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September 2014, Vol. 88, No. 9, Rs. 100.

76 pages

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL


PUBLISHED BY ACC LIMITED

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THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL

Founded in 1927

September 2014, Volume 88, Number 9

Published by ACC Limited, L.B. Shastri Road, Near


Teen Haath Naka, Thane (W) 400604.
The contents of this journal are contributions
of individual authors, and reflect their

TECHNICAL PAPERS

independent opinions, findings, conclusions and


recommendations and do not necessarily imply
that they reflect the views of the Publisher, ACC
Limited. The Publishers are not liable for any

11

Studies on changes in microstructure and thermal conductivity of cement


mortar blended with refractory chemical at elevated temperature
Uma Suresh, R. Jeyalakshmi and N. Suresh

20

Compressive strength development of blended cement concretes


containing portland cement, fly ash and metakaolin
Folagbade S. Olufemi and Moray Newlands

35

Comparative studies on mechanical properties in high


performance concrete
Karthikeyan Jayakumar and K. Shaheer Ali

46

A proposed revision in national standards for limits on deleterious


material (clay lumps) in fine and coarse aggregate
R.S.Londhe and Chinmay V. Naik

64

Analytical modeling of damping


Muthukumar G and Manoj Kumar

damage or inconvenience, caused to anyone who


may have acted on the information contained in
the publication.
The Indian Concrete Journal, ISSN 0019-4565
Copyright 2014 ACC Limited.
ACC Limited - Registered Office Cement House,
121, Maharshi Karve Road, Mumbai 400 020.
The copyright, database rights and similar rights
in all materials published in The Indian Concrete
Journal are owned by ACC Limited. None of
this material may be used for any commercial
or public use, other than for the purpose of fair
dealing, research or private study, or review of the
contents of the journal, in part or in whole, and
may not be reproduced or stored in any media for
mass circulation without the prior written consent
of the publisher.

PUBLISHING / EDITORIAL /
ADVERTISEMENT &
CIRCULATION OFFICE
The Indian Concrete Journal
ACC Limited
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Near Teen Haath Naka
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FEATURES

04

EDITORIAL

06

NEWS & EVENTS

30

POINT OF VIEW: Effect of excessive cement in prestressed concrete girder


C.V. Kand, T.P. Thite and S.M. Litake

51

POINT OF VIEW: Earthquake safety of houses in India : Understanding


the bottlenecks in implementation
Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar and C.V. R. Murty

Editor: Ashish Patil


Editorial Team:
Ulhas Fernandes
S.M. Abbas
Total number of pages including covers are 76

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Contents Sep 2014.indd 3

8/23/2014 10:24:55 AM

EDITORIAL

From the Editors Desk...


It appears that India is going to push the accelerator and

In the fourth paper, the authors compare the mechanical and

rev up the engines for a step jump in development! This

durability related properties on HPC made using metakaolin,

is, going by what our leaders are speaking, the general

silica fume and FA concrete.

sentiment has turned positive. If this comes true, our


readers will get much busier as days go by! Touch wood
let it happen!!
Hopefully this time around, the focus on infrastructure
will also bring in easing of clearances by the authorities
thus complimenting project execution within the budgeted
time and cost. This would translate to not only optimising
resources from choice of material, design performance

Limits laid down on percentage of various deleterious


materials in aggregate by most of the national standards
are too conservative. The author of this paper suggests
that the limits on percentage of clay lumps in fine and
coarse aggregate can be raised to 3% and by doing so the
compromise on strength will not exceed 15%. This move
will result in economical usage of natural aggregates thus
reducing cost of the project.

and age, but would also bring in aspects of sustainability

In a very interesting paper, the authors look at earthquake

and credits for greener construction.

safety of the houses that we live in and state that 47% of


population in India is living in the highest risk! Seismic

In this issue, the first paper studies the change in


microstructure and thermal conductivity of cement
mortar blended with refractory material under elevated
temperatures. The authors bring forth their findings of

hazard, exposure and vulnerability are diagnosed and India


is divided into 4 levels based on the housing risk factors. The
authors also suggest mitigation plans and current bottlenecks
they perceive.

how at temperatures above 800oC, blended material

In the last of the seven papers, the paper looks at damping

made by replacing cement with FA and zirconium dioxide

as a desirable property of a structure from the earthquake

can with help retain 70% of the compressive strength.

resistant point of view. The authors have reviewed the various


damping models that are currently in practice.

Studies on binary and ternary concrete blends containing


metakaolin, FA and OPC has revealed improved
compressive strength and is found that the cost for
45 N/mm2 strength is optimised when the level of
metakaolin blending is kept at 5%.

This month, ICJ has stepped into the 88th year and in itself
has created a history! The standing of ICJ is due to the
contributions of our authors, reviewers and readers over these
decades many of whom are with us for so many years! You
are witness to how ICJ has transformed and has stood the
test of time or rather, knowledge? We look forward to your

In a case study on a flyover, the effect of excessive cement

inclusive participation for bettering the content and value of

used in pre-stressed concrete girder is studied. The authors

ICJ for one and all, for many years to come!

examine the codal provisions of maximum cement, the


problems in precast girder and conduct various tests to
draw up their recommendations.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Best Regards,
Ashish Patil

NEWS & EVENTS


Deep Foundation Technologies for
Infrastructure Development in India
2014.
Deep Foundations Institute (DFI) of India along with Indian
Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Indian Geotechnical
Society (IGS) Delhi Chapter and Construction Industry
Development Council (CIDC) will host a two-day conference
on Deep Foundation Technologies for Infrastructure
Development in India at IIT Delhi during September 1920, 2014.

Viswanathan Mahadevan, Technical Head South


East Asia, BASF India)

AKC (Nalasopara)
September 24- 25, 2014: Workshop on Concrete
Mix Design
Contact
Ambuja Knowledge Centre, Mumbai
e: foundations.mumbai@ambujacement.com
w: www.foundationsakc.com

Precast Concrete Technology


The Indian Concrete Institute is organising a one-day
national seminar on Precast Concrete Technology on
September 27, 2014 at Veer Savarkar Hall, Shivaji Park,
Dadar, Mumbai. The theme is Challenges, Methods and
Practices.

Contact:
Deep Foundations Institute of India
e: dfi-india2014@dfi.org
w: www.dfi-india2014.org

AKCs September 2014 Programs

The main topics of the workshop are: Design Aspects;


Production Process; Transportation and erection; Joints and

The September 2014 programs of Ambuja Knowledge


Centre include the following:

connections; Admixtures for precast concrete; Steel fibre

AKC (Andheri)
September 18-29, 2014: Workshop on Concrete

Tunnels; Formwork and Moulds for Precast Concrete

Mix Design

September 19, 2014: Managing Shrinkage in

for precast concrete; Precast in infrastructure Bridge and


Contact:
Indian Concrete Institute Mumbai Centre
e: icimumbai@yahoo.com
w: www.indianconcreteinstitute.org

Large Concrete Structures (Speaker: Er. Yogini


Deshpande, Renuka Consultants)

September 25-26, 2014: Workshop on Advance


Concrete Mix Design

September 26, 2014: Non Destructive Testing for


Concrete Structures (Speaker: Er. Hiren Joshi)

AKC (Belapur)
September 26, 2014: Acceleration & Retardation
of Cement Hydration in Concrete (Speaker: Dr.


The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

FIDIC Construction workshop 2014


UBM India will be organising the FIDIC Construction
workshop 2014 to be held during September 29-30, 2014
at Mumbai. This workshop will be addressed by international
FIDIC expert (Kelvin Hughes) along with Indian expert
giving practical case studies from the Indian market. This
two day conference will focus on the importance of FIDIC
in Indian infrastructure, EPC agreement, FIDIC Design

NEWS & EVENTS


built, NSC, claims and dispute resolution and strategies to
create synergy between employer and contractor.

will be held during November 13-15, 2014 at Mahatma


Mandir, Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

Contact:
FIDIC Construction Workshop 2014
e: conferences-india@ubm.com
w: www.fidicindia.com

Contact:
Sustainable Habitat and integrated cities
e: contact@municipalika.com
w: www.municipalika.com

Pre-cast Concrete Technology

bC India 2014

The Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (ACCE) India


Bangalore Centre is organising an International Seminar
and Exhibition on Recent Developments in Design and
Construction for Pre-cast Concrete Technology Paper to
Practice to be held during 9th-13th November, 2014 at
NIMHANS Convention Centre, Bengaluru, India.

Messe Mnchen International, Germany is organising


the BAUMA CONEXPO SHOW bC India 2014 during
December 15-18, 2014 at India Expo Centre, Greater
Noida / Delhi.
The last event in February 2013 in Mumbai attracted a
total of 710 companies from 33 countries and more than
28,000 trade visitors. Following two successful events in
Mumbai, bC India is moving to Delhi for its next show.
Contact
bC Expo India Pvt. Ltd.
e: info@bcindia.co.in
w: www.bcindia.com

Concrete Show India 2015


Expert speakers from across the world and India
have confirmed and will be sharing their knowledge
during this event. Few of the confirmed speakers are:
Ar. R Sundaram, India; Dr. Gian Carlo Giuliani, Italy;
Per Oluf H Kjaerbye, Denmark; Prof. Fermin Blanco,
Spain; Prof. Spyros Tsoukantas, Greece; Prof. Xilin Lu,
China; Mr. Bruce Fairbanks, Spain; Prof. RoelSchipper,
Netherlands; Prof. Jan B. Obrebski, Poland; Dr. Lai Hoke
Sai, Singapore; Mr. Mohan Kumar, Singapore; Mr. C.
Kirubakaran, Singapore; Prof. Ing. Camillo Nuti, Italy; Prof.
Mahesh Tandon, India; Mr. Senou Krishnamoorthy, India;
Mr. Abhishek Murthy, Singapore; Dr. Denis Konin, Russia;
Prof. Behrokh Khoshnevis, USA; Dr. Mark Son, Russia, Prof.
Akira Wada, Japan.
Contact:
REDECON 2014
e: programchair.redecon2014@gmail.com
w: www.redecon.in

Emerging trends in Sustainable


Habitat and integrated cities
The 12th international conference and exhibition on
emerging trends in sustainable habitat and integrated cities

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Concrete Show India 2015 will be held during 7 9 May,


2015 at the Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre,
Mumbai.

Contact:
Concrete Show India 2015
e: csi-india@ubmindia.co.in
w: www.concreteshowindia.com

PROTECT2015
The Fifth International Workshop on Performance,
Protection & Strengthening of Structures under Extreme
Loading - PROTECT2015 will be held during June 28-30,

NEWS & EVENTS


2015 at Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI,
USA

and service providers for the CIDC Construction Industry


Database.

The main topics of the workshop are:

Benefits

Performance of Structures
Strengthening of Structures under Extreme Loading
Performance of Materials
Structural Management and Protection
Contact
PROTECT2015
e: protect2015-help@egr.msu.edu
w: www.egr.msu.edu/protect2015

REPORT Construction Industry


Database
The first Task Force meeting for CIDC - Construction
industry database was held on 25th July 2014 at the
India International Centre, New Delhi. The meeting drew
participation from both the private and public sector and
representatives from leading construction organizations
like IRCON, NBCC, EPIL, EIL, L&T, etc. Keeping in view,
the focus of the government on providing impetus to
infrastructure development, a tremendous opportunity
exists in the development process by supplying goods &
services to the major Project Owners & their Contractors &
Service providers. Construction of river bridges, highway
bridges and structures, tracks for railways, sports stadia,
industrial buildings, residential and commercial complexes,
integrated projects for power generation and distribution
systems, air conditioning systems, finishing/ interiors works,
piling located at various locations across India and other
South Asian nations present opportunities that demand a
whole array of products and services to deliver on time and
within costs. The task is very large in volume and scope
with corresponding increase in procurement of goods &
services, increasing from the present annual level of USD
70 billion to over USD 200 billion per annum in the 12th
Plan. A reliable and robust Construction Industry Database
is the need of the hour that may be browsed by the project
owners and implementers alike for finding the right set of
organizations that can deliver.
Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC),
understands the importance of this exercise and with
an intent to create one seamless database for use by all
stakeholders, calls upon your expertise to fix the framework,
categories, and the registration process for prequalification
of construction companies, material handling organizations

10

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

The database will be representative of the demands of


the construction sector in India and South East Asia and
encourage project owners and implementers to log in to
the same for finding the right match for their requirements.
Some envisaged benefits are listed below:

1. Better and more efficient procurement of services and goods


2. Better authenticity and capability assessment of
the supplier and listed organizations
3. Regular updation regarding costs and product
range
Process
In order to save on the time being spent on prequalification
of vendors in various categories, CIDC proposes to
undertake the first round of site inspections of all the
applicants participating in this process. The final listing of
any entity in the database shall only be based upon the
report submitted by the CIDC evaluation team post site
inspection.
The process would include:

1. Call for registration to be published every


quarter
2. Submission of application in pre-prescribed formats along with relevant annexure
3. Site inspections
4. Presentation of the report to the Jury
5. Fixing of category listing based on Jury recommendation
The Task Force members endorsed this initiative and
suggested scalability, robustness, timely inspections as
some of the key features that need to be inbuilt in the
process for making this effort a truly representative one for
the Indian Construction Industry. Members expressed their
willingness to participate in Jury meetings and volunteered
to nominate the concerned officers from their respective
organizations.
Contact:
Construction Industry Development Council
e: cidc.ho19@gmail.com
w: www.cidc.in

TECHNICAL PAPER

Studies on changes in microstructure and thermal


conductivity of cement mortar blended with refractory
chemical at elevated temperature
Uma Suresh, R. Jeyalakshmi and N. Suresh

The present study explores the influence of zirconium dioxide as refractory material in blended cements. Zirconium
dioxide has been replaced by 2% and 4% by mass in fly ash blended cements. Mortar cube specimens were prepared
and exposed to different level of temperature up to 800oC for 2 hours and 4 hours, after 28 days curing. The specimens
were tested for compressive strength after air cooling and were found to retain compressive strength. Microstructural
studies were carried out through X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. It was found that Gismondine and Afwillite formed
at higher temperatures had influence on cement mortar.
Keywords : Cement; elevated temperatures; fly ash; zirconium dioxide; X-ray diffraction; SEM; thermal conductivity.

INTRODUCTION
There has been significant increase in the production
of blended cement since the mid- nineties due to the
increasing demand of sustainability in the construction
sector. A number of researches have been carried out using
blended cement because of the advantages of mechanical
properties and durability provided over normal Portland
cement. Replacement of cement by various percentages
of silica fume, fly ash, metakoalin and G.G.B.F.S. has
yielded improved mechanical properties, decreasing the
rate of hydration, decreasing the permeability of concrete
[1 - 8]. Most of the researches are towards the effect of
mineral addition in terms of the strength of mixes and
durability benefit. Few reports on the study of hydration
kinetics oxides of chromium, titanium on tricalcium
silicate paste are reported and observed to have higher

rate of hydration at the replacement level of 2% [9] [10].


The addition of PbO, ZrO2 and Cr2O3 as admixtures
accelerated the hardening of the cement mortars when
added to cement in percentages of 0.7, 1.0 and 4%.This
effect is shown by the accelerated strength development
of related mortars [11]. The addition of transition metal
oxides to raw mixes does not affect the formation of
Ca(OH)2 during hydration of the cement. The transition
metal (Zr,Ti,Cr) ions preferably substitute Si4+ in the
matrix [12].
Most concretes are subjected to temperatures no more
severe than that caused by weather but in certain
important cases the concrete is subjected to sustained
elevated temperatures. Such instances being accidental
fires in building, furnaces, chemical metallurgical
industrial applications, jet aircraft runways, nuclear
reactors, oil and gas industries [13, 14]. Such fires and

The Indian Concrete Journal, September 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 9, pp. 11-19

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

11

TECHNICAL PAPER
elevated temperatures result in considerable physical
deterioration included spalling, cracking etc. and damage
to structures. In general, at nearly 100oC the physisorbed
moisture (free water) begins to evaporate. Though
elasticity is reduced by about 10%-20%, the compressive
strength remains unchanged. As the temperature exceeds
300oC, the hydration water of silicate is released and causes
the paste to contract. However, in concrete, the aggregate
depending on their type it may expand. The temperature
range of 400o-500oC, considerable loss in the compressive
strength occurs. Most of the compressive strength before
heating may be lost from 600o-800oC. It is because the
calcium hydroxide and other cement hydration products
begin to dehydrate, which contributes to the deterioration
of concrete structure. Above 900oC, calcium carbonate
decompose by the loss of carbon-di-oxide along with
loss of free or bound water. Under exposure to high
temperature, a change in pore structure like increase
in concrete permeability and incompatibility between
the aggregate and cement paste worsen the durability
characteristics [15, 16, 17]. Compared with compressive
strength, tensile splitting strength suffers a more severe
loss under identical temperature, as the latter is more
sensitive to thermally induced cracking [18].
Fly ash blended Portland cement pastes have performed
better at these temperatures than Portland cement alone
since the fly ash reduced the amount of Ca(OH)2 in the
binder following hydration . Inert materials like quartz,
calcite, TiO2, alumina, ZrO2 enhance the cement hydration
and thus improve the thermal resistance [19. 20, 21, 11].
When the amount of fly ash in cement clinker is increase
from 15% to 35% the compressive strength of the mortar
decreased. When the replacement was 25% the mortar

gave the highest compressive strength [22]. Zro2 is used


in ceramic industry due to it hardness and high melting
point. When nano fly ash and Zro2are added to polyimide
composites, its mechanical properties increases [23]. The
use of TiO2 and Zro2 together with fly ash in applications
where these components are subjected to elevated
temperatures is based on the fact that TiO2 and Zro2 have
mineral phases with certain properties analogues to those
of silica contained in the fly ash. Under certain conditions
of temperature and composition, the silica or calcium
silicate crystals may become distorted as a result of the
replacement of Si4+ ions by Ti4+ ions,/Zr+4 producing
different types of titanates in the CaOSiO2TiO2 system
[9, 10]. Therefore, the mixture of FA and residues with
TiO2 mineral phases may generate different thermally
stable titanates at high temperatures [24].
Ali Nazari et al have reported that the replacement of
cement by 0.5%-2.0% nano ZrO2, nano TiO2 and nano
Al2O3 improves the tensile strength and flexural strength
[25, 26, 27, 28]. They have also reported that the split
tensile strength of self compacting cement with 4%
replacement of ZrO2. The pore structure of the SCC also
improved with the increase in content of mesopores and
macropores. The compressive and flexural strength of
cement with nano silica and nano Fe2O3 were higher than
that of plain cement. The nano materials in such instances
not only act as fillers but also as an activator to promote
hydration and thus improve the microstructure [29, 30].
In the present study, an attempt have been made to
determine the thermal resistance of ternary mixture of
refractory material with fly ash blended cement under
sustained elevated temperature condition

Materials and Mixes


Table 1. Properties of mixes
Sl.
No.

12

Material Properties

CM

CM20FA

CM20FAZrO2
2%

4%

1.

Specific Gravity

3.4

3.20

3.12

3.08

2.

Consistency (%)

33

28

30

30.5

3.

Initial Setting time


(min)

88

80

87

76

4.

Final Setting time


(min)

190

165

165

170

5.

Compressive strength
at 28 D

47.65

48.05

53.02

51.2

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Fly ash was introduced as 20 % replacement by mass


of cement. Portland cement graded as 43 confirming to
IS8112, was used for this study. The fly ash was siliceous,
with chemical composition conforming to Part 1 of IS: 3812
as shown in Table 2. The properties of plain cement and
that blended with fly and fly ash with zirconium dioxide
is given in Table 1. The refractory chemical zirconium
dioxide were added as replacement at 2% and 4% by
mass of cement, along with reference mix having portland
cement as sole binder. All mixes were proportioned and

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 2. Chemical properties of fly ash used
Sl.
No.

Test conducted

Obtained
results

Requirements
as per
IS 3812 :2003 [22]
Part 1

oven and left to cool to room temperature. Samples for


XRD and SEM analysis were obtained from the cubes
used for compressive test.

1.

Specific Gravity

2.0

----

Results and Discussion

2.

Fineness, specific surface


area determined by
Blaines Air Permeability
apparatus, (minimum)

298

320

3.

Soundness, by autoclave
expansion of contraction
in %, (maximum)

A) Effect of temperature and exposure time on


strength with and without addition of ZrO2 to CM and
CM20%FA

0.035

0.8

4.

Particle retained on 45
micron IS sieve (wet
sieving) in % maximum.

38.5

34

prepared as per IS 10262 to achieve a 28 day strength .The


water to binder ratio was maintained at 0.3. A total of 276
cement mortar cubes of side 70.6 mm were cast. Sixteen
specimens of each mix were cast. The cubes were cured
for 28 days at the end of which, they were air dried to
remove the surface moisture. Three cube samples from
each mix were exposed to specific temperature 100C,
200C, 400C, 600C and 800C for a duration of 2 hours
and 4 hours. An electric oven measuring 1.1 m x 1.0 m x
2.1 m was used to attain the elevated temperatures. The
temperature was increased to predetermined value and
then sustained at that level by an automatic digital control
unit. The heated specimens were the removed from the

CM20FA 2% zro 2

CM20FA

CM20FA 4% zro 2

CM20FA

CM0FA2%ZrO2

CM20FA2%ZrO2

CM0FA4%ZrO2

CM20FA4%ZrO2

% Residual compressive strength 2hr

% Residual strength

70
60
50
40
30

140
120
100
80
60
40
20

20
10
0

CM

160

compressive strength for 2 hr exposure

80
Compressive strength

CM

The compressive strength of the mixes which was replaced


by 20% of fly ash showed an increase in compressive of
about 15% as compared to normal Portland cement,
Figure1. At 100oC, the increase in strength could be due to
the secondary hydration of cement caused by evaporation
of free water. The mortars which were blended with fly
ash & zirconium dioxide (CM20FA and CM20FA2%ZrO2,
CM20FA4%ZrO2) also showed an increase in strength at all
elevated temperatures. The mixes which were blended
with both fly ash and zirconium dioxide showed a
strength gain of nearly 20-25% at room temperature.
Figure 2 shows the %residual strength for the mixes CM,
CM0FA2%ZrO2, CM0FA4%ZrO2, CM20FA, CM20FA2%ZrO2,
CM20FA4%ZrO2 exposed to elevated temperatures of 100o,
200o, 400o, 600o, 800oC for a duration of 2 hours and also
at room temperature. It can be observed that the mixes
CM0FA2%ZrO2 and CM0FA4%ZrO2 is able to retain a better

0
room
temp

100

200

400

600

800

RT

100

200

400

600

800

Temperature, C

Temperature, C

Figure 1. Compressive strength (CM, CM20FA and CM20FA 2ZrO2


CM20FA 4ZrO2 ) at different temperatures after 2 hr exposure.

Figure 2. Residual compressive strength (CM, CM20FA and


CM20FA 2ZrO2, CM20FA 4ZrO2 ) at different temperatures after 2 hr
exposure.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

13

TECHNICAL PAPER
CM20FA 2% zro 2

CM20FA

CM20FA 4% zro 2

compressive strength

compressive strength for 4 hr exposure


60
50
40
30
20
10
0

room
temp

% Residual compressive strength 4hr

120

100

RT

200

400

600

200

400

600

800

800

Figure 3. Compressive strength (CM, CM20FA and CM20FA2ZrO2,


CM20FA4ZrO2) at different temperatures after 4 hr exposure

Figure 4. Residual compressive strength (CM, CM20FA and


CM20FA 2ZrO2, CM20FA 4ZrO2 ) at different temperatures after 4 hr
exposure.

