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Dimensional analysis for assessing the performance of electrostatic precipitators

F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz , B. Navarrete, L. Caadas


Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica y Ambiental, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n. 41092 Sevilla, Spain
a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 2 February 2010
Received in revised form 19 July 2010
Accepted 20 July 2010
Keywords:
Electrostatic precipitator
Dimensional analysis
Similarity
Scale-up
Pilot plant
Modeling
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are widely used in industry today and much research has been carried out
during the last decades. Dimensional analysis (DA) allows to reduce the number of parameters necessary for
dening the ESP performance and provides a reliable scaling-up of the desired operating conditions from the
pilot-scale to full-scale plant (based on the invariance of the pi-space). Likewise, DA gives a consistent
extrapolation within the range covered by dimensionless number and a greater exibility in choice of
parameters. DA together with similarity analysis is presented in this work in order to obtain a functional
dependence between a target number and a set of few dimensionless numbers. The target selected has been
the penetration, i.e., the ratio of particle dust concentration at the outlet of the ESP (C
o
) and that at the inlet
of the ESP (C
i
). The results can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different operating characteristics,
under geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and electro-hydrodynamics similarity. Thus, as a consequence of
these analyses, several quite reduced models have been formulated theoretically and later tested and
validated with experimental data obtained in a pilot ESP in order to show an application of the study. Four
models have been tted by linear regression, resulting unsatisfactory. However, two additional models tted
by non-linear regression predict values of particle removal efciency that agrees well with the experimental
data. Thus, this paper is focused towards dimensional analysis in ESP model building, showing both the
reduction in effort and more effective modeling that can result.
2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
The electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are mainly used for the
reduction of y ash emission from industrial boilers red with lignite
or bituminous coal [1]. Wire-plate electrostatic lters are commonly
used in industrial applications. In wire-plate ESP charging of particles
occurs by using high-voltage power. The basic principle underlying
the solid pollutant removal process is to charge the particulate matter
by means of corona-generated ions, which then move towards the
collecting plates under the effect of the applied electric eld. In
practical ESP congurations the electric eld is generated by high
voltages applied to a row of emitting wires centrally placed between
two parallel earthed collecting plates. The cross-section of the wires
may be round, square or further complicated in order to increase the
local electrical eld and thus the corona discharge efciency.
The Deutsch-Anderson equation has been used for scale-up
purposes for many years. It is a very simple model in which a at
velocity prole and perfect transverse mixing are assumed. The
theoretical migration velocity, w, was found by balancing the electric
eld (Coulomb) forces on the particle charge against the forces of uid
drag (Stokes' law). However, in applying the original Deutsch theory,
many authors did not nd good agreement between theory and
experiment, using the theoretical values of w. So they introduced a
new variable (effective or empirical migration velocity), which was
meant to include any effects not explicitly recognized in the original
Deutsch theory, as re-entrainment, diffusion, etc. The effective
migration velocity, which is analogous to a mass transfer coefcient,
is a function of particle size and is simply a scaling parameter.
In the 1980s several studies assumed a nite (not complete)
mixing throughout the precipitator. Thus, the turbulent diffusion
equation coupled with the electrodynamics led to electro-hydrody-
namics (EHD), which allowed to model more accurately the local
particle concentration prole and ESP performance. For the last two
decades, many mathematical models have been published and all of
them were developed to evaluate particle removal efciency of an
electrostatic precipitator (ESP) by predicting three interactive elds,
namely electrical, gas velocity and particle velocity elds [2]. A
number of studies have been carried out to calculate the EHD ow
eld by solving the time-averaged NavierStokes equations with a k
turbulence closure model [3,4], frequently using the CFD code Fluent
for carrying out the computations. In turbulence models the
magnitudes of two turbulence quantities, the turbulence kinetic
energy k and its dissipation rate are calculated from transport
equations solved simultaneously with those governing the mean ow
behaviour. Thus, newmodeling papers continuously present methods
in order to overcome the assumptions and simplications followed in
electrostatic precipitator modeling by preceding models.
Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 95 448 72 60/61/65/68; fax: +34 95 446 17 75.
E-mail addresses: fjgo@esi.us.es (F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz), navarrete@esi.us.es
(B. Navarrete), canadas@esi.us.es (L. Caadas).
0378-3820/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.07.013
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
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j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ f upr oc
The use of CFD for such investigations is fast becoming a powerful
and almost essential tool for the design, development and optimiza-
tion of engineering applications. However, turbulence models remain
a key issue when tackling such owphenomena. The reliability of CFD
analysis depends heavily on the turbulence model employed together
with the wall functions implemented. In order to resolve the abrupt
uctuations experienced by the turbulent energy and other para-
meters (many times selected in a heuristic way, conferring to the
modeling a semi-empirical characteristic) located at near wall regions
and shear layers, a particularly ne computational mesh is necessary
which inevitably increases the computer storage and run-time
requirements.
Dimensional analysis and physical similarity can be also used to
approach the performance of an ESP. With knowledge gained from
correlating model and eld tests, it is possible to predict and check the
performance of a given design for an emission source. A proper
modeling is based on accurate similarity relations according to
fundamental principles.
Dimensional analysis is a method for reducing complex physical
problems to their simplest (most economical) forms prior to
quantitative analysis or experimental investigation, i.e., reduces a
problem's degrees of freedom to the minimum and thus suggests the
most economical scaling laws. In the context of a chosen system of
units (e.g. SI) and frame of reference, it can be offered a quantitative
description of reality f(x
1
,, x
n
)=0, and in order to correctly evaluate
reality on all scales, dimensional analysis permits to nd the minimal
and invariant description in terms of dimensionless numbers F (
1
,,

