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Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica y Ambiental, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n. 41092 Sevilla, Spain

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 2 February 2010

Received in revised form 19 July 2010

Accepted 20 July 2010

Keywords:

Electrostatic precipitator

Dimensional analysis

Similarity

Scale-up

Pilot plant

Modeling

Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are widely used in industry today and much research has been carried out

during the last decades. Dimensional analysis (DA) allows to reduce the number of parameters necessary for

dening the ESP performance and provides a reliable scaling-up of the desired operating conditions from the

pilot-scale to full-scale plant (based on the invariance of the pi-space). Likewise, DA gives a consistent

extrapolation within the range covered by dimensionless number and a greater exibility in choice of

parameters. DA together with similarity analysis is presented in this work in order to obtain a functional

dependence between a target number and a set of few dimensionless numbers. The target selected has been

the penetration, i.e., the ratio of particle dust concentration at the outlet of the ESP (C

o

) and that at the inlet

of the ESP (C

i

). The results can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different operating characteristics,

under geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and electro-hydrodynamics similarity. Thus, as a consequence of

these analyses, several quite reduced models have been formulated theoretically and later tested and

validated with experimental data obtained in a pilot ESP in order to show an application of the study. Four

models have been tted by linear regression, resulting unsatisfactory. However, two additional models tted

by non-linear regression predict values of particle removal efciency that agrees well with the experimental

data. Thus, this paper is focused towards dimensional analysis in ESP model building, showing both the

reduction in effort and more effective modeling that can result.

2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are mainly used for the

reduction of y ash emission from industrial boilers red with lignite

or bituminous coal [1]. Wire-plate electrostatic lters are commonly

used in industrial applications. In wire-plate ESP charging of particles

occurs by using high-voltage power. The basic principle underlying

the solid pollutant removal process is to charge the particulate matter

by means of corona-generated ions, which then move towards the

collecting plates under the effect of the applied electric eld. In

practical ESP congurations the electric eld is generated by high

voltages applied to a row of emitting wires centrally placed between

two parallel earthed collecting plates. The cross-section of the wires

may be round, square or further complicated in order to increase the

local electrical eld and thus the corona discharge efciency.

The Deutsch-Anderson equation has been used for scale-up

purposes for many years. It is a very simple model in which a at

velocity prole and perfect transverse mixing are assumed. The

theoretical migration velocity, w, was found by balancing the electric

eld (Coulomb) forces on the particle charge against the forces of uid

drag (Stokes' law). However, in applying the original Deutsch theory,

many authors did not nd good agreement between theory and

experiment, using the theoretical values of w. So they introduced a

new variable (effective or empirical migration velocity), which was

meant to include any effects not explicitly recognized in the original

Deutsch theory, as re-entrainment, diffusion, etc. The effective

migration velocity, which is analogous to a mass transfer coefcient,

is a function of particle size and is simply a scaling parameter.

In the 1980s several studies assumed a nite (not complete)

mixing throughout the precipitator. Thus, the turbulent diffusion

equation coupled with the electrodynamics led to electro-hydrody-

namics (EHD), which allowed to model more accurately the local

particle concentration prole and ESP performance. For the last two

decades, many mathematical models have been published and all of

them were developed to evaluate particle removal efciency of an

electrostatic precipitator (ESP) by predicting three interactive elds,

namely electrical, gas velocity and particle velocity elds [2]. A

number of studies have been carried out to calculate the EHD ow

eld by solving the time-averaged NavierStokes equations with a k

turbulence closure model [3,4], frequently using the CFD code Fluent

for carrying out the computations. In turbulence models the

magnitudes of two turbulence quantities, the turbulence kinetic

energy k and its dissipation rate are calculated from transport

equations solved simultaneously with those governing the mean ow

behaviour. Thus, newmodeling papers continuously present methods

in order to overcome the assumptions and simplications followed in

electrostatic precipitator modeling by preceding models.

Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 95 448 72 60/61/65/68; fax: +34 95 446 17 75.

E-mail addresses: fjgo@esi.us.es (F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz), navarrete@esi.us.es

(B. Navarrete), canadas@esi.us.es (L. Caadas).

0378-3820/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.07.013

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Fuel Processing Technology

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ f upr oc

The use of CFD for such investigations is fast becoming a powerful

and almost essential tool for the design, development and optimiza-

tion of engineering applications. However, turbulence models remain

a key issue when tackling such owphenomena. The reliability of CFD

analysis depends heavily on the turbulence model employed together

with the wall functions implemented. In order to resolve the abrupt

uctuations experienced by the turbulent energy and other para-

meters (many times selected in a heuristic way, conferring to the

modeling a semi-empirical characteristic) located at near wall regions

and shear layers, a particularly ne computational mesh is necessary

which inevitably increases the computer storage and run-time

requirements.

Dimensional analysis and physical similarity can be also used to

approach the performance of an ESP. With knowledge gained from

correlating model and eld tests, it is possible to predict and check the

performance of a given design for an emission source. A proper

modeling is based on accurate similarity relations according to

fundamental principles.

Dimensional analysis is a method for reducing complex physical

problems to their simplest (most economical) forms prior to

quantitative analysis or experimental investigation, i.e., reduces a

problem's degrees of freedom to the minimum and thus suggests the

most economical scaling laws. In the context of a chosen system of

units (e.g. SI) and frame of reference, it can be offered a quantitative

description of reality f(x

1

,, x

n

)=0, and in order to correctly evaluate

reality on all scales, dimensional analysis permits to nd the minimal

and invariant description in terms of dimensionless numbers F (

1

,,

m

) = 0, where mbn.

Although some dimensionless number can be found in the

literature [58], only Riehle and Lfer [5] derived a dimensionless

current density and a dimensionless voltage in order to describe

geometric-similar precipitators by a unied currentvoltage charac-

teristic, but still holding the average gas velocity constant. They

concluded that if dimensionless voltage is constant then operating

conditions are electrically similar. More recently, Khodorkovsky and

Beltran [6] derived two dimensionless numbers to match the

collection efciency for two ESPs, although a commercial focus

characterizes this work. The studies encountered in the literature do

not develop a comprehensive dimensional analysis and many

important variables are missed.

