiliaries are
discussed below.
3.6 Arno Convertor
This is a rotary convertor which has a combined set of windings and is used to convert
the single phase supply from the Tertiary winding of the Loco transformer to Three-
Phase AC which is fit for use by the various Auxiliary machines in the loco.

FIG 3.4


FIG 3.5
16

The Arno is basically a split-phase induction motor with an additional winding on the
stator for the generating phase. In an induction motor the rotating field of the stator
creates a corresponding field in the rotor squirrel cage too which causes the rotor to
start rotating at "slip" speed which is slightly less than the speed at which the stator
field is rotating. However, this rotating field of the rotor is additionally utilized in the
arno to create power in the generating phase winding which gives the three phase
output of the arno convertor. In the stator winding of the arno, the motoring phases
carry the load as well supply currents of the arno in opposite direction which causes a
net reduction in the actual current carried by the windings in the stator but the
generating phase carries only the load current which causes a voltage drop in the
generating phase. To counteract this, up to 20% more turns are provided in the
generating phase winding.
















17

CHAPTER 4
4.WORKING OF ELECTRIC TRACTION
Every single electric loco need power to do work this power is also known as electric
traction in AC locos. This required power is given by overhead electric cables also
known as ohe. In OHE, or overhead electrification systems, the supply of electricity is
through an overhead system of suspended cables known as the catenary. A contact
wire or contact cable actually carries the electricity; it is suspended from or attached
to other cables above it which ensure that the contact cable is at a uniform height and
in the right position. In the following the term catenary is loosely used even when
talking about the contact wire.
The loco uses a pantograph, a metal structure which can be raised or lowered, to
make contact with the overhead contact cable and draw electricity from it to power its
motors. (Usually it goes first through a transformer and not directly to the motors.)
The pantograph has one or two blades, shoes or collector pans that actually slide
against the contact wire. The DC pantographs generally have two shoes, while the AC
pantographs have one shoe, owing to the higher current carried by the DC pantograph.
The WCAM series of dual-voltage locos have one DC pantograph and one AC
pantograph each, but either can be used as a backup for the other traction supply if
needed. The new AC-DC EMU on WR uses a single arm pantograph with twin
blades.
The pantograph structure may be in the form of a single arm a single open bent
angle ('>') or in a diamond (rhombus) form ('<>'). (Other types are not generally
used on IR.) The diamond form was more common for the DC locos. Newer locos
almost always have the single arm pantographs. The single arm types are generally
oriented with the bend of the pantograph pointing forwards (in the direction of
motion) although this is not a strict rule and locos exist with pantographs in both
orientations. Compressed air is used to raise the pantograph from its resting position
to the raised position where its shoes touch the contact wire.
The return path for the electricity (the return current) is through the body of the loco
and the wheels to the tracks, which are electrically grounded. Ground connections are
provided from the rails at periodic intervals. Since the body of the locomotive and the
wheels are all metal (steel in most cases) they are quite conductive. Axle brushes are
used to electrically connect the rotating axles to the body of the locomotive. Between
the wheels and the rails, usually the return current flows well, but conductivity may be
reduced in cases of dirt and debris on the rails, or if embedded particles of soot, coal
dust, or films of oil, etc. form an insulating layer on the top of the rails. The voltages
and currents involved are such that such thin insulating films are easily punctured and
a conductive path established at the rail-wheel contact point. After flowing from the
wheels to the rails, the return current flows through the rails and also partly through
the earth beneath and along it. Bonding cables or bonding strips are provided at rail
joints (connecting the rails on either side of a fishplated joint) to ensure continuity of
return current flow in the rails (in case the joint is not conductive because of dirt, rust,
18

