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Developmental Psychopathology 10/5/2009 1:46:00 PM

-Founded by Dante Cicchetti

looks at entire lifespan
-Our experiences lead us to adapt to traits that may be psychopathalogical
interaction of cognitive, socioemotional, representational, and
-Infants around depressed parents have higher levels of stress hormones,
more negative affect, avoidance of gaze
maladaptive habits
-Some adaptations at one age are maladaptive at another
-Stress: exceeds current ability to handle situation
coping is a constant challenge

Sympathetic System
-Adrenal glands secrete adrenaline
-Hyperalert, blood sugar increases, heart rate increases, pupils dilate, blood
to vital organs
-Adrenal glands secrete noradrenalin which creates freeze reaction
-Stress reaction
adrenal glands adrenaline hypothalamus pituitary secretes
ACTH secretes corticosteroids
-High levels of cortisol can permanently damage pathways in the brain
person cant isolate environmental cues for stress so they
experience it constantly
-In high stress situations, endorphins can dull the feelings of pain

Gloser 09
-Stress can affect
Disease prevention
Heart disease

Parasympathetic System
-Works in opposition to sympathetic
-Calms down
-Slows heart rate, blood pressure, breathing
-System literally falls asleep
diaphragm breathing induces

Lazarus 84

1. Physical
2. Emotional
3. Cognitive
4. Behvioral

Stress Mediators:
1. Predictability/Control
2. Interpretation
Problem-solving coping skills
o Planful solving
o Confronting
o Seeking social support
Emotion focused coping
o Self-controlling
o Distancing
o Positive reappraisal
o Accepting responsibility
o Wishful thinking
Most effective: seeking social support, positive reappraisal

Kim et. al. 08
-Cultural differences in how we handle situations
Implicit social support
o Talking to someone but not about the problem
Ex: Korean culture
o I need help, directly talking about the problem
Ex: American culture

Folkman and Moskowitz 00
-Builds off of Fredericksons broaden and build theory
if we focus on positive emotion, we can cope
negative emotion reduces coping downward spiral
-Folkman/Moskowitz look at people with AIDS
-Positive outlook people look better psychologically
-Ways they stayed positive
look at each day as new adventure
find as much meaning as possible
sought out social connections

Tennen 00
-Looked at people with chronic pain or alcholoism
-Found that if people use a problem-solving coping strategy and it works,
they will continue to use them
-If problem-solving doesnt work, people go to less effective emotion-based
when in doubt, we tend to problem solve

Sheder et. al. 98
-Individuals who claim that all is fine are repressors
-All the physiological symptoms still exist despite not feeling it
true denial, extreme avoidance

Bleumenthal 02
-Gave individuals with heart problems both medicine and cognitive support
dramatically reduced likelihood of heart attack
-Ways that individuals increase stress through negativity:
o Exaggerate harmful effect toward you
o Ex: boss criticized mildly, you think youll surely be fired
o Seeing yourself as the cause of a negative event
o Ex: Son fails test, you assume youre a terrible parent
All or Nothing Thinking
o Reduce complex situation to an absolute
o Ex: Youre not perfect, so you must suck.
o Interpreting bad events as an endless pattern
o Ex: Youre turned down for one date, so you will be turned
down for all future dates.
Mental filtering
o Focus on the bad, filter out the good
o Ex: Focus on one B when you have As in every other class.
10/5/2009 1:46:00 PM

10/5/2009 1:46:00 PM