I rel
1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

Experimental pattern
Calculated pattern ( exp. peaks ) (Rp=15.2 %)
[96-901-2601] 02 Si Quartz
[96-901-2725] Si Silicon

30.00 40.00 50.00

1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

Experimental pattern
Calculated pattern ( exp. peaks ) (Rp=20.9%)
[96-100-8703] Cu0.375 Nd1.625 06.625 Ru2 Neodymium
copper ruthenium oxide (1.63/37/2/6.63)

60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00

Cu-Ka1 ( 1.540598A)

2theta

25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00

Cu-Ka1 ( 1.540598A)

Figure 5. CM Unheated

strength than the mix CM at all the temperatures. Though


the residual strengths of all the mixes are decreasing
with increasing temperature, the mixes CM0FA2%ZrO2,
CM0FA4%ZrO2, CM20FA2%ZrO2, CM20FA4%ZrO2 have a better
residual strength than the mix CM. The ternary blends
perform better than the binary and plain cement when
exposed to higher temperature.
There is a decrease in strength of all mixes for four hour
duration of exposure. But CM20FA and CM20FA2%ZrO2,
CM20FA4%ZrO2 had a 30 -33% better compressive strength,
as compared to the plain cement mortar, Figure 3. Figure 4
shows % residual strength of the mixes CM, CM0FA2%ZrO2,
CM0FA4%ZrO2, CM20FA, CM20FA2%ZrO2, CM20FA4%ZrO2

14

100

Temperature
100

Temperature

I rel

CM0FA2%ZrO2

CM

% Residual strength

CM

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

2theta

Figure 6. CM 800 C

exposed to elevated temperatures of 100o, 200o, 400o, 600o,


800o for a duration of 4 hours. The mixes CM0FA2%ZrO2,
CM0FA4%ZrO2, CM20FA2%ZrO2, CM20FA4%ZrO2 have retained
the compressive strength till 400oC for 4hour duration of
exposure. Even though the residual compressive strength
decreased by 60% for the mix CM20FA4%ZrO2 at 600o, 800o,
it has retained better strength than the mixes CM20FA,
CM20FA2%ZrO2.
Figures 5 and 6 represent the XRD diagrams of cement
mortar at room temperature and 800oC respectively.
The decrease in strength can be explained by the
decomposition of calcium silicate hydrates (2-theta =32o
-34o, 50o) at 800oC. These phases are absent in the mortar

TECHNICAL PAPER

20

20

Portlandite, syn, calcite

Portlandite, syn, ettringite

1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

room temp Zr 2%

Calcite, ettringite

40

Ettringite, hillebrandite

Counts

60

Portlandite, syn, ettringite, hillebrandite

80

Portlandite, Syn, Cuspidine,


Calcite, Ettringite,
rosenhahnite, hillebrandite

I rel

Experimental pattern : FLY ASH ( normal)


Calculated pattern ( exp. peaks ) (Rp=11.9%)
[96-230-0371] 02 Si

30.00

50.00

40.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

Cu-Ka1 ( 1.540598A)

30

40

50

60

70

90.00

2theta

Figure 8. CM20 FA Unheated

Position, 2 theata

Figure 7. CM20FA2%ZrO 2 unheated

Experimental pattern : FA+OPC-800 c-4hrs


Calculated pattern ( exp. peaks ) (Rp=8.7%)
[96-901-5085] AL2 Ca6 H64 050 S3 Ettringite

(CM) after exposure to elevated temperature. The amount


of Portlandite (2-theta =18o, 34o, 42o) has increased in the
mixes (CM0FAZrO2) and hydrated calcium silicate phases
(2-theta = 32o -34o, 50o) has also increased. This can be
attributed to enhanced hydration of cement due to the
presence of Zirconium dioxide. The Zirconium dioxide
also has the ability to form ZrO32- and the amorphous ZrO2
which is capable of binding Ca(OH)2 and increases the
amount of hydrated phases. This leads to development of
compressive strength and stability [11]. The strength loss
below 600oC is generally caused by the coarsening of pore
structure. There could be an additional loss in strength due
to decomposition of calcium hydroxide (portlandite) and
calcium carbonate (calcite) [31]. In the mixes CM0FA2%ZRO2
XRD shows the presence of portlandite and calcite both
at room temperature and at elevated temperature. The
presence of zirconium dioxide has helped these phases
to remain intact and thus the mixes have a better residual
strength at elevated temperature.
There has been an increase in compressive strength in
mixes (CM20FA, CM20FA4%zro2, CM20FA4%zro2 ) containing
both fly ash and Zirconium dioxide at room temperature
and elevated temperatures for both 2 hr and 4 hr exposure,
The increase in strength even at elevated temperature is
due to the formation of Gismondine. (2-theta 22o, 28o,
36o) and Afwillite (2-theta 27o, 38o) by the pozzolanic

[96-901-6707] C Ca O3 Calcite

I rel

[96-900-6838] Ca H2 O2 Portiandite

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

[96-901-3985] Ca3 H6 O10 Si2 Afwillite


[96-901-0147 ] O2 Si Quartz
[96-900-1690] Ca3 H2 O7.5 Si1.5 Hillebrandite
[96-901-5085]Ai2 Ca6 H64 O50 S3 Ettringite

25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00

Cu-Ka1 ( 1.540598A)

2theta

Figure 9. CM20FA 800 C

reaction between fly ash and ordinary portland cement.


The formation of gismondine at elevated temperature
above 500oC, is because of accelerated hydration due to
the presence of quick lime obtained by the decomposition
of calcium hydroxide and these crystals fills up the pores
and account for better strength of these mixes at 600 and
800 [32, 33].
Marine algae such as U. fasciata deteriorates the concrete
structures by the consumption of gismondine formed in
the concrete. This indicates the importance of gismondine
for the maintaining the strength of concrete [34]. Ettringite
and gismondine are the main products found in stabilized
clay with the blend of calcium carbide residue and bio

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

15

50
Position, 2Theata

60

Gismondine

20

Gismondine Calcite, (Calcite,


Magensium, Syn)
Calcium silicate oxide

100

70

30

40

Gismondine

40

4Z84

Gismondine

30

Gismondine

20

200
Counts

500
0

Etteingite

1000

300

Calcite, syn

Counts

1500

400

4Z14

Calcite, syn

2000

Calcite, (Calcite, Magensium, Syn)

TECHNICAL PAPER

50

60

70

Position, 2Theata

Figure 10. CM20FA 4%zro2 100 C

Figure 11. CM20FA 4%zro2 800C

Figure 12a. CM R00MTEMP [2]

Figure 12b. CM 30 C

Figure 12c. CM0FA2%ZR02ROOMTEMP

Figure 12d. CM0FA4%ZR02ROOMTEMP

Figure 12e. CM0FA2%ZR02 3000C

Figure 12f. CM 0FA2%ZRO at 400

Figure 12g. CM20FA


ROOMTEMP

16

Figure 12h. CM20FA4%ZRO2


ROOMTEMP

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Figure 12i. CM20FA2%ZRO22000C

Figure 12j. CM20FA4%ZRO2 8000C

TECHNICAL PAPER
mass ash at room temperature [35]. Gismondine is
responsible for the long term strength gain a these phases
are known to be refractory in nature. These phases are
present even after exposure to elevated temperature for
both the durations. The thermal endurance of zirconium
dioxide, Gismondine and an Afwillite allow these mixes
to have a better residual strength at normal temperature
and at higher temperatures. The addition of zirconium
dioxide aids in the formation of gismondine.
Micro structural analysis of Mixes at different
temperature

At room temperature the thermal conductivity of the


mortar samples decreased with the replacement with
20% fly ash and 2% and 4% Zirconium dioxide. But the
mortar CM20FA2%ZrO2 and CM2OFA4%ZrO2 had greater
thermal conductivity than the plain cement mortar CM.
For mortars CMOFA2%ZRO2, CMOFA4%ZRO2 ,the thermal
conductivity decreased by nearly 23% after being subjected

CM

CM0FA 2% zro 2

CM20FA

CM20FA 2% zro 2

CM20FA

CM0FA 4% zro 2

CM0FA 2% zro 2

CM20FA 4% zro 2

0.6
0.4
0.2
100

Thermal conductivity is an important property of concrete


since it controls the propagation of heat in a concrete
element. The thermal conductivity of concrete is reduced
with the loss of moisture during heating. Concrete
with lower cement paste content as in the case of highstrength concrete can be expected to have a lower thermal
conductivity than for lean concrete mixtures. [36]

CM0FA 4% zro 2

Thermal conductivity for 2 hr duration of exposure

RT

Thermal conductivity for mixes CM2OFA2%ZRO2,


CM2OFA4%ZRO2 for 2 and 4 hours durations of exposure.
Figures 14 and 15 shows the variation of thermal
conductivity with temperature for the mixes . The thermal
conductivity study was carried out using KD2 PRO.

CM

0.8

Thermal conductivity

200

400

600

800

Temperature

Figure 13. Thermal conductivity of different mixes for 2 hr duration


of exposure with ZrO2

CM20FA 2% zro 2

Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity

Figure 12 (a, b, c, d) represents the SEM micrographs of


CM, CM0FA2%ZR02, CM0FA4%ZRO2 at room temperature.
Figure (12 g, h) represents the Sem micrographs of
CM20FA, CM20FA4%ZRO2 respectively, Figure 12 (e, f, i, j)
represents the SEM micrographs CM0FA2%ZR02 at 300o,
CM0FA2%ZRO at 400, CM20FA2%ZRO2 at 200oC CM20FA4%ZRO2
800oC respectively. From the micrographs it is clear that
the mixes containing Zro2 have a dense well structured
C-S-H and sheets of Ca(OH)2 at room temperature. This
is due to enhanced hydration of cement in the presence of
zirconium dioxide [11]. The dense structure of cement gel
is destroyed which has lead to the reduction in strength
at higher temperature. The hydrated phases and these the
products of hydration C-S-H are not completely destroyed
even after exposure upto 800oC. The microstucture of
blended cement mortars containing 2% and 4% of zirconium
dioxide indicated compact cement phase with very low
porosity. This indicates that the hydrated phases are not

decomposed completely in the presence of refractory


chemical Zirconium dioxide and pore coarsening is not
observed. The non decomposition of crystalline hydrated
phases and the formation of Gismondine supported by
XRD explains the better residual compressive strength of
the mortars blended with fly ash and Zirconium dioxide
at elevated temperatures.

Thermal conductivity for 4 hr duration of exposure


0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

RT

100

200

400

600

800

Temperature

Figure 14. Thermal conductivity of different mixes for 4 hr duration


of exposure with ZrO2

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

17

TECHNICAL PAPER
to 100oC for 2 hours. The decrease in thermal conductivity
could be due to loss of water at this temperature. For
mortars CM2OFA2%ZRO2 and CM2OFA4%ZRO2 the thermal
conductivity decreased at 100oC but their values were
higher than that of the mix CM. This could be due to
lesser loss of pore water, at this temperature in these
mixes. Thus between 100oC and 200o C, there is decrease
in thermal conductivity for all the mixes. Between 200oC
and 400oC the thermal conductivity increases slightly due
to the removal of water from the hydrated compounds.
The thermal conductivity of cement mortar is expected
to decrease at temperature between 600o C and 800o C.
This is due to decrease in crystallinity with increase in
temperature. The thermal conductivity decreases when
the heating temperature increases. This is due to the
deterioration of the micro structure. The voids limit the
heat transfer. [37]. This also could be due to filled action of
ZrO2. [38] The decrease thermal conductivity of the mixes
CM20FA2%ZRO2 and CM2OFA4%ZRO2 is lower than the mix
CM. This means that the thermal endurance of zirconium
dioxide and the presence of thermally stable gismondine
in the cement mortar has prevented the disintegration of
C-S-H gel formed. This accounts for the better residual
strength of these mortars at the temperature 600oC.

CONCLUSIONS
1. The replacement of portland cement by 20% fly
ash improves the compressive strength of mortars
at elevated temperatures of 100oC, 200oC, 400oC,
600oC, 800oC by about 15%.
2. The addition of 2% and 4% zirconium dioxide
along with 20% fly ash helps in retaining the
compressive strength upto 70% at all elevated
temperatures and durations of exposure.
3. The addition of 2% and 4% zirconium dioxide
facilitates the formation of gismodine in the fly
ash blended cement mortar
4. The increase in thermal endurance could be
because of formation of Gismondine and
Afwillite which is refractory in nature and are
not decompose by elevated temperatures aids in
retaining the compressive strength.

18

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

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28. Ali Nazari, Shadi Riahi, Shirin Riahi, Seyedeh Fatemeh Shamekhi and
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32. S. Antiohos, A. Papageorgiou, S. Tsimas Activation of fly ash


cementitious systems in the presence of quicklime. Part II: Nature of
hydration products, Porosity and microstructure development Cement
and Concrete Research, 2006, Vol. 36, pp. 21232131.
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of XRD Patterns to Evaluate Compressive Strength of Stabilized
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36. Malhotra, H.L. 1956, The effect of high-temperature on compressive
strength, Magazine of Concrete Research, 8(3), pp. 85-94.
37. Zhi Xnig .Anne-Lise Beaucour.Ronan Hebert .Albert Noumowe,Beatrice
Le desert. Influence of nature aggregates on behavior of concrete
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Uma Suresh is research scholar at SRM university, Chennai. She is presently working as Head of
Department, Chemistry at V.V.S.G.J.PU College. Mysore. Her field of interest is cement chemistry at
elevated temperature.

Dr. R. Jeyalakshmi is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of E&T, SRM University.
Her fields of interest include material technology, reaction engineering, environmental chemistry,
nanotechnology and corrosion engineering.

Dr. N. Suresh is Professor & Director, Building Fire Research Centre, The National Institute of Engineering,
Mysore. His fields of interest are studies on the behaviour of concrete at elevated temperatures. He is
member of BIS CED2 & CED22.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

19

TECHNICAL PAPER

Compressive strength development of blended


cement concretes containing portland cement,
fly ash and metakaolin
Folagbade S. Olufemi and Moray Newlands

This paper investigates the compressive strength development of binary and ternary cement concretes containing
Portland cement, fly ash and metakaolin at various ages and water/cement ratios. The material costs and embodied
carbon dioxide (e-CO2) levels of these concretes at the strength of 45 N/mm2 are also presented. The results suggest
that metakaolin improves compressive strength at both early and later ages, while fly ash contributes to strength
development at later ages. The concretes made with blended cements have lower e-CO2 levels than those made with
Portland cement. The cost data suggest that at 45 N/mm2 strength, economic blended cement concretes are possible
when the level of metakaolin blending is kept at 5%.
Keywords: Cement combination; cement combination concrete; compressive strength; concrete construction.

Introduction
Metakaolin is a highly reactive non-crystalline pozzolanic
material. Calcination of Kaolinite produces it in two
colours; off-white and white. Its particles are coarser
than those of silica fume but finer than those of Portland
cement [1]. The specific gravity and specific surface of
metakaolin are 2.6 and 15000 m2/kg respectively [1]. Due
to its fineness, metakaolin forms more nucleation sites
to accelerate cement hydration and enhance strength
development [2-5]. However, being an expensive product,
it is used in small quantities of (about 5-15%) as a cement
replacement material [1]. In addition, its high specific
surface and chemical reactivity result in workability
challenges characterized by a high water demand [6,7].
The Indian Concrete Journal, September 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 9, pp. 20-29.

20

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

On the other hand, concretes incorporating fly ash


are characterized by a low water demand, reduced
water/cement ratio at equal consistency and improved
workability [8,9]. Its spherical particles and electronic
dispersion when enough of it is adsorbed on the surface
of Portland cement particles to cover and deflocculate
them help impart these properties [10-12]. Hence, fly
ash concretes show reduced bleeding and ensure good
placing and finish. Incorporating fly ash in concrete
does not contribute to early-age strength development,
so the strength development at early ages is relatively
low in such concretes [13,14]. However, the pozzolanic
reactivity of fly ash with curing age does result in
improved compressive strength development at later
age strengths [15]. Hence, due to its availability and low
cost, fly ash constitutes the primary pozzolana in blended
cements [16]. The use of gas-fired and co-combustion fly

TECHNICAL PAPER
ash would also ensure the availability of quality fly ash
for future use in concrete [17].
From these descriptions it would appear that a ternary
blend of Portland cement, fly ash and metakaolin would
offer significant advantage over a binary blend of
Portland cement with fly ash or metakaolin. When these
two pozzolanas are blended with Portland cement, their
combination would complement each other to improve
the performance of concrete [9]. While metakaolin would
support early age strength development, fly ash would
contribute to later age strength development [18]. The
ternary combination would also result in reducing the
dosage of water or water reducing admixtures [19]. Hence,
metakaolin could serve as an alternative to silica fume in
some mixes. Cement and concrete standards such as BS
EN 197- 1, BS EN 206- 1 and BS 8500 support the use of
ternary blended cements. Also, the construction industry
now uses several types of blended cements [20].

Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of cements


Property

Cements

Blaine fineness, m2/kg


Loss on ignition, %

a)

Particle density, g/cm3


% retained by 45 m sieve b)

PC

FA

MK

395

388
b)

2588

1.9

6.1

0.9

3.17

2.26

2.51

11.0

Bulk oxide composition, % c)


CaO

64.5

3.2

0.0

SiO2

20.0

52.0

57.6

Al2O3

4.6

26.0

38.9

Fe2O3

3.7

10.1

0.6

MgO

2.5

1.5

0.3

MnO

0.1

0.1

0.0

TiO2

0.3

1.5

0.0

K 2O

0.7

2.8

2.4

Na2O

0.3

1.2

0.1

P2O5

0.1

0.5

0.1

Cl

0.1

0.0

0.0

SO3

3.1

1.1

0.0

a) In accordance with BS EN 196-2


b) In accordance with EN 450- 1
c) Obtained by x-ray fluorescence (XRF)

Ternary blended cements, by virtue of their strength


development characteristics at early ages, suit mass
concreting and hot weather concreting requirements.
Their improved pozzolanic reaction with curing age, is
useful for under-water applications. BS EN 197- 1 permits
the use of fly ash up to 55% and metakaolin up to 15%.
However, the data from the European Ready Mixed
Concrete Organisation show that addition levels do not
exceed 20% of the total cement [21]. Ternary blends are
not only structurally important but also economically
and environmentally desirable.
Although the literature shows that the use of cement
additions such as these results in high strength and
environmentally compatible concrete, there is little or
no information on the economic implication of using
such materials. Hence, working within the limits of up
to 55% fly ash and 15% metakaolin in BS EN 197- 1, this
paper describes the compressive strength development
in concretes containing binary and ternary blended
concretes. In addition, the material cost and environmental
impact (embodied carbon dioxide content) of using these
blended concretes are presented.

Experimental materials and methods


Portland cement (PC, 42.5 type) conforming to BS EN 1971, Fly ash (FA, Siliceous or Class F type) conforming to BS
EN 450- 1, Metakaolin (MK) treated as calcined natural
pozzolana conforming to BS EN 197- 1. Table 1 gives the
properties of PC, FA and MK. The cements were stored
in plastic containers to prevent their degradation from
environmental exposure.
The size of the fine aggregates was 0 - 4 mm and the coarse
aggregates were in two sizes; 4 - 10 mm and 10 - 20 mm.
The coarse aggregates were uncrushed and they come
in varied shapes. The 4 - 10 mm aggregates had rough
texture while the 10 - 20 mm aggregates were smooth.
Table 2 presents the physical properties of the aggregates.
Potable water, conforming to BS EN 1008 was used for
mixing and curing the concrete specimens. To achieve
good cohesion and finishability, a workability level
defined by a nominal slump of 50-100 mm (consistence
level of S2, BS EN 206- 1) was kept, a polymer carboxylic

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

21

TECHNICAL PAPER
ether based superplasticiser conforming to EN 934-2 was
used.
The mix proportion was carried out in accordance with
the BRE Design Guide [22]. The yield corrected mix
proportions, to the nearest 5 kg/m3, using a free water
content of 165 kg/m3 to avoid an excessively sticky mix
for the saturated surface dry (SSD) aggregates used are
presented in Table 3 for the cement combinations. The
cement combinations consist of the binary blends of fly
ash and metakaolin with Portland cement and ternary
blends prepared by introducing metakaolin to partreplace the fly ash in the binary blends of fly ash and
Portland cement.
Concrete preparation followed BS EN 12390- 2. The
specimens, after casting, were cured in the mould under
a damp hessian cloth covered with a polythene sheet for
about 24 hours. Subsequently, they were demoulded
and cured in water tank maintained at about 20oC until
testing. The compressive strength test was carried out
in accordance with BS EN 12390- 3. Two 100 mm cubes,
at the test ages, were loaded to failure using the Avery
Denison cube crushing machine (Figure 1) with a base
load of 10kN and a loading rate of 7.0 kN/m2.