and so on, and also to allow permanent way operations that involve loosening the
fishplates). Earthing cables and earth bond conductors are provided periodically to
keep the rails firmly connected to earth and at earth potential and therefore prevent
them from developing a floating potential or step voltage that may be hazardous.
Modern electric locos have some fairly sophisticated electronic circuitry to control the
motors depending on the speed, load, etc., often after first converting the incoming
25kV AC supply to an internal AC supply with more precisely controlled frequency
and phase characteristics, to drive AC motors. Some AC locos (WAG-4, WAM-4)
have DC motors, instead. Some AC locos (WAP-5 and WAG-9, both designs from
ABB) generate 3-phase AC internally using a thyristor converter system; this 3-phase
supply is then used to power asynchronous AC motors. (3-phase AC motors are
somewhat more efficient, and can generate higher starting torque.)
The high-voltage systems of adjacent cars are not connected together in the new AC-
DC EMUs, so a rake of these can go through a transition in the OHE power supply
(where one car is on the AC section, another may be in a neutral section, and a third is
in the DC section, for instance) without having to coordinate raising or lowering
pantographs among all of them.
In 3rd-rail systems, electricity is supplied through a thick conductor (the third rail)
running along the track; the loco has a shoe which maintains sliding contact with it
while the train is in motion, to draw current from it. Third-rail traction is seen only in
the Calcutta Metro in India. 3rd-rail systems are usually DC systems at much lower
voltages (500V-750V or so).
DC System: In DC systems with overhead catenary, the basic principle is the same,
with the catenary being supplied electricity at 1.5kV DC. Usually (especially for
EMUs) the current from the catenary goes directly to the motors. A DC loco may
however convert the DC supply to AC internally using inverters or a motor-generator
combination which then drives AC motors.
The generally lower supply voltages of DC systems implies that the currents drawn
from the OHE are correspondingly higher. This results in some difficulties, among
them the need to use thicker and heavier contact wires and pantographs and to keep
the pantograph pressed more firmly against the contact wire causing more wear and
tear.
Single system (AC): The overhead catenary is fed electricity at 25kV AC (single-
phase) from feeding posts which are positioned at frequent intervals alongside the
track. The feeding posts themselves are supplied single-phase power from substations
placed 35-60km apart along the route. The substations are spaced closer (down to 10-
20km) in areas where there is high load / high traffic. (These substations in turn are
fed electricity at 132kV AC or so from the regional grids operated by state electricity
authorities.) A Remote Control Centre, usually close to the divisional traffic control
office, has facilities for controlling the power supply to different sections of the
catenaries fed by several substations in the area.
19

There are a couple of variations of the AC system, as described below.

FIG 4.1
Booster Transformer (BT) System: In the simple AC system described above, there
can be severe inductive interference in telecom lines and other equipment because of
the large loop area between the catenary and the rails which carry the return current
(I
R
in the top diagram in the schematics). Some of the return current also flows in the
earth (shown as I
E
in the top diagram), causing conductive interference and corrosion
problems in buried cables, pipes, etc. Such earth currents are higher if the conductive
path in the rails is degraded because of rail joint problems.
20

The middle diagram is a schematic for the booster transformer (BT) feeding system.
There is now a return conductor, a wire that is close to and parallel to the catenary
wire. The return conductor is connected to the rails (and earthed) as shown.
Periodically, there are breaks in the catenary where the supply current is forced to
flow through one winding of a booster transformer (marked B.T.); the other winding
is in series with the return conductor. The 1:1 turns ratio of the BT means that the
current in the catenary (Ic) will be very nearly the same as the current in the return
conductor (Irw). The current that flows through the loco goes to the rails but then up
through a connecting wire to the return conductor, and through it back to the
substation.
Insulated rail joints (marked I.R.J.) are also provided -- this ensures that current flows
in the rails only in the particular section where the loco is present. At all other places,
the inductive interference from the catenary current is nearly cancelled by that from
the return current, thus minimizing the interference effects. The problem of stray earth
currents is also reduced.
One of the disadvantages in this system is that as a loco passes a booster transformer,
there is a momentary interruption in the supply (because of the break in the catenary)
with the attendant problems of arcing and transients on the line, as well as radio
frequency interference.
In recent years, as much telecommunication cabling has been moved away from
railway lines or re-laid underground, interference from the electric traction system is
not as much of a problem as it used to be in the past, and therefore in many cases the
booster transformers and return conductors have been removed and the traction
system has been reverted to the plain single-wire system.
A simpler variant of the booster transformer system, where there is no return
conductor, but instead the booster transformer's secondary is connected to the rails,
has also been used. This is cheaper to install, but suffers from several flaws and does
not thoroughly reduce return currents flowing in the earth outside the rails.
4.1 Autotransformer (AT) System / 2 x 25kV System / 'Dual'
System:
Both the simple AC feeding scheme and the booster transformer scheme suffer from
voltage drops along the length of the catenary locos may see severely reduced
voltages (by 5kV or more) at points far from the substation. The last diagram is a
schematic for an autotransformer (AT) feeding system, which is intended to address
this voltage drop problem. The current flow is more complex here. A 50kV supply
from the substation is split with a three-winding transformer into a dual 25kV supply
(also sometimes called a '2-phase' supply). Between the catenary and the rails is 25kV
of voltage. Between the rails and the other phase is also 25kV of voltage (but always
instantaneously opposed in sense 180 degrees out of phase). This other phase
(sometimes called 'negative' phase which is a bit misleading since there's no positive
or negative here, it's AC) is carried on a feeder wire parallel to the catenary.
21