In this paper, a complete dimensional analysis is carried out in

order to provide a simple and realistic method of predicting the global

ESP performance through the overall particle removal efciency. This

technique is greatly useful to study the complex physical phenomena

involved since it simplies problems of chemical engineering

characterized for their high complexity. In particular, the particle

collection efciencies will be examined as a function of the ow,

electric and gas and particle operating condition. This paper can be

also used to account for more practical approach of the full-scale ESP

from pilot scale, so the similarity numbers derived may be used as

basis for scale-up with condence within the range covered by

dimensionless numbers.

2. Dimensional analysis

Dimensional analysis provides a procedure to generate dimen-

sionless numbers from a list of relevant physical variables together

with their respective dimensions, by using the -theorem. However,

the choice of dimensionless parameters is not unique, i.e., -theorem

only provides a way of generating sets of dimensionless parameters,

and will not necessarily choose those with the most physically

meaningful.

To apply this technique, the identication of every independent

physical variable related to the phenomena taking place inside the

electrostatic precipitation is necessary. First of all, a set of parameters

must be selected from all the variables considered, corresponding to

each independent physical magnitude, which are of use for the

dimensional modeling.

Thus, the parameters used for the dimensional modeling relative

to the main physical magnitudes are the following:

Length magnitude: D, inter-electrode or wire-plate spacing (m)

Mass magnitude: C

i

, inlet particles concentration (kg/m

3

)

Time magnitude: Q

g

, gas ow rate in each plate spacing (m

3

/s)

Electric magnitude: U, voltage applied between electrodes and

plates (V ~ kgm

2

s

3

A

1

)

In order to verify the proper choice of parameters, a dimensional

matrix is formed with the dimensions of these quantities [9]. The

columns are assigned to the individual physical magnitudes and the

rows to the exponents with which the base dimensions appear in the

respective dimensions of these quantities, as follows:

C

i

D Q

g

U

_ _

mass; M

lenght; L

time; T

electric current; I

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

1 0 0 1

3 1 3 2

0 0 1 3

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

_

where M, L, T and I are the symbols for the dimensions of the base

quantities mass, length, time and electric current, respectively.

It can be veried that, using the Gaussian elimination method or

calculating the determinant, the matrix rank is 4. Therefore, the

selected parameters are linearly independent of the basic dimensions,

and hence, they can be used to generate the dimensionless numbers

for the modeling of the ESP performance.

From -theorem and the principle of dimensional homogeneity

each dimensionless -group is constructed from an independent

physical variable multiplied by a suitable combination of the

dependent physical variables. Subsequently, all the dimensional

variables considered as relevant to describe the ESP performance

have been listed (Tables 15), setting into homogeneous groups with

Table 1

Main geometric variables of an electrostatic precipitator.

Dimensional variable Dimensionless

variable

Symbol Description SI unit

H Electric sections height m H/D

d Distance between discharge electrodes m d/D

r Radius of the discharge electrode m r/D

L Total length of the precipitation sections m L/D

Table 2

Main electric variables of an electrostatic precipitator.

Dimensional variable Dimensionless

variable

Symbol Description SI unit

rg

Relative permittivity of gas

(dielectric constant)*

Dimensionless

rg

=

g

/

0

rp

Relative permittivity of particles

(dielectric constant)*

Dimensionless

rp

=

p

/

0

b Ionic mobility

m

2

Vs

_ _

bUD

Qg

K

1

Gas electrical breakdown constant

(across the inter-electrode gap)

V

m

_ _

K

1

D

U

*The dielectric constant is the permittivity of a media related to vacuum permittivity:

ri

=k

i

=

i

/

0

. The permittivity of a media has the SI units of

A

2

s

4

kgm

3

_ _

and its

corresponding dimensionless parameter is

0

U

2

D

2

Q

2

g

C

i

.

On the other hand, J (mean electric current density) has SI units of

A

m

2

=

kg

s

3

m

_ _

and its

corresponding dimensionless parameter is

JUD

6

Q

3

g

C

i

.

1784 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

their units expressed in the International System of Units (SI), as well

as the dimensionless groups resulting from the combination of each

variable and the parameters used relative to the base dimensions.

A scheme of an electrostatic precipitator is illustrated in Fig. 1.

Main geometric variables of the electrostatic precipitator are shown in

Table 1.

Any mathematical model to evaluate electrostatic precipitator

performance comprises the evaluations of electrical, uid ow and

particle movement parameters. VI characteristics and electrical eld

strength (E) are the most important electrical parameters, which

affect particle collection in an ESP. The main governing equations for

electrical part of ESP models are Poisson equation of electric potential

and electrical current continuity equation [10].

Table 2 gives the main electrical variables for an electrostatic

precipitator, and most principal variables related to gas characteristics

are shown in Table 3. Due to typically lowmean owvelocities (Mach

number always smaller than 0.02) and approximately constant

temperature throughout the gap, the gas density may be considered

as constant. The uid (ue gas in Power Stations) is assumed to

behave as Newtonian.

Some effects are neglected such as the gravity or the magnetic

elds since they are very weak inside ESPs. Besides, ion transport by

convection is negligible compared to the ion drift by the electric eld

[4].

In Table 4 the main variables related to particle characteristics are

given. The turbulent mixing coefcient describes turbulent energy

and momentum transport. The migration velocity deduced by

considering an innite turbulent mixing coefcient (Deutsch model)

is an upper bound. With a nite value of the turbulent diffusivity, the

particles concentration exhibits a minimum in the centre plane and

increases when going towards the collecting walls.

The corona discharge in the case of negative high voltage applied

to the discharge electrodes is known to be non-stationary. The time

uctuations of the corona discharge pulses are in a frequency range

between 10 and 100 kHz, a quite high-frequency domain compared to

the main energy-containing eddies, and hence their inuence on the

turbulence should be low [4]

Likewise, the characteristic time constant,

c

, for each respective

electric test condition was calculated by Riehle and Lfer [5] on the

basis of Ohm's law as follows:

c

=

4

0

E

J

where J (A/m

2

) is the mean electric current density at the collecting

electrode. They specied 5 ms as an appropriate order of a typical

value for the charge. This value is clearly lower than gas residence

time (usually in the range from 5 to 15 s).

Finally, the dust layer built on the collecting plate is also a transient

event, which can be characterized its corresponding time constant.

