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1

UNIT I

STRESS STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS, STATES OF
STRESS

Rigid bodies and deformable solids stability, strength, stiffness tension,
compression and shear stresses strain, elasticity, Hookes law, limit of
proportionately, modulus of elasticity, stress- strain curve, lateral strain
temperature stressres deformation of simple and compound bars shear
modulus, bulk modulus, relationship between elastic constants biaxial state of
stress stress at a point stress on inclined plane principal stresses and
principal planes Mohrs circle of stresses.



S.NO 2 MARKS PAGE NO
1 Define stress and its types 6
2 Define strain. 6
3 Define tensile stress and tensile strain. 6
4 Define the three Elastic moduli. (April/May 2005) 7
5 Define shear strain and Volumetric strain 7
6
A square steel rod 20 mm x 20 mm in section is to
carry an axial load (compressive) of 100 KN. Calculate
the shortening in a length of 50 mm. E =
2 8
/ 10 14 .. 2 M KN =
7
7 Define Poissons ratio. (Nov / Dec 04) 8
8 Find the force Pacting on the bar given in fig.(Apr/May04) 8
9 Find the force Pacting on the bar given in fig.(Apr/ May 04) 9
10 Define principal plane and principal stress. 9
11
Write down the relation between modulus of elasticity and
modulus of rigidity and that between modulus of elasticity and
bulk modulus. (Nov/Dec 02)
9
12
When a rod of diameter 20mm is subjected to a tensile force of
40 kN, thje extension is measured as 250 divisions in 200mm
extension meter. Find the modulus of elasticity if each division is
equal to 0.001mm. (Nov/Dec 02
9
13
What do you understand by the assumption, plane section remain
plane even after the application of load?
9
14
A metal bar 50 mm x 50 mm section, is subjected to
anaxial compressive load of 500 KN.The contraction of
a 200 mm gauge length is found to be 0.5 mm and the
increase in thickness 0.04 mm. find E and .
9
2
15
Brass bar, having C.S.A of 10 cm
2
is subjected to axial
forces as shown in fig. Find the total elongation of
the bar Take
2 3
/ 10 8 . 0 cm t E =
10
16
Steel bar is 900 mm long its two ends are 40 mm and
30 mm in diameter and the length of each rod is 200
mm.The middle portion of the bar is 15 mm in diameter
and 500 mm long. If the bar is subjected to an axial
tensile load of 15 KN, find the total extension.
2
/ 200 m GN E = ( )
9
10 1 = G and giga G
11
17
Bar of 2 m length, 2 cm breadth and 1.5 cm thickness is
subjected to a tensile load of 3000 kg. Find the final
volume of the bar, if
2 6
/ 10 0 . 2
4
1
cm kg E and = =
12
18
A bronze specimen has a
2 6
/ 10 2 . 1 cm kg E = and
2 6
/ 10 47 . 0 cm kg C = . Determine
13
19
Two parallel walls 6 m apart, are stayed together by a
steel rod 20 mm | passing through metal plates and
nuts at each end. The nuts are tightened home, when
the rod is at a temp of 100
0
C. Determine the stress in
the rod, when the temperature falls down 20
0
C if.
13
20
A bar is subjected to a tensile stress of 1000 kg / cm
2
.
Determine the normal and Tangential stresses on a
plane making an angle of 60
0
with the axis of tensile
stress.
14



















S.NO 16 MARKS PAGENO
3
1
A hollow cast iron cylinder 4m long, 300 mm
outer diameter and thickness of metal 50 mm is
subjected to a central load on the top when standing
straight. The stress produced is 75000 KN / m
2
.
Assume Youngs Modulus for cast iron as
2 8
/ 10 5 . 1 m KN and find (i)Magnitude of the
load(ii)Longitudinal strain produced and (iii)Total
decrease in length.
18
2
The following observations were made during a
tensile test on a mild steel specimen 40 mm in
diameter and 200 mm long.Elongation with 40 KN
load (within limit of proportionality) 0304 . 0 = l o
mm, yield load = 161 KN. Maximum load = 242
KN, Length of specimen at fracture = 249 mm.
Determine:
i. Youngs Modulus of Elasticity
ii. Yield point stress
iii. Ultimate stress
iv. Percentage elongation.