There are autotransformers (marked A.T.) provided periodically as shown. These are
usually tap-changing transformers that can adjust their turns ratio as required the
aim is to keep the voltage drop between the rails and the catenary always at 25kV as
far as possible. But neglecting voltage drops, the turns ratio of these autotransformers
is essentially 1:1 between catenary and rails and rails and feeder.
Consider the loco as shown, drawing a load current I. Each phase (catenary and
feeder) carries half of this. The currents split and merge as shown in the section just
where the loco is. The autotransformer action forces equal currents to flow between
the rails and the catenary and between the rails and the feeder in all cases. Note that
the rails carry less than the full load current in each direction away from the loco, and
that's the only section where the rails carry current. (The rails are shown carrying
equal currents I/2 in each direction away from the loco, but that's a simplification
they do not have to be symmetric in that way as long as the two currents add up to
load current drawn by the loco.) Note further that the full load current does not flow
in the catenary anywhere either. Also, in all the other sections except where the loco
is, the catenary and feeder carry equal but opposite currents, providing for the
cancellation of inductive interference as in the BT system. The net effect is that in the
unoccupied sections the inductive interference is as low as with the BT system, and in
the occupied section it is lower than in the BT system. At the same time, the voltage
drop problem is eliminated.
Further, there are no unnecessary breaks in the catenary, reducing radio frequency
interference and transients on the power system. The reduced currents and 50kV
supply also mean that substations can also be farther apart. Thus far [1999] the
2*25kV system is in use in only about 10% of all of IR's electrified routes. The
important coal-hauling route Bina - Katni - Anuppur - Bishrampur / Chirimiri of
CR/SER was the first to get this system. The project was set up with assistance fom
Japanese Railways Technical Services (JARTS), who also helped set up the Anuppur
traction substation. Badnera - Bhusawal is another section that had this system, but
which has recently (2001?) been converted back to the simpler standard feeding
system. A couple of other small sections that had the 2x25kV in the past have also
now been reverted back to the simpler standard system.
The dual system corresponds to what is called the 3wire system (with transmission
line) in other railways.
4.1.1.SUBSTATIONS:
As stated above, the substation is where the electricity from the supplying regional
grid (at 440kV, 220kV, 132kV, or 110kV) is transformed to a voltage suitable for use
for the railways, and fed to the various sections of the catenaries. An AC substation is
generally fed 3phase power, and the phases are split out so that a given catenary
section gets only one phase supplied to it. Both AC and DC systems have transformer
sections to convert the voltage to a suitable level, and also capacitor banks (sometimes
along with thyristor switching circuits) to improve the power factor. The transformers
are of 20 30 MVA capacity. DC substations in addition also have rectifying units to
convert the AC to DC. The Traction Power Controller (TPC) is the official who has
22

the job of monitoring the part of the system served by the substation and can switch
the supply to the OHE on or off, change configurations of transformer taps (after
shutting down the system), control the capacitor banks to adjust power factor and
voltage (older substations only nowadays this is done automatically), etc.