Table 5 depicts the non-stationary variables and their correspondent

dimensionless numbers, which are briey described below:

a)

c

Q

g

D

3

, which measures the relation between the elapsed time (

c

)

and the residence time of the particles in the ESP.

b)

dl

Q

g

D

3

dl

v

, which represents a ratio between the time required

to form the dust layer before rapping and the product of the dust

relative permittivity and dust resistivity considered as an approach

to the time constant (a measure of the transient process velocity).

c)

e

D

U

DJv

U

D

0

b

D

3

v

DbU

Qg

0

p

H

D

DH D

pvQg

, which depicts the dynamic na-

ture or the dust layer thickness as deposited on the collecting plate,

and it is intimately related to the preceding number, so both of them

represent the same transient phenomenon.

Table 3

Variables related to gas characteristics of an electrostatic precipitator.

Dimensional variable Dimensionless

variable

Symbol Description SI unit

Gas viscosity kg/ms

D

C

i

Qg

g

Gas density kg/m

3

g

C

i

Table 4

Variables related to particle characteristics of an electrostatic precipitator.

Dimensional variable Dimensionless

variable

Symbol Description SI unit

C

o

Particle concentration at ESP outlet (variable

related to unit efciency, i.e., the target)

kg/m

3 Co

C

i

p

Particles density kg/m

3

p

C

i

w Migration velocity of particles* m/s

wD

2

Qg

D

t

Turbulent mixing coefcient (eddy diffusivity) m

2

/s

Dt D

Qg

v

Particle resistivity m

V

C

i

Q

3

g

U

2

D

5

dl

Density of the deposited dust layer kg/m

3

dl

C

i

dp

av

Particle mean size m

dpav

D

*Assuming that Stokes' drag law is valid, the migration velocity of particles emerging

from a balance of drag force and electrical force is W =

qECc

3dpav

, where q is the charge

that a particle has acquired, E is the local electric eld strength and C

c

is the

Cunningham slip correction factor.

Table 5

Non-stationary variables of an electrostatic precipitator.

Dimensional variable Dimensionless

variable

Symbol Description SI unit

c

Particle charge time s

cQg

D

3

dl

Time constant of dust layer s

dl

Qg

D

3

Fig. 1. Geometric dimensions of an electrostatic precipitator.

1785 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

According to the technique used, a relationship between the

dimensionless variables is required. In this study, this relation can be

described by a functional dependence between the systemdepuration

efciency, expressed as penetration, and the relevant independent

dimensionless variables:

C

o

C

i

= f

1

_

H

D

;

d

D

;

L

D

;

r

D

;

rg

;

rp

;

bUD

Q

g

;

K

1

D

U

;

D

C

i

Q

g

;

g

C

i

;

p

C

i

;

wD

2

Q

g

;

D

t

D

Q

g

;

v

C

i

Q

3

g

U

2

D

5

;

dl

C

i

;

dp

av

D

;

c

Q

g

D

3

;

dl

Q

g

D

3

_

Next, it will be addressed an intensively formulated target number

(C

o

/C

i

) by properly combining the dimensionless variables, so as to

achieve a physical meaning.

3. Physical similarity

A complete similarity between the model (pilot scale) and the

technical realization (full scale) implies geometric, process-related

(electric and uid dynamics) and material (gas and particle

properties) similarity. The rst two ones can be usually carried out

without problems but material similarity can cause difculties if

different materials have to be used in model experiments from those

ones in the industrial plant. Therefore, there will be a higher similarity

between a pilot scale and full scale if both of them are located in the

same plant than between a laboratory scale to pilot or full scale, where

it is very difcult to achieve material similarity. In this paper, this is

just the case: the pilot plant to obtain experimental data is built

alongside the full-scale plant in such a way that a fraction of the

streamentering the industrial ESP is withdrawn towards the pilot ESP.

Therefore, the functional dependence can be simplied by

verifying a series of physical similarities, consisting of the equality

of all dimensionless parameters or similarity numbers (-groups),

which are the scaling invariants of a physical problem. Many times

only a partial similarity can be achieved when some (not all) of the

dimensionless numbers are equal. This technique can be used to

predict large ESP units' behaviour from the data acquired in smaller

pilot units. Likewise, it can be also used to analyze the effect of varying

some operation parameters on the performance of industrial

equipment. Next, the physical similarity for pilot-scale and full-scale

ESPs is identied.

3.1. Geometric similarity

Geometric similarity can be attained if geometric dimensionless

parameters

H

D

;

d

D

;

L

D

;

r

D

are kept constant. The performance of an electrostatic precipitator

strongly depends on the geometry of electrodes due to the inuence

on the migration velocity. Hence, geometric similarity is produced

by operating not only with the same wire to plate spacing but also

with same type of electrode (and equally positioned). It must be

pointed out that apart from D, r and d are also equal in both pilot and

full scale.

Plate height and number of channels in each ESP eld are changing

factors, i.e., H/D and L/D are different in the two scales considered, and

hence, only a partial geometric similarity is achieved.

3.2. Fluid dynamics similarity

By properly combining the dimensionless parameter related to gas

viscosity and that related to gas density the result is the Reynolds

number of the gas. As a consequence, the uid dynamics similarity is

achieved when operating with the same Reynolds number:

H

D

C

i

Q

g

D

g

C

i

=

g

Q

g

H

= N

Re

N

Re

is the convective inertial forces to viscosity forces' gas ratio.

It should be noted that since D and gas velocity, v (Q

g

/(DH)), are

equal in both scales, the uid dynamic similarity is achieved because

the gas owrate through the space between two collection plates (the

so-called through ow) is also the same.