Table 2. Physical properties of fine and coarse aggregates


Property

Fine aggregates #
0 - 4 mm

Coarse aggregates
#

4 - 10
mm

10 - 20
mm

Shape, visual

Varied

Varied

Surface texture, visual

Rough

Smooth

Particle density *

2.6

2.6

2.6

Water absorption, % **

1.0

1.7

1.2

55.0

% passing 600 m sieve

# Aggregates were obtained from Wormit Quarry.


* In accordance with BS EN 1097- 6
** In accordance with BS EN 1097- 6, Laboratory-dry condition

22

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Analysis and discussion of results


Compressive strength of concrete at equal
water/cement ratio
Table 4 presents the cube compressive strengths obtained
for the cubes at 3, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days. The mixes were
tested at three water to cementitious ratios; 0.35, 0.50 and
0.65. The strength factors, presented in the Table, are
strength ratios obtained with respect to the strength of
concretes containing Portland cement only.
As expected, the strengths of concretes made with fly
ash blended binary cements are lower than those of the
Portland cement concrete. With increasing fly ash content
the strength reduces at all ages. The lower strengths are
due to the slow pozzolanic reaction of fly ash at early
ages. However, by allowing a longer curing period, the
continuing pozzolanic reaction of fly ash improves the
strength factors. On the other hand, the strengths of the
concretes containing metakaolin binary cements were
nearly the same as that of concrete containing Portland
cement. These results show metakaolins contribution to
the development of early age strength.
Table 5 shows the cube compressive strengths of ternary
blends concretes and their strength factors with respect to
the fly ash based binary blends. Generally, these ternary
blends gave better strengths than the binary ones. Table5
shows that strength increases as the metakaolin content

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 3. Mix proportions of concrete at a free water content of 165 kg/m3
Mix combination

Mix proportion, kg/m3

w/c
Cements

100%PC

80%PC+20%FA

80%PC+15%FA+5%MK

65%PC+35%FA

65%PC+30%FA+5%MK

65%PC+25%FA+10%MK

45%PC+55%FA

45%PC+45%FA+10%MK

45%PC+40%FA+15%MK

95%PC+5%MK

90%PC+10%MK

85%PC+15%MK

Aggregates

SP #,
%

CEM I

FA

MK

0 - 4 mm

4 - 10
mm

10 - 20
mm

0.35

475

650

375

755

0.41

0.50

330

740

385

770

0.33

0.65

255

820

380

765

0.25

0.35

375

95

640

370

745

0.37

0.50

260

65

735

385

765

0.30

0.65

200

50

815

375

760

0.23

0.35

375

70

25

640

370

745

0.43

0.50

265

50

15

735

385

765

0.35

0.65

200

40

15

820

375

760

0.26

0.35

305

165

635

365

740

0.33

0.50

210

115

730

380

760

0.27

0.65

165

90

815

375

755

0.20

0.35

305

140

25

635

365

740

0.40

0.50

210

100

15

730

380

760

0.35

0.65

165

75

15

815

375

755

0.27

0.35

305

115

45

635

365

740

0.45

0.50

210

80

35

730

380

760

0.39

0.65

165

65

25

815

375

755

0.31

0.35

205

255

625

360

730

0.31

0.50

145

180

725

375

755

0.26

0.65

110

135

810

370

750

0.19

0.35

210

210

45

630

365

730

0.38

0.50

145

145

30

725

380

755

0.34

0.65

115

115

25

810

375

750

0.27

0.35

210

185

70

630

365

730

0.41

0.50

145

130

50

725

380

755

0.37

0.65

115

100

40

810

375

750

0.28

0.35

450

25

645

375

750

0.43

0.50

315

15

740

385

770

0.35

0.65

240

15

820

380

760

0.26

0.35

425

45

645

375

750

0.47

0.50

295

35

740

385

770

0.39

0.65

230

25

820

380

760

0.29

0.35

400

70

645

370

750

0.51

0.50

280

50

740

385

770

0.43

0.65

215

40

820

380

760

0.33

# % Superplasticiser (SP) required for consistence class 2 (BS EN 206-1) is related to the total cement content.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

23

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 4. Cube compressive strengths of cement combination concretes and their strength factors with respect to Portland
cement at different ages
Mix combination

100%PC

80%PC+20%FA

80%PC+15%FA
+5%MK

65%PC+35%FA

65%PC+30%FA
+5%MK

65%PC+25%FA
+10%MK

45%PC+55%FA

45%PC+45%FA
+10%MK

45%PC+40%FA
+15%MK

95%PC+5%MK

90%PC+10%MK

85%PC+15%MK

Compressive cube strength, N/mm2

w/c
3d

7d

28d

90d

180d

3d

7d

28d

90d

180d

0.35

54.0

68.0

80.0

90.0

96.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.50

32.0

43.5

54.0

61.0

64.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.65

21.0

28.0

38.5

43.0

45.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.35

46.0

58.0

72.0

83.0

92.0

85

85

90

92

96

0.50

25.5

35.0

46.5

55.0

59.0

79

80

86

90

92

0.65

12.0

19.0

30.0

37.0

41.0

57

68

78

86

91

0.35

48.0

62.0

82.0

91.0

95.0

89

91

102

101

99

0.50

27.0

39.0

53.0

60.0

63.0

84

89

98

98

98

0.65

13.5

22.0

34.0

39.0

42.0

64

78

88

90

93

0.35

34.0

42.0

60.0

72.0

80.0

63

61

75

80

83

0.50

18.0

25.0

35.0

45.0

50.0

56

57

65

74

78

0.65

8.0

11.0

20.0

28.0

34.0

38

39

52

65

75

0.35

37.0

50.0

64.0

73.0

80.0

68

73

80

81

83

0.50

19.0

28.0

42.0

49.0

52.0

59

64

78

80

81

0.65

10.0

15.0

24.0

30.0

34.0

47

53

62

70

75

0.35

38.0

52.0

68.0

80.0

87.0

70

76

85

89

90

0.50

20.0

30.0

43.0

50.0

54.0

62

69

79

82

84

0.65

10.5

16.0

25.0

31.0

36.0

50

57

65

72

80

0.35

20.0

26.0

42.0

55.0

62.0

37

38

52

61

64

0.50

11.0

15.5

24.0

34.0

40.0

34

35

44

55

62

0.65

5.0

6.0

12.0

20.0

26.0

24

21

31

46

58

0.35

20.0

29.0

47.0

58.0

64.0

37

42

59

64

66

0.50

12.0

19.0

32.5

43.0

48.0

37

43

60

70

75

0.65

6.0

8.5

18.5

28.0

32.0

28

30

48

65

71

0.35

20.0

30.0

50.0

59.0

65.5

37

44

62

65

68

0.50

12.0

19.5

33.0

44.0

49.5

37

45

61

72

77

0.65

6.0

9.0

20.0

31.0

36.0

28

32

52

72

80

0.35

54.0

68.0

80.0

86.0

90.0

100

100

100

95

94

0.50

32.0

44.0

56.0

63.0

66.0

100

101

103

103

103

0.65

19.0

26.0

37.0

41.0

42.0

90

93

96

95

93

0.35

54.0

68.0

78.0

84.0

87.0

100

100

97

93

90

0.50

30.0

43.0

54.5

63.0

66.0

93

99

101

103

103

0.65

17.0

27.0

38.0

42.0

43.0

81

96

98

97

95

0.35

46.0

64.0

76.0

84.0

87.0

85

94

95

93

90

0.50

28.0

42.0

54.0

63.0

66.0

87

96

100

103

103

0.65

17.0

26.0

41.0

44.0

46.0

81

93

106

102

102

# Strength ratios determined with respect to Portland Cement (PC) values

24

Strength factors, % #

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 5. Cube compressive strengths of cement combination concretes and their strength factors (with respect to their
respective fly ash binary cement) at different ages
Mix combination

80%PC+20%FA

80%PC+15%FA
+5%MK

65%PC+35%FA

65%PC+30%FA
+5%MK

65%PC+25%FA
+10%MK

45%PC+55%FA

45%PC+45%FA
+10%MK

45%PC+40%FA
+15%MK

Compressive cube strength, N/mm2

w/c

Strength factors, % #

3d

7d

28d

90d

180d

3d

7d

28d

90d

180d

0.35

46.0

58.0

72.0

83.0

92.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.50

25.5

35.0

46.5

55.0

59.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.65

12.0

19.0

30.0

37.0

41.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.35

48.0

62.0

82.0

91.0

95.0

104

107

114

109

103

0.50

27.0

39.0

53.0

60.0

63.0

106

111

114

109

107

0.65

13.5

22.0

34.0

39.0

42.0

112

116

113

105

102

0.35

34.0

42.0

60.0

72.0

80.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.50

18.0

25.0

35.0

45.0

50.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.65

8.0

11.0

20.0

28.0

34.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.35

37.0

50.0

64.0

73.0

80.0

109

119

106

101

100

0.50

19.0

28.0

42.0

49.0

52.0

105

112

120

109

104

0.65

10.0

15.0

24.0

30.0

34.0

125

136

120

107

100

0.35

38.0

52.0

68.0

80.0

87.0

112

124

113

111

109

0.50

20.0

30.0

43.0

50.0

54.0

111

120

123

111

108

0.65

10.5

16.0

25.0

31.0

36.0

131

145

125

110

106

0.35

20.0

26.0

42.0

55.0

62.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.50

11.0

15.5

24.0

34.0

40.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.65

5.0

6.0

12.0

20.0

26.0

100

100

100

100

100

0.35

20.0

29.0

47.0

58.0

64.0

100

111

112

105

103

0.50

12.0

19.0

32.5

43.0

48.0

109

122

135

126

120

0.65

6.0

8.5

18.5

28.0

32.0

120

141

154

140

123

0.35

20.0

30.0

50.0

59.0

65.5

100

115

119

107

105

0.50

12.0

19.5

33.0

44.0

49.5

109

126

137

129

124

0.65

6.0

9.0

20.0

31.0

36.0

120

150

166

155

138

# Strength ratios determined with respect to their respective fly ash binary cement concrete values at different ages

increases. The strength factors of the ternary blends


increase up to 28 days and thereafter the rate of increase
decreases. In the initial stages, the higher fineness and
reactivity of metakaolin helps gain strength at a faster rate.
However, at later ages, this effect wanes. The minor gains
at 90 and 180 days are due to the pozzolanic reactivity
of fly ash. These differences in the behaviour of binary
and ternary blends are consistent with the understanding
that metakaolin helps both early and later age strength
development and fly ash contributes to the later age
strength development.

The strength factors of the ternary blend with


80%PC+15%FA+5%MK and 80%PC+20%FA concrete
again confirm that metakaolin supports the early age
strength development. After 28 days, however, the ternary
blended cements show no significant improvement over
the binary blended cements. The strength factors of the
ternary blends with 65% and 45%PC contents show
the effect of higher Portland cement dilution. When
the amount of Portland cement in the mix is low, the
Ca(OH)2 released to support pozzolanic reaction is also
low. Accordingly, the strength factor shows a gradual
improvement up to 180 days. The fact that the strength
factors for the 65% and 45%PC ternary cement concretes

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

25

TECHNICAL PAPER
with higher dilution effect (i.e. lower content of Portland
cement and hence lower content of Ca(OH)2 released to
support pozzolanic reaction) improved progressively
up to 180 days shows that the non-improvement in the
strength factors of the 80%PC ternary cement concretes
would be due to the fact that the cement addition content
at 20% is not high enough to fully react with the Ca(OH)2
released from the hydration reaction of Portland cement
to support the pozzolanic reactions required to produce
a significant difference in their strengths beyond the age
of 28 days. These observations suggest that pozzolanic
reaction is a function of the availability of Ca(OH)2 and the
quantum of available cementitious materials in the blend.
Conversely, the strength factors of the 65% and 45% PC
concretes (Table 4) which continued to increase up to 180
days, suggests that the amount of cement additions were
high enough to support long-term pozzolanic reaction.

Compressive strength of concrete at equal


strength
The following section uses the 28-day strength to assess
the cost and environmental implications of using blended
cements in concrete. Tables 4 and 5 show that equal
strengths of the cement combination concretes at equal
water/cement ratios would be achieved at different
ages. In other words, equal strengths of the cement
combination concretes at equal age would be achieved
at different water/cement ratio and therefore at different
material contents, material costs and embodied carbon
dioxide (e-CO2) contents. Concrete in practice is specified
on the basis of strength. The hydration reaction is a longterm process but since at 28 days a substantial quantity
of hydration would have taken place in concrete, design
strengths are based on the strength of concrete at 28
days (BS 8110, BS EN 206- 1 and BS 8500). Hence, this
section used the cost and environmental implications of
the cement combination concretes, at equal strength, to
investigate the effect of cement combinations on concrete
construction.
The cost implication of using cement combinations in
concrete was examined with the help of material cost.
Profit, overhead and the costs of other resources such as
equipment, manpower, money and management were
excluded from the cost data. The environmental impact

26

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

was examined with the help of the embodied carbon


dioxide (e-CO2) contents of the cement combination
concretes. The e-CO2 is a measure of the carbon dioxide
emitted owing to the energy used in heating the kiln and
the chemical reaction that takes place in the kiln when
cement is manufactured.
As expected, the material cost of concrete decreased
with increasing water/cement ratio. This is because the
quantity of the expensive materials namely cements
and superplasticiser decreased with increasing water/
cement ratio. The addition of fly ash as a binary cement
component reduced the material costs of concrete with
increasing content. While the addition of metakaolin as a
binary cement component increased the material costs of
concrete with increasing content, the material costs of the
ternary cement concretes (though higher than that of their
respective fly ash binary cement concretes) are lower than
that of Portland cement concrete at all the water/cement
ratios tested.
The e-CO2 values of the concretes decreased with
increasing water/cement ratio. The addition of fly ash as
a binary cement component reduced substantially the eCO2 values of the binary cement concretes with increasing

Table 6. Cost (from cradle to gate) and embodied CO2


content of concrete constituent materials
Concrete constituent
material

Cost of material a),


/tonne
(Rs./tonne)*

e-CO2 content of
material b),
kg/tonne

Portland cement (PC)

60.00 (6000)

930

Fly ash

20.00 (2000)

100.00 (10000)

300

0 - 4 mm aggregates

10.00 (1000)

4 - 10 mm aggregates

10.00 (1000)

10 - 20 mm aggregates

10.00 (1000)

Water

10.00 (1000)

0.3

1300.00 (130000)

0.72

Metakaolin

Admixture
(superplasticiser)

* 1 (British Pound) = Rs. 100 (Indian Rupee) in August 2014


Sources:
a) Supplier
b) Mineral Products Association (MPA) figures

TECHNICAL PAPER
content. Metakaolin as binary cement component also
reduced the e-CO2 values of concrete with increasing
content but not as much as fly ash. Hence, while metakaolin
ternary cement concretes have slightly higher e-CO2
values than fly ash binary cement concretes, their e-CO2
values were lower than that of Portland cement concrete
at equal water/cement ratio. The material costs and e-CO2
contents of the cement combination concretes at the cube
compressive strength of 45 N/mm2 at 28 days (Table8)
obtained by interpolating the values in Tables 4, 5 and
7 confirm that this strength of the cement combination
concretes would be achieved at different costs and e-CO2
contents. The ranking of the concretes in terms of cost and
e-CO2 contents is also given in Table 8. The Table also
shows that while all the cement combination concretes are
more environmentally compatible than Portland cement
concrete, six out of the 11 cement combination concretes
are more economical than Portland cement concrete.
These are the fly ash binary cement concretes and the
5%MK binary and ternary cement concretes. Hence, with
proper selection, cement combination concretes could be
made more environmentally compatible and economic
than Portland cement concrete.

Conclusion
Metakaolin as a binary cement component contributed
to both early and later age strength development of
concrete. The compressive strengths of fly ash binary
cement concretes which were considerably lower than
that of Portland cement concrete at early ages improved
progressively with age to reduce the disparity between
their strengths and that of Portland cement at later ages.
At early ages, all the ternary cement concretes have
lower strength than Portland cement concrete and these
strengths increased progressively such that at 180 days
some of the mixes have slightly higher strengths than
Portland cement concrete. Also, the propensity for strength
development reduced with increasing fly ash content of
the ternary cement concrete. The reduction in the strength
factors of the ternary cement concretes, with respect to the
fly ash binary concrete, between 7 and 28 days onwards
shows that while metakaolin would support early age
strength development, fly ash would only contribute to
later age strength development. The comparison of the
strength factors of the ternary cement concretes with that
of Portland cement concrete shows that a total cement

Table 7. Material cost and embodied carbon dioxide (CO2) content of concrete
Material cost and embodied CO2 content of concrete #

Mix combination
w/c = 0.35

w/c = 0.50

w/c = 0.65

Cost/m3,
(Rs)*

e-CO2,
kg/m3

Cost/m3,
(Rs)*

e-CO2,
kg/m3

Cost/m3,
(Rs)*

e-CO2,
kg/m3

100%PC

50.48 (5048)

449

41.82 (4182)

315

37.43 (3743)

245

80%PC+20%FA

45.86 (4586)

356

38.67 (3867)

250

34.90 (3490)

194

80%PC+15%FA+5%MK

48.23 (4823)

364

40.40 (4040)

259

36.36 (3636)

199

65%PC+35%FA

42.67 (4267)

291

36.39 (3639)

203

33.46 (3346)

162

65%PC+30%FA+5%MK

45.09 (4509)

299

37.93 (3793)

208

34.90 (3490)

166

65%PC+25%FA+10%MK

46.87 (4687)

305

39.70 (3970)

214

35.83 (3583)

169

45%PC+55%FA

38.10 (3810)

199

33.55 (3355)

143

30.81 (3081)

111

45%PC+45%FA+10%MK

42.45 (4245)

217

36.21 (3621)

152

33.55 (3355)

123

45%PC+40%FA+15%MK

44.63 (4463)

224

38.06 (3806)

158

34.78 (3478)

127

95%PC+5%MK

51.51 (5151)

433

42.50 (4250)

305

38.01 (3801)

236

90%PC+10%MK

52.52 (5252)

416

43.47 (4347)

292

38.51 (3851)

229

85%PC+15%MK

53.42 (5342)

400

44.25 (4425)

283

39.24 (3924)

220

# cost and e-CO2 content calculated based on material content (Table 3) and rates (Table 6)
* 1 (British Pound) = Rs. 100 (Indian Rupee) in August 2014

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

27

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 8. Material cost and embodied CO2 content of concrete at the strength of 45 N/mm2
Mix combination

Material cost and embodied CO2 content of concrete at the strength of 45 N/mm2
w/c

Cost/m3,
(Rs)*

Rank

e-CO2,
kg/m3

Rank

100%PC

0.57

39.66 (3966)

274

12

80%PC+20%FA

0.51

38.31 (3831)

80%PC+15%FA+5%MK

0.55

38.63 (3863)

245
234

9
6

65%PC+35%FA

0.43

38.91 (3891)

65%PC+30%FA+5%MK

0.48

38.65 (3865)

239
217

7
4

65%PC+25%FA+10%MK

0.49

40.08 (4008)

219

45%PC+55%FA

0.33

38.85 (3885)

208

45%PC+45%FA+10%MK

0.37

41.41 (4141)

11

206

45%PC+40%FA+15%MK

0.39

42.56 (4256)

12

203

95%PC+5%MK

0.58

39.54 (3954)

261

11

90%PC+10%MK

0.58

40.31 (4031)

252

10

85%PC+15%MK

0.59

40.74 (4074)

10

239

* 1 (British Pound) = Rs. 100 (Indian Rupee) in August 2014

addition content of more than 20% would be required to


effectively support long-term strength development.
Equal strengths of cement combination concretes, at
equal ages, were achieved at different water/cement
ratios, material contents, material costs and embodied
carbon dioxide contents. At equal water/cement ratio
and strength, the cement combination concretes, because
of their lower embodied carbon dioxide contents, are
more environmentally compatible than Portland cement
concrete. The fly ash binary cement concretes are more
economical than Portland cement concrete at equal
water/cement ratio and strength. While, at equal water/
cement ratio, the metakaolin binary cement concretes are
more expensive and the ternary cement concretes are
more economical than Portland cement concrete, only
the metakaolin binary and ternary cement concretes at a
metakaolin content of not more than 5%MK are cheaper
than Portland cement concrete at the strength of 45 N/
mm2. Since concrete is specified on the basis of strength
in practice, cement combination concretes would be more
environmentally compatible and economic than Portland
cement concrete if properly proportioned.

28

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Acknowledgement
The authors are thankful to the Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee, United
Kingdom for the facilities and guidance provided for this
research.

References
1. A d v a n c e d C e m e n t T e c h n o l o g i e s a v a i l a b l e a t h t t p : / /
advancedcementtechnologies.com
2. Mehta, P, K. and Aitcin P. C., Principles underlying production of
high-performance concrete, Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 1990,
Vol. 12, pp. 70-78.
3. Wild S., Khatib J. M., Jones A., Relative strength pozzolanic activity
and cement hydration in superplasticised metakaolin concrete, Cement
and Concrete Research, 1996, Vol. 26, No. 10, pp. 1537-1544.
4. Bai J., Sabir B. B., Wild S. and Kinuthia J. M., Strength development
in concrete incorporating PFA and metakaolin, Magazine of Concrete
Research, 2000, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 153-162.
5. Poon C. S., Kou S. C. and Lam L., Compressive strength, chloride
diffusivity and pore structure of high performance metakaolin and
silica fume concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 2006, Vol.
20, pp 858-865.
6. Bai J., Wild S., Sabir B. B. and Kinuthia J. M., Workability of concrete
incorporating pulverized fuel ash and metakaolin, Magazine of Concrete
Research, 1999, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 207-216.

TECHNICAL PAPER
7. Park C. K., Noh M. H. and Park T. H., Rheological properties of
cementitious materials containing mineral admixtures, Cement and
Concrete Research, 2005, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp 842-849.
8. Dhir R. K., McCarthy M. J. and Paine K. A., Use of fly ash to BS EN
450 in structural concrete, Technology Digest I, The Concrete Society,
London, 2002.
9. Thomas M. D. A., Shehata M. H., Shashiprakash S. G., Hopkins D.
S. and Cail K., Use of ternary cementitious systems containing silica
fume and fly ash in concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 1999, Vol.
29, No. 8, pp. 1207-1214.
10. Concrete Society, The use of GGBS and PFA in concrete, Technical Report
No 40, The Concrete Society, London, 1991.
11. Mindess, S., Young, F. J. and Darwin, D., Concrete, 2nd Ed., PrenticeHall, 2003.
12. Helmuth, R., Fly ash in cement and concrete, Portland Cement
Association, Skokie, Illinois, 1987.

16. Antiohos S. K., Papadakis V. G., Chaniotakis E., Tsimas S., Improving
the performance of ternary blended cements by mixing different
types of fly ashes, Cement and Concrete Research, 2007, Vol. 37, No.
6, pp. 877-885.
17. Jones M. R., Sear L. K. A., McCarthy M. J. and Dhir R. K., Changes
in coal fired power station fly ash: Recent experiences and use
in concrete, paper presented at the Ash Technology Conference
organized by the UK Quality Ash Association, Birmingham,
2006, available at: www. ukqaa.org.uk/index_htm_files/
AshTechA01ChangesInCoalFiredPowerStationJonesEtA1.pdf
18. Bai J., Wild S. and Sabir B. B., Sorptivity and strength of air-cured
PC-PFA-MK concrete and the influence of binder composition on
carbonation depth, Cement and Concrete Research, 2002, Vol. 32, No.
11, pp. 1813-1821.
19. Bouzoubaa N., Bilodeau A., Sivasundaram v., Fournier B and Golden
D. M., Development of ternary blends for high performance concrete,
ACI Material Journal, 2004, Vol. 101, No. 1, pp. 19-29.

13. Hassan, K. E., Cabrera, J. G., Maliehe, R. S., The effect of mineral
admixtures on the properties of high-performance concrete, Cement
and Concrete Composites, 2000, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp 267-271.

20. Shehata M. H. and Thomas M. D. A., Use of ternary blends containing


silica fume and fly ash to suppress expansion due to alkali-silica
reaction in concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 2002, Vol. 32, No.
3, pp 341-349.

14. McCarthy M. J. and Dhir R. K., Development of high volume fly


ash cements for use in concrete construction, Fuel, 2005, Vol. 84, pp.
1423-1432.

21. European Ready Mixed Concrete Organisation available at http://


www.ermco.eu/documents.

15. Lam L., Wong Y. L., Poon C. S., Effect of fly ash and silica fume on
compressive and fracture behaviours of concrete, Cement and Concrete
Research, 1998, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 271-283.

22. Teychenne D. C., Franklin R. E. and Erntroy H. C., Design of normal


concrete mixes, 2nd Ed., amended by B. K. Marsh, Building Research
Establishment, London, 1997.

Dr. Folagbade S. Olufemi holds a BSc (Hons.) in Building from University of Ife, Nigeria; an MSc in
Construction Technology, University of Lagos, Nigeria; an MSc in Structural Engineering from University
of Glasgow, United Kingdom (UK); PhD in Civil Engineering from University of Dundee, UK. He is a
Lecturer in the Department of Building, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. His areas of interest
are construction technology and materials (especially concrete) and structural mechanics and design.

Moray Newlands PhD holds a BEng Honours degree in Civil Engineering; an MSc in Concrete Technology,
Construction and Management, University of Dundee, UK; PhD from Concrete Technology Unit (CTU),
University of Dundee, UK. His PhD project developed a simulated natural carbonation performance test
which is now a CEN Technical Specification (CEN TS 12390-10). He is a lecturer within the Division since
2005. Previously, he was a Research Fellow and CPD/Consultancy Manager for the CTU. He is also currently
Secretary for CEN TC51/WG12/TG5 which is developing test methods for concrete performance.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

29

POINT OF VIEW

Effect of excessive cement in prestressed concrete


girder
C.V. Kand, T.P. Thite and S.M. Litake

DETAILS OF FLYOVER AND METHOD OF


CONSTRUCTION
This flyover was on an important road with heavy traffic,
had 46 spans and length of 1230 m viaduct. The width
of flyover was 10.5 m and 8 m. In 10.5 m there were 10
precast prestressed girder and in 8 m width 6 girders. The
L-section and cross section is shown in Figure 1.