19
3
A steel 2m long and 3 mm in diameter is extended
by 0.75 mm when a weight W is suspended from
the wire. If the same weight is suspended from a
brass wire, 2.5 m long and 2 mm in diameter, it is
elongated by 4.64 mm. Determine the modulus of
elasticity of brass if that of steel be
2 5
/ 10 0 . 2 m kN
20
4
A member formed by connecting a steel bar to an
aluminium bar as shown in fig. Assuming that the
bars are prevented form buckling sidewise; calculate
the magnitude of force p
1
that will cause the total
length of the member to decrease 0.25 mm. The
values of elastic modulus of steel and aluminum are
2101 KN / mm
2
and 70 KN / mm
2
(April/May 04)
22
5
A steel tie rod 50 mm in m and 5 . 2 | long is
subjected to a pull of 100 KN. To what length the
rod should be bored centrally so that the total
extension will increase by 15 % under the same
pull, the bore being 25 mm | ?
23
6
A steel flat plate AB of 1 cm thickness tapers
uniformly from 10 cm to 5 cm width in a length of
40 cm. From first principles, determine the
elongation of the plate, if an axial tensile force of
5000 kg acts on it. Take
2 6
/ 10 0 . 2 cm kg E =

24
7 A steel cube block of 50 mm side is subjected to a 26
4
force of 6 KN (Tension), 8 KN (compressive) and 4
KN (tension) along x, y and z directions. Determine
the change in the volume of the block.
2
/ 200 mm KN e = and
3
10
= m
8
A bar of 30 mm | is subjected to a pull of 60 KN.
The measured extension on gauge length of 200 mm
is 0.09 mm and the change in diameter is 0.0039
mm. Calculate and the values of the three
module. (Nov/Dec 04)
27
9
At a point within a body subjected to two mutually
perpendicular directions, the stresses are 80 N/mm
2

tensile and 40 N/mm
2
tensile. Each of the above
stresses is accompanied by a shear stress of 60
N/mm
2
. Determine the normal stress. Shear stress
and resultant stress on an oblique plane inclined at
an angle of 45
0
with the axis of minor tensile stress.
28
10
A point in strained material is subjected to the
stresses as shown in figure. Locate the principal
planes and evaluate the principal tresses. (Apr/May
02)
29

















UNIT I
TWO MARKS:

1. Define stress and its types
When a body is acted upon by some load (or) external force, it undergoes
deformation (i.e. change in shape or dimensions)
5
Stress is defined as the internal resistance offered by the material to the
extremely applied force, expressed per unit area.


A
P
= o
tion of Area A
load applied P
stress
sec =
=
= o

Types of stresses:
1. Axial stress
2. Bearing stress
3. Bending stress
4. Shear stress

Types of axial stress:
1. Tensile stress
2. Compressive stress.


2. Define strain.
Strain is defined as the ratio of change in length to the original length of the
member

Change in length (dl)
Strain =
Original length (l)


3. Define tensile stress and tensile strain.

When the resistance offered by a section of a member is against an increase in
length, the section is said to offer tensile stress.
Tensile stress ( )
A
p
A S C
ce resis Internal
t
= =
. .
tan
o

Tensile strain:
The strain corresponding to tensile stress is tensile strain.


length Original
length Increase
l
l
e strain Tensile = =
o





4. Define the three Elastic moduli. (April/May 2005)

Youngs Modulus:

It is the ratio between tensile stress and tensile strain (or) compressive stress
and compressive strain.

6

( )
(

= = =
c
c t
e
or
et e
E
o o o


Modulus of Rigidity:

It is defined as the ratio of shear stress (t ) to shear strain and is denoted by C,
N or G It is also called shear stress modulus of elasticity.

Bulk (or) Volume Modulus of Rigidity

It is defined as the ratio of normal stress (on each face of a solid cube) to
volumetric strain and is denoted by the letter K.


V
n
K
o
o
=


5. Define shear strain and Volumetric strain

Shear strain is defined as the ratio of transverse displacement to the distance
from the lower force.