3.3. Electrical similarity

By the adequate combination of the dimensionless parameters

related to electrical phenomena and material properties, using the

parameters relativetothemainphysical magnitudes, aseries of variables

with physical meaning have been obtained. These variables facilitate the

interpretation of the similarity from an electric point of view:

a

K

1

D

U

=

K

1

U= D

= N

DB

N

DB

is the electric eld intensity at which the gas dielectric

breakdown happens to the mean electric eld strength (E) ratio and

represents how near to the critical stage, in which the corona

discharge occurs, the ESP performance is. This dimensionless number

is also equal for both scales.

b

0

U

2

D

2

Q

2

g

C

i

C

i

H

2

D

2

=

rg

0

U=D

2

g

Q

g

=DH

_ _

2

rg

0

E

2

g

v

2

= N

EIF

N

EIF

gives the ratio between the electrostatic force, which is

proportional to the electric eld strength through the gas permittivity,

and the convective inertial forces of gas ow. This parameter is also

related to the magnitude of the charged particles migration

phenomena to the collecting plates in relation to their convective

movement in the gas ow. Although N

EIF

can be equal for the two

scales, it gets a more comprehensive physical meaning when it is

embodied inside the electro-hydrodynamic number.

c

C

i

Q

3

g

U

2

D

5

D

3

H

3

g

C

i

=

g

Q

2

g

= DH

2

_ _

U

2

Q

g

e

DH

e

D

g

v

2

e

D

P

edl

= N

pF

In this case, this new dimensionless number allows to compare

convective inertial forces associated to the movement of particles

conveyed by the gas with electrostatic forces in the ash layer

deposited on the collecting electrodes (P

edl

represents an electrical

pressure on the dust layer). Therefore, N

pF

measures the effect of the

electric cohesion on the layer of particles collected. When this ash

layer is considerable, the electric forces in the layer are not capable of

keeping the cohesion, and therefore problems of re-entrainment

without rapping take place during the normal operation. N

pF

has a

dynamic nature. This number is controlled by dust resistivity (equal

for both scales) and by the non-stationary dust layer building. As this

latter can be approached by a time constant equivalent to the product

of

p

and

v

, the similarity is achieved again.

1786 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

3.4. Electro-hydrodynamics similarity

The effects of turbulence coupled with electrodynamics on the

concentration prole and collection efciency can be evaluated by

using the following dimensionless parameters:

aN

Pe

=

wD

2

Q

g

Q

g

D

t

D

=

wD

D

t

This is the electric Peclet number (N

Pe

), which is a measure of the

relative strength of external forces and diffusion on particle transport,

i.e., this number is an indicator of the relative strengths of the drift

motionanddiffusive motion. This parameter must be takeninto account

since the turbulence levels in conventional ESP may be far from what

would be required to assure uniform mixing of the particles within a

short length, as Deutsch considered in his model. So it is more

reasonable to model the ow in an ESP as one with nite eddy

diffusivity. Thus, high N

Pe

leads to a lower collection efciency (higher

penetration levels). Since the eddy diffusivity is a function of the

turbulence, the problemtoachieve thescale-upmay be the predictionof

the appropriate diffusivity value to use. This issue will be addressed

later. Values of 1 or less for N

Pe

are near to Deutsch collection.

It should be noted that the rst factor corresponds to the

dimensionless particle migration velocity or reduced particle migration

velocity, which is the ratio of particle migration to primary gas ow

velocity.

bN

EHD

=

JD

b

g

v

2

Electro-hydrodynamics (EHD) number (N

EHD

) is the magnitude of

the secondary ow interaction and describes the electrical wind

velocity relative to the gas ow velocity [11]. N

EHD

includes

information on the ratio of the kinetic energy of the electrically

neutral main gas stream,

g

v

2

, to the energy of the electrically charged

ions moving in the electric eld, JD/b. On the other hand, EHD number

is quite close to this other one:

bUD

Q

g

L

D

=

bU

Q

g

=L

which gives the ratio between the electric diffusivity of the ions in the

gas owand the diffusivity due to the convective movement of the gas

ow but without considering electric contribution.

For N

EHD

N1, precipitation efciency is contributed primarily by the

corona discharge, and for N

EHD

b1, the turbulence of gas owbecomes

a contributing factor [1].

3.5. Other dimensionless parameters

Other parameters can have a physical signicance on the ESP

performance, as follows:

a) Non-stationary parameters: It is not possible to consider these

parameters (Table 5) in case of stationary phenomena (once the

usually short transients have been overcome).

b) Relative permittivity (dielectric constants):

rg

,

rp

Relative permittivity or dielectric constant of gas and particles,

rg

and

rp

, respectively, are constant dimensionless parameters if the

gas and particles characteristics do not change. Thus, for the pilot

plant located in the full-scale plant, there is similarity regarding

with these parameters.

c) Dimensionless densities:

g

C

i

,

p

C

i

,

dl

C

i

For the same gas ow rate and inlet particle concentration, these

parameters do not change if the gas and particles characteristics do

not change, as occurs in this case (pilot plant located in the

industrial plant).

d) Dimensionless average particle diameter:

dp

av

D

This parameter is equal for pilot scale and full scale. On the other

hand, its value is very low for both scales and, hence, it can be

assumed that it does not affect to the dependence of the efciency

on the rest of dimensionless variables in order to compare scales.

As a general rule, the dimensionless variables that are quite constant

frompilot tofull scaleor very high/low(several orders of magnitude) for

any condition can be left out the functional dependence.

The previous results relative to dimensional analysis and physical

similarity can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different

operating characteristics. The only requirement is to assure

geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and electro-hydrodynamics

similarity.

Apparently many physical variables with dimensions will be

excluded in the functional dependence searched, since corresponding

dimensionless numbers are equal for both scales. However, some of

those ones are embedded in other dimensionless parameters because

they affect to several phenomena. Thus, applied voltage, particle size,

electrical charging of particles and dielectric constant of particles are

factors taken into account in the calculus of the migration velocity,

within the Deutsch number.

3.6. Model formulation

According to the previous analyses, the functional dependence

between the efciency and the rest of dimensionless parameters,

obtained by applying the -theorem and physical similarity (equality

of the similarity numbers formed for both scales) could be given by

the following expression:

C

o

C

i

= f

2

L

D

;

H

D

; N

Pe

; N

EHD

_ _

As it can be observed, the number of variables is greatly reduced and

therefore the comparative analysis for the scaling becomes simplied as

well as the practical application. Likewise, it should be noted that

variables reduction is intensied due to the material similarity, and

hence, the independent dimensionless variables considered are those of

electro-hydrodynamic nature apart from the dimensionless geometric

parameters that are different in the scales.