Construction method
Precast pre-stressed multiple girders were cast at the
ground at available places and towed to the site and lifted.
The form work for deck slab fixed to precast girders and
slab cast in situ.
Foundations, piers/abutments were cast in situ along
with bearings and precast girders were launched. The
girders were 3 spans continuous; after launching girders
on individual spans, the continuity was given in the
girders through a cross girder and continuous slab.

CODAL REQUIREMENT FOR MAXIMUM


CEMENT CONTENT
Section of IRC-21 2000 gives minimum cement
content for PSC members as 400 kg/m3 for up to
M40 concrete vide table no. 5.
MORT&H specifications for road and bridge works
Fourth Revision of 2001 specify maximum cement
content as 540 kg/m3 as per clause 1703.2; however,
the revised MORT&H specification for road and
bridge works, Fifth Revision of 2013 has given the
limit of 450 kg/m3 as per clause 1703.3.
Maximum cement content has been reduced from
540 to 450 kg/m3

30

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

The main reason for reducing the cement content is,


if there is more cement per cubic metre in concrete, it
will cause shrinkage cracks. High grade cement (Grade
53) is generally used in rich concrete (mainly used for
pre-stressed concrete). This cement consumption i.e.
450 kg/m3 is used for a 80 storied building if they have
used only 450 kg/m3 of cement for M80 concrete; this was
possible using admixtures and reducing water cement
ratio to 0.3.
Maximum cement content is reduced since it was likely to
cause shrinkage in concrete and that is why all the codes
had reduced cement content from 540 to 450 kg/m3. There
is a belief among the engineers that if more cement is
added, the strength will be improved. This is not correct.
In this flyover, minimum cement content was 11.2 bags
i.e. 560 kg/m3

THE PROBLEMS IN PRECAST GIRDER


One of the stacked girders was critically examined before
towing and launching. Distresses were noticed in one
girder (Figure 2). There were inclined cracks in the girder
indicating either shear deficiency, shrinkage cracks or bad
concrete. The surfaces of concrete were rough. This crack
could not be ignored; the crack could be due to deficient
concrete or deficient design. At the top surface of bottom
bulb of girder, pockets due to air bubbles were seen. This
could be due to trapped air.

Load test
It was decided to carry out detailed investigations, check
the design in particular non tensile steel and compare this
with similar girders, also to check tests results of concrete
cube (Figures 3 and 4). Beside this it was also decided to

POINT OF VIEW

28500
1000 1500

1500 1000

23500

Girder elevation
750

8000

Deck cross section

1300

0f Girder
300

Girder cross section

Figure 1. Girder details

Figure 2. Cracks in girder

test this girder for the load which is likely to be sustained


by it during service. Each girder of 30 m length was
provided with 4 HT cables (1 of 19T13 and 3 of 12T13).
Such load test whereby maximum design stresses will be
generated in the girder. Total test load was 22 tonnes.
The results of the deflections at the centre of the girder
were taken with following sequence:
a. For no load condition at 1 Hr interval with deflection and temperature for 24 Hrs.

b. Placing the load 25% at a time, take the readings


wait for two hours add further load and again
take the reading.
c. Full load placed for 24 Hrs and readings were
taken.
d. Quarter load was removed after 3 Hours and intermediate readings of deflections were taken.
e. Similarly readings were also taken 24 hours on
removal of load.
The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

31

POINT OF VIEW
6000

1500*

Concrete blocks
Approximate weight 30T.

20mm Thk
Plate

Jack
Lean concrete

20mm Thk
Plate

Jack
Lean
concrete
Trestles

Temporary wooden support

Dial guage

Longitudinal section

Dial guage
Cross section

Figure 3. Girder load test

Figure 5. The measurement arrangement during girder load test


Figure 4. The loading arrangement during girder load test

Figure 7. Residual deflection after 24 hrs of girder unloading


Figure 6. Maximum deflection after 24 hrs of girder loading
32

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

POINT OF VIEW
ABOUT SHRINKAGE IN CONCRETE
Page 340 of the Book Concrete Technology- Theory and
Practice by M. S. Shetty gives various types of shrinkages.
Following important points are noteworthy:

Figure 8. Combination of ultrasonic & rebound hammer test


showing girder concrete strength as 54.0 N/mm 2

The maximum deflection was 26.19 mm against a


theoretical deflection of 26.74 mm. The recovery of
deflection was 23.41 mm i.e. 89% which is more than 85%
prescribed for deflection test of pre-stressed girders. This
recovery showed that the prestressed concrete girder
had behaved very well, this high recovery also indicated
more than adequate flexibility in the structure; this also
showed that the surface cracks were not due to any
design deficiency. These appeared to be perhaps due to
extra cement provided in this structure.

Volume change is one of the most detrimental


properties of concrete, which affects the long term
strength and durability of concrete. To practical
engineers the aspect of volume change in concrete
is important from the point of view that it causes
unsightly cracks in concrete. When such cracks
occur, the moisture and the water during rainfall are
likely to enter the concrete and can cause corrosion
of steel.
As shrinkage is an inherent property of concrete,
it demands greater understanding of the various
properties of the concrete which influence its
shrinkage characteristics. It is only when the
mechanism of all kinds of shrinkage and factor
affecting the shrinkage are understood and the
engineer will be in better position to control and
limit the shrinkage in the body of concrete.
In this case it not a plastic shrinkage. It can be termed
as drying shrinkage. Just as the hydration of cement
is an everlasting process the drying shrinkage is
also an everlasting process, when the concrete is

Figure 9. Cone failures

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

33

POINT OF VIEW
subjected to drying condition. Most of it occurs in
28 days, but some continues thereafter.
The test has proved that the strength of concrete is not
reduced and which was the earlier fear.

ANCHORAGES
The anchorages of pre-stressed cables were also seen
(Figure 5). Some of these were damaged at various
locations which indicate that the concreting of the
anchorages was not done properly. The argument which
was usually forwarded by the site staff is that, there is lot
of steel in the anchorage zone and that is why concreting
is not proper. This was not correct. What actually
happened was, it was difficult to compact the concrete by
pin vibrators at anchor alone and it was necessary to use
surface vibrators at anchorage zones or use 16 mm rods to
compact the concrete at anchorage zone manually. Thus
careless handling of anchorages was the only cause. If
form vibrators are not available, compaction of cement
concrete could be done manually by 16 mm rods.

PRECAUTIONS IN PSC BRIDGES


The cement content in concrete of any strength may
be limited to 450 kg/m3. With this content, concrete
strength up to M80 can be achieved by reducing
water cement ratio and using admixtures like silica
fume.
Strength of the concrete with additional cement is
not reduced.
There is no objection for using fly ash. It is being
used in many bridges. The fly ash must be tested
before use.
Concreting of anchorages should be done more
carefully, form vibrators should be used and if
necessary, consolidation by 16 mm rods can also
be done.
Cracks in the girder after the load test are substantially
closed. However, epoxy paint on cracked girder
appears necessary.

C.V. Kand PhD holds a B.E. Civil from College of Engineering, Pune; M.Sc. (bridges) from Surrey University,
U.K.; PhD from International University, Ceylon. He has more than 32 years experience in government
service in design and construction of bridges and 26 years experience as a private consultant in buildings
and bridges. He has published more than 100 technical papers in various journals including Indian Road
Congress and The Indian Concrete Journal. He is presently the Chairman of C.V. Kand Consultants Pvt.
Ltd., Pune.

Tanaji P. Thite holds a B.E. Civil and M.Tech (structures) from VNIT, Nagpur. He has more than five years
experience in bridge design. He is a Design Engineer at C.V. Kand Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Pune.

Sadanand Litke holds a B.E. Civil; M.E. (geotech); M.Tech (structures). He is a Junior Engineer at Pune
Municipal Corporation. He has more than three years experience in bridge construction and seven years in
water supply engineering.

34

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

TECHNICAL PAPER

Comparative studies on mechanical properties in high


performance concrete
Karthikeyan Jayakumar and K. Shaheer Ali

The purpose of this study is to compare the mechanical and durability related properties of High Performance Concrete
(HPC) using, Metakaolin, Silica Fume and Fly Ash concretes for different curing ages (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days). Marsh
cone test has been carried out to find the optimum dosage level of High Range Water Reducers for the different levels
of mineral admixtures. It has been observed that metakaolin and silica fume concrete attained the maximum level
of strength when compared to fly ash. A straight line equation has been formulated from the experimental results by
means of best fit. Durability tests like sorptivity and coefficient of absorption revealed that the value decreases as the
age of curing increases. The test results obtained from the present study shows that HPC not only possess excellent
strength properties but also in durability aspects
Keywords: HPC; admixtures; marshcone; strength; sorptivity.

Introduction
The use of HPC has been widespread in recent years
due to their technical and economical advantages. Such
materials are characterized by improved mechanical and
durability properties due to the incorporation of chemical
and mineral admixtures, as well as the use of specialized
production process. Most HPCs have denser and compact
matrices, and have, therefore, better mechanical integrity
and lower permeability than conventional concretes. The
improvement of these properties requires a low waterbinder ratio, along with the use of High Range WaterReducing Agents (HRWA) which ensure high workability
and ease of placing. Chemical admixtures create conducive
condition for the near complete hydration of cement by
deflocculating the particles of fine materials. HRWAs
The Indian Concrete Journal, September 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 9, pp. 35-45.

have been designed to provide high workability at low


water-binder ratios
The mineral admixtures used in concrete are either
pozzolanic or latent hydraulic. Pozzolanic admixtures
like Metakaolin (MK), Silica Fume (SF) and Fly Ashes
(FA) have been used for the present research work.
Partial replacement of cement by mineral admixtures is
not only economical but also improves the properties of
fresh and hardened concrete and enhances the durability
characteristics. Mineral admixtures possess little or no
cementitious properties themselves, but in finely divided
form and presence of moisture, can chemically react with
calcium hydroxide generated in cement hydration process
at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing
cementitious properties. The phenomenon those are
largely responsible for the improvement in the properties

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TECHNICAL PAPER
of concrete and its microstructure are generally attributed
to the filler effect and the pozzolanic action of the mineral
admixture [1].

Literature Review
Ahmed Tafraoui et al. studied with the substitute product
MK obtained by fixed-bed calcination. It proved to be
almost equivalent to SF in terms of mechanical properties
and durability. Kaolinite, the clay from which MK is
produced, is readily available in most countries, and
hence the price of this ultra fine is acceptable. Moreover,
its white colour gives it an aesthetic advantage [2].
Hong-Sam Kim et al. evaluated and compared the
mechanical properties and durability of concrete using
MK, the following tests were conducted on concrete
specimens using various replacements of SF and MK;
mechanical tests such as compressive, tensile and
flexural strength tests, durability tests like rapid chloride
permeability test, immersion test in acid solution, repeated
freezing and thawing test and accelerated carbonation
test. Durability tests also verified that concrete using MK
bore most of the mechanical and durability characteristics
exhibited by concrete using SF. The tests implemented in
this study confirmed that MK constitutes a promising
material as a substitute for the cost prohibitive MK [3].
Xiaosheng et al. investigated compressive strength and
dynamic modulus of high volume FA concrete with
incorporation of either MK or SF. The water to cementitious
materials ratio was kept at 0.4 for all mixtures. The use of
high volume FA in concrete greatly reduces the strength
and dynamic modulus during the first 28 days. These
decreased properties during the short term of high
volume FA concrete are effectively compensated by the
incorporation of MK or SF. An empirical relationship
between dynamic modulus and compressive strength
of concrete has been obtained. This relation provides a
non-destructive evaluation for estimating the strength of
concrete by the use of the dynamic modulus [4].
Poon et al. carried out investigation to relate the mechanical
and durability properties of high performance MK and
SF concretes to their microstructure characteristics.
The compressive strength and chloride penetrability of

36

T
the control and the concretes incorporated with MK or
SF at water-to-binder (w/b) ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 were
determined. The pore size distribution and porosity of
the concretes were also measured. It is found that MK
concrete has superior strength development and similar
chloride resistance to SF concrete and the MK concrete at
a w/b of 0.3 has a lower porosity and smaller pore sizes
than the control (plain) concrete [5].
Nguyen et al. studied the rheological parameters of
cement grouts to their flow time through the Marsh cone
which characterizes the fluidity of grouts in a practical
way. A semi-analytical approach was established initially
on simple assumptions and then corrected based on
numerical simulation results. It presents a deviation
lower than 12% compared to numerical simulations for a
wide range of rheological characteristics of the Herschel
Bulkley fluids. It has also been validated experimentally
with success on some studied cement grouts of various
water/cement ratios [6].
Nicolas Roussel and Roy described about the Marsh cone,
a workability test used for specification and quality control
of cement pastes and grouts. It was demonstrated that,
under several consistency and geometry conditions, the
flow time reflecting fluidity may be calculated from the
plastic viscosity and yield stress in the case of a Bingham
fluid and from the cone geometry. A relation between the
behaviour parameters and the flow time of fresh pastes
tested was derived and experimentally validated. A
practical application of these results is suggested [7].
Reda Taha et al. investigated the critical review of the
current measurements of the surface absorption of
masonry units; the theoretical bases of sorptivity as a
measurement of surface absorption were presented. The
limitations of sorptivity measurement was discussed
through a review of the application of the concept of
sorptivity to different porous building materials. Analysis
of the results showed sorptivity to be a simple and reliable
measurement of surface absorption for masonry units
that could be used in building standards [8].
Erhan Guneyisi and Kasm Mermerdas reports
investigation in which the performance of plain and

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TECHNICAL PAPER
MK modified concretes were studied under two
different curing regimes. Investigation was carried out
for the effectiveness of MK in enhancing the strength
and permeation properties of concrete. The change in
compressive strength, sorptivity, and chloride ingress
with age at all cement replacement levels under both air
and water curing were compared with those of the control
concrete. The results indicated that the inclusion of MK
greatly reduced sorptivity and chloride permeability of
concrete in varying magnitudes, depending mainly on
replacement level of MK, w/b ratio, curing condition,
and chloride exposure period. It was found that, under
the inadequate or poor curing, MK modified concretes
suffered a more severe loss of compressive strength and
permeability-related durability than the plain concretes
[9].
The objective of the present research work is to find out
the optimum percentage replacement levels of MK/SF/
FA for a designed HPC mix, and compare the mechanical
and durability related properties for different curing ages
(1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days). The compressive strength, flexural
strength, split tensile strength and durability related
properties like sorptivity and coefficient of absorption
of HPC incorporated with MK, SF and FA at waterto-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.3 have been experimentally
investigated and the relationships among them have
been analyzed. The marsh cone test is used for finding
optimum dosage of HRWA for the different replacement
levels of admixtures. Sorptivity test characterises the
materials ability to absorb and transmit water through it
by capillary suction. Coefficient of absorption test is used
to find the permeability of a hardened concrete.

Composition of HPC
HPC is not fundamentally different from the concrete
that we have been using all along, because it does not
contain any new ingredients and does not involve new
practices on site. But because of the lower water binder
ratio, presence of mineral and chemical admixtures etc.,
the rate of hydration of cement and the rate of strength
development in HPC is quite different from that of
conventional concrete. The HPCs usually have many
features which distinguish them from conventional
concrete. HPC is prepared through a careful selection

of each of its ingredients. The following ingredients are


used for making HPC.

Cement
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 43 grade conforming
to IS 8112:1989.

Fine aggregate
Locally available river sand conforming to Zone II of IS
383: 1970 classifications. Specific gravity of the sand is
said to be 2.65.

Coarse aggregate
Locally available coarse aggregate of 12.5 mm, maximum
size aggregate with a specific gravity of 2.72.

Water
Potable water conforming to IS 456: 2000

Mineral Admixture
Metakaolin, Silica Fume and Fly Ash are the pozzolans
used at different replacement levels like 5%, 10% and
15%.
Metakaolin, white in colour, is a manufactured and
process controlled reactive aluminosilicate pozzolana. It
is derived from purified kaolin clay, formed by calcining
purified kaolinite at a specified temperature range,
generally between 650-7000 C. Kaolin largely consists of the
mineral kaolinite. Kaolinite is hydrous aluminum silicate
and can be chemically represented by Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O.
They are angular in shape. The particle size of metakaolin
is significantly smaller than the cement particles, but not
as fine as silica fume. Its average particle size has been
reported to be of the order of 1.5 m.
Silica fume, also referred to as microsilica or condensed
silica fume, is another material that is used as an artificial
pozzolanic admixture. It is a product resulting from
reduction of high purity quartz with coal in an electric
arc furnace in the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon
alloy. Silica fume rises as an oxidised vapour. It cools,
condenses and is collected in cloth bags. It is further

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TECHNICAL PAPER

Table 1. Chemical and physical properties of the OPC,


MK, SF and FA
Parameters

Property

HRWR

Type

Modified Polycarboxylic Ether

55

Aspect

Light brown liquid

0.7

2.5

Relative Density

1.09 0.01 at 250 C

0.4

0.8

9.2

pH

0.5

4.4

Chloride ion content

< 0.2%

Cement
(%)

MK
(%)

SF
(%)

FA
(%)

SiO2

21.8

52.3

90.0

Al2O3

4.9

44.9

Fe2O3

3.6

CaO

63.2

MgO

0.9

0.2

1.2

1.1

Specific gravity

1.09

Na2O

0.22

0.12

0.31

0.54

Total solid content

34% by weight

K2O

0.69

0.02

1.62

TiO2

0.51

SO3

1.8

Loss on ignition

1.2

0.8

4.7

Specific gravity

3.15

2.5

2.2

2.1

Specific surface
(cm2/g)

3080

12,680

210000

4250

processed to remove impurities and to control particle


size. Condensed silica fume is essentially silicon dioxide
(more than 90%) in noncrystalline form. Since it is an air
borne material like fly ash, it has spherical shape. It is
extremely fine with a particle size 0.1 m.
Fly ash is a mixture of fine particles, containing mainly
silica, alumina, iron and calcium, which are responsible
for its pozzolanic activity; it also contains some unburnt
carbon. The physical and chemical requirements of fly
ash given in IS 3812-2003. Fly ash varies in colour from
light to dark grey depending upon its carbon content and
greater the carbon content darker is the colour. Particle
size varies from 1 m to 100 m.
Table 1 shows the physical and chemical characteristics of
cement and mineral admixtures.

Chemical Admixture
HRWR is used for the HPC mix conforming to IS 9103:1999
and ASTM C494 Type F. Table 2 shows the properties of
HRWR.

38

Table 2. Properties of chemical admixture

ASTM C494 Types F


Standards

EN 934-2 T3.1/3.2
IS 9103: 1999

Mix Design
A number of standard mix proportioning methods
or guidelines are available for conventional Normal
Strength Concrete (NSC). But for the design of HPC the
available methodology is limited. Mix proportioning of
HPC is a more critical process than that of NSC in view
of the high powder content and requirement of the low
water cementitious (binder) ratio. Aitcin suggested a
mix proportion method, based on the combination of
empirical method and absolute volume method. In this
study, Aitcin method is adopted for mix design [10].
The procedure to be followed in designing a concrete mix
is detailed below.
1. A suggestion of water/cementitious materials
ratio can be found by a nomogram (from 40 to 160
MPa at 28 days).
2. Estimation of minimum water dosage, according
to the superplasticizer saturation point.
3. The HRWR dosage can be deduced from the
dosage at the saturation point. If the saturation
point is not known, it is suggested to start with a
trial dosage of 1.0%.
4. The coarse aggregate content can be found
according to its shape. If its shape is not known, a

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Table 3. Details of HPC mixes
Series

w/b

Mix

Water
(kg/m3)

Binder (kg/m3)
Cement

MK

SF

FA

Coarse
aggregates
(kg/m3)

Fine
aggregates
(kg/m3)

HRWR
(l/m3)

Slump
(mm)

0.30

0%

150.36

500

1074.32

718.91

5.50

95

0.30

5% MK

150.36

474.88

24.99

1074.32

718.91

5.50

85

0.30

10% MK

150.36

449.88

49.99

1074.32

714.15

5.50

75

0.30

15% MK

150.36

424.89

74.98

1074.32

709.39

5.50

65

0.30

5% SF

155.36

490.71

25.83

1074.32

684.94

6.34

90

0.30

10% SF

155.36

464.88

51.65

1074.32

676.31

6.34

92.5

0.30

15% SF

155.36

439.05

77.48

1074.32

667.67

6.34

85

0.30

5% FA

155.36

490.71

25.83

1074.32

681.40

7.58

75

0.30

10% FA

155.36

464.88

51.65

1074.32

671.29

7.58

70

0.30

15% FA

155.36

439.05

77.48

1074.32

661.18

7.58

65

content of 1000 kg/m3 of coarse aggregate can be


used to start with.
5. The authors suggest using 1.5% as an initial
estimate of entrapped air content, and then
adjusting it on the basis of the result obtained
with the trial mix.
6. A Mix Design Sheet is presented and should
be completed in order to calculate the mix

150 mm
2 mm
sieve
Capacity
1.2 I
350
mm

O.D = 5 mm

50 mm

Figure 1. Marsh cone

proportion of the materials and establish the first


trial batch proportions.
An attempt made to achieve a desired mix proportioning
executing numerous trial mixes. Table 3 shows the mix
proportion of HPC.

Results and Discussion


Marsh Cone Test
In this research work, Marsh cone testing method is used
for finding the saturation dosage (optimum dosage) for
mix design and comparison of the properties of the cement
paste using different replacement levels of admixtures. It
consists of a hollow metal cone with a small opening at
the bottom, with the dimensions shown in Figure 1. A
reference volume of 1.2 litres comprising cement, water
and admixtures in required proportion poured into the
cone and time taken for 1 litre of grout to flow through
it is determined. Times taken for different replacement
levels of admixtures are noted. When the flow time is
measured with different HRWR dosages expressed as a
percentage of the solids contained in the HRWR to the
cement mass at a given time, a curve is obtained. The
slope of the curve becomes linear at a particular point.
This dosage point is taken as the optimum dosage. The
HRWR dosage corresponding to saturation point is

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T
MK-2.5%
MK-7.5%

65

MK-12.5%

MK -5%
MK -10%
MK -15%

Flow time, sec

60
55
50
45
40

0.6

0.8

1.4

1.2

1.6

1.8

HRWR dosage, as a percentage of cement mass

Figure 2. Flow time as a function fo HRWR dosage (Metakaolin)

SF-2.5%
SF-7.5%

60

SF-12.5%

SF-5%
SF-10%
SF-15%

called the saturation dosage, and the flow time, the flow
time for the saturation dosage. Figures 2 to 4 shows the
variation of flow time with HRWR dosage for different
replacement levels of admixtures with cement. Flow
times decrease with an increase in HRWR dosage and
after a certain dosage as the saturation dosage, remains
practically constant or increase in some cases. This trend
indicates that the fluidity, as expected, increases with an
increase in the HRWR content until the saturation point
and later remains unchanged or decreases. The optimum
dosage of HRWR obtained for MK is in the range of 1.2 %
and for SF and FA it varies from 1.4% to 1.6%. From the
graphs, it have been observed that MK concrete requires
less dosage of HRWR when compared to SF and FA
concrete to achieve similar workability at the same water
binder ratio. In the pastes with FA, the maximum flow
times obtained were about 108 seconds, 63 seconds for
MK and 57 seconds for SF; this is due to the fineness and
specific surface of binder.