4.1.2.FEEDING POSTS:
The 25kV AC power from the substation is normally led by two feeder cables or
feeders to a feeding post. Each feeder has two conductors, one insulated for 25kV for
connection to the busbar, and the other insulted for a lower voltage (3kV) for
connection to the track for the return current. The feeders are connected to two sets of
busbars with bus couplers, so that either feeder can be used to supply the OHE if one
of them is out of action because of a fault or for maintenance. Normally both feeders
supply the OHE. Each feeder also has a circuit breaker that can be often set up so that
adjacent substations are supplied by different phases. Consecutive AC substations
controlled remotely.
Phase distribution: To balance the power drawn on different phases of the 3-phase
132kV grid supply, typically different sections of track are provided with power from
different phases. It is, therefore, are electrically not connected in parallel; this is very
different from DC traction systems where all substations are always in parallel.


FIG 4.2
23


4.1.3.SECTIONING AND PARALLELING:
The portion of the OHE between a feeding post and the next neutral zone on one side
is called a section of the traction supply. A substation normally supplies power to two
sections, these sections consisting of the up and down OHE portions between the
feeding post and the neutral section on either side. A sectioning and paralleling post
(SP) (or sometimes sectioning post) is provided near the neutral zone, that has two
paralleling interruptors to keep the two portions of the OHE (one in each direction)
supplied in parallel. Bridging interruptors are with undervoltage relays are provided to
allow feeding of a section that is normally supplied by an adjacent feeding post, in an
emergency. When this is done, the portion of the catenary near the next feeding post
has to be treated as a phase gap as there could be different phases supplying the
sections on either side, and drivers have to lower their locos' pantographs when
crossing that feeding post. Note that on IR neutral sections are not provided
immediately at the feeding post as is done in some countries, but only at the
sectioning posts. This is because bridging adjacent sections is done only as a manual
measure in case of an emergency and the risk of short-circuiting adjacent sections
supplied by different phases is considered to be low.
A section may be divided into subsections by the provision of subsectioning and
paralleling posts (SSP) every 10-15km. Each such SSP has a two bridging
interruptors for bridging adjacent subsections, and a paralleling interruptor to parallel
the up and down tracks. A subsectioning post is a variant where no paralleling
interruptor is provided (rare).
An elementary section is a smaller subdivision of a subsection, which can be rapidly
isolated for the purposes of maintenance and repairs. Adjancent elementary sections
are connected by insulated overlaps and bridged by isolators that are manually
operated when needed (so-called gang switches may be provided to operate the
isolators.
Below is shown a schematic diagram of a typical traction power supply feeding
system for an example of how the power supply from the regional grid is converted to
the 25kV supply for the catenary.

Substations are generally closer together on DC systems than AC systems, because
the latter allow the use of higher voltages and lower currents drawn, so that voltage
drops because of the locos on the section are lower.
4.2. TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE:
24

Power is transmitted to the electrical substations at 750kV, 220kV, 132kV, or 110kV
and then stepped down as required to 25kV or 50kV. The power from the grid is
usually in the form of 3phase power.
4.2.1.CATENARY VOLTAGE:
In practice, the catenary voltage in the 25kV AC system can vary from something
like 18kV to over 30kV because of poor regulation at the substation or incorrect
configurations of the transformers, etc. Most locos are designed to handle a certain
range of catenary voltages, although of course the operation may be less than optimal
at voltages far from the norm.
Normally single-phase transformers are used to step down voltage from each pair of
phases of the regional grid supply down to the catenary voltage. However, in a few
cases Scott T-connected transformers have been used to convert the 3-phase supply to
the single-phase power needed for the catenary. Below is an example of how this
works, shown in the context of a section provided with booster transformers and a
return conductor as well. Scott transformers were used on the Bhusaval-Igatpuri line
and elsewhere.

FIG 4.3
25

26

4.3.ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS OF AC OHE SYSTEM
Traction Supply Voltage:
Nominal Voltage: 25kV
Permissible Limits: 19.9kV to 27.5kV (17.5kV for Mumbai EMUs)

Traction Supply Frequency:
Nominal: 50Hz
Permissible Limits: 48.5Hz - 51.5Hz

Loop impedance of OHE with earth and rail return:
Single line: 0.4170/km
Double line: 0.2470/km

Loop impedance with the booster transformer / return conductor:
Single line: 0.7070/km
Double line: 0.4370/km

Traction Transformer Rating: 13.5MVA
Traction Transformer Resistance: 0.179
Tranction Transformer Reactance: 5.49