Transverse displacement
Shear strain =
Distance from lower face

Volumetric strain:

It is defined as the ratio between change in volume and original volume of the
body


V volume Original
volume in change
v
v
o
= =


6. A square steel rod 20 mm x 20 mm in section is to carry an axial
load (compressive) of 100 KN. Calculate the shortening in a length of
50 mm. E =
2 8
/ 10 14 .. 2 M KN =

Solution:
Area A =
2
0004 . 0 02 . 0 02 . 0 m =

Length mm l 50 = (or) 0.05 m

KN P 100 =


8
10 14 . 2 = E KN / m
2


Shortening of the rod : l o
7


2
1
/ 250000
0004 . 0
100
m KN
A
P
Stress = = = o


Strain
Stress
E =


E E
Stress
Strain
o
= =


8
10 14 . 2
250000

=


8
10 14 . 2
250000

=
l
l o



05 . 0
10 14 . 2
250000
8

= l o


= 0.0000584 m (or) 0.0584 mm

Hence the shortening of the rod = 0.0584 mm.

7. Define Poissons ratio. (Nov / Dec 04)

The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is a constant for a given
material, when the material is stressed within the elastic limit. This ratio is
called Poissons ratio and it is generally denoted by 1/m (or) .

strain al Longitudin
strain Lateral
=


8. Find the force P acting on the bar given in fig. (April / May 04)






Sum of all left direction force = Sum of all right direction force
50 + P = 45 + 15
P = 60 50 = 10 kN

9. What type of stress will be induced in a bar when the ends are restrained and
subjected to i) rise in temperature and ii) a fall in temperature? (April / May 04)
Thermal stresses: These are the stresses induced in a body due to
change in temperature. Thermal stresses are set up in a body, when the
temperature of the body is not allowed to expand or contract freely. i) Rise in
temperature compressive stress ii) a fall in temperature -tensile stress.

8
10. Define principal plane and principal stress.
The plane, which have no shear stress, are known as principal planes. Hence
principal planes are the planes of zero shear stress. These planes carry only
normal stresses.
The normal stresses, acting on a principal plane, are known as principal
stresses.

11. Write down the relation between modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity
and that between modulus of elasticity and bulk modulus. (Nov/Dec 02)
The relation between modulus of elasticity and bulk modulus is given by
E = 3K (1-2/m)

The relation between modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity
E = 2G (1+(1/m))

12. When a rod of diameter 20mm is subjected to a tensile force of 40 kN, thje
extension is measured as 250 divisions in 200mm extension meter. Find the
modulus of elasticity if each division is equal to 0.001mm. (Nov/Dec 02)
Solution:

Diameter = 20mm ; P = 40 kN = 40 x 10
3
N ; Extension = 250 divisions
1 division = 0.001 mm; L = 200 mm
l = 250 x 0.001 = 0.25 mm
E = /e =
200 / 25 . 0
16 . 314 / 10 40
/
/
3
x
l l
A P
=
o

Modulus of Elasticity = 101.85 x 10
3
N/mm
2


13. What do you understand by the assumption, plane section remain plane even
after the application of load?
When some external load acts on the beam, the shear force and bending
moments are set up at aii sections of the beam. Due to the shear force and bending
moment, the beam undergoes certain deformation. After removal of the load the beam
will come to its original position based on that assumption.

14. A metal bar 50 mm x 50 mm section, is subjected to an axial
compressive load of 500 KN. The contraction of a 200 mm gauge
length is found to be 0.5 mm and the increase in thickness 0.04 mm.
find E and .
Solution:

b = 50 mm, t = 50 mm

Area =
2
2500 50 50 mm =

P = 500 KN

Length, l = 200 mm, . 5 . 0 mm l = o

Increase in thickness, mm t 04 . 0 = o
Youngs Modulus:
9

AE
pl
l = o


2
3
/ 80
2500
200 10 500
5 . 0 mm KN E
E
=


=


Poissions Ratio:


strain Linear
strain Lateral
=

Linear strain = 0.0025

thickness strain Lateral t = o

50 0025 . 0
1
04 . 0 =
m






15. brass bar, having C.S.A of 10 cm
2
is subjected to axial forces as
shown in fig.




Find the total elongation of the bar Take
2 3
/ 10 8 . 0 cm t E =

Given,

Area A = 10 cm
2


2 3
/ 10 8 . 0 cm t E =

= l o Total elongation of the bar.