Flow time, sec

55
50

Compressive Strength

45

The 100 100 100 mm cube specimens have been used


for compression strength test of HPC. Variations of
compressive strength for 5, 10 and 15% replacement level
of mineral admixtures for different curing ages (1, 3, 7, 14
and 28 days) are shown in Figure 5 to 7. For MK mixes,
there is a rapid increase in strength at different ages, as
the maximum 1 day and 28 days strength of 43.67 and
93.5 MPa respectively. In the case of SF mixes, during
the age of 1, 3 and 7 days, the compressive strength
were high, but lesser than MK mixes. Among the three
replacement levels of SF, 15% replacement showed the
maximum strength of 91.5 MPa at 28 days. In case of
FA mixes, among the three replacement levels, FA 15%
showed the maximum strength of 79.82 at 28 days, which
is much lesser than MK and SF mixes. At the early age
of curing (1, 3, 7 days), the compressive strength of MK
increased quickly, but at the age of 14 days and 28 days,
the compressive strength increased slowly. In the case of
SF, at the ages of 1, 3 and 7 days, SF replacement slightly
reduces the compressive strength. But at the age of 28
days, the compressive strength of the concrete with SF
replacement increased quickly. At the ages of 1, 3, and
7 days, compressive strength of FA were similar to that
of SF replacement, but at the age of 14 days and 28 days,

40
35
30

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

HRWR dosage, as a percentage of cement mass

Figure 3. Flow time as a function fo HRWR dosage (Silica fume)

FA-5%
FA-10%
FA-15%

FA-2.5%
FA-7.5%
FA-12.5%

110

Flow time, sec

100
90
80
70
60
50
40

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

HRWR dosage, as a percentage of cement mass

Figure 4. Flow time as a function fo HRWR dosage (Fly ash)

40

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3 days

7 days

14 days

95
85
75
65
55
45
35
25

MK-0%

MK-05%

MK-10%

3 days

7 days

14 days

85
75
65
55
45
35

1 day

SF-05%

SF-10%

7
6
5

3 days

7 days

14 days

85
75
65
55
45
35
FA-05%

FA-10%

FA-15%

Figure 7. Variation in compressive strength of FA concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

MK-05%

MK-10%

MK-15%

3 days

7 days

14 days

28 days

11
9
8
7
6
5
SF-0%

SF-05%

SF-10%

SF-15%

Figure 9. Variation in flexural strength of SF concretes subjected to


different curing regimes

28 days

95

FA-0%

MK-0%

10

SF-15%

1 day

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

Compressive strength, N/mm 2

9
8

Figure 6. Variation in compressive strength of SF concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

25

10

1 day

25
SF-0%

28 days

11

28 days

95

14 days

Figure 8. Variation in flexural strength of MK concretes subjected to


different curing regimes

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

Compressive strength, N/mm 2

1 day

7 days

12

MK-15%

Figure 5. Variation in compressive strength of MK concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

3 days

1 day

28 days

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

Compressive strength, N/mm 2

1 day

3 days

7 days

14 days

28 days

10
9
8
7
6
5
4

FA-0%

FA-05%

FA-10%

FA-15%

Figure 10. Variation in flexural strength of FA concretes subjected


to different curing regimes

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T
Best Fit

MK

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

11
y=0.294x 0.7867

10

R = 0.901

9
8
7
6
5
40

60

50

70

Compressive strength,

90

80
N/mm 2

FA significantly reduced the compressive strength. After


28 days of curing, the mix with 10% of MK showed the
highest compressive strength (93.5 MPa) compared to all
other mixes and 15% SF showed a compressive strength
of 91.5 MPa as 28 days strength. In the case of FA 15%
replacement levels showed a compressive strength of
79.82 MPa. A noticeable difference is observed between
the rate of strength development at earlier ages of MK
and SF mixes as compared to FA mixes. The faster
strength development at early ages is due to the faster
rate of hydration reaction of MK and SF.

Flexural Strength
Figure 11. Flexural strength vs Compressive strength ( Metakaolin)

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

Best Fit

SF

11
10
9

y=0.396x 0.7117
2

R = 0.8043

7
6
5
4

Split tensile test


25

45

35

55

65

Compressive strength,

85

75

95

N/mm 2

Figure 12. Flexural strength vs Compressive strength ( Silica fume)

Flexural strength, N/mm 2

Best Fit

SF

10

y=0.326x 0.7483

R = 0.8217

8
7

5
35

45

55

75

65

Compressive strength, N/mm

Figure 13. Flexural strength vs Compressive strength ( Fly ash)

42

The 150 300 mm cylinder specimens have been used for


split tensile strength test of HPC. Split tensile strength with
the same replacement levels and age of curing are shown
in Figures 14 to 16. The outcome of the split tensile test is
similar to that of the compressive and flexural strength
pattern. i.e. a maximum tensile strength of 5.61 MPa, 5.28
MPa and 4.33 MPa at 28 days have been achieved for MK
10%, SF 15% and FA 15% mixes respectively. Figure 17 to
19 shows the empirical formulations for the split tensile
strength vs compressive strength for MK, SF and FA
mixes respectively.

Sorptivity

The 100 100 500 mm prism specimens have been used


for flexural strength test of HPC. Flexural strength for 5,
10 and 15% replacement level of mineral admixtures for
different curing ages (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days) are shown
in Figure 8 to 10. A maximum value of 11.01 MPa, 10.91
MPa and 9.01 MPa at 28 days have been achieved for MK
10%, SF 15% and FA 15% mixes respectively. Figure 11
to 13 shows the empirical formulations for the flexural
strength vs compressive strength for MK, SF and FA
mixes respectively.

85

Sorptivity measures the rate of penetration of water


into the pores in concrete by capillary suction. When
cumulative volume of water that has penetrated per unit
surface area of exposure Q is plotted against the square
root of time of exposure, t, the resulting graph could be
approximated by a straight line passing through the origin.

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3 days

14 days

6
5
4
3
2
1
MK-0%

MK-05%

MK-10%

Split tensile strength, N/mm2

1 day

3 days

7 days

14 days

5
4
3
2
SF-0%

SF-05%

SF-10%

y=0.0099x 13951
2

R = 0.8567

5
4
3
2
1

40

50

90

80

70

60

Compressive strength, N/mm

Figure 17. Split tensile strength vs Compressive strength


(Metakaolin)

28 days

MK-15%

Figure 14. Variation in split tensile strength of MK concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

Best Fit

MK

28 days

Split tensile strength, N/mm 2

7 days

SF-15%

Split tensile strength, N/mm 2

Split tensile strength, N/mm2

1 day

Best Fit

SF

y=0.0783x 0.9238

R = 0.9454

4
3
2
1
25

55

45

35

65

75

85

95

Compressive strength, N/mm

Figure 15. Variation in split tensile strength of SF concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

3 days

7 days

14 days

28 days

5
4
3
2
1

5
Split tensile strength, N/mm 2

Split tensile strength, N/mm2

1 day

Figure 18. Split tensile strength vs Compressive strength (Silica


fume)

FA-0%

FA-05%

FA-10%

FA-15%

Best Fit

FA
y=0.0945x 0.8334
2

R = 0.754

3
2
1

35

45

55

75

65

85

Compressive strength, N/mm

Figure 16. Variation in split tensile strength of FA concretes


subjected to different curing regimes

Figure 19. Split tensile strength vs Compressive strength (Fly ash)

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The slope of this straight line is considered as the measure


of rate of movement of water through the capillary pores
and is called sorptivity. In the present research work, the
test for sorptivity have been conducted on 100 mm cubes
by immersing them in water and measuring the gain in
mass at different intervals of time. Table 4 shows that the
sorptivity values for various mixes are in the range of 9.54
x 10-6 to 2.62 x 10-6 m/s.
According to Taywood Engineering, concrete may
classified as shown in Table 6 [11]. A good concrete have
sorptivity in the range of 1.3 x 10-4 m/s.. It is apparent
that sorptivity decreases systematically with an increase
in curing period (from 3 to 28 days), and the gradients
of the sorptivity tends to decrease with increase in the
replacement level of admixtures.

Coefficient of absorption

Table 5. Coefficient of absorption for different mineral


admixtures
Series

Mix

Coefficient of absorption (m2/s) x 10-9


3 days

7 days

14 days

28 days

0%

3.87

3.41

2.94

2.63

5% MK

1.53

1.15

0.88

0.84

10% MK

1.43

0.93

0.70

0.63

15% MK

0.84

0.75

0.73

0.53

5% SF

1.16

0.97

0.78

0.66

10% SF

1.13

0.90

0.85

0.60

15% SF
5% FA
10% FA

1.04
0.90
0.71

0.81
0.82
0.75

0.69
0.64
0.59

0.57
0.42
0.38

15% FA

0.72

0.64

0.58

0.37

1
2

Conclusion

Powers suggested the use of coefficient of absorption as


a measure of the permeability to water for a hardened
concrete [12]. This is measured by the rate of uptake
(capillary absorption) of water by dry concrete in a period
of 60 min. Table 5 shows coefficient of absorption for the
HPC mixes ranging from 0.37 x 10-9 m2/s to 1.53 x 10-9.
Similar to that of sorptivity it is seen that the coefficient
of absorption decreases systematically with an increase
in curing period and the gradients of the coefficient
of absorption tends to decrease with increase in the
replacement level of admixtures.

Based on the experimental investigations carried out in


this research work, the following conclusions have been
drawn.

Marsh Cone Test


As the percentage of replacement level for the
admixtures increases, the flow time increases.
As the specific surface area of mineral admixtures
increases, the flow time decreases.

Compressive Strength

Table 4. Sorptivity for different mineral admixtures


Series

Mix

Sorptivity for different replacement levels

A maximum 28 days compressive strength of


93.5 MPa, 91.5 MPa and 79.82 MPa have been
observed for MK 10%, SF 15% and FA 15% mixes
respectively.

(m/ s) x 10-6

1
2

44

3 days

7 days

14 days

28 days

0%

15.62

12.98

12.06

11.84

5% MK
10% MK
15% MK
5% SF
10% SF
15% SF
5% FA
10% FA
15% FA

9.54
8.94
6.06
7.97
7.60
7.15
5.87
4.60
4.75

7.67
5.71
5.17
6.02
5.72
5.28
5.55
4.87
4.62

6.23
5.31
5.02
5.94
5.36
4.63
4.08
3.89
3.55

6.17
4.36
4.02
4.32
4.05
3.97
2.98
2.77
2.62

Table 6. Quality of concrete suggested by Taywood


Engineering [11]
Concrete Quality

Sorptivity (m/s)
x 10-4

Good

0.13

Acceptable

0.13 to 0.26

Poor

>0.26

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The compressive strength (28 days) of MK mixes is
found to be 1.022 and 1.17 times that of SF and FA
mixes respectively.

Flexural and Split Tensile Strength


The obtained flexural strength (28 days) of MK,
SF and FA mixes forms 11.8%, 11.92% and 11.29%
respectively of its compressive strength (28 days).
Similarly, 6.0%, 5.77% and 5.42% of compressive
strength (28 days) gives the tensile strength of MK,
SF and FA mixes respectively.

Sorptivity and Coefficient of Absorption


The durability properties investigated are found
to be improved by increasing the curing age and
further improved by increase in the replacement
levels of mineral admixtures.
From the results it has been inferred that HPC not only
possess superior strength, but also in durability related
properties.

Reference
1. Shi Hui-sheng Xu, Bi-wan and Zhou Xiao-chen, Influence of mineral
admixtures on compressive strength, gas permeability and carbonation
of high performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials, Vol.
23, pp 19801985
2. Ahmed Tafraoui, Gilles Escadeillas, Soltane Lebaili and Thierry Vidal,
Metakaolin in the formulation of UHPC, Construction and Building
Materials, Vol. 23,pp 669674
3. Hong-Sam Kim Sang-Ho Lee and Han-Young Moon, Strength
properties and durability aspects of high strength concrete using
Korean metakaolin, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, pp
12291237
4. Xiaoqian Qian, Zongjin Li, The relationships between stress and strain
for high-performance concrete with metakaolin, Cement and Concrete
Research Vol.31, pp1607 1611
5. C.S. Poon and L. Lam, Compressive strength, chloride diffusivity
and pore structure of high performance metakaolin and silica fume
concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, pp 858865
6. V.H. Nguyen, S. Remond, J.L. Gallias, J.P. Bigasa, P. Muller, Flow
of HerschelBulkley fluids through the Marsh cone, Journal of NonNewtonian Fluid Mechanics. 139 pp 128134
7. R. Le Roy and N. Roussel, The Marsh Cone as a viscometer: theoretical
analysis and practical limits, Materials and Structures/Materiaux et
Constructions,Vol. 37, Month 2004, pp
8. M. M. Reda Taha, Sorptivity: a reliable measurement for surface
absorption of masonry brick units, Materials and Structures/Materiaux
et Constructions, Vol. 34, pp 438-445
9. Erhan Guneyisi and Kasm Mermerdas, Comparative study on
strength, sorptivity, and chloride ingress characteristics of air-cured
and water-cured concretes modified with metakaolin, Materials and
Structures, Vol. 40, pp 11611171
10. P.C. Aitcin, High Performance Concrete, University of Sherbrooke,
Canada.
11. Taywood Engineering Ltd., Australia (1993), Correspondance to MBT
(Singapore) Pvt. Ltd.
12. Powers T.C., Properties of fresh concrete, New York: Wiley; 1968.

Dr. Karthikeyan Jayakumar is an Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of
Technology, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. His research interests include prestressed concrete bridges, longspan bridges and advancements in concrete technology and materials.

K. Shaheer Ali is a Structural Design Engineer in Mammut Building Systems (A subsidiary of Emaar
Industries), Sharjah, UA.E . His research interest includes Effect of different admixtures in HPC, durability
and microstructural studies in HPC, analysis and design of steel & concrete structures.

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A proposed revision in national standards for limits


on deleterious material (clay lumps) in fine and
coarse aggregate
R.S.Londhe and Chinmay V. Naik

The limitations are laid down on percentage of various deleterious materials in aggregate by most of the national
standards. Moreover, recent researches had shown that these limits are too conservative. In the present paper, an
attempt has been made to study the feasibility of current limits on percentage of clay lumps in fine and coarse aggregate.
Variation of clay lump percentage from 0 to 5% resulted in casting of 66 cube specimens of size (150150150) mm
and testing for its direct compressive strength. The study revealed that the limits on percentage of clay lumps in fine and
coarse aggregate shall be modified as 3% as against limits of various national standards.
Keywords: Concrete; aggregate; deleterious material; clay lumps.

1. Introduction
The properties of aggregate play an important role in
performance of concrete. Some deleterious materials may
present in coarse and fine aggregate. Deleterious substances
are those that are present as minor constituents of either
fine or coarse aggregate but are capable of adversely
affecting the workability, setting and hardening, and
durability characteristics of concrete.All the deleterious
materials are harmful as they react chemically with
cement paste. The main deleterious materials observed in
natural aggregate are as follows:

1.1 Clay and other fine material


Clay may be present in aggregate in the form of surface
coatings which interfere with the bond between
The Indian Concrete Journal, September 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 9, pp. 46-50.

46

aggregate and the cement paste. In addition, to coarse


aggregate coatings, clay particles can also be introduced
as a minor fraction in fine aggregate. In this situation the
fine aggregate particles may have any influence of clay
coatings on coarse aggregates. In real situations, clays
could be present as a part of fine aggregates and as natural
coatings on coarse aggregates and consequently could be
present in concrete in smaller but still significant amounts
affecting the final quality of the concrete.
During the mixing process a fraction of the clay in coarse
aggregate coatings could be released into the aqueous
phase while the rest will remain attached to the surface
of the aggregate. Therefore, less water is available to
hydrate cement compounds or even the formation of this
semi permeable membranes tend to enclose particles of
cement during their hydration. Olotuah. et al studied the

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effect of clayey impurities in sand from Akure metropolis
on Ondo State, Nigeria. For experimentation 10 different
sand samples from different locations had been collected
and 1:2:4 mix ratio was adopted for this experimentation.
It had been discovered that higher the percentage of clay
content in sand sample, higher is the reduction effect on
cube strength [15].
Olanitori conducted an experiment on concrete with
nominal mix of 1:2:4 with varying clay content from 0 to
10% by weight of fine aggregate clay were added externally
to washed, sundried sample of fine aggregate [14]. It had
been found that higher the clay/silt content, higher is
the amount of cement needed to maintain compressive
strength of concrete not less than 20 N/mm2.
Fernandes et.al pointed out the effective use of clay
contaminated with local sand for concrete in developing
countries. In this study, properties of concrete had been
tested with normal sand, with sand containing 20%
substitution of kaolin and sand with 20% substitution
of montmorillonite. Montmorillonite contaminated sand
requires higher w/c ratio as it is having greater surface area
than kaolin. In this investigation further recommendation
of using this local sand with clay content for low cost
housing in developing countries had been done [16].

mechanical strength of the concrete. The organic matters


will interfere with the setting time of cement and also
affect the bond characteristics of aggregates. They may
form cavity or pitting which will reduce density and thus
leads to form pores in concrete.

2. Limits on clay lumps: a review of


codes
Various national standards such as IS 383:1970, ASTM
C 33:2003, BS 882:1993 covers the requirements for
aggregates, derived from natural sources such as
river beds, rocks, glaciers etc. it also specifies limits on
percentage of deleterious materials in coarse and fine
aggregates from natural sources for concrete the limits on
percentage of clay lumps in natural aggregates by various
national standards are as shown in following Table 1.

3. Experimental work [13]


3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Cement, coarse and fine aggregate
The ingredients of concrete i.e. cement, fine aggregate,
coarse aggregate are tested for their physical properties.
Testing of cement in accordance with IS 12269:1987 and
coarse and fine aggregate in accordance with IS 2386:1963
was done the test results are as shown in Tables 2 to 3.

1.2 Low-density matters


These are mainly organic substances (i.e., coal, lignite,
roots, wood, peat moss, humus, and plant compost) in
a more or less advanced state of decomposition. These
substances are very porous, absorbent, and weak, which
may cause various problems of durability, such as
freezing-thawing problems surface discoloration, and
low resistance to abrasion and polishing (pavements and
floors). Coal is undesirable for mainly two reasons: it can
swell causing disruption of concrete and, if present in
large quantities in a finely divided form, it can disturb
the process of hydration of cement paste.

1.3 Organic matters


Various organic substances, such as sugar, humic acid
(released by plants), and fulvic acid, quickly fix the lime
in cement and tend to delay the hardening of concrete,
sometimes by several days. These materials reduce the

3.1.2 Super plasticizer and water


Conplast SP 43- the chloride free, super plasticizer based
on sulphonated naphthalene polymers having specific
gravity 1.18 at 22C + 2C was used for experimentations.
Conplast SP 430 conforms to ASTM C494 as Type A and
Type F, depending on dosage used. Potable laboratory
tap water was used for mixing and curing of concrete.

Table 1. Limits on deleterious material by various


national standards.
Specification of
deleterious material

Indian
standards
IS 383:1970

American
standards
ASTM C 33

Clay lumps in fine


aggregate

1.00%

1.00%

Clay lumps in coarse


aggregate

1.00%

2.00%

British
standards
BS 882:1993

Not
specified

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TECHNICAL PAPER

Table 2. Physical properties of cement

Table 4. Quantities of ingredients of concrete

Description

Test Result

Fineness of cement

3.12%

Specific gravity

3.15%

Standard constancy of cement

30%
66 N/mm2

Compressive Strength (After 28 Days)

Proportion by Weight

Quantity (kg/m3)

Cement

1.00

418.5

Water content

0.40

167.0

Fine aggregate

1.65

688.5

Coarse aggregate

3.07

1285.7

Super plasticizer

0.0060

2.5

Material

Table 3. Physical properties of fine and coarse aggregate


Description

Test Results
Fine
aggregate

Coarse
aggregate

Fineness modulus

3.76

8.22

Specific gravity

2.88

2.74

Surface moisture

0.0%

0.0%

Water absorption

1.0%

1.0%

Deleterious material (clay lumps)

0.78%

0.01%

3.2 Mix proportion


Indian Standard (IS 10262:2009) [5] method of mix
proportioning was used for mix proportioning. The
standard concrete (expected compressive strength
of 40 N/mm2) is considered as reference concrete for
comparing the results. The quantities of ingredients and
mix proportions as per mix design were as shown in
Table 4.

3.3 Test Specimens


The variation of clay lumps in fine aggregate is done from
0% to 5%. This has resulted in casting of 66 cube specimen
of size (150150150) mm for a curing period of 7 and
28 days. The mix M1 represents the concrete with clean
aggregates (0% clay lumps in fine and coarse aggregate)
mix M2 to M6 represents concrete with 1% to 5% clay
lumps in fine aggregate and mix M7 to M11 represents
concrete with 1% to 5% clay lumps in coarse aggregate.

3.4 Casting and testing of Specimens


The effect of clay lumps variation in fine and coarse
aggregate on compressive strength of concrete is the
main objective of the experimentations. The variation

48

Table 5. Compressive strength of concrete (clay lumps in


fine aggregate)
Mix
designation

Percentage of
clay lumps in
fine aggregate

Compressive
strength
(N/mm2)

Percentage
decrease in
compressive
strength

7
Days

28
Days

7
Days

28
Days

M1

0.00

32.20

47.36

0.00

0.00

M2

1.00

29.01

43.68

9.91

7.77

M3

2.00

28.79

42.45

10.59

10.37

M4

3.00

26.20

40.42

18.63

14.65

M5

4.00

23.72

37.04

26.34

21.79

M6

5.00

21.09

30.95

34.50

34.65

of clay lumps in natural aggregate is not unique. Hence


for experimentations, the washed sundried aggregate
samples were used with inclusion of clay lumps by weight
aggregate externally. The cast specimens were cured in
water for a curing period of 7 and 28 days. The testing
has been done confirming to IS 516:1959 using digital
compression testing machine (CTM) of capacity 2000 KN
and having least count of 0.1 KN.

4. Results and Discussions [13]


4.1 Compressive strength
The results of compressive strength test for various
percentages of clay lumps in fine and coarse aggregate
are presented in Table 5 and Table 6. The test results were
compared with compressive strength of concrete with
clean aggregates (free from clay lumps).
The compressive strength of concrete at 7 and 28 days
reduces as the percentage of clay lumps in fine aggregate

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TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 6. Compressive strength of concrete (clay lumps in
coarse aggregate)
Mix
designation

Percentage of
clay lumps
in coarse
aggregate

Compressive
strength
(N/mm2)

Percentage
decrease in
compressive
strength

7
days

28
days

7
days

28
days

M1

0.00

32.20

47.36

0.00

0.00

M7

1.00

28.82

42.85

10.50

9.52

M8

2.00

28.01

42.01

13.01

11.30

M9

3.00

25.23

39.71

21.65

16.15

M10

4.00

23.09

35.91

28.29

24.18

M11

5.00

19.89

29.45

38.23

37.82

increases. The percentage decrease in compressive


strength was significantly observed after 3%. IS 383:1970
and ASTM C 33-2003 suggests the limits on clay lumps
in fine aggregate as 1 % which results 7.77 % decrease in
compressive strength of concrete.
The compressive strength of concrete goes on decreasing
in significant amount with addition of clay lumps in
coarse aggregate. It was seen from test results, change in
compressive strength for 2 and 3% is almost the same.
IS 383:1970 suggests the limits on clay lumps in coarse
aggregate as 1 % which results 9.52 % decrease in
compressive strength of concrete. Percentage decrease
in compressive strength in 3% clay lumps variation
in fine and coarse aggregate is within range of 15 % in
comparison with reference concrete.