Harmonics in traction current with silicon diode locomotives:
3
rd
Harmonic - 150Hz: 38.5% at 142A, 11.5% at 480A
5
th
Harmonic - 250Hz: 14.35% at 142A, 5.48% at 480A
7
th
Harmonic - 350Hz: 15.0% at 142A, 2.0% at 480A

Average Power Factor: 0.7-0.8
(this was before 3-phase locos were introduced in large numbers)
4.3.1CATENARIES:
IR uses catenaries of the constant-tension type. At one end of each section of the
catenary the cable connects to a pulley block or winch system which then connects to
a cable that goes over a pulley and is terminated by a hanging counterweight. The
pulley and weight combination ensures that the catenary cable maintains the same
tension regardless of the ambient temperature and the consequent expansion or
contraction of the cable. This avoids problems with the catenary sagging too much in
hot weather, or, if the tension is too high, snapping in cold weather. The pulley block
or winch arrangement provides a suitable reduction ratio between the change in the
catenary's length and the distance the counterweight moves. A reduction ratio of about
5 is common.
27

The tension of the catenary cable in most cases is kept close to 1000kg at 35C.
Maximum tension length for the catenary is 2000m, although in practice it is usually
shorter. It is important that the tension be within certain precise bounds for
mechanical reasons: the moving pantograph creates a shock wave in the catenary that
travels along the cable; its speed (the critical velocity) is determined by the tension in
the catenary, and if it is less than the speed of the pantograph, the cable will be prone
to buckling and snapping, or else the pantograph loses contact with the wire as it
oscillates in resonance, and current collection fails. For this reason the tension also
has to be set so that the critical velocity is higher than the maximum speed of trains on
the section. The pressure of the pantograph pan against the contact wire is usually
around 6.5kg/cm
2
on IR.
The equivalent copper cross-section of the catenary is usually about 157 to 165 sq.
mm. (65 sq. mm. stranded copper-cadmium catenary and 107 sq. mm. grooved copper
contact wire). On a single-track section, this allows a current of up to 600A to be
drawn from the catenary without raising its temperature to more than about 85C,
which is the safe upper limit to avoid risks of fire, equipment failure, etc., and to
maintain the physical properties of the catenary within acceptable bounds. On the
Waltair-Kirandul section which sees extremely heavy ore traffic, and some other
busier sections catenary equivalent cross-sections are up to 200 sq. mm, whereas
loops, spurs, sidings, etc. often have lower-capacity catenaries with equivalent copper
cross-sections of 107 sq. mm. For reference, note that a BG loco in typical operation
may draw about 120A, and an MG loco about 80A.
Catenary contact wires are usually made of processed copper or copper alloys. Pure
copper has high conductivity, but does not have the desired tensile strength, and hence
it is often processed or alloyed in some way. Annealed copper has a tensile strength of
about 25kg/mm
2
. Hard-drawn copper has a tensile strength of 42kg/mm
2
, while
cadmium-copper has a tensile strength of 63kg/mm
2
. Other materials such as bronze
have also been used for contact wires.
DC traction sections have much higher equivalent cross-sections because of the
higher current drawn (as the voltage is about 1/16 that of AC sections, the current is
correspondingly higher, necessitating a total catenary cross-section about 4 times that
used on AC sections). Typically, the equivalent cross-section for DC catenaries is
about 645 sq. mm (323 sq. mm primary catenary cable, 129 sq. mm auxiliary
catenary, and 193 sq. mm contact wire).
As mentioned earlier, the catenary in fact consists of more than one cable; the one that
actually touches the pantograph and carries the current is the contact wire. The
contact wire may be suspended directly from the cantilever arms from the support
posts (this is not common, and is only found on low-speed sections and turnouts).
More often, the contact wire is suspended from another wire called the messenger
wire. The messenger is the one that assumes the typical catenary (hyperbolic cosine)
curve shape. The contact wire is suspended from the messenger by vertical risers or
spacers. A third wire, the auxiliary cable may appear between the messenger and the
contact wire although this design is rare in India. The contact wire is usually grooved
on the sides, so that it can be gripped firmly from the sides without creating any
28