m
) = 0, where mbn.
Although some dimensionless number can be found in the
literature [58], only Riehle and Lfer [5] derived a dimensionless
current density and a dimensionless voltage in order to describe
geometric-similar precipitators by a unied currentvoltage charac-
teristic, but still holding the average gas velocity constant. They
concluded that if dimensionless voltage is constant then operating
conditions are electrically similar. More recently, Khodorkovsky and
Beltran [6] derived two dimensionless numbers to match the
collection efciency for two ESPs, although a commercial focus
characterizes this work. The studies encountered in the literature do
not develop a comprehensive dimensional analysis and many
important variables are missed.
In this paper, a complete dimensional analysis is carried out in
order to provide a simple and realistic method of predicting the global
ESP performance through the overall particle removal efciency. This
technique is greatly useful to study the complex physical phenomena
involved since it simplies problems of chemical engineering
characterized for their high complexity. In particular, the particle
collection efciencies will be examined as a function of the ow,
electric and gas and particle operating condition. This paper can be
also used to account for more practical approach of the full-scale ESP
from pilot scale, so the similarity numbers derived may be used as
basis for scale-up with condence within the range covered by
dimensionless numbers.
2. Dimensional analysis
Dimensional analysis provides a procedure to generate dimen-
sionless numbers from a list of relevant physical variables together
with their respective dimensions, by using the -theorem. However,
the choice of dimensionless parameters is not unique, i.e., -theorem
only provides a way of generating sets of dimensionless parameters,
and will not necessarily choose those with the most physically
meaningful.
To apply this technique, the identication of every independent
physical variable related to the phenomena taking place inside the
electrostatic precipitation is necessary. First of all, a set of parameters
must be selected from all the variables considered, corresponding to
each independent physical magnitude, which are of use for the
dimensional modeling.
Thus, the parameters used for the dimensional modeling relative
to the main physical magnitudes are the following:
Length magnitude: D, inter-electrode or wire-plate spacing (m)
Mass magnitude: C
i
, inlet particles concentration (kg/m
3
)
Time magnitude: Q
g
, gas ow rate in each plate spacing (m
3
/s)
Electric magnitude: U, voltage applied between electrodes and
plates (V ~ kgm
2
s
3
A
1
)
In order to verify the proper choice of parameters, a dimensional
matrix is formed with the dimensions of these quantities [9]. The
columns are assigned to the individual physical magnitudes and the
rows to the exponents with which the base dimensions appear in the
respective dimensions of these quantities, as follows:
C
i
D Q
g
U
_ _
mass; M
lenght; L
time; T
electric current; I
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
1 0 0 1
3 1 3 2
0 0 1 3
0 0 0 1
_

_
_

_
where M, L, T and I are the symbols for the dimensions of the base
quantities mass, length, time and electric current, respectively.
It can be veried that, using the Gaussian elimination method or
calculating the determinant, the matrix rank is 4. Therefore, the
selected parameters are linearly independent of the basic dimensions,
and hence, they can be used to generate the dimensionless numbers
for the modeling of the ESP performance.
From -theorem and the principle of dimensional homogeneity
each dimensionless -group is constructed from an independent
physical variable multiplied by a suitable combination of the
dependent physical variables. Subsequently, all the dimensional
variables considered as relevant to describe the ESP performance
have been listed (Tables 15), setting into homogeneous groups with
Table 1
Main geometric variables of an electrostatic precipitator.
Dimensional variable Dimensionless
variable
Symbol Description SI unit
H Electric sections height m H/D
d Distance between discharge electrodes m d/D
r Radius of the discharge electrode m r/D
L Total length of the precipitation sections m L/D
Table 2
Main electric variables of an electrostatic precipitator.
Dimensional variable Dimensionless
variable
Symbol Description SI unit

rg
Relative permittivity of gas
(dielectric constant)*
Dimensionless
rg
=
g
/
0

rp
Relative permittivity of particles
(dielectric constant)*
Dimensionless
rp
=
p
/
0
b Ionic mobility
m
2
Vs
_ _
bUD
Qg
K
1
Gas electrical breakdown constant
(across the inter-electrode gap)
V
m
_ _
K
1
D
U
*The dielectric constant is the permittivity of a media related to vacuum permittivity:

ri
=k
i
=
i
/
0
. The permittivity of a media has the SI units of
A
2
s
4
kgm
3
_ _
and its
corresponding dimensionless parameter is

0
U
2
D
2
Q
2
g
C
i
.
On the other hand, J (mean electric current density) has SI units of
A
m
2
=
kg
s
3
m
_ _
and its
corresponding dimensionless parameter is
JUD
6
Q
3
g
C
i
.
1784 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
their units expressed in the International System of Units (SI), as well
as the dimensionless groups resulting from the combination of each
variable and the parameters used relative to the base dimensions.
A scheme of an electrostatic precipitator is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Main geometric variables of the electrostatic precipitator are shown in
Table 1.
Any mathematical model to evaluate electrostatic precipitator
performance comprises the evaluations of electrical, uid ow and
particle movement parameters. VI characteristics and electrical eld
strength (E) are the most important electrical parameters, which
affect particle collection in an ESP. The main governing equations for
electrical part of ESP models are Poisson equation of electric potential
and electrical current continuity equation [10].
Table 2 gives the main electrical variables for an electrostatic
precipitator, and most principal variables related to gas characteristics
are shown in Table 3. Due to typically lowmean owvelocities (Mach
number always smaller than 0.02) and approximately constant
temperature throughout the gap, the gas density may be considered
as constant. The uid (ue gas in Power Stations) is assumed to
behave as Newtonian.
Some effects are neglected such as the gravity or the magnetic
elds since they are very weak inside ESPs. Besides, ion transport by
convection is negligible compared to the ion drift by the electric eld
[4].
In Table 4 the main variables related to particle characteristics are
given. The turbulent mixing coefcient describes turbulent energy
and momentum transport. The migration velocity deduced by
considering an innite turbulent mixing coefcient (Deutsch model)
is an upper bound. With a nite value of the turbulent diffusivity, the
particles concentration exhibits a minimum in the centre plane and
increases when going towards the collecting walls.
The corona discharge in the case of negative high voltage applied
to the discharge electrodes is known to be non-stationary. The time
uctuations of the corona discharge pulses are in a frequency range
between 10 and 100 kHz, a quite high-frequency domain compared to
the main energy-containing eddies, and hence their inuence on the
turbulence should be low [4]
Likewise, the characteristic time constant,
c
, for each respective
electric test condition was calculated by Riehle and Lfer [5] on the
basis of Ohm's law as follows:

c
=
4
0
E
J
where J (A/m
2
) is the mean electric current density at the collecting
electrode. They specied 5 ms as an appropriate order of a typical
value for the charge. This value is clearly lower than gas residence
time (usually in the range from 5 to 15 s).
Finally, the dust layer built on the collecting plate is also a transient
event, which can be characterized its corresponding time constant.
Table 5 depicts the non-stationary variables and their correspondent
dimensionless numbers, which are briey described below:
a)

c
Q
g
D
3
, which measures the relation between the elapsed time (
c
)
and the residence time of the particles in the ESP.
b)

dl
Q
g
D
3


dl

v
, which represents a ratio between the time required
to form the dust layer before rapping and the product of the dust
relative permittivity and dust resistivity considered as an approach
to the time constant (a measure of the transient process velocity).
c)
e
D

U
DJv

U
D

0
b
D
3
v

DbU
Qg

0
p

H
D

DH D
pvQg
, which depicts the dynamic na-
ture or the dust layer thickness as deposited on the collecting plate,
and it is intimately related to the preceding number, so both of them
represent the same transient phenomenon.
Table 3
Variables related to gas characteristics of an electrostatic precipitator.
Dimensional variable Dimensionless
variable
Symbol Description SI unit
Gas viscosity kg/ms
D
C
i
Qg

g
Gas density kg/m
3
g
C
i
Table 4
Variables related to particle characteristics of an electrostatic precipitator.
Dimensional variable Dimensionless
variable
Symbol Description SI unit
C
o
Particle concentration at ESP outlet (variable
related to unit efciency, i.e., the target)
kg/m
3 Co
C
i

p
Particles density kg/m
3
p
C
i
w Migration velocity of particles* m/s
wD
2
Qg
D
t
Turbulent mixing coefcient (eddy diffusivity) m
2
/s
Dt D
Qg

v
Particle resistivity m

V
C
i
Q
3
g
U
2
D
5

dl
Density of the deposited dust layer kg/m
3

dl
C
i
dp
av
Particle mean size m
dpav
D
*Assuming that Stokes' drag law is valid, the migration velocity of particles emerging
from a balance of drag force and electrical force is W =
qECc
3dpav
, where q is the charge
that a particle has acquired, E is the local electric eld strength and C
c
is the
Cunningham slip correction factor.
Table 5
Non-stationary variables of an electrostatic precipitator.
Dimensional variable Dimensionless
variable
Symbol Description SI unit

c
Particle charge time s
cQg
D
3

dl
Time constant of dust layer s

dl
Qg
D
3
Fig. 1. Geometric dimensions of an electrostatic precipitator.
1785 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
According to the technique used, a relationship between the
dimensionless variables is required. In this study, this relation can be
described by a functional dependence between the systemdepuration
efciency, expressed as penetration, and the relevant independent
dimensionless variables:
C
o
C
i
= f
1
_
H
D
;
d
D
;
L
D
;
r
D
;
rg
;
rp
;
bUD
Q
g
;
K
1
D
U
;
D
C
i
Q
g
;

g
C
i
;

p
C
i
;
wD
2
Q
g
;
D
t
D
Q
g
;

v
C
i
Q
3
g
U
2
D
5
;

dl
C
i
;
dp
av
D
;

c
Q
g
D
3
;

dl
Q
g
D
3
_
Next, it will be addressed an intensively formulated target number
(C
o
/C
i
) by properly combining the dimensionless variables, so as to
achieve a physical meaning.
3. Physical similarity
A complete similarity between the model (pilot scale) and the
technical realization (full scale) implies geometric, process-related
(electric and uid dynamics) and material (gas and particle
properties) similarity. The rst two ones can be usually carried out
without problems but material similarity can cause difculties if
different materials have to be used in model experiments from those
ones in the industrial plant. Therefore, there will be a higher similarity
between a pilot scale and full scale if both of them are located in the
same plant than between a laboratory scale to pilot or full scale, where
it is very difcult to achieve material similarity. In this paper, this is
just the case: the pilot plant to obtain experimental data is built
alongside the full-scale plant in such a way that a fraction of the
streamentering the industrial ESP is withdrawn towards the pilot ESP.
Therefore, the functional dependence can be simplied by
verifying a series of physical similarities, consisting of the equality
of all dimensionless parameters or similarity numbers (-groups),
which are the scaling invariants of a physical problem. Many times
only a partial similarity can be achieved when some (not all) of the
dimensionless numbers are equal. This technique can be used to
predict large ESP units' behaviour from the data acquired in smaller
pilot units. Likewise, it can be also used to analyze the effect of varying
some operation parameters on the performance of industrial
equipment. Next, the physical similarity for pilot-scale and full-scale
ESPs is identied.
3.1. Geometric similarity
Geometric similarity can be attained if geometric dimensionless
parameters
H
D
;
d
D
;
L
D
;
r
D
are kept constant. The performance of an electrostatic precipitator
strongly depends on the geometry of electrodes due to the inuence
on the migration velocity. Hence, geometric similarity is produced
by operating not only with the same wire to plate spacing but also
with same type of electrode (and equally positioned). It must be
pointed out that apart from D, r and d are also equal in both pilot and
full scale.
Plate height and number of channels in each ESP eld are changing
factors, i.e., H/D and L/D are different in the two scales considered, and
hence, only a partial geometric similarity is achieved.
3.2. Fluid dynamics similarity
By properly combining the dimensionless parameter related to gas
viscosity and that related to gas density the result is the Reynolds
number of the gas. As a consequence, the uid dynamics similarity is
achieved when operating with the same Reynolds number:
H
D