It is possible to further manipulate the nal dimensionless

parameters selected for the dependence function taking into account

the Deutsch model. If the parameter

N

De

=

w

v

x

D

; 0xL

is the Deutsch number, where x is the coordinate in the direction of

stream, when multiplying the dimensionless parameters selected

from the dimensional analysis and physical similarity, the following

number is obtained

H

D

wD

D

t

bUD

Q

g

L

D

w

v

bU

D

t

x

D

; 0xL

This number may be considered as a modied Deutsch number,

where the factor multiplying to N

De

represents a nite dimensionless

eddy diffusivity. The nal functional dependence to be tested can

be expressed in a more general way by using two dimensionless

numbers:

C

o

C

i

= f

3

bU

D

t

; N

De

_ _

1787 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

4. Experimental section

The dimensional analysis alone cannot provide a complete answer

to the particular problem, since this analysis only gives the

dimensionless groups describing the phenomenon and not the

specic relationship among them. To obtain the exact relationship,

experimental measurements (or additional theoretical consideration)

have to be utilized. Therefore, in order to prove the importance of the

dimensional and similarity analyses for ESP performance, experimen-

tal tests were carried out in a pilot ESP.

The pilot ESP, located at a 550 MWe pulverized coal power plant, is

capable of treating up to 20,000 m

3

/h of ue gas withdrawn from the

outlet gas stream of the boiler. This gas ow rate is equivalent to 12

MWt in the boiler. The ESP conguration permits to change the wire

to plate spacing, type of discharge electrode, type and control of

energization, gas ow rate and rapping variables. It consists of three

independent electrical sections (or elds) in series. Each plate curtain

is rapped independently with oscillating hammers, like each frame

holding the electrodes in each electrical section. Discharge electrode

is connected to the negative pole of the rectied voltage source, so the

corona discharge is negative and free electrons attach to neutral

molecules forming thus negative normal ions. The main characteristics

of this pilot unit are shown in Table 6. Likewise, Table 7 depicts the

congurations of the Pilot ESP used in this study. Fig. 2 illustrates an

instrumentation and control diagram of the pilot plant. The specic

collection area (SCA) was changed by varying the gas ow rate and by

deactivatingtheelectric elds (that diminishes thetotal collectionarea).

The gas temperature was also controlled by a heating element

located at the gas intake. A venture meter measured the gas owrate

continuously and automatically. The emission of dust was monitor-

ized through the extinction signal from a HeNe laser opacimeter

(MIP OY, model LM 3188), calibrated daily. Furthermore, manual

measurements were taken during the tests at the inlet and the outlet

of the ESP unit in order to measure dust concentrations. EPA Method

5 was used for measuring the total particulate matter. In addition,

the electrical parameters of each section in the ESP (voltage, current

and sparking level) were continuously monitored. The precipitator

was operated with continuous energization (rectied current), which

was controlled by maximizing the voltage and limiting the sparking

level.

A set of experiments were selected in order to illustrate the

relationship between C

o

/C

i

and the dimensionless numbers in pi-

space. The variables changed during these experiments were:

Gas velocity: 0.81.4 m/s

Wireplate spacing: 150, 200 and 250 mm

Number of active elds: 3, 2+3, 1+2+3 (3rd, 2nd+3rd, all)

C

i

: measured inlet particle concentration (g/m

3

)

C

o

: measured outlet particle concentration (g/m

3

)

Table 7

Congurations of the pilot ESP.

Collecting

plates

spacing

Number of

channels

Collecting

area (m

2

)

Effective

width (m)

Number of electrodes per

channel and section

300 6 159 1.85 4

400 4 105 1.65 4

500 3 79 1.55 4

Fig. 2. Pilot ESP instrumentation and control diagram.

Table 6

Characteristics s of the pilot ESP.

Precipitator dimensions

Length (m) 12.6

Width (m) 2.5

Height (m) 2.6

Number of electric sections 3

Electric section conguration

Effective length (m) 2

Effective height (m) 2.2

Number of channels 37

Channel width (mm) 200500

Number of electrodes per channel 412

Operating conditions

Flue gas ow rate (m

3

/h) 9,00020,000

Collection area (m

2

) 79.2184.8

Specic collection areaSCA (m

2

/m

3

/s) 1474

Gas velocity (m/s) 0.81.8

Transformers/rectiers

Peak voltage (kV) 120

Average maximum voltage (kV) 78

Maximum effective current (mA) 42

1788 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

U: measured voltage (kV)

J: measured current density (nA/cm

2

)

The coal was the same as well as the operating conditions both in

the full-scale plant and the pilot plant. Ashes from the coal had a high

resistivity (10

12

cm), and the average particle diameter was 12 m.

Table 8 shows the particle size distribution of y ash. Other

characteristics of the coal are the following:

Ultimate analysis (dry basis, wt%): C: 74.3; H: 4.1; N: 1.8; O: 6.4; S:

0.7; Ash: 12.7.

Moisture: 8.0%.

A spiked wire was used as discharge electrode (5 mm radius). Gas

temperature was of 125 C.

5. The tted models and their validation

With the aid of regression analysis, from the ESP operation and

design point of view, the specic functional dependence obtained is

very useful because it allows to predict the overall particle removal

efciency from varying length, gas ow treated, voltage applied as

well as changing gas and particles properties for both scales under

physical similarity conditions. It is useful to graphically represent the

dimensionless target number (C

o

/C

i

) versus the independent dimen-

sionless number considered. Figs. 35 depict this, and it can be

concluded that a relationship between C

o

/C

i

and N

De

or bU/D

t

N

De

seems to be exponential, but a barely relation is seen between C

o

/C

i

and bU/D

t

. Therefore, some models can be proposed and checked in

order to dene the dependence function, as follows:

Model 1:

Co

C

i

= exp

1

bU

Dt

N

De

_ _

The parameter

1

is a regression coefcient estimated by applying

least square method in order to t the model to experimental data. It

should be noted that there is only one parameter to estimate. As an

alternative, from the preliminary representation (Fig. 4), the

parameter bU/D

t

can be excluded, so the model 1 would be:

Model 1:

C

o

C

i

= exp

0

1

N

De

_ _

Likewise, another parameter can be considered, next to classical

regression, as follows:

Model 2:

C

o

C

i

=

2

exp

2

bU

Dt

N

De

_ _

And for the same reason as before, a model 2 could be:

Model 2:

C

o

C

i

=

0

2

exp

0

2

N

De

_ _

Finally, a more general model is one obtained by non-linear

regression (NLR):

Model 3:

C

o

C

i

= exp

bU

D

t

_ _

1

N

2

De

_ _

As for the previous models, the last model considered in this study

is a reduced version of the previous model 3:

Model 4:

C

o

C

i

= exp N

De

_ _

Therefore, the nal outcome of the dimensional analysis process

is a functional relationship between few variables, where the

0.0E+00

5.0E-02

1.0E-01

1.5E-01

2.0E-01

2.5E-01

3.0E-01

6.00E+03 7.00E+03 8.00E+03 9.00E+03 1.20E+04 1.10E+04 1.00E+04

bU/D

t

C

o

/

C

i

(

e

x

p

e

r

i

m

e

n

t

a

l

)

Fig. 4. Representation of C

o

/C

i

versus bU/D

t

.