For the sake of simplification, the force of 8 tonnes acting at B, may be split
up into three forces of 5 tones, 2 tonnes and 1 tone. Now it will be seen that the part
AB of the bar is subjected to a tension of 5 tonnes part BC is subjected to a
compression of 2 tonnes and the part BD is subjected to a compression of 1 tonne as
shown in fig.





32 . 0
1
=
m

10




Using the relation,


( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
1
l p l p l p
AE
l + + = o


| | 220 1 100 2 60 5
10 8 . 0 10
1
3


=

mm cm 15 . 0 015 . 0
800
12
= =

=

16. Steel bar is 900 mm long its two ends are 40 mm and 30 mm in
diameter and the length of each rod is 200 mm. the middle portion of
the bar is 15 mm in diameter and 500 mm long. If the bar is
subjected to an axial tensile load of 15 KN, find the total extension.
2
/ 200 m GN E = ( )
9
10 1 = G and giga G


P = 15 kN
A
1
= 1256 mm
2

A
2
= 176.625 mm
2

A
3
= 706.50 mm
2

l
1
= 200 mm
l
2
= 500 mm
l
3
= 200 mm

Total extension of the bar:


3 2 1
, l and l l o o o

E A
pl
l
1
1
1
= o

E A
pl
l
2
2
2
= o

E A
pl
l
3
3
3
= o


3 2 1
l l l l o o o o + + =


E A
pl
E A
pl
E A
pl
3
3
2
2
1
1
+ + =


(

+ + =
3
3
2
2
1
1
A
l
A
l
A
l
E
P


= 0.2454 mm.

11

17. bar of 2 m length, 2 cm breadth and 1.5 cm thickness is subjected
to a tensile load of 3000 kg. Find the final volume of the bar, if
2 6
/ 10 0 . 2
4
1
cm kg E and = =

L = 2 m = 200 cm, b = 2 cm, t = 1.5 cm.

Vol
3
600 5 . 1 2 200 cm V = =

P = 3000 kg.

4
4
1
3
1
= = m
2 6
/ 10 2 cm kg E =

|
.
|

\
|
=
m
e
v
v 2
1
o
;
E
stress
e =
2
/ 1000
3000
cm kg
t b A
P
=

= = o


2000
1
10 2
1000
6
=

=

|
.
|

\
|
=
4
2
1
2000
1
v
v o

4000
1
=


3
15 . 0 600
4000
1
cm v = = o

18. A bronze specimen has a
2 6
/ 10 2 . 1 cm kg E = and
2 6
/ 10 47 . 0 cm kg C = . Determine
Solution:

( ) 1 2 +
=
m
mE
C



( )
( ) 1 2
10 2 . 1
10 47 . 0
6
6
+

=
m
m


( ) m m 2 . 1 1 94 . 0 = +

m m 2 . 1 94 . 0 94 . 0 = +

m m 94 .. 0 2 . 1 94 . 0 =

0.94 m = 0.26 m
12

277 . 0
1
94 . 0
26 . 0 1
= = =
m m


19. Two parallel walls 6 m apart, are stayed together by a steel rod 20
mm | passing through metal plates and nuts at each end. The nuts
are tightened home, when the rod is at a temp of 100
0
C. Determine
the stress in the rod, when the temperature falls down 20
0
C if.

a. The ends do not yield and
b. The ends yield by 1mm.
2 6
/ 10 2 cm kg E = and
c / 10 12
6
= o
Solution:

Length of rod = l = 6m = 600 cm

| of rod = d = 20 mm = 2 cm.

Temperature t = 100
0
- 20
0
= 80
0
c

; / 10 2
2 6
cm kg E = C
0 6
/ 10 12

= o

when the ends do not yield.

rod the in stress =
1
o tE o o =


2 6 6
1
/ 1920 10 2 80 10 12 cm kg = =

o

when the ends yield by 1mm

rod the in stress =
2
o


2 6 6
2
/ 158 10 2
600
1 . 0
8 10 12 cm kg =
|
.
|

\
|
=

o

20. A bar is subjected to a tensile stress of 1000 kg / cm
2
.
Determine the normal and Tangential stresses on a plane making an
angle of 60
0
with the axis of tensile stress.