discontinuity on the lower surface where the pantograph rubs against it. It is usually
made of hard-drawn copper, although sometimes copper alloys have been used. The
other part -- the catenary cable -- is made up of multiple strands of copper, or more
often, a copper-cadmium alloy. In 1990, IR experimented with installing aluminium
contact wire catenary on a 260km section in SER (Durg-Nagpur). This proved to be
unworkable because there were too many defects caused by oxidation and mechanical
failure (strand breakage) in the wire, and the aluminium cables were replaced by
standard copper-cadmium wires by 1998. The messenger wire is usually of an alloy
chosen more for its mechanical properties as it does not need to conduct the traction
current. WR tends to use 2 current-carrying cables and more closely-spaced
substations to power its 1.5kV DC catenaries; CR tends to use 3 current-carrying
cables and substations that are farther apart.
The stagger of the contact wire refers to the distance between it and the pantograph's
mid-point. The stagger must be kept within acceptable limits to prevent damage to the
OHE and the pantographs, and this requires careful layout of the contact wire on
curves and turn-outs or crossings, and the provision of stabilizing connectors in areas
with lots of wind or uneven track that causes the pantograph to bounce up and down.
Note that in order to even out the wear on the pantograph contact wires are usually
arranged in a zig-zag patter within a certain range of stagger.
4.3.1.1CATENARY HEIGHT:
The contact wire is generally at about 5.5m from the rail level. The minimum height
is around 4.8m (e.g., under bridges or overpasses, etc.). In yards, in sheds or lines
leading up to sheds, etc., the catenary contact wire may be higher; 5.8m is a typical
height.
At the end of each section of catenary, a new section begins, with the old and new
catenaries running in parallel for a short distance. On BG routes, this switch from one
catenary to another usually happens over a length corresponding to 4 catenary masts,
with the old and new catenaries overlapping (running parallel) for about 50m. On
MG, this is usually accomplished over a length corresponding to 3 catenary masts,
with one catenary taking off immediately after the point where the other stops.
When successive sections of the AC catenary are supplied by different phases from
the 3-phase power grid, there is a short, electrically neutral (un-energized) section
(dead zone or neutral section) of catenary that comes between them. The loco has to
coast through this 'phase break' with a brief interruption in the supply of power.
Sometimes different sections of the catenary are connected to different phases at
different times and the neutral sections may be a switched neutral section. (The term
also refers to neutral sections at AC-DC switchover points where the neutral section
can be switched to either the AC or the DC supply, and is also known as the dynamic
neutral section.)
In DC catenaries, there are similar breaks (power gaps) with neutral sections at points
where adjacent sections of catenary are supplied by different substations. Neutral
sections used to be quite long (41m was a common length) but now many neutral
29

sections corresponding to phase breaks in the AC power supply are as short as 5m.
Some locomotives are also being provided with modifications to keep their headlights
and some auxiliary equipment turned on while traversing the neutral section.
4.3.1.2.CONTROL AND MONITORING:
A Remote Control Center (RCC) is located at or near the divisional traffic control
centre. The RCC has the control and monitoring equipment for the electric traction in
the areas controlled by the traffic control centre. Prior to 1980, IR used an
electromechanical control system, Frequency Modulated Voice Frequency Telegraph
(FMVFT). These are still in use in some places. Since 1980, IR has been installing a
microprocessor-based system called 'SCADA' (Supervisory Remote Control and Data
Acquisition System) for remote control of electric substations and switchgear. A
central SCADA facility (the division control centre) can control a region extending to
about 200-300km around it. SCADA allows remote monitoring of electrical
parameters (voltage, current, power factor, etc.) in real time and remote operation of
switchgear, as well as automatic fault detection and isolation, allowing better control
of maximum demand, trouble-shooting, etc. SCADA replaces an older system that
used electromechanical remote control apparatus.