C
i
Q
g
D


g
C
i
=

g
Q
g
H
= N
Re
N
Re
is the convective inertial forces to viscosity forces' gas ratio.
It should be noted that since D and gas velocity, v (Q
g
/(DH)), are
equal in both scales, the uid dynamic similarity is achieved because
the gas owrate through the space between two collection plates (the
so-called through ow) is also the same.
3.3. Electrical similarity
By the adequate combination of the dimensionless parameters
related to electrical phenomena and material properties, using the
parameters relativetothemainphysical magnitudes, aseries of variables
with physical meaning have been obtained. These variables facilitate the
interpretation of the similarity from an electric point of view:
a
K
1
D
U
=
K
1
U= D
= N
DB
N
DB
is the electric eld intensity at which the gas dielectric
breakdown happens to the mean electric eld strength (E) ratio and
represents how near to the critical stage, in which the corona
discharge occurs, the ESP performance is. This dimensionless number
is also equal for both scales.
b


0
U
2
D
2
Q
2
g
C
i

C
i

H
2
D
2
=

rg

0
U=D
2

g
Q
g
=DH
_ _
2

rg

0
E
2

g
v
2
= N
EIF
N
EIF
gives the ratio between the electrostatic force, which is
proportional to the electric eld strength through the gas permittivity,
and the convective inertial forces of gas ow. This parameter is also
related to the magnitude of the charged particles migration
phenomena to the collecting plates in relation to their convective
movement in the gas ow. Although N
EIF
can be equal for the two
scales, it gets a more comprehensive physical meaning when it is
embodied inside the electro-hydrodynamic number.
c

C
i
Q
3
g
U
2
D
5

D
3
H
3


g
C
i
=

g
Q
2
g
= DH
2
_ _
U
2

Q
g
e
DH

e
D


g
v
2
e
D
P
edl
= N
pF
In this case, this new dimensionless number allows to compare
convective inertial forces associated to the movement of particles
conveyed by the gas with electrostatic forces in the ash layer
deposited on the collecting electrodes (P
edl
represents an electrical
pressure on the dust layer). Therefore, N
pF
measures the effect of the
electric cohesion on the layer of particles collected. When this ash
layer is considerable, the electric forces in the layer are not capable of
keeping the cohesion, and therefore problems of re-entrainment
without rapping take place during the normal operation. N
pF
has a
dynamic nature. This number is controlled by dust resistivity (equal
for both scales) and by the non-stationary dust layer building. As this
latter can be approached by a time constant equivalent to the product
of
p
and
v
, the similarity is achieved again.
1786 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
3.4. Electro-hydrodynamics similarity
The effects of turbulence coupled with electrodynamics on the
concentration prole and collection efciency can be evaluated by
using the following dimensionless parameters:
aN
Pe
=
wD
2
Q
g

Q
g
D
t
D
=
wD
D
t
This is the electric Peclet number (N
Pe
), which is a measure of the
relative strength of external forces and diffusion on particle transport,
i.e., this number is an indicator of the relative strengths of the drift
motionanddiffusive motion. This parameter must be takeninto account
since the turbulence levels in conventional ESP may be far from what
would be required to assure uniform mixing of the particles within a
short length, as Deutsch considered in his model. So it is more
reasonable to model the ow in an ESP as one with nite eddy
diffusivity. Thus, high N
Pe
leads to a lower collection efciency (higher
penetration levels). Since the eddy diffusivity is a function of the
turbulence, the problemtoachieve thescale-upmay be the predictionof
the appropriate diffusivity value to use. This issue will be addressed
later. Values of 1 or less for N
Pe
are near to Deutsch collection.
It should be noted that the rst factor corresponds to the
dimensionless particle migration velocity or reduced particle migration
velocity, which is the ratio of particle migration to primary gas ow
velocity.
bN
EHD
=
JD
b
g
v
2
Electro-hydrodynamics (EHD) number (N
EHD
) is the magnitude of
the secondary ow interaction and describes the electrical wind
velocity relative to the gas ow velocity [11]. N
EHD
includes
information on the ratio of the kinetic energy of the electrically
neutral main gas stream,
g
v
2
, to the energy of the electrically charged
ions moving in the electric eld, JD/b. On the other hand, EHD number
is quite close to this other one:
bUD
Q
g

L
D
=
bU
Q
g
=L
which gives the ratio between the electric diffusivity of the ions in the
gas owand the diffusivity due to the convective movement of the gas
ow but without considering electric contribution.
For N
EHD
N1, precipitation efciency is contributed primarily by the
corona discharge, and for N
EHD
b1, the turbulence of gas owbecomes
a contributing factor [1].
3.5. Other dimensionless parameters
Other parameters can have a physical signicance on the ESP
performance, as follows:
a) Non-stationary parameters: It is not possible to consider these
parameters (Table 5) in case of stationary phenomena (once the
usually short transients have been overcome).
b) Relative permittivity (dielectric constants):
rg
,
rp
Relative permittivity or dielectric constant of gas and particles,
rg
and
rp
, respectively, are constant dimensionless parameters if the
gas and particles characteristics do not change. Thus, for the pilot
plant located in the full-scale plant, there is similarity regarding
with these parameters.
c) Dimensionless densities:

g
C
i
,

p
C
i
,

dl
C
i
For the same gas ow rate and inlet particle concentration, these
parameters do not change if the gas and particles characteristics do
not change, as occurs in this case (pilot plant located in the
industrial plant).
d) Dimensionless average particle diameter:
dp
av
D
This parameter is equal for pilot scale and full scale. On the other
hand, its value is very low for both scales and, hence, it can be
assumed that it does not affect to the dependence of the efciency
on the rest of dimensionless variables in order to compare scales.
As a general rule, the dimensionless variables that are quite constant
frompilot tofull scaleor very high/low(several orders of magnitude) for
any condition can be left out the functional dependence.
The previous results relative to dimensional analysis and physical
similarity can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different
operating characteristics. The only requirement is to assure
geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and electro-hydrodynamics
similarity.
Apparently many physical variables with dimensions will be
excluded in the functional dependence searched, since corresponding
dimensionless numbers are equal for both scales. However, some of
those ones are embedded in other dimensionless parameters because
they affect to several phenomena. Thus, applied voltage, particle size,
electrical charging of particles and dielectric constant of particles are
factors taken into account in the calculus of the migration velocity,
within the Deutsch number.
3.6. Model formulation
According to the previous analyses, the functional dependence
between the efciency and the rest of dimensionless parameters,
obtained by applying the -theorem and physical similarity (equality
of the similarity numbers formed for both scales) could be given by
the following expression:
C
o
C
i
= f
2
L
D
;
H
D
; N
Pe
; N
EHD
_ _
As it can be observed, the number of variables is greatly reduced and
therefore the comparative analysis for the scaling becomes simplied as
well as the practical application. Likewise, it should be noted that
variables reduction is intensied due to the material similarity, and
hence, the independent dimensionless variables considered are those of
electro-hydrodynamic nature apart from the dimensionless geometric
parameters that are different in the scales.
It is possible to further manipulate the nal dimensionless
parameters selected for the dependence function taking into account
the Deutsch model. If the parameter
N
De
=
w
v

x
D
; 0xL
is the Deutsch number, where x is the coordinate in the direction of
stream, when multiplying the dimensionless parameters selected
from the dimensional analysis and physical similarity, the following
number is obtained
H
D

wD
D
t

bUD
Q
g

L
D

w
v

bU
D
t

x
D
; 0xL
This number may be considered as a modied Deutsch number,
where the factor multiplying to N
De
represents a nite dimensionless
eddy diffusivity. The nal functional dependence to be tested can
be expressed in a more general way by using two dimensionless
numbers:
C
o
C
i
= f
3
bU
D
t
; N
De
_ _
1787 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
4. Experimental section
The dimensional analysis alone cannot provide a complete answer
to the particular problem, since this analysis only gives the
dimensionless groups describing the phenomenon and not the
specic relationship among them. To obtain the exact relationship,
experimental measurements (or additional theoretical consideration)
have to be utilized. Therefore, in order to prove the importance of the
dimensional and similarity analyses for ESP performance, experimen-
tal tests were carried out in a pilot ESP.
The pilot ESP, located at a 550 MWe pulverized coal power plant, is
capable of treating up to 20,000 m
3
/h of ue gas withdrawn from the
outlet gas stream of the boiler. This gas ow rate is equivalent to 12
MWt in the boiler. The ESP conguration permits to change the wire
to plate spacing, type of discharge electrode, type and control of
energization, gas ow rate and rapping variables. It consists of three
independent electrical sections (or elds) in series. Each plate curtain
is rapped independently with oscillating hammers, like each frame
holding the electrodes in each electrical section. Discharge electrode
is connected to the negative pole of the rectied voltage source, so the
corona discharge is negative and free electrons attach to neutral
molecules forming thus negative normal ions. The main characteristics
of this pilot unit are shown in Table 6. Likewise, Table 7 depicts the
congurations of the Pilot ESP used in this study. Fig. 2 illustrates an
instrumentation and control diagram of the pilot plant. The specic
collection area (SCA) was changed by varying the gas ow rate and by
deactivatingtheelectric elds (that diminishes thetotal collectionarea).
The gas temperature was also controlled by a heating element
located at the gas intake. A venture meter measured the gas owrate
continuously and automatically. The emission of dust was monitor-
ized through the extinction signal from a HeNe laser opacimeter
(MIP OY, model LM 3188), calibrated daily. Furthermore, manual
measurements were taken during the tests at the inlet and the outlet
of the ESP unit in order to measure dust concentrations. EPA Method
5 was used for measuring the total particulate matter. In addition,
the electrical parameters of each section in the ESP (voltage, current
and sparking level) were continuously monitored. The precipitator
was operated with continuous energization (rectied current), which
was controlled by maximizing the voltage and limiting the sparking
level.
A set of experiments were selected in order to illustrate the
relationship between C
o
/C
i
and the dimensionless numbers in pi-
space. The variables changed during these experiments were:
Gas velocity: 0.81.4 m/s
Wireplate spacing: 150, 200 and 250 mm
Number of active elds: 3, 2+3, 1+2+3 (3rd, 2nd+3rd, all)
C
i
: measured inlet particle concentration (g/m
3
)
C
o
: measured outlet particle concentration (g/m
3
)
Table 7
Congurations of the pilot ESP.
Collecting
plates
spacing
Number of
channels
Collecting
area (m
2
)
Effective
width (m)
Number of electrodes per
channel and section
300 6 159 1.85 4
400 4 105 1.65 4
500 3 79 1.55 4
Fig. 2. Pilot ESP instrumentation and control diagram.
Table 6
Characteristics s of the pilot ESP.
Precipitator dimensions
Length (m) 12.6
Width (m) 2.5
Height (m) 2.6
Number of electric sections 3
Electric section conguration
Effective length (m) 2
Effective height (m) 2.2
Number of channels 37
Channel width (mm) 200500
Number of electrodes per channel 412
Operating conditions
Flue gas ow rate (m
3
/h) 9,00020,000
Collection area (m
2
) 79.2184.8
Specic collection areaSCA (m
2
/m
3
/s) 1474
Gas velocity (m/s) 0.81.8
Transformers/rectiers
Peak voltage (kV) 120
Average maximum voltage (kV) 78
Maximum effective current (mA) 42
1788 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
U: measured voltage (kV)
J: measured current density (nA/cm
2
)
The coal was the same as well as the operating conditions both in
the full-scale plant and the pilot plant. Ashes from the coal had a high
resistivity (10
12
cm), and the average particle diameter was 12 m.
Table 8 shows the particle size distribution of y ash. Other
characteristics of the coal are the following:
Ultimate analysis (dry basis, wt%): C: 74.3; H: 4.1; N: 1.8; O: 6.4; S:
0.7; Ash: 12.7.
Moisture: 8.0%.
A spiked wire was used as discharge electrode (5 mm radius). Gas
temperature was of 125 C.
5. The tted models and their validation
With the aid of regression analysis, from the ESP operation and
design point of view, the specic functional dependence obtained is
very useful because it allows to predict the overall particle removal
efciency from varying length, gas ow treated, voltage applied as
well as changing gas and particles properties for both scales under
physical similarity conditions. It is useful to graphically represent the
dimensionless target number (C
o
/C
i
) versus the independent dimen-
sionless number considered. Figs. 35 depict this, and it can be
concluded that a relationship between C
o
/C
i
and N
De
or bU/D
t
N
De
seems to be exponential, but a barely relation is seen between C
o
/C
i
and bU/D
t
. Therefore, some models can be proposed and checked in
order to dene the dependence function, as follows:
Model 1:
Co
C
i
= exp
1