0
30 = u
2 2
/ 750 cos cm kg
n
= = u o o



2
/ 433 cos sin cm kg
t
= = u u o o


2
/ 866 cm kg = o

13
21. A point in a stained material is subjected to two mutually
perpendicular stresses of 2000 kg/cm
2
and 1000 kg/cm
2
.
Determine the intensities of normal and resultant stresses on a
plane inclined at 30
0
to the axis of the minor stress.

Major stress =
2
1
/ 2000 cm kg = o

Minor stress =
2
2
/ 1000 cm kg = o

Angle of plane, which it makes with the axis of minor, principle
stress
0
30 = u

Normal stress


u
o o o o
o 2 cos
2 2
2 1 2 1

+
+
=
n


= 1750 kg/ cm
2


Tangential stress


2 2 1
/ 433 2 sin
2
cm kg
t
=

= u
o o
o


Resultant stress
2 2 2
/ 8 . 1802 cm kg t n
r
= + = o o o

22. At a point in a strained material the principal stresses are 100
N/mm
2
(tensile) and 60 N/mm2 (comp). Determine normal stress,
shear stress, resultant stress on a plane inclined at an 50
0
to the axis of
major principal stress. Also determine the maxi shear stress at the
point.

, / 100
2
1
mm N = o , / 60
2
2
mm N = o

40 50 90
0 0
= = u

, / 9 . 33
2
mm N
n
= o
2
/ 8 . 78 mm N
t
= o

2
/ 8 . 85 mm N
R
= o

Maximum shear stress;

( )
2 2 1
/ 80
2
max mm N
t
=

=
o o
o

14
23. A point in a strained material is subjected to a compressive
stress of 800 kg/cm
2
and a shear stress of 560 kg/cm
2
. Determine
graphically or otherwise, the maximum and minimum intensity of
stress.

, / 800
2
cm kg = o
2
/ 560 cm kg = t

Maximum intensity of stress:

o
t
u
2
2 tan =


800
560 2
=

= 1.4

' 28 54 2
0
= u

' 14 27
0
= u


( )
2
2
1
2 2
t
o o
o +
|
.
|

\
|
+ = n


= 288.2 kg/cm
2
(Tensile)

=
2
n o Minimum intensity of direct stress.


( )
2
2
2
2
/ 2 . 1088
2 2
cm kg n =
|
.
|

\
|
= t
o o
o


24. A steel bolt 2.5 cm diameter is subjected to a direct tension of
1500 kg and a shearing forces of 1000 kg. Determine the intensities of
normal and shear stress across a plane inclined at an angle of 60
0
to
the longitudinal axis of the bolt. Also determine the resultant stress.
Solution:

. 5 . 2 cm = | Area = 4.91 cm
2


Direct tension = 1500 kg.

Direct stress on the bolt =
2
/ 5 . 305
91 . 4
1500
cm kg = = o

Shearing force = 1000 kg.

15
Shear stress =
2
/ 7 . 203
91 . 4
1000
cm kg = = t

Angle which the plane makes with the longitudinal axis of the bolt = 60
0


Angle, which the plane makes with the normal to the longitudinal axis of the
bolt


0 0 0
30 60 90 = = u

Normal stress: ( ) ( ) u t u
o
o 2 sin 2 cos 1
2
+ + =
n


= 405.5 kg/ cm
2


Shear stress: u u o o 2 cos 2 sin
2
1
e
t
=

= 30.5 kg/cme+


Resultant stress:
( ) ( )
2 2
t n r
o o o + =



( ) ( )
2 2
5 . 30 5 . 405 + =


= 406.6 kg/cm
.2


25. A point is subjected to a tensile stress of 60 N/mm
2
and a
compressive stress of 40 N/mm
2
, acting on two mutually
perpendicular planes and a shear stress of 10 N/mm
2
on these planes.
Determine the principal stresses as well as maxi shear stress. Also
find out the value of maxi shear stress.