0.0E+00

5.0E-02

1.0E-01

1.5E-01

2.0E-01

2.5E-01

3.0E-01

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0

N

De

C

o

/

C

i

(

e

x

p

e

r

i

m

e

n

t

a

l

)

Fig. 3. Representation of C

o

/C

i

versus N

De

.

0.0E+00

5.0E-02

1.0E-01

1.5E-01

2.0E-01

2.5E-01

3.0E-01

0.00E+00 2.00E+04 4.00E+04 6.00E+04 8.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.20E+05 1.40E+05

bU/D

t

N

De

C

o

/

C

i

(

e

x

p

e

r

i

m

e

n

t

a

l

)

Fig. 5. Representation of C

o

/C

i

versus bU/D

t

N

De

.

Table 8

Particle size distribution of y ash.

Particle size, m Cumulative %

0.5 5.76

2.0 15.51

4.5 26.19

8.0 37.72

11.5 48.54

16.5 60.89

23.5 72.80

37.0 84.73

50.0 89.53

100.0 95.35

210.0 98.18

330.0 99.69

1789 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

coefcients allow to t a curve in order to represent the functional

relationship with the aid of the experimental measurements and

using a regression analysis, as will be below illustrated.

From the viewpoint of dimensions, using the dimensionless

variables constructed by a dimensional analysis, any coefcients in a

tted model are also dimensionless and do not change if the units of

measurement are changed, as occurs in ordinary regression. Further-

more, any transformations are legitimate and the model remains

dimensionally homogeneous. So, taking logarithms of a dimensionless

variable, necessary whentreating anexponential function, is fairly valid.

For every model proposed, a regression analysis was carried out in

order to t that using the dimensionless variables and it was

performed by using SPSS Statistics 17.0.

First of all, for both the models 1 (1) and 2 (2), regressions

without and with an intercept (constant term) were tested,

respectively, once expressed the equation in a linear form by taking

natural logarithms in both sides of the equation.

Table 9 shows the experimental data measured fromrunning tests.

Geometric and electrical parameters, as well as those parameters

relative to gas and dust properties, were converted into their

dimensionless form, following the guidelines aforementioned. To

calculate the values of dimensionless parameters related to migration

velocity, the following equations and correlations were used [12]:

w =

qC

c

E

3dp

av

; q = 12

0

D

2

rp

rp

+ 2

E

C

c

= 1 + 2:493

dp

av

+ 0:84

dp

av

exp 0:435

dp

av

_ _

; D

t

= 0:12U

D;

U

fv

2

8

; f

1=2

=

1

1:8log

10

6:9= Re

; Re =

2

g

vD

0

is the free space permittivity (8.8510

12

Fm

1

); q is the particle

charge; C

c

is the Cunningham slip correction factor; f is the friction

factor; is the gas mean free path; and

rp

is the dielectric constant of

particles. Values of 6.510

8

m [10] and 3.6 have been taken,

respectively, for the two latter parameters. A usual value of 210

4

m

2

V

1

s

1

has been taken for the electric mobility of the ions, b, whichhas

been considered independent of electric eld strength. Thus, the

predicted efciency, expressed as penetration, could be calculated

from the dimensionless data and then compared with experimental

efciency.

Values ranged from 30 to 60 for N

Pe

lead to reduced penetration

levels, far fromDeutschcollectionprediction. Values for N

EHD

lower than

unity and Reynolds numbers higher than2000 justify the assumption of

statistically steady ow utilized in this work [4], and hence, the non-

stationary parameters are not considered. Fromexperiments, a result is

that particle collection efciencies increase greatly with the increasing

N

EHD

for the tested range from 0.1 to 0.4 (N

EHD

b1).

After processing data and converting them into their dimension-

less form, Figs. 6 and 7 showexperimental data of C

o

/C

i

versus N

De

and

bU/D

t

N

De

, respectively.

The results of the regression analyses for the models 1(1) and 2

(2) are:

Model 1: ln(C

o

/C

i

)=4.569E5bU/D

t

N

De

Model 1: ln(C

o

/C

i

)=0.437N

De

Model 2: ln(C

o

/C

i

)=1.6582.165E5bU/D

t

N

De

Model 2: ln(C

o

/C

i

)=1.3260.250N

De

For regression through the origin (the no-intercept model), R

2

measures the proportion of the variability in the dependent variable

about the origin explained by regression. This cannot be compared to R

2

for models which include an intercept. Instead of that, the mean squared

of residuals (sumof squared residuals divided by the number of freedom

degrees) are more suitable to compare between model with constant or

throughtheorigin. So, thebest t corresponds tothelowest valueof mean

squared of residuals. Tables 10 and 11 depict the results of the linear

Table 10

Linear regression results for Model 1 and 1 using bU/D

t

N

De

and N

De

, respectively.

Model summary

b

Model R R

2

Adjusted R

2

Standard error of the estimate

1 0.932

a

0.869 0.860 1.0668

a. Predictors: bU/D

t

N

De

b. Dependent Variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

ANOVA

b

Model Sum of

squares

df Mean

square

F Sig.

1 Regression 113.121 1 113.121 99.385 5.203E8

a

Residual 17.073 15 1.138

Total 130.194 16

a. Predictors: bU/D

t

N

De

b. Dependent variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

Model summary

b

Model R R

2

Adjusted R

2

Standard error of the estimate

1 0.964

a

0.928 0.924 0.7877

a. Predictors: N

De

b. Dependent Variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

ANOVA

b

Model Sum of

squares

df Mean

square

F Sig.