bU
Dt
N
De
_ _
The parameter
1
is a regression coefcient estimated by applying
least square method in order to t the model to experimental data. It
should be noted that there is only one parameter to estimate. As an
alternative, from the preliminary representation (Fig. 4), the
parameter bU/D
t
can be excluded, so the model 1 would be:
Model 1:
C
o
C
i
= exp
0
1
N
De
_ _
Likewise, another parameter can be considered, next to classical
regression, as follows:
Model 2:
C
o
C
i
=
2
exp
2

bU
Dt
N
De
_ _
And for the same reason as before, a model 2 could be:
Model 2:
C
o
C
i
=
0
2
exp
0
2
N
De
_ _
Finally, a more general model is one obtained by non-linear
regression (NLR):
Model 3:
C
o
C
i
= exp
bU
D
t
_ _

1
N

2
De
_ _
As for the previous models, the last model considered in this study
is a reduced version of the previous model 3:
Model 4:
C
o
C
i
= exp N

De
_ _
Therefore, the nal outcome of the dimensional analysis process
is a functional relationship between few variables, where the
0.0E+00
5.0E-02
1.0E-01
1.5E-01
2.0E-01
2.5E-01
3.0E-01
6.00E+03 7.00E+03 8.00E+03 9.00E+03 1.20E+04 1.10E+04 1.00E+04
bU/D
t
C
o
/
C
i

(
e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
a
l
)
Fig. 4. Representation of C
o
/C
i
versus bU/D
t
.
0.0E+00
5.0E-02
1.0E-01
1.5E-01
2.0E-01
2.5E-01
3.0E-01
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
N
De
C
o
/
C
i

(
e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
a
l
)
Fig. 3. Representation of C
o
/C
i
versus N
De
.
0.0E+00
5.0E-02
1.0E-01
1.5E-01
2.0E-01
2.5E-01
3.0E-01
0.00E+00 2.00E+04 4.00E+04 6.00E+04 8.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.20E+05 1.40E+05
bU/D
t
N
De
C
o
/
C
i

(
e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
a
l
)
Fig. 5. Representation of C
o
/C
i
versus bU/D
t
N
De
.
Table 8
Particle size distribution of y ash.
Particle size, m Cumulative %
0.5 5.76
2.0 15.51
4.5 26.19
8.0 37.72
11.5 48.54
16.5 60.89
23.5 72.80
37.0 84.73
50.0 89.53
100.0 95.35
210.0 98.18
330.0 99.69
1789 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
coefcients allow to t a curve in order to represent the functional
relationship with the aid of the experimental measurements and
using a regression analysis, as will be below illustrated.
From the viewpoint of dimensions, using the dimensionless
variables constructed by a dimensional analysis, any coefcients in a
tted model are also dimensionless and do not change if the units of
measurement are changed, as occurs in ordinary regression. Further-
more, any transformations are legitimate and the model remains
dimensionally homogeneous. So, taking logarithms of a dimensionless
variable, necessary whentreating anexponential function, is fairly valid.
For every model proposed, a regression analysis was carried out in
order to t that using the dimensionless variables and it was
performed by using SPSS Statistics 17.0.
First of all, for both the models 1 (1) and 2 (2), regressions
without and with an intercept (constant term) were tested,
respectively, once expressed the equation in a linear form by taking
natural logarithms in both sides of the equation.
Table 9 shows the experimental data measured fromrunning tests.
Geometric and electrical parameters, as well as those parameters
relative to gas and dust properties, were converted into their
dimensionless form, following the guidelines aforementioned. To
calculate the values of dimensionless parameters related to migration
velocity, the following equations and correlations were used [12]:
w =
qC
c
E
3dp
av
; q = 12
0
D
2