2
1
/ 60 mm N = o and
2
2
/ 40 mm N = o


2
/ 10 mm N = t
Principal stresses:


( )
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
/ 61
2 2
mm N n = +
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
= t
o o o o
o



( )
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
/ 41
2 2
mm N n = +
|
.
|

\
|

+
= t
o o o o
o


16
Maximum shear stress


2 2 1
/ 51
2
41 61
2
mm N
n n
t
=
+
=

=
o o
o
17

SIXTEEN MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWERS:

1.A hollow cast iron cylinder 4m long, 300 mm outer diameter and
thickness of metal 50 mm is subjected to a central load on the top
when standing straight. The stress produced is 75000 KN / m
2
.
Assume Youngs Modulus for cast iron as
2 8
/ 10 5 . 1 m KN and find

i. Magnitude of the load
ii. Longitudinal strain produced and
iii. Total decrease in length.

Solution:
Outer diameter, D = 300 mm = 0.3 m

Thickness , t = 50 mm = 0.05 m

Length, l = 4 m

Stress produced 000 , 75 = o KN / m
2


8
10 5 . 1 = E KN / m
2


Inner diameter of the cylinder t D d 2 =

( ) 05 . 0 2 3 . 0 =

= 0.2 m

i. Magnitude of the load P:

Using the relation,


A
P
= o

(or)
( )
2 2
4
75000 d D A P = =
t
o



( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 . 0 3 . 0
4
75000 =
t


P = 2945.2 KN.
ii. Longitudinal strain produced e:

Using the relation,

18
0005 . 0
10 5 . 1
000 , 75
,
8
=

= =
E
Stress
e strain

iii. Total decrease in length , : l o

using the relation,


length Original
length in change
strain =


4
0005 . 0
l o
=

4 0005 . 0 = l o

0.002 m = 2 mm

Hence decrease in length = 2 mm.


2. The following observations were made during a tensile test on a
mild steel specimen 40 mm in diameter and 200 mm long. Elongation
with 40 KN load (within limit of proportionality)
0304 . 0 = l o mm, yield load = 161 KN
Maximum load = 242 KN
Length of specimen at fracture = 249 mm.
Determine:
v. Youngs Modulus of Elasticity
vi. Yield point stress
vii. Ultimate stress
viii. Percentage elongation.
Solution:

i. Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E) :

Stress,
( )
2 4
2
/ 10 18 . 3
04 . 0
4
40
m KN
A
P
= = =
t
o


Strain, 000152 . 0
200
0304 . 0
= = =
l
l
e
o



000152 . 0
10 18 . 3
4

= =
Strain
Stress
E

8
10 09 . 2 = KN / m
2
19

(ii) Yield point stress:

Yield point stress
area
load po Yield int
=


( )
2 4
2
/ 10 8 . 12
04 . 0
4
161
m KN = =
t


(iii) Ultimate stress:

Maximum load
Ultimate stress =
Area


( )
2 4
2
/ 10 2 . 19
04 . 0
4
242
m KN = =
t


(iv). Percentage elongation:

Length of specimen at fracture original length
Percentage elongation =
Original length

245 . 0
200
200 249
=

=

= 24.5 %

3. A steel 2m long and 3 mm in diameter are extended by 0.75 mm
when a weight W is suspended from the wire. If the same weight is
suspended from a brass wire, 2.5 m long and 2 mm in diameter, it is
elongated by 4.64 mm. Determine the modulus of elasticity of brass if
that of steel be n N / 10 0 . 2
5


Solution:

Given:
, 2m l
s
= , 3mm d
s
= mm l
s
75 . 0 = o

, / 10 0 . 2
2 5
mm N Es = , 5 . 2 m l
b
=
mm d
b
2 =


m l
b
64 . 4 = o

Modulus of Elasticity of brass, Eb :
20

From Hookes law,


AE
Wl
l = o

where = l o Extension, l = length, A = Cross sectional area

E = Modulus of Elasticity.

Case 1:

For steel wire


s s
E A
Wl
l
3
3
= o


( ) 1000 2 75 . 0 =W


( )
5
2
10 3
4

=
t



( )
2000
1
10 2
4
3
75 . 0
5
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
t
W
(1)

Case 2:

For brass wire


b b
b
b
E A
l W
l = o



( )
( )
b
E
W


=
2
2
4
1000 5 . 2
64 . 4
t



( )
2500
1
4
2
64 . 4
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
b
E W
t
(2)

Equating equation (i) and (ii), we get


( ) ( )
2500
1
4
2
64 . 4
2000
1
10 2
4
3
75 . 0
2
5
2
=

=
b
E
t t

21


2 5
/ 10 909 . 0 mm N E
b
=



4. A member formed by connecting a steel bar to an aluminium bar as
shown in fig. Assuming that the bars are prevented form buckling
sidewise; calculate the magnitude of force p
1
that will cause the total
length of the member to decrease 0.25 mm. The values of elastic
modulus of steel and aluminum are 2101 KN / mm
2
and 70 KN / mm
2
Solution:
Given:


2
2500 50 50 mm As = =


2
000 , 10 100 100 mm A
A
= =


Length of steel bar = l
3 =
300 mm.