30

CHAPTER 5
5.THE 'NOTCHES' AND 'TRANSITIONS'
There are typically several (4 or 6) traction motors in a locomotive, depending on the
number of bogies and the number of motors per bogie. They can be grouped in the
electrical circuits in various ways, such as being all in series, a series combination of
pairs in parallel, or all parallel, etc. These combinations provided a few different
ranges of power/torque and speed. Within each such combination, finer control over
the speed and power is possible by resistive (rheostatic) control, chopper (SCR -
semiconductor switches) control, or by frequency control as in the 3-phase AC locos.
Most older locos used resistive control with a large array of resistive elements that
could be progressively added into or taken out of the circuit to limit the current drawn
by the motors.
Each step in this is a 'notch'. E.g., the WCAM-3 loco operates with its 6 motors in
series, with notches numbered 1 to 22; at a higher speed it can use either 2 series sets
of 3 paralleled motors or 3 series sets of 2 paralleled motors each, with notches
numbered 23 to 32; and finally with all motors in parallel (with the full voltage
available across each), with notches numbered 33 to 39. A transition notch is the
circuit setting where the motors are being switched from one grouping to another
(e.g., series to series-parallel).
5.1.THE 'IGNITRONS' AND 'EXCITRONS'
These are different kinds of rectifying devices used to convert alternating current to
direct current. In the early days, this could be done only with vacuum-tube technology
as semiconductor technology could not handle the high voltages and currents that
need to be switched in an application such as in a locomotive.
An excitron is a mercury vapour rectifier which uses a pool of liquid mercury as its
cathode. An arc is maintained between this cathode and an auxiliary excitation anode,
which maintains a concentration of ionized mercury in the tube. Current flows
between the main anode and the cathode by mercury ions only when the main anode
is positive with respect to the cathode.
An ignitron is also a mercury vapour rectifier. However, in this an arc is not
maintained continuously between the anode and the cathode. The arc exists while the
anode is positive but is extinguished as the polarity switches. Instead, an igniter
electrode of a semiconductor material such as silicon carbide is kept partly dipped in
the mercury pool cathode to initiate the arc when the anode goes positive.
Developments in solid-state devices have allowed the use of semiconductor rectifiers
instead of the more capricious and fragile vacuum-tube rectifiers in today's
locomotives.

31


CHAPTER 6
6.TECHNICAL DATA FOR 3 ELECTRIC LOCO
*locos present and studied at training
TECHNICAL
DATA
WAP-5 WAP-7 WAG-9
TYPE OF SERVICE PASSENGER PASSENGER FREIGHT
AXLE
ARRANGEMENT
BO-BO CO-CO CO-CO
GEAR RATIO 1:3.65 1:3.6 1:5.133
GAUGE 1676mm 1676mm 1676mm
LENGTH OVER
BUFFER
18162mm 20562mm 20562mm
OVERALL WIDTH 3142mm 3100mm 3152mm
MAXIMUM HEIGHT
WITH
PENTOGRAPH
LOCKED
4255mm 4255mm 4255mm
WHEEL
DIAMETER
NEW 1092mm 1092mm 1092mm
WORN 1061mm 1061mm 1061mm
TOTAL WEIGHT 78T 123T 123T
OHE VOLTAGE
NOMINAL 25KV 25KV 25KV
MINIMUM 17.5KV 17.5KV 17.5KV
MAXIMUM 30KV 30KV 30KV
OHE FREQUENCY
NOMINAL 50Hz 50Hz 50Hz
MINIMUM 45Hz 45Hz 45Hz
MAXIMUM 55Hz 55Hz 55Hz
POWER SUPPLY TO
AUXILIARY
FREQUENCY
415V 10%
0~59Hz
415V 10%
0~59Hz
415V 10%
NO. OF POWER
CONVERTERS
2 2 2
TYPES OF
TRACTION
3
INDUCTION
3
INDUCTION
3
INDUCTION
32

MOTORS MOTOR MOTOR MOTOR
NO. OF TRACTION
MOTORS
4
6FXA7059
6
6FRA6068
6
6FRA6068
POWER OF
TRACTION
MOTORS
1563HP 1156HP 1156HP
POWER SUPPLY TO
TRACTION
MOTORS
2180V 2180V 2180V
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
110V 110V 110V
NO. OF
AUXILLARY
CONVERTERS
1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3
TRACTIVE EFFORT 258KN 322.6KN 458KN
BREAKING REGENERATI
VE,
PNEUMATIC,
PARKING,
ANTI SPIN
REGENERATIV
E,
PNEUMATIC,
PARKING,
ANTI SPIN
REGENERATIVE
,
PNEUMATIC,
PARKING,
ANTI SPIN
BREAKING EFFORT 160KN 182KN 260KN
PARKING BREAKS WHEEL NO.
1,4,5&8
WHEEL NO.
2,6,7&11
WHEEL NO.
2,6,7&11
HORSE POWER 5440HP 6120HP 6120HP
MAXIMUM SPEED 160 Kmph 130 Kmph 100 Kmph
MAIN RESERVOIR 3 nos 2 nos 2 nos
HOTEL LOAD AVAILABLE NOT
AVAILABLE
NOT
AVAILABLE
LOCO BRAKES ON DISC
5 Kg/cm
ON WHEEL
3.5 Kg/cm
ON WHEEL
3.5 Km/cm