rp

rp
+ 2
E
C
c
= 1 + 2:493

dp
av
+ 0:84

dp
av
exp 0:435
dp
av

_ _
; D
t
= 0:12U

D;
U

fv
2
8

; f
1=2
=
1
1:8log
10
6:9= Re
; Re =
2
g
vD

0
is the free space permittivity (8.8510
12
Fm
1
); q is the particle
charge; C
c
is the Cunningham slip correction factor; f is the friction
factor; is the gas mean free path; and
rp
is the dielectric constant of
particles. Values of 6.510
8
m [10] and 3.6 have been taken,
respectively, for the two latter parameters. A usual value of 210
4
m
2
V
1
s
1
has been taken for the electric mobility of the ions, b, whichhas
been considered independent of electric eld strength. Thus, the
predicted efciency, expressed as penetration, could be calculated
from the dimensionless data and then compared with experimental
efciency.
Values ranged from 30 to 60 for N
Pe
lead to reduced penetration
levels, far fromDeutschcollectionprediction. Values for N
EHD
lower than
unity and Reynolds numbers higher than2000 justify the assumption of
statistically steady ow utilized in this work [4], and hence, the non-
stationary parameters are not considered. Fromexperiments, a result is
that particle collection efciencies increase greatly with the increasing
N
EHD
for the tested range from 0.1 to 0.4 (N
EHD
b1).
After processing data and converting them into their dimension-
less form, Figs. 6 and 7 showexperimental data of C
o
/C
i
versus N
De
and
bU/D
t
N
De
, respectively.
The results of the regression analyses for the models 1(1) and 2
(2) are:
Model 1: ln(C
o
/C
i
)=4.569E5bU/D
t
N
De
Model 1: ln(C
o
/C
i
)=0.437N
De
Model 2: ln(C
o
/C
i
)=1.6582.165E5bU/D
t
N
De
Model 2: ln(C
o
/C
i
)=1.3260.250N
De
For regression through the origin (the no-intercept model), R
2
measures the proportion of the variability in the dependent variable
about the origin explained by regression. This cannot be compared to R
2
for models which include an intercept. Instead of that, the mean squared
of residuals (sumof squared residuals divided by the number of freedom
degrees) are more suitable to compare between model with constant or
throughtheorigin. So, thebest t corresponds tothelowest valueof mean
squared of residuals. Tables 10 and 11 depict the results of the linear
Table 10
Linear regression results for Model 1 and 1 using bU/D
t
N
De
and N
De
, respectively.
Model summary
b
Model R R
2
Adjusted R
2
Standard error of the estimate
1 0.932
a
0.869 0.860 1.0668
a. Predictors: bU/D
t
N
De
b. Dependent Variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
ANOVA
b
Model Sum of
squares
df Mean
square
F Sig.
1 Regression 113.121 1 113.121 99.385 5.203E8
a
Residual 17.073 15 1.138
Total 130.194 16
a. Predictors: bU/D
t
N
De
b. Dependent variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
Model summary
b
Model R R
2
Adjusted R
2
Standard error of the estimate
1 0.964
a
0.928 0.924 0.7877
a. Predictors: N
De
b. Dependent Variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
ANOVA
b
Model Sum of
squares
df Mean
square
F Sig.
1 Regression 120.884 1 120.884 194.784 5.348E10
a
Residual 9.309 15 0.621
Total 130.194 16
a. Predictors: (Constant), N
De
b. Dependent Variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
Table 9
Experimental data of the pilot ESP.
D (mm) 250
Gas velocity
(m/s)
0.8 1.1 1.4
Active
elds
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
x/D 8.00 16.00 24.00 8.00 16.00 24.00 8.00 16.00 24.00
C
i
(g/m
3
) 5.78 5.92 5.87 5.77 6.52 6.07 5.95 5.77 5.84
C
o
(g/m
3
) 1.17 0.349 0.253 1.26 0.448 0.245 1.43 0.372 0.247
Q
g
(m
3
/s) 0.827 0.827 0.827 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.45 1.45 1.45
U (kV) 70 70 65 74 74 72 76 76 72
j (nA/cm
2
) 7.69 4.81 2.99 3.85 3.85 2.56 7.69 3.85 2.56
D (mm) 200
Gas velocity
(m/s)
0.8 1.23 1.4
Active
elds
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
x/D 10.00 20.00 30.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 10.00 20.00 30.00
C
i
(g/m
3
) 5.68 6.76 5.93 4.66 6.95 5.61 4.91 5.17 4.99
C
o
(g/m
3
) 0.119 0.112 0.0664 0.467 0.304 0.164 0.928 0.382 0.202
Q
g
(m
3
/s) 0.66 0.66 0.66 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.16 1.16 1.16
U (V) 63 61 60 68 63 60 67 63 61
j (nA/cm
2
) 31.43 15 9.84 17.14 14.29 9.52 20 18.57 8.89
D (mm) 150
Gas velocity
(m/s)
0.8 1.1 1.4
Active
elds
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
3 2+3 1+2
+3
x/D 13.3 26.7 40.0 13.3 26.7 40.0 13.3 26.7 40.0
C
i
(g/m
3
) 4.73 4.38 7.20 4.37 4.68 4.63 4.40 4.70 4.63
C
o
(g/m
3
) 0.467 0.232 0.0710 0.710 0.294 0.186 0.887 0.357 0.219
Q
g
(m
3
/s) 0.493 0.493 0.493 0.678 0.678 0.678 0.863 0.863 0.863
U (V) 47 45 41 45 42 41 48 46 44
j (nA/cm
2
) 9.43 7.55 15.72 16.98 6.6 11.95 9.43 7.55 6.08
1790 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
regression, and the models 2 and2 showa better t that models 1 and1,
respectively. Anyway, linear regression results are quite unsatisfactory.
For carrying out the non-linear regression (models 3 and 4), the
loss function to be minimized by the iterative estimation algorithm
(LevenbergMarquadt as modied by Mor) was the sum of squared
residuals. The choice of initial values for the parameters inuences
convergence, and values lower than unity were considered appropri-
ate to start the iterations of the numeric method. Tables 12 and 13
show the results of the NLR.
Model 3:
C
o
C
i
= 0:853 exp
bU
D
t
_ _
0:021
N
0:679
De
_ _
Model 4:
C
o
C
i
= 1:042 exp N
0:612
De
_ _
From these results, it is clear that the model 4 is the best t of all
models proposed, since by comparing it with the model 3 it is proved
the low signicance of the dimensionless number bU/D
t
for the
operating conditions tested. It can be observed that the model 4 is
quite next to the Deutsch model since the multiplying factor is close to
unity, and where the exponent can be interpreted as due to non-
idealities excluded in the original model of Deutsch.
Table 12
Non-linear regression results for Model 3.
Parameter estimates
Parameter Estimate Standard
error
95% condence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
0.853 1.419 2.212 3.918