= l
3
= 380 mm

mm l 25 . 0 = o

: / 10 210
2 3
nn N Es =
2 3
/ 10 70 mm N E
A
=

P = Magnitude of the required force.


|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 2
2
1 1
1
E A
l
E A
l
P l o


P = 224.36 KN
22

Area at the reduced section


( )
2 2 2
001472 . 0 025 . 0 05 . 0
4
m = =
t


Stress in the reduced section,
001472 . 0
1000 100
1

= o




2 6
/ 10 93 . 67 m N =

Elongation of the rod
( )
E
x
E
x . 5 . 2 o o
+

=


3
10 731 . 0

=



( )
3
9
6
9
6
10 731 . 0
10 200
10 9 . 67
10 200
5 . 2 10 92 . 50

x x


( )
3 9 6 6
10 731 . 0 10 200 10 9 . 67 5 . 2 10 92 . 50

= + x x


6
10 92 . 50

( ) 87 . 2 33 . 1 5 . 2 = + x x

x = 1.12 m.



5. A steel tie rod 50 mm in m and 5 . 2 | long is subjected to a pull of 100
KN. To what length the rod should be bored centrally so that the
total extension will increase by 15 % under the same pull, the bore
being 25 mm | ?

Solution:

Dia of steel tie rod = 50 mm = 0.05 m

Length of steel tie rod l = 2.5 m

P = 100 KN.

Dia of bore = 25 mm = 0.025 m
23


2 9
/ 10 200 m N e =

Length of the bore x:

Stress in the solid rod,
( )
2 6
2
/ 10 92 . 50
05 . 0
4
1000 100
m N
A
P
=

= =
t
o


Elongation of the solid rod
9
6
10 200
5 . 2 10 92 . 50


= =
E
l
l
o
o


= 0.000636 m (or) 0.636 mm.

Elongation after the rod is bored 636 . 0 15 . 1 =

= 0.731 mm.

6. A steel flat plate AB of 1 cm thickness tapers uniformly from 10 cm
to 5 cm width in a length of 40 cm. From first principles, determine
the elongation of the plate, if an axial tensile force of 5000 kg acts on
it. Take
2 6
/ 10 0 . 2 cm kg E =
Given:









Width of the plate at a distance x from A

( )
8
10
40
5 10 10
x x
= =

C.S.A of the bar


2
8
10
8
10 1 cm
x x
Ax
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=


Stress,
2
/
8
10
5000
cm kg
x
A
P
x
x

= = o


24
Strain,
|
.
|

\
|

=

|
.
|

\
|

= =
8
10 400
1
10 2
8
10
5000
6
x x E
x
x
o


Elongation of the elementary length


cm
x
dx
dx ex
|
.
|

\
|

= =
8
10 400
.


The total extension of the bar may be found out by integrating the above
equation between the limits 0 and 40.

(ie.)
}

=
40
0
8
10
400
1
x
dx
l o



40
0
8
10 log
8
1
400
1
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
x
e



| | 10 log 5 log
50
1
e e
=



| | 5 log 10 log
50
1
e e
=



(

=
5
10
log
50
1
e



cm
e
2 log
50
1
=



cm 2 log 3 . 2
50
1
10
=

( )
10
log 3 . 2 log =
e





50
3010 . 0 3 . 2
=


= 0.014 cm = 0.14 mm.