33

6.1.SYSTEMATIC DIAGRAMS, PARTS AND
COMPONENS OF WAP SERIES

FIG 6.1
It shows speed, feed, voltage, break pressure and mode of operation for the engine.
34


FIG 6.2


FIG 6.3
It shows ohe voltage and hotel load by the engine, It is having different set of display
for faults and power failure along with indicators for the same.
35


FIG 6.4
6.2 ABBREVIATION
ALG: Drive control unit
ASC: Driver Converter Control
ASR: Drive Converter BL: Key Switch
BLPR: switch headlights
36

BPVG: Push Button, Green For The vigilance
GTO: Gate turn Off
CSC: Constant Speed Control DDS: Diagnostic Data set
FLG: Vehicle Control unit
HBB: processor HB: Cubicle Auxiliary Circuit
HRA: heating
LSAF: Indication Lamp(RED) LSCE: Indication Lamp
LSDJ: Indication Lamp, red for main circuit breaker
LSP: Indication Lamp, Yellow For wheel Slipping
MCB: Main circuit Breaker
MCE: MICAS-S2 Control electronics
MEMOTEL: Speed Recorder And Indicator
MR: Machine Room
MUB: Over Voltage Protection Unit
NSR: line converter
Pan: Pantograph
PCLH: Socket hand lamp
PP: pneumatic panel
SB: Cubicle Control circuits
SLG: converter control unit
SR: traction converter
SS: Subsystem
STB: Low Voltage Cubicle Control
TE: tractive effort
BE: Breaking effort
37


FIG 6.5
all the tractive power supplied to the loco engine is transmitted from ohe and this ohe
is first come into contact with roof equipments and mainly or initially with the
pantograph which has been told above.
38


FIG 6.6
39

7.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Research, Designs & Standards Organisation (RDSO), the R&D Organisation of
Indian Railways plays the role of a technical advisor to Railway Board, Zonal
Railways and Production Units. It has been instrumental in identification and
assimilation of technology suitable for Indian operating and climatic condition and
has ensured rightful adaptation of imported technologies, wherever felt necessary.
One of the major roles that RDSO has
played is that of developing and maintaining standards and specifications which
ensures that all different technologies are able to work together as a system and also
allows IR to operate
seamlessly without any technological limitations. RDSO is working for improvement
in quality of service both in the areas of passenger and freight traffic. The projects
taken up by RDSO in the recent past have a direct bearing on safer, more comfortable,
more economical and more reliable rail travel and to achieve the maximum
throughput with the least possible investment in infrastructure and rolling stock. The
results in most of these projects have already borne substantially acclaimed fruit for
the IR.
Some of the major activities and projects undertaken/ completed by RDSO during the
year are given below: Safety Development of crashworthy design of LHB coach.
Development of improved crashworthy design of WDP4B locomotive. Development
of CBC with Balanced Draft Gear. Development of Crew Voice Recorder System for
Electric locomotives. Circulation of guidelines to Zonal Railways on safety
precautions during tunnel construction and also for maintenance and inspection of
existing tunnels. Development of Gangmen Warning System having RF
communication with SIMRAN locomotive equipment, to provide warning of
approaching train. Development of Audio-visual warning system for the road users at
unmanned level crossing gate having RF communication with SIMRAN locomotive
equipment.



40


8.REFERENCES:
1. Book-Indian railway electric loco guide.
2. www.wikipedia.com
3. www.Ifrco.com
4. www.indianrailway.com
5. www.indianrailwayfanclub.org
6. Catenary overview by indian railway security
7. www.youtube.com