4.2 Proposed revision for limits on


percentage of clay lumps in fine and coarse
aggregate
The present investigation suggests the following revised
limitations on clay lumps percentage in fine and coarse
aggregate as shown in Table 7.
The difference between the present limits and suggested
limits for percentage of clay lumps in fine and coarse
aggregate and percentage of particles finer than 75 in
fine aggregate are in significant amount. Therefore this
revision will avoid the rejection of natural aggregate
samples and leads to economical and environmental
usage of natural aggregates.

Table 7. Suggested revised limits on percentage of clay


lumps in aggregate
Specification of
deleterious material

Indian
standards
(IS 383:1970)

American
standards
(ASTM
C33:2003)

Suggested
revised
limits

Clay lumps in fine


aggregate

1.0%

1.0%

3.0%

Clay lumps in coarse


aggregate

1.0%

2.0%

3.0%

5. Conclusions
The experimentation with variation of percentage of clay
lumps in fine and coarse aggregate used for concrete
reveals following inferences:
1. The compressive strength of concrete reduces
in significant amount as the percentage of clay
lumps in fine and coarse aggregate increases.
2. The limits should be raised to 3 % for percentage
of clay lumps in fine and coarse aggregate. This
proposed revision will not affect the compressive
strength of concrete more than 15 %.
3. The proposed revision will result in economical
usage of natural aggregates thus minimizing cost
of project and environmental issues.

References
1. A.M. Neville, Properties of concrete, J. Wiley, New York, 1996.
2. American standard specification for concrete aggregates, ASTM C
33,Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials,
2003.
3. British standard specification for aggregates from natural sources for
concrete, BS 882-1992 British standard institutions, London.
4. C. Arum and A.O. Olotuah, Making of strong and durable concrete, Emirates
Journal for Engineering Research, 11 (1), 25-31 (2006).
5. Indian standard recommended guidelines for concrete mix proportioning, IS
10262-2009, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
6. Indian standard specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland cement, IS
12269-1987, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
7. Indian standard specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural
sources for concrete, IS 383-1970, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
8. Indian standard specification for method of test for aggregate, IS 2386-1963,
Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
9. Jose F Munoz,M. Isabel Tejedor Marc A. Anderson, Expanded study on the
effects of aggregate coating and films on concrete performance, final report
The Wisconsin Department Of Transportation, October 2007.

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TECHNICAL PAPER
10. Justin K. Norvell, Influence of clays and clay-sized particles on concrete
performance, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE/ Dec. 2007.
11. Lea F. M., Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Edward Arnold Publishers,
London, 1956.
12. Mehta, P. K., and Monteiro P. J. M., Concrete: Structure, properties and
materials, Prentice Hall, N. J., 1993.
13. Naik C.V. and Londhe R.S., Experimental investigation on effect of
deleterious material in aggregate on compressive strength of concrete, M.
E. Dissertation, Department of Applied Mechanics, Government College of
Engineering, Aurangabad, January (2014) .

14. Olanitori L.M., Mitigating the effect of clay content of sand on concrete
strength, 31st Conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures; 15-17
August 2006, Singapore. pp 344- 352.
15. Olotuah A.O. and Olanitori L.M., The effect of clayey impurities in sand on
the crushing strength of concrete (a case study of sand in Akure metropolis,
Ondo State, Nigeria), Proceedings of 30th Conference on Our World in
Concrete and Structures, Singapore, 23-24 August. pp 373-376.
16. V.A. Fernandes, P. Purnell, G.T. Still, T.H. Thomas, The effect of clay content
in sands used for cementitious materials in developing countries, Cement
and Concrete Research 37 (2007) 751758.

Dr. R. S. Londhe holds a B.E. in civil engineering from Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, M.E. in
structural engineering from Government College of Engineering, Pune and PhD in structural engineering
from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand. He is an Associate Professor of Applied
Mechanics, Department of Applied Mechanics, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad,
Maharashtra. He has more than 25 years of experience in teaching and administration. His areas of
expertise and research interest include, high-rise buildings, reinforced and prestressed concrete, structural
dynamics and earthquake engineering and structural reliability. He has published number of papers in
national and international journals and conferences.

Chinmay V. Naik holds a B.E. in civil engineering from University of Pune and Masters in structural
engineering from Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad. He is an Assistant Professor in
Department of Civil engineering at S.S.P.Ms Someshwar Engineering College, Baramati, Maharashtra.
His areas of interest are properties of aggregates, microstructure of concrete, fiber reinforced concrete and
development of spreadsheets for structural analysis and design.

50

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POINT OF VIEW

Earthquake safety of houses in India : Understanding


the bottlenecks in implementation
Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar and C.V. R. Murty

According to current seismic zone map around 60%


of Indias land area is prone to moderate to severe
earthquakes. And earthquake losses, in terms of life and
property in last 2 decades have been high, with housing
contributing to over 95% of life loss; this failure attributed
to improper design and construction practices of housing.
Thus, all the three factors influencing earthquake risk of
houses in India are above danger levels in many districts
of India hazard, exposure and vulnerability. This paper
classifies housing risk in the entire country into four
groups; about 47% of population is living in the highest
risk. Gigantic effort is required to mitigate the risk. The
paper also suggests some steps to move forward to reduce
earthquake risk to housing in India.

1. EARTHQUAKE RISK OF HOUSING


Earthquake Risk is the projected aggregated effect of the
expected number of lives lost, persons injured, property
damaged and economic activity disrupted due to an
expected strong earthquake in an area. Usually, it is
represented as the product of the prevalent earthquake
hazard (H) of the area, the number of persons exposed to
the earthquake hazard (E), and the known vulnerability
(V) of the houses in that area, as:

...(1)

Each of these components of risk has its own characteristics,


which can be spatial (e.g., hazard) temporal (e.g.,
exposure) and thematic (e.g., vulnerability of houses).

1.1 Seismic Hazard (H)


Earthquake Hazard is defined as the potential threat of
occurrence of a damaging earthquake, within the design
life of the house in a given area. The hazard due to an
earthquake can be reflected by expected intensity of
ground shaking (quantified by PGA, PGV and PGD), soil
liquefaction, surface fault rupture and slope instability.
India has experienced several major earthquakes in the
past few decades and according to IS 1893 (Part I):2007
around 60% (12% in Zone V, 18% in Zone IV, 26% in Zone
III and 44% in Zone II) of its landmass is prone to moderate
to severe earthquake shaking intensity. Especially, in the
last 23 years, the country has witnessed several moderate
earthquakes (Table 1) (Bihar-Nepal border (M6.4) in
1988, Uttarkashi (M6.6) in 1991, Killari (M6.3) in 1993,

Table 1. Human fatalities during past earthquake events


Year

Location

1988

Bihar

1991

Uttarkashi

1993

Killari

1997

Jabalpur

1999

Chamoli

2001

Bhuj

Casualties

Buildings Collapsed

1,004

2,50,000

768

42,400

8,000

30,000

38

8,546

100

2,595

13,805

2,31,000

2004

Sumatra

10,805

2005

Kashmir

~1,500

4,50,000

2006

Sikkim

Not available

Not available

[Murty, 2007; Sebeer et al, 1993; Jain et al, 1994; Jain et al, 1997; Jain et al, 1999;
Jain et al, 2001; Jain et al, 2005; Murty and Rai, 2005; Murty et al, 2011; Murty et
al, 2012]

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

51

POINT OF VIEW
Jabalpur (M6.0) in 1997, Chamoli (M6.8) in 1999, Bhuj
(M6.9) in 2001, Sumatra (M8.9) and Kashmir (M7.6) in
2005) caused around 40,000 fatalities due to collapse
of buildings. Seismic Hazard Assessment quantifies
the physical expression of the hazard, in the form of
intensity of earthquake shaking. Rational understanding
of the seismic hazard of the different areas is critical to a
meaningful risk assessment exercise.
Figure 1 shows the seismic activity in India from 1819
to 2009. There is a noticeable increment in the number
of earthquakes especially after 1950. Also, the fault
map of India (Figure 2) suggests the landmass is highly
fragmented by faults and the likelihood of damaging
earthquakes taking place at different areas. A seismic
zone map is expected to provide the levels of earthquake
shaking expected in different areas.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has been publishing

region. The second map was published in 1966 (Figure


3b). This map also is based on intensities experienced
during past earthquakes. Some portion of peninsular
India was upgraded from zone 0 to zone I. The third
revision of the seismic hazard map was in 1970 after
1969 Koyna earthquake (M6.5). This map divided India
into five seismic zones from zone I to zone V based upon
MSK Intensity Scale, again based on historically observed
intensities in these areas. Concept of seismic zone 0 was
abolished in support to the fact that there is no region
in India with probability of an earthquake equal to zero
(Figure 3c).
After the 1993 Killari earthquake and 1997 Jabalpur
earthquake, the researchers showed interest to develop
a comprehensive seismic hazard map of the country.
But the fifth revision of IS 1893:2002 that took place
immediately after the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake
did not bring new rationale. In this revision four zones

seismic hazard maps since 1962. The first map of 1962


identified seven zones (Figure 3a). The division of seismic
zones was based upon the Maximum Mercalli Intensities
(MMI) of earthquakes experienced in the past in each
area. These were named Zone 0, I, II, III, IV, V and VI.

SEISMIC FAULTS

The Peninsular India was said to be stable and aseismic

No. of earthquakes ( M w >3.5 )

120
100
80
LEGEND

60

Fault
Sub-surface fault
Shear zone
Neotectonic fault

40
20
0
1840 1860 1880 1990 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2002
Years

Figure 1. Past earthquake events in India in last 160 years

52

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Thrust
Neotectonic thrust
Trench axis
Suture
Normal fault
Strike slip fault
Volcano

Figure 2. Map showing major faults in India ( Based on GSI, 2003)

POINT OF VIEW

IS 1893:1962

IS 1893:1966

(b)

(a)

IS 1893:1984

IS 1893:2002

(d)

Figure 3. Sketches of seismic zone maps of India (Based on IS 1893-1962, 1966,1984 and 2007)

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

53

POINT OF VIEW
were adopted namely zones II, III, IV and V (Figure 3d).
The erstwhile areas under zone I were merged with areas
in Zone II. Zone II is said to experience low intensities
of shaking and zone V high. Most of peninsular region
is shown under zone II and III. Zone I was completely
discarded in this revision. This map only tells about the
intensity experienced in the past, but not the intensity
of shaking expected in the future. It does not address
another concern, namely what is the maximum shaking
intensity that is likely to occur during the life of a house
in a certain area of the country. But, for a common man
the value of probability is not important. It is necessary to
know the worst intensity of shaking that his house should
be designed for so that he is safe during that expected
design event. Table 2 gives the projected intensities of
shaking in different seismic zones in India.

2007], the housing shortage is estimated to be about 25


million. And according to 2011 Census [MHA, 2011],
Indian urban population constitutes 32.25%. However,
it is increasing at an alarming rate of 4% per year. The
number and proportion of cities with a population of one
million or more has grown significantly in recent decades.
From 12 in 1981 with 26.8% share of the total population,
the number of million-plus cities has increased to 35 in
2001 with 37% share of the total urban population. In
addition housing shortage is already higher in urban
areas, notwithstanding the ever increasing population
densities. Figure 4 shows the district-wise spatial
distribution of population density in India. Population
in India is distributed unevenly with minimum of 50
persons per km2 in some districts and up to 14000 persons
per km2 in some other districts.

1.2 Exposure (E)

Currently, there are over 300 million census houses


as per Census 2011 of India [MHA, 2011]. The increase
with respect to previous decade is around 18-25%; it is
showing a decreasing trend (Table 3). But, the absolute
number of houses is rising; the decadal increment of the
houses added with respect to the building stock in 1961
has been increasing since independence. The last decade
of 2001-2011 shows an increase of about 43.8%. This has

Presently, India is home for about 1.2 billion people.


Over the last six decades, there has been a great shift of
population from rural to urban areas, thus increasing the
densities of population in urban areas. This suggests that
about 300 million houses are necessary to house them.
According to National Housing Policy 2007 [MoHUAPA,

Table 2. Intensity corresponding to different zones as per


IS 1893 (Part I)-2007 and number of houses in each zone
Population Density

Zone

Seismic Zone
Factor (Z)

Shaking
Intensity

Houses
Number

% of total

II

0.10

VI (or lower)

4,39,86,517

17.78%

III

0.16

VII

11,58,68,042

46.86

IV

0.24

VIII

6,32,83,128

25.60

0.36

IX (or higher)

2,41,44,350

9.76

Table 3. Housing stock in India [source: census of India,


2001]
0 - 2000
2001 - 4000

Year of
Census

Number of
Houses

1961

10,98,00,000

1971

13,70,00,000

24.80

24.77

24.77

1981

17,08,00,000

24.67

55.56

30.79

1991

21,16,00,000

23.85

92.71

37.15

2001

25,68,00,000

21.35

133.88

41.17

2011

30,48,82,448

18.69

177.67

43.79

4001 - 6000
> 6000
Persons/km 2

Figure 4. Population density in districts of India (Based on census of


India, 2011)

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The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

Increase (%)
From
previous
decade

Cumulative
since 1961

Decadal
Increment
since 1961

POINT OF VIEW
led to shortage of technical manpower to undertake the
construction work, in addition to shortage of construction
materials. Figure 5 shows district-wise spatial distribution
of housing densities. Rural districts have up to 100 houses
per km2, towns 1000-1500 km2, cities 1500-2500 houses
per km2 and urban centers and metro go as high as 7000
houses per km2. As per 2011 census, district-wise density
of housing is higher near urban areas. Many of these high
density areas also lie in moderate to high seismic zones.

Housing Density

1.3 Vulnerability (V)


Earthquake vulnerability of a house is the amount of
expected damage induced to it by a certain level of
earthquake intensity. The earthquake performances of
the buildings, especially in the last two decades (Table 1),
indicate around 40,000 human fatalities caused primarily
by collapse of buildings. Except for Killari earthquake, all
other events occurred in known moderate to high seismic
zones. Damage caused to these buildings is unreasonably
high compared to any other country for similar level
of ground shaking. Serious departures are observed
especially in performance of RC buildings. During the

0 - 500
501 - 1500
1501 - 2500
> 2500
Houses/km2

Figure 5. Housing density in districts of India (Based on census of


India, 2011)

Table 4. Housing with roof and wall material from 2011 census of India
S.No

Item

Number of Houses (Census 2011)


Rural

Urban

India

%
15.02

Roof Material

Grass/Thatch/Bamboo/Wood..

33,126,016

19.94

3,611,906

4.60

36,737,922

Plastic/ Polythene

1,047,533

0.63

500,251

0.64

1,547,784

0.63

Hand made Tiles

30,386,085

18.29

4,863,880

6.20

35,249,965

14.41

Machine made Tiles

17,307,198

10.42

5,503,054

7.01

22,810,252

9.32

Burnt Brick

11,990,029

7.22

4,231,255

5.39

16,221,284

6.63

Stone/Slate

14,746,138

8.87

6,222,441

7.93

20,968,579

8.57

G.I./Metal/Asbestos sheets

26,522,852

15.96

12,476,710

15.90

38,999,562

15.94

Concrete

30,423,701

18.31

40,764,887

51.94

71,188,588

29.10

Any other

607,051

0.37

310,595

0.40

917,646

0.38

Grand Total

166,156,603

100.00

78,484,979

100.00

244,641,582

100.00

Wall Material

Grass/thatch/bamboo etc.

26,417,331

12.79

2,530,263

2.57

28,947,594

9.49

Plastic/ Polythene

762,256

0.37

335,575

0.34

1,097,831

0.36

Mud/unburnt brick

58,330,614

28.24

8,119,213

8.26

66,449,827

21.80

Wood

2,132,342

1.03

648,929

0.66

2,781,271

0.91

G.I./metal/asbestos sheets

1,269,359

0.61

1,062,510

1.08

2,331,869

0.76

Burnt brick

83,618,436

40.48

62,927,369

64.00

146,545,805

48.07

Stone

28,685,790

13.89

14797142

15.05

43,482,932

14.26

Concrete

3,699,096

1.79

7,284,583

7.41

10,983,679

3.60

Any other

1,648,466

0.80

613,174

0.62

2,261,640

0.74

Grand Total

206,563,690

100.00

98,318,758

100.00

304,882,448

100.00

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

55

POINT OF VIEW
Table 5. Housing with roof and wall material from 2001 census of India
S.No

Item

Rural

Urban

Total

No. of Houses

No. of Houses

No. of Houses

Roof Material
1

Gross, thatch, bamboo, wood

4,88,12,470

27.49

45,73,534

6.94

5,33,86,004

21.19

Tiles, slates or shingles

6,52,99,492

36.78

1,25,91,573

19.12

8,11,44,290

32.21

Brick, stone lime

2,18,34,160

12.30

41,47,242

6.30

3,12,28,354

12.40

GI metal, asbestos sheets

1,86,65,296

10.51

1,18,21,919

17.95

3,04,87,215

12.10

Concrete, RBC/RCC

2,10,61,294

11.86

3,17,77,933

48.25

5,28,39,227

20.98

Plastic, Polythene

6,69,815

0.38

5,03,956

0.77

11,73,771

0.47

All other material not stated

11,94,986

0.67

4,50,682

0.68

16,45,668

0.65

10

Total

17,75,37,513

100

6,58,66,839

100

25,19,04,529

100

Wall Material
1

Gross, thatch, bamboo, wood

2,21,62,932

12.50

25,74,189

3.60

2,47,37,121

9.93

Mud, un-burnt bricks

6,58,07,212

37.13

79,91,950

11.17

7,37,99,162

29.63

Wood

23,63,200

1.33

8,33,792

1.17

31,96,992

1.28

Burnt Brick

6,25,15,919

35.27

4,91,75,710

68.72

11,18,91,629

44.92

GI Sheets of other metal Sheets

7,76,677

0.44

11,22,001

1.57

19,98,678

0.80

Stone

2,03,47,899

11.48

51,33,918

7.17

2,54,81,817

10.23

Cement Concrete

22,53,979

1.27

42,86,359

5.99

65,40,338

2.63

Plastic, Polythene

4,77,498

0.27

2,44,278

0.34

7,21,776

0.29

All other material not stated

5,32,197

0.30

1,96,159

0.27

7,28,356

0.29

10

Total

17,72,37,513

100

7,15,58,356

100

20,90,95,869

100

Table 6. Housing with roof and wall material from 1991 census of India
S.No

Item

Rural

Urban

Total

No. of Houses

No. of Houses

No. of Houses

Roof Material
1

Gross, thatch, bamboo, wood

5,32,76,234

37.26

58,27,404

12.56

5,91,03,638

29.46

Tiles, slates or shingles

5,49,23,205

38.41

1,22,86,604

26.49

6,72,09,809

33.50

Bricks, stone or lime

1,36,04,738

9.51

56,35,042

12.15

2,45,29,786

12.23

GI metal, asbestos sheets

99,28,111

6.94

45,67,502

9.85

2,04,32,153

10.19

Concrete, RBC/RCC

64,45,758

4.51

1,63,11,517

35.16

2,27,57,275

11.34

All other material not stated

48,08,404

3.36

17,59,044

3.79

65,67,448

3.27

Total

14,29,86,450

100

4,63,87,113

100

20,06,00,109

100

Wall Material

56

Gross, thatch, bamboo, wood

1,70,56,489

11.93

25,31,939

5.07

1,95,88,428

9.55

Mud, un-burnt bricks

6,72,18,236

47.01

54,22,316

10.85

8,48,10,594

41.34

Wood

17,95,840

1.26

10,70,553

2.14

28,66,393

1.40

Burnt Brick

3,66,46,602

25.63

3,22,50,772

64.53

6,88,97,374

33.59

GI Sheets of other metal Sheets

2,51,910

0.18

7,64,956

1.53

10,16,866

0.50

Stone

1,72,84,400

12.09

44,19,591

8.84

2,17,03,991

10.58

Cement Concrete

11,55,760

0.81

28,00,780

5.60

39,56,540

1.93

Ekra

2,01,039

0.14

53,869

0.11

2,54,908

0.12

All other material not stated

13,76,176

0.96

6,66,373

1.33

20,42,549

1.00

10

Total

14,29,86,452

100

4,99,81,149

100

20,51,37,643

100

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

POINT OF VIEW
2001 Bhuj earthquake, they collapsed at an intensity of
shaking of VII, when MSK scale expects them to collapse
only after intensity IX of ground shaking. Thus, there is
urgent need to understand the housing risk in the country
to minimize the future losses of life and property.
1.3.1 Choice of Building Materials
The choice of materials used in construction throughout
the country is shown in Table 4; the choice for natural
materials is high. In the choice of roofing material, around
75% of houses in rural areas use natural and locally
available material for construction; in the remaining 25%
houses cement-based materials are used. On the contrary,
in urban areas, cement-based materials are upto 50% and
naturally available material the remaining 50%. For the
wall, 90% of houses use natural material only, But, in
urban areas, it is up to 10%. Tables 5 and 6 describe the
materials used in construction of roof and wall in 2001
and 1991 respectively. Comparing the materials used, use
of grass, thatch, bamboo and wood in roofing dropped
from around 30% in 1991 census to 21% in 2001 census.
During the same period, usage of concrete increased
from 11.34% to 20.98%. Also, plastics have found place in
construction in 2001 which were absent earlier. A similar
situation is seen also in the choice of material for wall
construction. But, earthquake resistance of the newly
introduced materials remains to be understood when
used for structural purposes. The dominant materials
of choice for roofing in rural areas are: 27.49% of grass,
thatch, bamboo, wood; 36.78% of slates & shingles; 12.3%
of mud stone or lime and 11.86% of concrete. In urban
areas, concrete is used for roofing in 48.25% cases. And,
the dominant material of choice for walling in rural areas
is: 12.5% of grass, thatch, bamboo, wood; 37.13% of slates
& shingles; 35.27% of burnt brick; and 1.27% of concrete.
And in urban areas burnt and un-burnt brick together is
75.55%.

with different materials e.g., brick walls in mud/lime


mortar, tiled roofing on wooden rafters, and doors and
windows made out of local wood. These technologies
were cost effective and were especially suited to rural
areas. Most materials used were available locally, like
bricks stones, lime wooden joinery roofing tiles, and
flooring stones. These houses stood for decades, and
many were environment friendly and conserved energy.
But, over the last two decades, many new materials and
building technologies were introduced first in urban
areas and later they found their way in rural areas. While
taking these technologies to rural areas, adequate caution
was not exercised. Hence, in many instances, advanced
technologies were thrust into rural areas without preparing
the people on the consequences of poor implementation
without engineering judgment. For, instance, burnt clay
brick in cement masonry was used in constructing walls
and RC slabs in roofs, in the second storey of a house
made in random rubble masonry in mud mortar in the
first storey.