25

7. A steel cube block of 50 mm side is subjected to a force of 6 KN
(Tension), 8 KN (compressive) and 4 KN (tension) along x, y and z
directions. Determine the change in the volume of the block.
2
/ 200 mm KN e = and
3
10
= m

Side of steel cube = 50 mm


2
2500 50 50 mm A = =

and
3
125000 50 50 50 mm v = =

; 6KN P
X
= ; 8KN P
Y
= KN Pz 4 =


Z Y X
e e e
V
v
+ + =
o



mE mE E
e
Z Y x
X
o o o
=



2
3
/ 4 . 2
2500
10 6
mm N
A
P
X
=

= = o



2
3
/ 2 . 3
2500
10 8
mm N
A
P
Y
=

= o



2
/ 6 . 1
2500
4000
mm N
A
P
Z
Z
= = = o



E E E E
e
X
88 . 2
10
3 6 . 1
10
3 2 . 3 4 . 2
=

+ =



E E E E
e
Y
4 . 4
10
3 6 . 1
10
3 4 . 2 2 . 3
=

=



E E E E
e
Z
84 . 1
10
3 2 . 3
10
3 4 . 2 6 . 1
=

=


Z Y X
e e e
v
v
+ + =
o

26


E E E
v 84 . 1 4 . 4 88 . 2
10 125
3
+ =

o



3
3
3
2 . 0
10 200
32 . 0
10 125 mm v =

= o



8. A bar of 30 mm | is subjected to a pull of 60 KN. The measured
extension on gauge length of 200 mm is 0.09 mm and the change in
diameter is 0.0039 mm. Calculate and the values of the three
module.

Solution:

i. Youngs Modulus:



e
E
o
=


( )
2
2
3
/ 9 . 84
30
4
10 60
mm N
A
P
=

= =
t
o



00045 . 0
200
09 . 0
= = =
l
l
e
o



2
/ 67 . 188 mm KN E =

ii. Poissons ratio:



e
d d
strain Linear
strain Lateral / o
= =

00013 . 0
3
00039 . 0
/ = = d d o


13
45
45
13
00045 . 0
00013 . 0
= = = m

iii. Modulus of rigidity:


27

( )
2
3
/ 19 . 73
1
13
45
2
10 67 . 188
13
45
1 2
mm KN
m
mE
C =
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
=


iv. Bulk Modulus:



( )
2
3
/ 95 . 148
2
13
45
3
10 67 . 188
13
45
2 3
mm KN
m
mE
K =
|
.
|

\
|

=



9. At a point within a body subjected to two mutually
perpendicular directions, the stresses are 80 N/mm
2
tensile and 40
N/mm
2
tensile. Each of the above stresses is accompanied by a shear
stress of 60 N/mm
2
. Determine the normal stress. Shear stress and
resultant stress on an oblique plane inclined at an angle of 45
0
with
the axis of minor tensile stress.
Solution:
Given,

Major tensile stress,
2
1
/ 80 mm N = o
Minor tensile stress,
2
2
/ 40 mm N = o

Shear stress, q = 60 N/mm
2


Angle of oblique plane, with the axis of minor tensile stress.

i. Normal stress (
n
o
)

u t u
o o o o
o 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
2 1 2 1
+

+
+
=
n


( ) ( ) 45 2 sin 60 2 sin 45 2 cos
2
40 80
2
40 80
0
+ +

+
+
= u t


2
/ 120 mm N
n
= o


ii. Shear (or tangential) stress
( )
t
o


28

u t u
o o
o 2 cos 2 sin
2
2 1

=
t



( ) ( ) 45 2 cos 60 45 2 sin
2
40 80

=



2
/ 20 mm N
t
= o

iii.. Resultant stress
( )
R
o





( ) ( )
2 2
t n R
o o o + =


= 121.665 N / mm
2



10. A point in strained material is subjected to the stresses as shown
in figure. Locate the principal planes and evaluate the principal
tresses.
Solution:
Given,

Stress on the face BC and AD = 600 kg / cm
2


Inclination of the stress = 60
0


Stress normal on the face BC or BD

= =
0
1
30 cos 600 o


= =
0
30 sin 600 t

400
2
= o
Location:

' 21 39 0
2
2
0
2 1
=

=
o o
u
R
lan

Principal stress


2
2
2 1 2 1
1
2 2
t
o o o o
o + |
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
n
29

= 766 kg/cm
2




( )
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 2
t
o o o o
o + |
.
|

\
|

+
=
n

= 154 kg/cm
2