1 Regression 120.884 1 120.884 194.784 5.348E10

a

Residual 9.309 15 0.621

Total 130.194 16

a. Predictors: (Constant), N

De

b. Dependent Variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

Table 9

Experimental data of the pilot ESP.

D (mm) 250

Gas velocity

(m/s)

0.8 1.1 1.4

Active

elds

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

x/D 8.00 16.00 24.00 8.00 16.00 24.00 8.00 16.00 24.00

C

i

(g/m

3

) 5.78 5.92 5.87 5.77 6.52 6.07 5.95 5.77 5.84

C

o

(g/m

3

) 1.17 0.349 0.253 1.26 0.448 0.245 1.43 0.372 0.247

Q

g

(m

3

/s) 0.827 0.827 0.827 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.45 1.45 1.45

U (kV) 70 70 65 74 74 72 76 76 72

j (nA/cm

2

) 7.69 4.81 2.99 3.85 3.85 2.56 7.69 3.85 2.56

D (mm) 200

Gas velocity

(m/s)

0.8 1.23 1.4

Active

elds

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

x/D 10.00 20.00 30.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

C

i

(g/m

3

) 5.68 6.76 5.93 4.66 6.95 5.61 4.91 5.17 4.99

C

o

(g/m

3

) 0.119 0.112 0.0664 0.467 0.304 0.164 0.928 0.382 0.202

Q

g

(m

3

/s) 0.66 0.66 0.66 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.16 1.16 1.16

U (V) 63 61 60 68 63 60 67 63 61

j (nA/cm

2

) 31.43 15 9.84 17.14 14.29 9.52 20 18.57 8.89

D (mm) 150

Gas velocity

(m/s)

0.8 1.1 1.4

Active

elds

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

3 2+3 1+2

+3

x/D 13.3 26.7 40.0 13.3 26.7 40.0 13.3 26.7 40.0

C

i

(g/m

3

) 4.73 4.38 7.20 4.37 4.68 4.63 4.40 4.70 4.63

C

o

(g/m

3

) 0.467 0.232 0.0710 0.710 0.294 0.186 0.887 0.357 0.219

Q

g

(m

3

/s) 0.493 0.493 0.493 0.678 0.678 0.678 0.863 0.863 0.863

U (V) 47 45 41 45 42 41 48 46 44

j (nA/cm

2

) 9.43 7.55 15.72 16.98 6.6 11.95 9.43 7.55 6.08

1790 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

regression, and the models 2 and2 showa better t that models 1 and1,

respectively. Anyway, linear regression results are quite unsatisfactory.

For carrying out the non-linear regression (models 3 and 4), the

loss function to be minimized by the iterative estimation algorithm

(LevenbergMarquadt as modied by Mor) was the sum of squared

residuals. The choice of initial values for the parameters inuences

convergence, and values lower than unity were considered appropri-

ate to start the iterations of the numeric method. Tables 12 and 13

show the results of the NLR.

Model 3:

C

o

C

i

= 0:853 exp

bU

D

t

_ _

0:021

N

0:679

De

_ _

Model 4:

C

o

C

i

= 1:042 exp N

0:612

De

_ _

From these results, it is clear that the model 4 is the best t of all

models proposed, since by comparing it with the model 3 it is proved

the low signicance of the dimensionless number bU/D

t

for the

operating conditions tested. It can be observed that the model 4 is

quite next to the Deutsch model since the multiplying factor is close to

unity, and where the exponent can be interpreted as due to non-

idealities excluded in the original model of Deutsch.

Table 12

Non-linear regression results for Model 3.

Parameter estimates

Parameter Estimate Standard

error

95% condence interval

Lower bound Upper bound

0.853 1.419 2.212 3.918

1

0.021 0.186 0.422 0.381

2

0.679 0.621 0.662 2.021

ANOVA

a

Source Sum of squares df Mean squares

Regression 0.1980 3 0.0660

Residual 0.0125 13 9.633E4

Uncorrected total 0.2105 16

Corrected total 0.0784 15

Dependent variable: C

o

/C

i

experimental.

a. R

2

=1(residual sum of squares)/ (corrected sum of squares) =0.840.

Table 13

Non-linear regression results for Model 4.

Parameter estimates

Parameter Estimate Standard

error

95% condence interval

Lower bound Upper bound

1.042 0.125 0.773 1.310

0.612 0.049 0.506 0.717

ANOVA

a

Source Sum of squares df Mean squares

Regression 0.1979 3 0.0989

Residual 0.0125 13 8.965E4

Uncorrected total 0.2105 16

Corrected total 0.0784 15

Dependent variable: C

o

/C

i

experimental.

a. R

2

=1(residual sum of squares) / (corrected sum of squares)=0.840.

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E+02 1.00E+01 1.50E+01 2.50E+01 2.00E+01

Co/Ci (experimental)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

1

c

o

m

p

l

e

t

e

)

Model 2 complete (data for analysis)

Model 1 complete (data for analysis)

Model 2 complete (validation)

Model 1 complete (validation)

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

3.00E-01

3.50E-01

4.00E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01 3.00E-01 3.50E-01 4.00E-01

Co/Ci (experimental)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

)

Fig. 6. Models 1 and 2 using bU/D

t

N

De

(complete) as independent variables: analysis

and validation.

Table 11

Linear regression results for Model 2 and 2 using bU/D

t

N

De

and N

De

, respectively.

Model summary

b

Model R R

2

Adjusted

R

2

Standard error of

the estimate

2 0.790

a

0.624 0.597 0.561

a. Predictors: (constant), bU/D

t

N

De

b. Dependent variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

ANOVA

b

Model Sum of

squares

df Mean

square

F Sig.

2 Regression 7.319 1 7.319 23.254 2.71E4

a

Residual 4.406 14 0.315

Total 11.725 15

a. Predictors: (constant), bU/D

t

N

De

b. Dependent variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

Model summary

b

Model R R

2

Adjusted R

2

Standard error of the estimate

2 0.846

a

0.715 0.695 0.4883

a. Predictors: (constant), N

De

b. Dependent variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

ANOVA

b

Model Sum of

squares

df Mean

square

F Sig.