2. HOUSING threat FACTOR (HTF)


Housing threat factor is defined as the cumulative of
the hazard at the site and exposure in the housing. This
definition is necessary to understand a possible scenario
where the housing in the country without earthquake
resistant feature is fully vulnerable to seismic shaking.
This is supported by the fact that 95% of the losses of
lives are generally in low rise housing and that about 97%
housing in India are masonry and non-engineered.
A housing threat factor is used to understand the overall
status of housing in India. This factor is obtained by
multiplying seismic zone factor (Z) of the seismic zone
by number of houses per km2 for each district in India
(Figure 6). Table 7 shows typical values of some districts
in India. The country is divided into four threat levels,
i.e.,

1.3.2 Choice of Building Systems

Level IV : Very high threat (HTF 2,00,000-6,00,000)

In India, numerous housing typologies are adopted;


each of them has many sub-typologies. In early years
after Independence, artisans, and carpenters, were easily
available with hands-on experience having constructed
houses of certain typology. They had skills and knowhow on traditional technologies of house construction

Level III : High threat (HTF 1,00,000-2,00,000)


Level II : Moderate threat (HTF

20,000-1,00,000)

Level I : Low threat (HTF < 20,000)


Level IV threat areas are those with high hazard and
higher population densities. Low housing risk areas are
The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

57

POINT OF VIEW
those with low hazard and moderate to low population
densities.

2.1 How to Use the HTF Index


Threat assessment results in a quantitative index (it does
not have any physical significance) that gives a qualitative
feel of the level of severity of the problem. The actual
process of risk assessment is a detailed exercise and time
consuming. Even to begin such an exercise, a basis is
needed to start work of risk assessment from one quarter
and move forward. For instance, it is necessary to know
which districts have relatively larger problem compared
to all the districts in seismic zones III, IV and V. Therefore,
a simple measure is required to set a priority for starting
the formal initiatives of quantification of risk and then
taking up the mitigation initiatives. Proposed Housing
Threat Factor gives a broad idea of relative status of each
district (and not about individual houses) and where the
work can be started urgently.
The HRF index should be employed only to prioritize
the districts of the nation, so that national agencies can
concentrate their efforts and resources to build earthquake
resistance in housing in these districts to begin with.
Based on lessons learnt while implementing specific
housing initiatives in these districts, necessary changes

58

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

may be made in strategies, methodologies and resource


allocation to improve the implementation of housing
safety initiatives. The Housing Threat Factor index may
be used by:
(a) Housing ministries of central and state
governments in India,
(b) District Magistrates of critical districts with high
housing risk,
(c) NDMA, SDMAs, DDMAs, and municipal bodies,
(d) NGOs working in housing sector,
(e) architect and engineer professionals, and
(f) architects and civil engineering academia.

3. UNDERTAKING MITIGATION EFFORTS IN


INDIA
With 65 years gone after Indias independence, the subject
of earthquake safety is still NOT in the mandatory part of
the architecture and engineering education curriculum
across India. The matter re-iterated to the senior academics,
bureaucrats and policy makers to build the requisite

Table 7. Housing threat factor of select districts of India


District

State

HRF

Greater Bombay

Maharashtra

544,735

North 24 Panganas

West Bengal

446,074

Pune

Maharashtra

413,882

Medinipur

West Bengal

394,542

Thane

Maharashtra

377,690

South 24 Panganas

West Bengal

330,041

Barddhaman

West Bengal

284,887

Murshidabad

West Bengal

277,718

Jalpaiguri

West Bengal

270,831

Madhubani

Bihar

269,774

Ahmadabad

Gujarat

245,830

Purbi Champaran

Bihar

238,538

Muzaffarpur

Bihar

233,549

Kamrup

Assam

216,099

Surat

Gujarat

214,061

Darbhanga

Bihar

212,412

Haora

West Bengal

212,324

Samastipur

Bihar

208,974

Koch Bihar

West Bengal

208,110

Hugli (Chunchura)

West Bengal

207,631

POINT OF VIEW
systems to develop over the next two decades the large
manpower necessary to address earthquake safety of
the country. Post-earthquake emergency response alone
(which is the current strategy) will not solve the problem;
mitigation (i.e., safer constructions) actions need to be
taken urgently, if the country wishes to reduce the loss of
life in upcoming earthquakes.

masonry. And hence there is a great need to reflect this


need in undergraduate curriculum. Variety of Civil
engineering curricula are practiced by various universities
and institutes across the country. Comprehensive review
of these curricula is required to include a) traditional
construction technologies and b) at least a minimum
mandatory curriculum that prepares graduates to meet
the needs of the nation.

3.1 Bottlenecks in Implementation in the Past


Impediments to successful implementation are many.
It would be unfair to claim that there is a single list
of bottlenecks that arise in implementing mitigation
initiatives. In this paper, a partial list is presented of
some of the important concerns that arise on the various
mitigation initiatives. Table 8 presents this representative
list.

3.2 Appeal to Urgently Implement Mitigation


Initiatives in India
The earthquake risk to housing in India is largely
attributed to the choice of building material and
typologies. Around 90% of houses in the country were
made with natural materials. But, this is in great contrast
with the emphasis of the current civil engineering and
architectural education imparted across India. In light of
this the following critical initiatives are re-iterated:
3.2.1 Overhaul of Curriculum
The construction material is taught in at best 1 course
out of 30 plus courses credited by (~3% of the courses)
undergraduate civil engineering students. In particular,
the course on masonry is almost extinct in the curriculum
across the engineering colleges in the country. On the
other hand, 97% of the curriculum is addressing the small
minority of 2.6% of reinforced concrete houses in the
country. This is when masonry is still the most widely used
material in construction of houses and other buildings.
The present undergraduate courses provide almost
no exposure to structural design of masonry. Recent
advances in masonry units and use of reinforcement
in masonry requires students to be formally trained in
behavior and design of structural masonry. Further,
many heritage structures built with variety of masonry
types used to be preserved for future generations. These
require greater skill and understanding of behavior of

3.2.2 Train Manpower


There is a serious shortage of quality trained manpower,
from faculty members, engineers, architects who are
familiar with best housing practices. After 2001 Bhuj
Earthquake, MHRD supported an initiative for 3 years
to train teacher of engineering colleges in earthquake
engineering. Many faculty members and students got
benefitted through the program, the National Program
on Earthquake Engineering Education (NPEEE). The
duration of the program was not sustained long enough
to create requisite human resources to address the needs.
Another such effort was made by Ministry of Home
Affairs (MHA) to train large number of architects and
engineers, but was again for limited duration. Some
agencies like National Academy of Construction initiated
certificate programs for masons and bar-benders. But,
this needs to reach the larger populace of the artisans. All
relevant ministries of central government of India should
undertake long term program to train (in many cycles)
the professionals and artisans. Focused PhD program
with the housing agenda should be launched.
3.2.3 Share Best Practices
Technology development paves way to all-round growth.
Although the triumphs of technology marvels are
celebrated, maintaining technology to the contemporary
needs and its sustainability is often ignored. Current
construction practices are not in consonance with
the required pace of sustainable development. Large
workforce is shifting from rural to urban areas, and with
this the art of traditional construction is lost. At the same
time, these workers are not trained enough to handle
the new materials. As a result, best construction practices
are being lost and/or not imparted. There is a great need
to preserve the good construction practices. Processes of
constructing houses of different typologies need to be

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

59

POINT OF VIEW
Table 8. Some impediments to implementing earthquake disaster mitigation initiatives in India
S.No.

Item to be
implemented

Bottleneck

Way forward

A. Technical Issues
A.1 CAPACITY BUILDING :: Introducing Earthquake Engineering Components in Technical Education
1

Change curriculum

Lack of slots in B.Tech. and B.Arch. programs


for introducing additional technical content
related to earthquake safety

Train teachers

Cannot get leave to attend extended


programs of up to 1 year

Undertake a national campaign to recruit additional teachers,


who will be training before joining the university/institute

Prepare teaching
resource materials

Lack of even basic books on earthquake


hazard, behaviour of structures, design
and construction of new structures and
assessment of existing structures

Commission a few faculty members with competence to


undertake this critical work

Augment library
and laboratory
infrastructure

Expensive equipment requiring high


maintenance, and so cannot be afforded by
all colleges

Develop regional facilities with separate teaching and


research laboratories

Initiate research
in universities/
institutes

Lack of research ethos, and large distraction


with consultancy

Academic administrations (especially in IITs and NITs) to


prioritize addressing national interests to be one of the critical
responsibilities of senior faculty members

A.2 CAPACITY BUILDING :: Continuing Education of Practicing Engineers and Architects

Find alliance partners


to undertake the
massive effort

Professional civil engineering and


architecture societies have not developed
a long term commitment to undertake this
gigantic task across the country

A non-profit industry-academia CONTINUING


EDUCATION CENTER to be created at regional level
with practicing engineers and architects as master trainers;
distance education technology to be leveraged to improve
efficiencies; coordination to be done by professional societies

Identify Master
Trainers

Professional engineers too busy with daily


work to undertake this long term effort,
and faculty members overloaded in their
universities/institutes

Undertake a national campaign to recruit additional teachers,


who will be training before joining the university/institute

Prepare teaching
resource materials

Lack of even basic books on earthquakeresistant design and construction of new


structures and seismic assessment of existing
structures

Commission a few practicing engineers and architects with


competence along with faculty members to undertake this
critical work

Undertake training

Need many batches of engineers and


architects to be training in each major town/
city

Develop city level master trainers to undertake this activity in


the evenings on weekdays

3. CAPACITY BUILDING :: Training of Artisans

60

Find alliance partners


to undertake the
massive effort

NAC, NICMAR, NITTRs, HUDCO, BMTPC,


CIDC, Polytechnics and ITIs are yet to work
together to create standard training modules
for masons, bar-benders, welders, carpenters,
plumbers, electricians, etc.

FICCI and CII to undertake this effort under CSR to


coordinate the potential partners, and work with NDMA
and SDMAs to pursue national and local governments to
prioritize this to allocate funds

Develop training
centers

HUDCO training centers that exist are too


few for the country; lack of passion of the
persons manning the centers and lack of
hand holding by construction companies
to encourage higher wages for trained
manpower has impeded this training effort

Construction companies to advertise that skilled labor rates


are higher and the expectation of skilled labor is certification
from one of the standard training centers; housing NGOs to
play a critical role in steering these programs to grassroots
level

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

POINT OF VIEW
Table 8. Continued
S.No.

Item to be
implemented

Bottleneck

Way forward

Prepare teaching
resource materials

Lack of training material and modules in


local languages and dialects; lack of adequate
field level trainers

Commission a special effort through the governments to


undertake the translation work to prepare the training
materials as required; encourage more housing NGOs to
participate in this effort of training of masons

Undertake training

Participation in one program is seen to be


sufficient by the trainee

Certification should be introduced by the state governments


to examine skill levels of trained artisans; this will require
sometimes more than one programs to be attended by some
artisans

Undertake postearthquake damage


assessment of
buildings

All government departments and private


organizations keen to escalate damage
assessment figures

Governments to stop paying compensations for


reconstruction; Formal teams to be assembled by NDMA and
SDMAs to undertake post-earthquake damage assessment,
and give legal standing to the assessment made by these
teams, with checks and balances

Update bye-laws
at all municipal
government levels

Most publicly elected leaders have vested


interest to not allow updating of bye-laws
that ask for stringent performance standards,
which will require them to improve their
standards

A white paper should be developed on all such bye-laws


that are detrimental to earthquake safety; Courts have to be
moved to intervene to seek the urgent updating of bye-laws
in national interest

Penalise violations
from approved
construction

A strong nexus exists between municipal


offices and builders to eventually legalise
the illegal and unapproved constructions,
and this is happening through some existing
bye-laws approved by the publicly elected
local representatives; there is no field
inspection by neutral parties on the accuracy
of constructions as per approvals

Quality assurance systems to be put in place for all


constructions

Constitute
State Disaster
Management
Authorities and
State Executive
Committees in all
states and hold
meeting regularly

Governments lack priority on Earthquake


Safety of its people

Chairman, NDMA, to take steps to push states to mainstream


disaster management

Development of
strong techno-legal
regime

Absence of Peer Review (verification


of earthquake safety) by independent
professionals enlisted by local governments

Local governments to implement peer review system

Retrofit existing
lifeline structures

No expertise in the country to support the


exercise

Major effort of developing capacity in professional engineers


and architects to be undertaken urgently by NDMA

Banks seem to think that is too much work


to do, and that the municipality will verify
safety

RBI to initiate a strong techno-financial system related to


earthquake safety in all banks in the country

B. Legal Issues

C. Administrative Issues

C. Financial Issues

Financial lending
institutions to
independently verify
earthquake safety
of the constructions,
before approving the
loans

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

61

POINT OF VIEW
documented. For this, first the housing typologies being
practiced need to be understood and documented in
detail. High quality cartoons/animation strategies may
be adopted to do this.

and empowered to provide formal technical assessment


that has legal sanctity. This aspect requires deep discussion
and quick action to prepare sufficient number of groups
of the post-earthquake housing assessment teams.

3.2.4 Undertake selective Retrofitting

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS

Every year a large number of new houses are getting


added to existing stock of the country. Its absolute
number is large, even though small in percentage of the
already existing stock. Each earthquake in the last 23 years
demonstrated the major deficiencies of the existing stock
of housing across the country. Seismic strengthening of
these existing houses is a technology challenge at this
time. A comprehensive plan is required for promoting
systematic, formal and technically sound retrofitting of
houses, as it not only involves technology issues but also
social issues.

India has witnessed several moderate earthquakes in


the last two decades causing around 40,000 fatalities
and innumerable house collapses. The prevalent high
earthquake hazard, large exposure and high vulnerability
indicates that urgent action is necessary in 20 districts of
the country, as shown using index 200000. It is time to
assign value to the life of each Indian and take urgent
proactive actions. Five capacity building and mitigation
initiatives are presented in this paper, namely (1)
overhaul of curriculum, (2) train manpower, (3) share
best practices, (4) undertake selective retrofitting, and
(5) post-earthquake damage assessment teams. These
items have been oft repeated at meetings and in papers.
Unfortunately, there is a great mismatch between need
of the country in terms of earthquake safety on one hand
and number of available trained professional on another.
After 2001 Bhuj Earthquake, there are some initiatives on
items 2~5. But, all these solutions were short-lived due to
lack of long term vision. Hence, there is a need to speak
on these issues.

3.2.5 Commission Post-Earthquake Housing


Assessment Teams
After every earthquake, many teams carry out
reconnaissance survey to understand the behavior of
houses. But, houses which performed poorly and those
that survived pose one question-which of them can be
occupied after the earthquake. There is an urgent need
to study the performance of houses with following
objectives:
1. Houses that did not comply existing provisions,
2. Houses that complied with provisions,
3. Houses collapsed and
4. Houses that did not collapse.
Results in these studies will be valuable inputs for (a)
revising code provisions, (b) improving construction
practices, and (c) training engineers, architects and
artisans.
The task is tricky of assessing immediately after an
earthquake the damaged houses standing in the epicentral
region. There are safety, legal and financial implications
of any decision taken on these houses. Therefore, formal
teams should be commissioned well before the next event
in the country, trained in the methodology of assessment,

62

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

The lack of implementation of the much needed steps


is attributed to a system failure of all stakeholders in
the country, and cannot be attributed to any one set of
stakeholders; virtually, every stakeholder group has
defaulted. Of all the defaulters, three significant defaulters
are:
1. Academics in architecture and engineering colleges (who failed to upgrade the curriculum and
teach the much needed background to graduates),
2. Bureaucrats (who are generalists and fail to apply
themselves to specialized information of disaster
management, and always addressing the day to
day chores, than to long-term but critical needs of
the nation), and
3. Publicly elected policy makers all levels (who
have vested interests of running construction

POINT OF VIEW
contracts of all major projects across the country
with profit maximization motive, and no respect
for adherence to the design and construction standards and to quality control and quality assurance practices needed in the development of built
environment).
This paper attempts to bring to the public eye the urgency
of the matter, and develop a pressure group that can
sensitize these three critical groups of stakeholders to
undertake the measures that are in their purview.

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Report, EERI Newsletter, February 2012, pp 1-14.
20. Rai,D.C., and Murty,C.V.R., (2005), The Kashmir Earthquake of
October 8, 2005, EERI Special Earthquake Report, EERI Newsletter,
December 2005, pp 5-8.
21. Seeber,L., and Jain,S.K., Murty,C.V.R., and Chandak,N.N., (1993),
Surface Rupture and Damage Patterns in the Ms=6.4, September 29,
1993, Killari (Latur) Earthquake in Central India, NCEER Bulletin,
Vol.7, No.4, October 1993, page 12

Dr. Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar holds a PhD degree in civil engineering from University of Tokyo,
Japan. He is an Associate Professor and Head of Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (EERC) at IIIT
Hyderabad. His research interests are numerical modelling of faults and tectonic plates, collapse simulation
of buildings, seismic evaluation and strengthening of buildings and concrete codes in India. He is a panel
member of CED 2: IS 456, IS 1343 and also member of Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee of the
Bureau of Indian Standards.

C.V.R. Murty is a Professor in Department of Civil Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology
Madras, Chennai. His research interests include the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete and steel
buildings and bridges, and of limit state design of reinforced concrete, relevant to earthquake-resistant
structures. He is a member of the Earthquake Engineering Committee of the Bureau of Indian Standards.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

63

TECHNICAL PAPER

Analytical modeling of damping


Muthukumar G and Manoj Kumar

Damping is a desirable property of a structure from the earthquake resistant point of view. Thus, in dynamic analysis of
structures, the modeling of damping plays a crucial role in achieving the safe response of structure. Any deviation in the
representation of damping from the actual damping in the analytical model may result anything between small failure
and catastrophic collapse, thus highlighting the importance of damping in a dynamic analysis of structures. Unlike
mass and stiffness matrices, damping cannot be determined analytically thus bringing dynamic analysis in a state of
uncertainty. Various representations of damping have evolved over the period of years which are tailor-made to specific
problems. It has been generally accepted that there is no single universally accepted method for the representation of
damping in an analytical manner. In this paper, an attempt has been made in reviewing the various damping models
that are currently in practice.
Keywords: Damping; linear; non-linear; viscous; Rayleigh, dampers.

1. INTRODUCTION
Any structure subjected to vibration cannot continue
to vibrate infinitely. It has to come to rest after some
period of time. It is well understood that some amount
of damping or energy loss is present inherently in any
structure. Nevertheless, it is imperative to note that the
damping is the desired property of the structure and hence
should be expressed and incorporated in the analysis of
dynamic systems in a proper way. The source of damping
is not clearly understood and hence the incorporation of
damping is a concern in dynamic analysis. In order to
understand the phenomenon of damping and the factors
that affect damping, various experimental investigations
have been conducted over the period of years [1]. However,
the exact parameters influencing the damping cannot be
The Indian Concrete Journal, September 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 9, pp. 64-72

64

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

determined analytically [1]. In essence, damping can be


defined as the process by which certain energy is lost
irrecoverably thus resulting in the decay of response over
the period of time. The decay in the typical displacement
response indicates the energy dissipation process. The
energy dissipation is a fundamental requirement of the
structure subjected to severe earthquake. The energy
dissipation may be due to various factors involving
material used, connections between various elements,
radiation of the soil and so on. The structural damping
is due to energy dissipation in materials of construction,
structural components and their connections especially
in case of steel connections. Sometimes, dampers may
be added to the building structure in order to dissipate
energy artificially. Such type of damping is called
supplemental damping. If the transfer of energy takes
place from vibrating structure to the soil, then foundation

TECHNICAL PAPER
damping is said to occur. The damping may also be due
to radiation of seismic waves away from foundation. The
vibration amplitude, structural materials, fundamental
natural period of vibration, mode shapes and structural
configuration are some of the important factors affecting
the damping property of the structure . Sometimes, the
interaction of the structure with surrounding air and
water are considered as aerodynamic and hydrodynamic
damping. It has also been reported that the shape of the
building structure has a strong influence on the response
of structures. Hence, it is suggested to have chamfered
shapes and slotted corners instead of regular basic
shapes in order to mitigate the response of tall buildings
especially in the case of wind effects. Rounding of a
corner to a circular shape has resulted in a significant
reduction in the response of structures. The application
of hydrodynamic dampers in off-shore structures is
reported in [2]. For very tall buildings, the inherent
damping may not be sufficient in mitigation of structural
response adequately. Hence the use of supplemental
or auxiliary damping is vital in keeping the response
of tall buildings to the desired level from safety and
serviceability point of view. Incorporating the effect of
damping in any structure requires a clear understanding
of the parameters that affect damping. When damping
is introduced, the general shape of the response curve
does not change, but the magnitudes are greatly reduced.
Many mathematical techniques have been developed
over the period of several years for different applications.
It is also of paramount importance to identify the sources
of damping so that it can be reasonably incorporated in
the analytical model.

2. SOURCES OF DAMPING
The fundamental effect of damping is to reduce the peak
amplitudes of the vibrating system with little alteration
in natural frequency. The sources of damping can be a
combination of material damping, structural damping,
radiation damping and external damping. The material
and structural damping represents the conversion of
mechanical energy into thermal energy while radiation
and external damping represents the radiation of energy
into supporting medium. It has been reported in the
literature that radiation damping can contribute to the
overall damping effect if the conditions are favorable

Damping

Foundation

External
Fluid
Interaction

Internal

Natural
(Structural)

Radiation

Supplemental

Aerodynamic

Hysteretic

Hysteretic

Hydrodynamic

Friction

Friction

Viscous

Viscous

Figure 1. Sources of damping

for that. The structural properties, the geometry of the


foundation-soil contact area and properties of underlying
soil deposits are major parameters which may influence
radiation damping. Moreover, the radiation damping
has been considered to be significant in the case of
nuclear containment structures [3]. The different sources
of damping are shown in the form of flow chart in
Figure1. The energy dissipation of a vibrating building
cannot be quantified in terms of specific parameters.
Numerous mechanisms may be present at any point of
time contributing to damping and hence it is impossible
to define it mathematically. Friction between the different
elements of structures, non-structural elements and
micro-cracks between the structures also contribute to the
damping. Nevertheless, the damping has been modeled
using single equivalent damping parameter including
the effect of various complex sources as mentioned
above. Most of the codes give the percentage of structural
damping as the measure of damping. Many methods of
representing the damping are available in the literature.
The next section reviews the various damping models
that are currently used in practice.

3. IMPORTANCE OF DAMPING
It is widely believed that the structure can survive a scare
of earthquake when the energy absorbing capacity is
greater than the seismic input energy. The seismic energy
imparted is equal to the sum of the kinetic and strain
energy plus the energy dissipated by both hysteretic

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65

TECHNICAL PAPER
action of the structural elements and other non-yielding
mechanisms represented by equivalent viscous damping.
The importance of seismic energy imparted and the
structural damage have been discussed in the literature
elsewhere [4]. Zahrah and Hall [4] have observed that
damping has little effect on the amount of seismic energy
imparted; it has the strong influence on the structural
damage. Thus, it is inevitable to use damping as a viable
means of mitigating the structural damage.

4. MODELING OF DAMPING
In any dynamic analysis, mass, stiffness and damping
representations are vital in achieving the correct
response of a structure. Mass and stiffness matrices can
be represented systematically by overall geometry and
material characteristics. However, damping can only be
represented in a phenomenological manner and thus
making the dynamic analysis of structures in a state of
uncertainty. Nevertheless, several investigations have
been done in making the representation of damping in a
simplistic yet logical manner. There is no single universally
accepted methodology for representing damping because
of the nature of the state variables which control damping.
Many traditional identification methods of damping such
as logarithmic decrement method, half-power bandwidth method and the Fourier transform techniques of
response transfer functions are based on linear elastic
vibration theory. These methods have been reported to be
effective in identifying the damping of structures in elastic
range. Damping is often determined by the band width of
the response curve during a sinusoidal steady-state test.
Damping capacity is not a unique value of a structure,
but it depends on the level of excitation. The state-of-theart does not provide a method to determine the damping
capacity based on the material properties and geometrical
characteristics of a structure. The treatment of damping
in computational analyses can be categorized as (1)
phenomenological damping methods in which the actual
physical dissipative mechanisms such as elastic-plastic
hysteresis loss, structural joint friction, or material microcracking are modeled or (2) spectral damping methods,
in which viscous damping is introduced by means of
specified fractions of critical damping.

