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Soils. A provincial term, chiefly, however, used iu the north, signifying the principal
rafters of a roof.
Solar, or Sollar. A mediasval term for an upper chamber : a loft.
Solder. A soft metallic composition used in joining together or soldering mehxls. See
Brazing and Welding.
Solid. (Lat.) In geometry, a body wliich has length, Lreadth, and thickness : tliat is, it
is terminated or contained under one or more plane surfaces as a surface is under one or
more lines. Eegular solids are such as are terminated by equal and similar planes, so
that the apex of their solid angles may be inscribed in a sphere.
Solid Angles. An angle formed by three or more angles in a point, and of which the
sum of all the plane angles is less than three liundred and sixty degree** otherwise they
would constitute the plane of a circle and not of a solid.
Solid Shoot. See "Water-Shoot.
SoMMEEiNG. See Summering.
SoRTANT Angle. The same as Sauent Angle.
SoTjND-BOARD. The canopy or type fixed over a pulpit, to reverberate the voice of the speaker.
Sound-boarding. In floors, consists of sliort boards placed transversely between the joists,
and supported by fillets fixed to the sides of the latter for holding pugging, "which is any
substance that will prevent the transmission of sound from one story to anotlior, such
as a mixture of mortar and chopped straw, or sawdust. The narrower the sound-boards tha
better; the fillets on which tliey rest may be three-quarters of an incli tliick and about
an inch wide, nailed to the j-oists at intervals of a foot. It has been suggested to put
an india-rubber washer of about the same width as the joist, between the ceiling joist
and the joist, having a thickness of half an inch when properly screwed up, to effect the
same object. See Boarding foe Pugging.
Souse, (Fr.) or Source. A support or under prop.
Spalls. Stone broken up into sliapclcss lumps. "Spawled masonry" in Ireland, consists
of tliese lumps, about 6 to 14 inches, worked up in a wall, tiio joints of each stone
matcliing those of tlie others around it ; the faces of the stones are usually rough dressed
with the hammer. It is the "uncoursed rubble work" of England. See Spawled.
SrAN. An imaginary line across the opening of an arch or roof, by which its extent is
measured. The width of a vault or arch between the springing.
Span Church. See Single Span Church.
Span Roof. One consisting of two imlined sides, in contradi.stinc-lion to a shed or lenn-fo
roof. It may be with simple rafters, with or without a collar beam, or when of increased
span it may be trussed, the term only applying to the external part.
Spandrel. The irregular triangular space between the outer curve or extrados of an
arch, a horizontal lino from its apex, and a perpendicular line from its springing.
In mediaeval architecture they are often filled with figures, medallions, shields, as at
York cathedral, or diaper woi'k as at Westminster Abbey. In the Italian style, they
are often filled with figures, or compositions relating to the purposes for which the
building is erected.
Spandrel Bracketing. A cradling of brackets fixed between one or more curA-es, each
in a vertical plane, and in the circumference of a circle whose plane is horizontal.
Spanish Architecture. The styles adopted were those introduced by tlie ancient Romans,
the Moors, by French and German mediajval practitioners, and by tlio Italian masters
brought into the country by the monarclis and others.
Spar-piece. A name given in some places to the collar beam of a roof.
Spars. The common rafters of a roof for the support of tlie tiling or slating.
Spawled. A block of stone after the chips or spawis have been knocked off. See Spalls.
Specification. A description at length of the materials and workmanship to be used and
employed in the erection of any liuilding.
Specific Gravity. A gravity or weight, of every solid or fluid compared with the weight
of the same magnitude of rain water, which is chosen as the standard of comparison,
on account of its being subject to less variation in different circumstances of time,
place, &c., than any other solid or fluid. By a fortunate coincidence, at least to the
English philosopher, it happens that a cubic foot of rain water weij^dis 1,000 ounces
consequently, assuming this as the specific gravity of rain water, and
comparing all other bodies with this, the same numbers that express the specific
gravity of bodies will at the same time express the wciglit of a cuLic foot of each in
avoirdupois ounces, whicli affords great facility to numerical computations. Hence
are readily deduced the following laws of the specific gravity of bodies :

1. In bodies of equal magnitudes the specific gravities are directly as the weights or
as their densities. 2. In bodies of the same specific gravities the weights will be as the
magnitudes. 3. In bodies of equal weights the apecific gravities are inversely as the
magnitudes. 4. The weights of different bodies are to each other in the compound
ratio of their magnitudes aud specific gravities.

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