1
0.021 0.186 0.422 0.381

2
0.679 0.621 0.662 2.021
ANOVA
a
Source Sum of squares df Mean squares
Regression 0.1980 3 0.0660
Residual 0.0125 13 9.633E4
Uncorrected total 0.2105 16
Corrected total 0.0784 15
Dependent variable: C
o
/C
i
experimental.
a. R
2
=1(residual sum of squares)/ (corrected sum of squares) =0.840.
Table 13
Non-linear regression results for Model 4.
Parameter estimates
Parameter Estimate Standard
error
95% condence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
1.042 0.125 0.773 1.310
0.612 0.049 0.506 0.717
ANOVA
a
Source Sum of squares df Mean squares
Regression 0.1979 3 0.0989
Residual 0.0125 13 8.965E4
Uncorrected total 0.2105 16
Corrected total 0.0784 15
Dependent variable: C
o
/C
i
experimental.
a. R
2
=1(residual sum of squares) / (corrected sum of squares)=0.840.
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E+02 1.00E+01 1.50E+01 2.50E+01 2.00E+01
Co/Ci (experimental)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l

1

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
)
Model 2 complete (data for analysis)
Model 1 complete (data for analysis)
Model 2 complete (validation)
Model 1 complete (validation)
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
3.00E-01
3.50E-01
4.00E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01 3.00E-01 3.50E-01 4.00E-01
Co/Ci (experimental)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l
)
Fig. 6. Models 1 and 2 using bU/D
t
N
De
(complete) as independent variables: analysis
and validation.
Table 11
Linear regression results for Model 2 and 2 using bU/D
t
N
De
and N
De
, respectively.
Model summary
b
Model R R
2
Adjusted
R
2
Standard error of
the estimate
2 0.790
a
0.624 0.597 0.561
a. Predictors: (constant), bU/D
t
N
De
b. Dependent variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
ANOVA
b
Model Sum of
squares
df Mean
square
F Sig.
2 Regression 7.319 1 7.319 23.254 2.71E4
a
Residual 4.406 14 0.315
Total 11.725 15
a. Predictors: (constant), bU/D
t
N
De
b. Dependent variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
Model summary
b
Model R R
2
Adjusted R
2
Standard error of the estimate
2 0.846
a
0.715 0.695 0.4883
a. Predictors: (constant), N
De
b. Dependent variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
ANOVA
b
Model Sum of
squares
df Mean
square
F Sig.
2 Regression 8.387 1 8.387 35.170 3.70E5
a
Residual 3.338 14 0.238
Total 11.725 15
a. Predictors: (constant), N
De
b. Dependent variable: ln(C
o
/C
i
)
1791 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
This equation could be used to reliably design a full-scale ESP for
removing particles present in a ue gas coming from the pulverized-
coal-red boiler of the power plant as long as the geometric, material
and process-related (used within the dimensionless numbers ranges)
boundary conditions comply with those of the model measurement.
To validate the proposed models, the data obtained by the
experiments were divided in two parts. One part (16 experiments),
resulting froma randomsampling, was used to estimate the coefcients
of the models. Then, the relationships obtained were used to calculate
C
o
/C
i
for the rest of theexperimental conditions (11experiments). These
predicted values were graphically compared with the corresponding
experimental C
o
/C
i
measurements (Figs. 68). Thus, it is possible to
check howthe proposed models deviate fromthe actual measurements
once it is used in a practical situation.
Fig. 6 is a plot of actual values of C
o
/C
i
against predicted ones for the
dimensionless regression related to models 1 and 2. It can be seen that
almost all the points lie in a narrow 5% band both for the data used in
the analysis and in the validation, above all for model 2. Likewise, Fig. 7
shows the same plot for the reduced models (1 and 2), and again the
model 2 shows a better t than model 1, without the constant term.
Fig. 8 illustrates the graphical representation of the sets of data used for
analysis and for validations related to models 3 and 4. For these latter
models, it is veriedthat the t goodness is nearlythesamebut themodel
4 has been selected since it is the simplest one exhibiting the best t.
Finally, it must be pointed out that this section only intends to show
anapplicationof theideas relatedtodimensional andsimilarityanalyses
for ESP and not to develop a universal relationship valid for any ESP.
5. Conclusions
A comprehensive dimensional analysis (DA) has been carried out
in order to provide a simple and realistic method of predicting the
global ESP performance through the overall particle removal
efciency. All the dimensional variables considered as relevant to
describe the ESP performance have been identied, setting into the
dimensionless groups resulting fromthe combination of each variable
and the parameters used relative to the base dimensions. The results
can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different operating
characteristics, under geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and
electro-hydrodynamics similarity.
By means of DA, a functional dependence for the ratio of outlet and
inlet particle concentration (penetration) at a pilot ESP was
established. This function was further reduced by using a physical
similarity analysis. Then, several models have been tested in a pilot
electrostatic precipitator and validated for prediction of particle
removal efciency in an ESP, thus conrming to be a very useful and
reliable scaling-up tool. The models proposed in this study are very
simple and need only experimental data without any complicated
manipulation.
The best t was a non-linear regression that allows to relate the
target to the Deutsch number affected by an exponent that can be
attributed to non-idealities excluded in the original theoretical
treatment. For this model, the predicted values of particle removal
efciency agree well with the experimental data.
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
3.00E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01 3.00E-01
Co/Ci (experimental)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l

1
)
Model 2' (data for analysis)
Model 1' (data for analysis)
Model 2' (validation)
Model 1' (validation)
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01
Co/Ci (experimental)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l

1
)
Fig. 7. Models 1 and 2 using N
De
as independent variable: analysis and validation.
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
3.00E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01
0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01
3.00E-01
Co/Ci (experimental)
Model 3 (data for analysis)
Model 4 (data for analysis
Model 3 (validation)
Model 4 (validation)
0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
Co/Ci (experimental)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l
)
C
o
/
C
i

(
m
o
d
e
l
)
Fig. 8. Models 3 and 4 using bU/D
t
N
De
and N
De
as independent variables: analysis and
validation.
1792 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793
The analysis carried out is highly practical to expose relations
between physically similar ESPs for scaling-up from pilot to industrial
ESP operation, design and improvement, and very simple since
dimensionless parameters have the advantage of simplifying the
relations and facilitating the comparison of results.
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