66

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

In solving the equation of motion in any dynamic system,


damping forces are introduced to account for energy
dissipation in the system. The damping is measured in
terms of percentage of critical damping. The minimum
amount of damping necessary to prevent the oscillations
completely is known as critical damping. Imagine the
tension string immersed in water. When the string is
plucked, it oscillates about its rest position several times
and eventually comes to rest. This shows that some
inherent damping is certainly presently in any structure/
element. If the water is replaced by a liquid with higher
viscosity, the number of cycles of oscillation will certainly
be less than that of water. By increasing the viscosity
of liquid, the oscillation can be reduced. The minimum
viscosity of liquid that prevents the vibration of string
completely can be considered equivalent to critical
damping [5]. The percentage of critical damping can
be between 1 % to 10 % for non-base isolated buildings
and 25 -30 % for base-isolated buildings. However, it is
important to note that the inherent damping present in
any civil engineering structure is of the order of maximum
10 %. The structure can be categorized as under damped,
critically damped or over damped. Critically damped and
over damped structures dont vibrate and hence does not
pose much of a problem. Most of the civil engineering
building structure falls in under damped category where
the building actually vibrates. Very little information
is available about variation of damping of linear and
non-linear systems. However, the effect of damping is
generally less than the inertial and stiffness effects in most
of the practical situations. Therefore, it is reasonable to
account for damping by a simplified approximation. The
damping ratio has strong dependence on the different
damage levels of structures. Chopra (2005) has proposed
the damping values as 3-5 % for considerable cracking
case and 7-10 % for stress level near the yield point [6].
Farrar and Baker (1995) have conducted experiments to
measure the damping ratio of low-rise shear walls and
found that for undamaged low-rise shear walls, the
damping ratio was around 1-2% [7]. However, as the
damage level increases, the measured damping ratio shot
up to 8 %. Similar experimental studies have also been
performed by Ile and Reynouard (2000) correlating the
damping ratio with the increasing damage of shear wall
[8]. The representation of damping through viscous
damping coefficient has been in use due to simplicity

TECHNICAL PAPER
and accuracy. The following section describes the various
damping models used in practice.

a property of a real structure. Modal damping ratios are


frequently used in a computer model to approximate the
nonlinear energy dissipation of the structure. Satake et.al.,
(2004) have determined the damping ratios for different
building types based on the vibration tests reported in AIJ
and concluded that the tall buildings possess the smaller
first-mode damping ratio [9].

4.1. Viscous damping models


The damping force is assumed to be proportional to
velocity and the constant of proportionality being the
viscous damping coefficient. Whenever the system
vibrates in a fluid, viscous damping is said to occur.
The damping forces are proportional to velocity of the
medium and is represented as

...(1)

= structures

Damping in
not viscous; rather it
is actually

[isdue
] = [to
]
[ ]

mechanisms
such as hysteresis in the material
=
and slip in connections. These mechanisms are not well
understood.
[ ] = +Moreover,
[ ] they are difficult to incorporate

into the equations of structural dynamics. Therefore, the


actual damping
is usually approximated by

mechanism

and experiment
theory

damping.
viscous
Comparisons

of
=

in most

is sufficiently
accurate
show
approach
that this

cases. Also, the viscous damping replicates the damping


effects of
structures significantly. The typical viscous
real

=
damping
in+free vibration
tests is shown in Figure
2. The


energy loss per cycle predicted by viscous damping forces
has been comparable to the real structure. The true viscous
damping may also be encountered in hydraulic dashpots
and shock absorbers. Nevertheless, the linear viscous
damping is a property of the computer model and is not

On the other hand, the damping ratios are reported to


be affected depending on the functional use of building.
The damping ratios were found to be larger in a place
where more infill partitions are available [9]. Many
damping
models
have
evolved based on the concept of
viscous damping such as Cauchy damping [10], Rayleigh
damping (a special case of Cauchy damping) and Wilson

Penzien damping [11]. The representation of damping


= Cauchy

using
series is given by

[ ] = [ ]

] [ ]

... (2)

[ ] = thecoefficients
+ [ ] ak (k= 1, 2 p) are obtained
Where
from p
simultaneous equations. K=0,1 yields mass and stiffness
proportional
Alternatively, k=2 yields
respectively.
damping

which

the well
known
Rayleigh
damping
is proportional

From
the
toboth
above
equation, it is

massand stiffness.

clear the damping can also be controlled by as many modes


as possible
of two parameters, as used by Rayleigh
instead

=
+

models
damping.
Cauchy
Both
and Wilson-Penzien damping

were computationally expensive and hence are not preferred for


dynamic analysis [12]. The next section deals with Rayleigh
damping as a special case of Cauchy damping.

4.1.1. Proportional (Rayleigh) viscous damping models:


Amplitude

Time

Figure 2. Viscous damping response

The representation of viscous damping as a special case of


viscoelastic behavior is represented by Rayleighs proportional
damping. Rayleigh dissipation function assumes that the
dissipation of energy takes place and can be idealized as the
function of velocity. Damping proportional to velocity is
assumed because of the difficulty in associating damping with
the damage. Damping matrix can be formulated analogous
to mass and stiffness matrices [13]. Even though the type of
analysis (elastic or inelastic) has a say on the damping model,
a predefined damping ratio has been adopted to simplify the
process in many cases. Rayleigh Damping or proportional

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

67

TECHNICAL PAPER
damping which forms damping matrix as the linear combination
of stiffness and mass matrices (spectral damping scheme) is the
most popular choice in many finite element codes. The concept
of Rayleigh damping has evolved through the modal analysis.
Experimental modal analysis is usually performed to determine
the dynamic parameters for prototype structure as well as for
models. Amick and Monteiro (2006) have determined the
modal damping in concrete beams experimentally to identify
the material damping properties of concrete beams [14]. The
modal analysis has been considered to be the most popular
method for solving dynamic problems and is applicable to
linear systems which are undamped in nature. It was reported
that the equation of motion can be uncoupled by satisfying the
orthogonality relationship over the mass and stiffness matrices.
The above statement is valid only for undamped systems.
In order to apply the modal analysis to damped systems, the
proportional damping, a special type of viscous damping is
assumed in order to incorporate the effect of energy dissipation.
Thus, the classical modes have been preserved through the
incorporation of Rayleigh damping [15]. Damping matrices
formed on the basis of modal ratios is known as classical or
proportional damping [16].
The reason for the use of proportional damping is justified
by the following explanation. In the equation of motion, the
coupling of terms usually occurs which are reflected in the
mass and stiffness matrices. Inertia coupling is present when
the mass matrix is non-diagonal and static coupling is present
when the stiffness matrix is non-diagonal. The coupling of the
modes usually can be avoided easily in the case of undamped
free vibration. The same is not true for damped vibration.
Hence in order to represent the equation of motion in uncoupled
form, it is suggested to have a damping matrix proportional
to uncoupled mass and stiffness matrices. Thus, Rayleighs
proportional damping has the specific advantage that the
equation of motion can be uncoupled when it is proportional
to mass and stiffness matrices. On the other hand, the use of
Rayleighs proportional damping in the post yield stage may
not be justified as the tangential stiffness properties are not the
same as initial properties once the structure yields. Thus, the
proportionality is lost after the onset of yielding [16].
In spite of the not very clear rheological meaning, the Rayleigh
damping is the most commonly used approach to represent
damping in the analysis of a structure. Material damping arises
generally due to energy dissipations caused by micro-structural

68

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

interactions. Several mathematical models incorporating


material damping have been proposed due to the usage of
several building materials of varying properties under varying
environmental conditions. Nevertheless, visco-elastic model has
been considered to be the ideal choice of representing material
damping for small strain situation. Also, visco-elastic model
is also frequency dependant model. The fundamental natural
period of vibration decides the type of damping and hence
should be determined first. The strong dependence of Rayleigh
damping on frequency has led to several investigations. Thus,
the modal analysis should be conducted first in order to know
the frequencies and the corresponding damping ratios. Study
reveals that the material level damping is a strong function of
displacement and weak function of angular frequency [15].
Being an artificially induced damping, correlation with the
actual damping is not clearly understood.
4.1.1.1. Advantages of Rayleigh Damping models
The Rayleigh damping matrix, formed by the linear
combination of mass and stiffness matrices, has been used
to model damping in most of the situations. The coefficients
and can be calculated on the basis of frequency and the
corresponding damping ratio and thus making the use of
Rayleigh damping popular especially in Multi-Degree of
Freedom structure. Rayleigh damping seems to have possessed
the required characteristics in representing the various damping
mechanisms. It is also to be emphasized that Inertia and stiffness
forces are represented at the element level whereas the damping
is represented at global level. For large amplitude displacement
oscillations, damping matrix formulated as a function of mass
and instantaneous tangent stiffness matrices seemed to be a
better option of representing damping. Nevertheless, for lowamplitude oscillations, the stiffness proportional damping
matrix was found to be comparable to experimental results.
Thus, the choice of Rayleigh damping with mass proportional,
stiffness proportional or both lies on the type of problem
at hand. Rayleigh damping with tangential stiffness matrix
resulted in a better representation of the behavior of structure,
yet computationally expensive because the stiffness matrix
is updated after every step. Moreover, numerical instability
occurs when tremendous degradation in stiffness occurs
because of degrading material stability. Zareian and Medina
(2010) have suggested the practical method for modeling of
structural damping in inelastic plane structural systems [1]. It
has been found that modeling of linear viscous damping using

TECHNICAL PAPER
Rayleigh-damping matrix with initial stiffness proportional
damping results in unrealistic damping forces. The error
becomes high when the degree of nonlinearity and the damping
ratio increases. Nevertheless, the results are not significantly
affected when the degree of nonlinearity is low. It is clear that
the collapse capacity of the system is overestimated when the
Rayleigh damping matrix is used with initial stiffness. Thus, the
use of Rayleighs damping has been subjected to scrutiny for its
use in nonlinear range. But its use is justifiable in the nonlinear
range as epitomized in the next section.
4.1.1.2 Rayleigh damping models in non-linear
behavior
In mode superposition method, the damping ratio is defined
for each mode of vibration. However, this is not possible for
non-linear system because non-linear system has no true
vibration modes. Hence, the damping matrix for a non-linear
system is to assume that the damping can be represented as
linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrices of the
linear elastic system. This is justified by the fact that in the
case of non-linear dynamic analysis, the dissipation of energy
through inelastic deformation tends to supersede significantly
the dissipation through viscous damping. Hence, the exact
representation of damping is not as important in a non-linear
system as in the linear system. The control of damping is very
difficult as Rayleigh damping depends on only two parameters.
Modal damping seems to be an alternative and better choice
than Rayleigh damping.

4.2. Hysteretic and Coulomb damping


models:
Hysteretic and Coulomb damping are other representations
of damping forces and considered to be less significant than
viscous damping. Friction and coulomb damping depends on
the interfacial mechanisms between members and connections
in a structure and does not depend on velocity and displacement.
The material used for construction plays a significant role in
this type of representation. Unlike viscous damping, hysteretic
damping is independent of frequency [17].

4.3 Formulation of Rayleigh Damping:


When Rayleigh Damping is used, the resultant damping matrix
is of same size as stiffness matrix. It is also important to note
that the damping matrix should be formulated from damping

ratio and not from the member sizes. Since damping ratio
=
damping
includes all
sources of damping, the corresponding
matrix formed reflects the complex mechanism in a realistic
=
way
and] is given
as: [ ]
[ ][6]
= [

[ ] = + [ ]

...(3)

of velocity, if there is no motion,


is a function
Since damping


damping.
Rayleigh
there
damping is being used
= be no
will

segregating each
conveniently
because
of
its
versatility
in

modes independently. It is of utmost importance to select the


to

number
be used in the representation of damping.
= of modes
+
of the
the number
of modes is selected on the basis
In general,
=participation

95%
of mass. The amount of damping
can
be set
appropriately by assigning the suitable values of and in the
coefficients and are scalar multipliers can
equation (3). =The

[
] = [ ]
[ ]
be evaluated using
the
following
expression in order to provide
=
a given percentage of critical damping in any two modes of
vibration
[ ] = inan +initial
[ elastic
] stage.

...
(4)

[ ] = [ ] [ ]

= above+expression,
In the
of critical
[ ] xi and xj are the percentage
[damping
] =
+

in the two specified modes of interest and wi and wj are


the circular frequencies at the respective two modes of interest.
are calculated, the damping in other
parameters
Once
the scalar

using
= be calculated
can

mode

the expression


... (5)

From the above equation (5), it is essential to note that if beta


parameter is zero, the higher modes of the structure will be
assigned very little damping. When the parameter alpha is zero,
the higher modes will be heavily damped as the damping ratio
is directly proportional to frequency [6]. Thus, the choice of
damping is problem dependent.
The variation of damping with the circular frequency is
pictorially shown in Figure 3.

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69

TECHNICAL PAPER
Total damping

Tuned mass dampers (TLD)

Damping ratio ( )

Tuned liquid dampers (TLD)


Viscous dampers

damping

Passive system

damping

Hysteretic dampers
Auxilliary
damping
system

Circular frequency

Visco* elastic dampers

Friction dampers
Electro magnetic dampers
Active mass dampers
Active system
Active various stiffness
devices

Figure 3. Damping ratio Vs Circular frequency curve


Figure 4. Different types of auxiliary damping system

5. ALTERNATE DAMPING MODELS


It is unrealistic that in the real structure, classical modes or
normal modes exist. There can be more than one complex
mode that can occur in a structure. Viscous damping assumes
proportional damping in order to model the damping with the
existence of normal modes. Also, it is assumed that damping
force is dependent on the velocity of the structure and not on
any other parameter. It has been mentioned in the literature that
when the structure exhibits the property of non-viscosity, then
the usage of viscous damping models results in the improper
estimation of damping. In such cases, development of nonviscous damping becomes paramount importance. It has been
mentioned in [18] that the nonviscous damping models may
be a better option in modeling the linear elastic behavior.
Nonviscous damping is the one in which the damping force is
not restricted to depend only on velocity. Puthanpurayil et. al.,
[19] have discussed the various issues related to modeling of instructure damping and concluded that non-viscous damping has
resulted in the larger peak response than the viscous damping.
Many investigations have been carried out to determine the
response of the structure with different damping models. The
damage to the structure can also be minimized either by use of
base isolation or by supplemental damping devices. The choice
of damping models affects the structural response of the system.
Bowland and Charney [20] have recently presented the new idea
to model the damping in the structures. It has been mentioned
that the linear viscous damping has not been found to be the
realistic option to represent damping. They have proposed two
different approaches to represent damping.

70

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

One of the approaches is aimed at adding the damping to each


individual element through rotational dampers attached by a
rigid-link ghost element. On the other hand, second approach
assumes that damping at any time is dependent on stresses
of the system. Thus, damping is seen to be consistent with
the changing displaced shape and behavior of the structural
system. Nevertheless, it is computationally expensive. For very
tall buildings, the inherent damping may not be sufficient in
mitigation of structural response adequately.
Hence the use of supplemental or auxiliary damping is vital
in keeping the response of tall buildings to the desired level.
Active control damping systems requires the power supply to
activate such type of damping and hence cannot be considered
as a viable option especially in the seismically active zone.
Nevertheless, the active damping system can be conveniently
used as a method of dampening the response of tall buildings
subjected to severe wind load effects. On the other hand,
passive damping control system can be incorporated in a
structure to absorb a portion of seismic energy imparted and
hence considered to be a potential candidate for the protection
of buildings in a high seismic zone. The classification of active
and passive system is mentioned in the form of flowchart in
Figure 4. Depending upon the type of dampers, the structural
response differs significantly. Viscous dampers and viscoelastic
dampers dampens the response essentially at all levels of
deformation and cover broad frequency range. Friction dampers
will get triggered when the slip force exceeds and metallic
yield dampers dissipate energy through inelastic deformation.
Sometimes, it may be necessary to incorporate the effect of all

TECHNICAL PAPER
Table 1. Proposed damping values: [BNL NUREG-771742006]
Structure

Proposed Damping Value (%)


Safe Shutdown
Earthquake

Operating Basis
Earthquake
(OBE)

Reinforced Concrete

7%

4%

Reinforced Masonry

7%

4%

Prestressed Concrete

5%

3%

Welded Steel or Bolted Steel


with Friction Connections

4%

3%

Bolted Steel with Bearing


Connections

---

5%

Table 2. Proposed damping value by AIJ [22]


Height
H (m)

Habitability*
Natural
Frequency
(rad/s)

Damping
Ratio (%)

Safety**
Natural
Frequency
(rad/s)

30
2.2
2.5
1.9
40
1.7
1.5
1.4
50
1.3
1.2
1.1
60
1.1
1.2
0.93
70
0.95
0.8
0.79
80
0.83
0.8
0.69
90
0.74
0.8
0.62
100
0.67
0.8
0.56
*Frequency for habitability criteria= (1/0.015H)
**Frequency (for Safety) = 1/0.018H

Damping
Ratio(%)
3
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.2

On the various experimental investigations and on the basis of


past history, the damping values have been proposed in [21]
for U.S. Nuclear Regularity Commission and Architectural
Institute of Japan [22] shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. It is
interesting to note that the proposed damping value is different
for different levels of damage.

the linear analysis because the dissipation of energy through


inelastic deformation tends to supersede the dissipation through
damping. The proportional Rayleigh damping may be either
proportional to mass and stiffness, or proportional to either one
of the components depending on the type of problem. Apart
from Rayleighs damping model, Hysteretic and Coulomb
damping models have also been discussed in this paper.
Different types of auxiliary damping have also been discussed
in this paper. The proposed damping models by BNL and AIJ
have also been reported in this paper depending on the different
levels of damage.

6. SUMMARY

References

The importance of damping on the structural performance has


been highlighted in the paper. The exact modeling of damping is
not possible because of difficulty in listing down all the sources
of damping. Various damping mechanisms and their potential
sources have been discussed in this paper. The modeling of
damping in the dynamic analysis has been briefly described in
this paper. The Rayleighs damping based on the viscosity is
frequency dependent and is also easy to implement in the finite
element codes. The Rayleighs damping has been considered to
be the special form of Cauchy damping and considered to be
good enough in yielding satisfactory results. Few experimental
results have also been reported on the damping ratio of reinforced
concrete structures and shear walls in particular depending on
the levels of damage. Nevertheless, the damping is dependent
on the initial stiffness and hence may not represent the true
inherent damping for highly non-linear behavior of structures
where heavy degradation occurs. However, the exact modeling
of damping is not as important in non-linear analysis as in

1. Zareian, F. and Medina, R.A. A Practical Method for Proper Modeling


of Structural Damping in Inelastic Plane Structural Systems, Computers
and Structures, 2010, Vol. 88, No. (1-2), pp.45-53.
2. Charney, F.A. Unintended consequences of modeling damping in
structures , Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2008, Vol. 134,
No. 4, pp. 581-592.
3. Celebi, M., Seismic Instrumentation of Buildings, U.S. Geol. Survey.
Open-File Report. 2000, 00- 157.
4. Zahrah T.F. and Hall W.J. Earthquake energy absorption in SDOF
structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 1984, Vol. 110,
No. 8, pp. 1757-1772.
5. Taranath B.S. Reinforced concrete design of tall buildings, CRC Press,
Taylor & Francis Group., New York, 2010.
6. Chopra A. Dynamics of structures: Theory and applications to earthquake
engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J, 2005.
7. Farrar, C.R. and Baker, W.E. Damping in low-aspect-ratio, reinforced
concrete shear walls, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics,
1995, Vol. 24, No.3, pp. 439-455.
8. Ile, N. and Reynouard, J.M. Non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete
shear wall under earthquake loading, Journal of Earthquake Engineering,
2000, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 183-213.
9. Satake, N., Suda, K.I., Arakawa, T., Sasaki, A. and Tamura, Y. Damping
evaluation using full-scale data of buildings in Japan, Journal of Structural
Engineering, ASCE, 2003, Vol. 129, No. 4, pp. 470-477.
10. Caughey, T.K. Classical normal modes in damped linear systems.
Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASCE, 1960, Vol.27, No. 2, pp. 269-271.

dynamic characteristics in a building to mitigate the damping.


Hybrid damping incorporates the effect of all the dampers and
may be specifically installed in a building to damp out both high
frequency and low frequency content.

The Indian Concrete Journal September 2014

71

TECHNICAL PAPER
11. Wilson, E.L. and Penzien, J. Evaluation of orthogonal damping matrices,
International Journal of Numerical Methods and Engineering, 1972,
Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 5-10.
12. Carr, A.J. (2007). Ruaumoko Manual-Theory, University of Canterbury.
2007,3-14.
13. Duggal, S.K. Earthquake Resistant Design of structures, Oxford Univ.
Press, 2007.
14. Amick, H and Monteiro, J.M. Experimental Determination of Modal
Damping in Concrete Beams, ACI Materials Journal, 2006, Vol. 103,No.
3, pp.153-160.
15. Adhikari, S. Damping models in structural vibration, Dissertation,
Cambridge University, Engineering Department, 2000, 228 pages.
16. Bernal, D. (1994). Viscous damping in inelastic structural response,
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 1994,Vol. 120, No.4, pp. 12401254.
17. Florin, T.P. and Sunai, G. Evaluation of damping in dynamic analysis
of structures, International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods
in Applied Sciences, 2010, Vol.2, No. 4 , pp. 124-132.

18. Adhikari, S. and Woodhouse, J. Quantification of non-viscous


damping in discrete linear systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration,
2003, Vol. 260, No. 1, pp. 499-518.
19. Puthanpurayil, A.M., Dhakal, R.P. and Carr, A.J. Modeling of instructure damping: A review of the state-of-the-art , Proceedings of the
Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Building an
Earthquake-Resilient Society, 2011, 14-16, April, Auckland, New
Zealand.
20. Bowland, A., and Charney, F. New concepts in modeling damping in
structures, Proceedings of 19th Analysis and Computation Specialty
Conference, Structures Congress, 2010, pp. 25-36.
21. Morante, R.J. Recommendations for Revision of Seismic Damping Values
in Regulatory Guide 1.61, NUREG/CR-6919, BNL-NUREG-77174-2006,
Office of Nuclear Regularity Research, Washington.
22. Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). Damping in buildings, The
Architectural Institute of Japan, Tokyo (in Japanese), 2000

Muthukumar G. received his B.Tech (Hons.) from SASTRA University; M.E. (civil with specialisation in
structural engineering) from BITS Pilani; pursuing his PhD at BITS Pilani. He is a lecturer in the Civil
Engineering Department at BITS Pilani. His research interests include non-linear finite element analysis,
seismic analysis and design of RC structures, shear wall structures.

Dr. Manoj Kumar holds a B.E. (civil) and M.E. (structures) from University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee)
and PhD from IIT Roorkee. He is an Associate Professor and Head of Civil Engineering Department at
BITS Pilani. His research interests include non-linear Finite element analysis of concrete structures, postcracking behavior of concrete bridges and seismic analysis of shear wall structures.

72

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