2 Regression 8.387 1 8.387 35.170 3.70E5

a

Residual 3.338 14 0.238

Total 11.725 15

a. Predictors: (constant), N

De

b. Dependent variable: ln(C

o

/C

i

)

1791 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

This equation could be used to reliably design a full-scale ESP for

removing particles present in a ue gas coming from the pulverized-

coal-red boiler of the power plant as long as the geometric, material

and process-related (used within the dimensionless numbers ranges)

boundary conditions comply with those of the model measurement.

To validate the proposed models, the data obtained by the

experiments were divided in two parts. One part (16 experiments),

resulting froma randomsampling, was used to estimate the coefcients

of the models. Then, the relationships obtained were used to calculate

C

o

/C

i

for the rest of theexperimental conditions (11experiments). These

predicted values were graphically compared with the corresponding

experimental C

o

/C

i

measurements (Figs. 68). Thus, it is possible to

check howthe proposed models deviate fromthe actual measurements

once it is used in a practical situation.

Fig. 6 is a plot of actual values of C

o

/C

i

against predicted ones for the

dimensionless regression related to models 1 and 2. It can be seen that

almost all the points lie in a narrow 5% band both for the data used in

the analysis and in the validation, above all for model 2. Likewise, Fig. 7

shows the same plot for the reduced models (1 and 2), and again the

model 2 shows a better t than model 1, without the constant term.

Fig. 8 illustrates the graphical representation of the sets of data used for

analysis and for validations related to models 3 and 4. For these latter

models, it is veriedthat the t goodness is nearlythesamebut themodel

4 has been selected since it is the simplest one exhibiting the best t.

Finally, it must be pointed out that this section only intends to show

anapplicationof theideas relatedtodimensional andsimilarityanalyses

for ESP and not to develop a universal relationship valid for any ESP.

5. Conclusions

A comprehensive dimensional analysis (DA) has been carried out

in order to provide a simple and realistic method of predicting the

global ESP performance through the overall particle removal

efciency. All the dimensional variables considered as relevant to

describe the ESP performance have been identied, setting into the

dimensionless groups resulting fromthe combination of each variable

and the parameters used relative to the base dimensions. The results

can be valuable to assess the data from ESP of different operating

characteristics, under geometric, electrical, uid dynamics and

electro-hydrodynamics similarity.

By means of DA, a functional dependence for the ratio of outlet and

inlet particle concentration (penetration) at a pilot ESP was

established. This function was further reduced by using a physical

similarity analysis. Then, several models have been tested in a pilot

electrostatic precipitator and validated for prediction of particle

removal efciency in an ESP, thus conrming to be a very useful and

reliable scaling-up tool. The models proposed in this study are very

simple and need only experimental data without any complicated

manipulation.

The best t was a non-linear regression that allows to relate the

target to the Deutsch number affected by an exponent that can be

attributed to non-idealities excluded in the original theoretical

treatment. For this model, the predicted values of particle removal

efciency agree well with the experimental data.

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

3.00E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01 3.00E-01

Co/Ci (experimental)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

1

)

Model 2' (data for analysis)

Model 1' (data for analysis)

Model 2' (validation)

Model 1' (validation)

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01

Co/Ci (experimental)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

1

)

Fig. 7. Models 1 and 2 using N

De

as independent variable: analysis and validation.

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

3.00E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01

0.00E+00 5.00E-02 1.00E-01 1.50E-01 2.00E-01 2.50E-01

3.00E-01

Co/Ci (experimental)

Model 3 (data for analysis)

Model 4 (data for analysis

Model 3 (validation)

Model 4 (validation)

0.00E+00

5.00E-02

1.00E-01

1.50E-01

2.00E-01

2.50E-01

Co/Ci (experimental)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

)

C

o

/

C

i

(

m

o

d

e

l

)

Fig. 8. Models 3 and 4 using bU/D

t

N

De

and N

De

as independent variables: analysis and

validation.

1792 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

The analysis carried out is highly practical to expose relations

between physically similar ESPs for scaling-up from pilot to industrial

ESP operation, design and improvement, and very simple since

dimensionless parameters have the advantage of simplifying the

relations and facilitating the comparison of results.

References

[1] M. Jddrusik, A.J. wierczok, R. Teisseyre, Experimental study of y ash

precipitation in a model electrostatic precipitator with discharge electrodes of

different design, Powder Technol. 135136 (2003) 295301.

[2] M.R. Talaie, M. Taheri, J. Fathikaljahi, A new method to evaluate the voltage

current characteristics applicable for a single-stage electrostatic precipitator,

J. Electrostat. 53 (2001) 221233.

[3] A. Soldati, On the effects of electrohydrodynamic ows and turbulence on aerosol

transport and collection in wire-plate electrostatic precipitators, J. Aerosol Sci. 31

(2000) 293305.

[4] H.-J. Schmid, S. Stolz, H. Buggisch., On the modelling of the electro-hydrodynamic

ow eld in electrostatic precipitators, Flow Turbul. Combust. 68 (2002) 6389.

[5] C. Riehle, F. Lfer, Electrical similarity concerning particle transport in

electrostatic precipitators, J. Electrostat. 29 (1992) 147165.

[6] Y.S. Khodorkovsky, M. R. Beltran. Universal relationship between collection

efciency and the corona power of the electrostatic precipitator. ICESP X

Australia (2006) Paper 5B2.

[7] Z. Xiangrong, W. Lianze, Z. Keqin, An analysis of a wire-plate electrostatic

precipitator, Aerosol Sci. 33 (2002) 15951600.

[8] S.H. Kim, K.W. Lee, Experimental study of electrostatic precipitator performance

and comparison with existing theoretical prediction models, J. Electrostat. 48

(1999) 325.

[9] M. Zlonarnik, Scale-up in Chemical Engineering, second ed.Wiley-VCH, 2006.

[10] M.R. Talaie, Mathematical modeling of wire-duct single-stage electrostatic

precipitators, J. Hazard. Mater. B124 (2005) 4452.

[11] G.L. Leonard, M. Mitchner, S.A. Self, Experimental study of the effect of turbulent

diffusion on precipitator efciency, J. Aerosol Sci. 13 (1982) 271284.

[12] H. Zhao, Z. Chuguang, A stochastic simulation for the collection process of y ashes

in single-stage electrostatic precipitators, Fuel 87 (2008) 20822089.

1793 F.J. Gutirrez Ortiz et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 17831793

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