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Delcam CopyCAD Pro

Delcam CopyCAD Pro

Disclaimer

Delcam plc has no control over the use made of the software described in this manual and cannot accept responsibility for any loss or damage howsoever caused as a result of using the software. Users are advised that all the results from the software should be checked by a competent person, in accordance with good quality control procedures.

Information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment by Delcam plc. The software described in this manual is furnished under licence agreement and may be used or copied in accordance with the terms of such licence. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express permission of Delcam plc.

Copyright © 1982 - 2008 Delcam plc. All rights reserved.

Acknowledgements

This documentation references a number of registered trademarks and these are the property of their respective owners. For example, Microsoft and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

Patent Applications

Emboss functionality is subject to patent applications.

Patent number: GB 2389764 Generation of a computer model using parametric surfaces and polygonal meshes.

Patent pending: US 10/174524 Surface-Emboss integration.

Patent pending: GB 2410351 Wrapping complex textures onto 3D CAD models.

Morphing functionality is subject to a patent application.

Patent pending: GB 2401213 Altering a CAD model.

Contents

Delcam CopyCAD Pro

1

1

Importing files into CopyCAD Pro 3 Mesh Fixing and Editing 3

Where are my CopyCAD buttons?

Add Triangle 6

Delete triangle flyout

7

Auto Stitch flyout

9

Orientate Triangles

18

Collapse triangles flyout 19

Refine Triangles

Remove Duplicates 22

23

Tolerance Triangles

Filter Triangles 25

21

Morph Triangles

26

Align Models

39

Count Triangles flyout 39

Measure triangles flyout

44

Painting Triangles

49

Painting Picked Triangles 50

Painting using the Flood Fill Options 52

Paint Triangles - Colour All

55

Mix

colour with existing colour

57

Enable painting over gaps (slower)

60

Splitting meshes based on colour

61

Comparison Analysis 62

Comparison Analysis toolbar

62

Comparison Analysis Options

64

Create curve snapped to mesh

66

Creating a curve at discontinuities in a mesh

67

Index

69

Delcam CopyCAD Pro

CopyCAD Pro includes PowerSHAPE Pro functionality plus the following triangle modelling and reverse engineering features:

Importing triangle files (see page 3).

Mesh fixing and editing (see page 3).

Splitting the mesh using colour.

Comparison Analysis (see page 62).

Fitting a curve to a mesh (see page 66).

Where are my CopyCAD buttons?

Use the following tables to locate CopyCAD Pro functionality on the PowerSHAPE interface.

Top toolbar

CopyCAD

PowerSHAPE

Comment

toolbar

Error Analysis

Analysis toolbar

Error Analysis Analysis toolbar Comparison

Comparison

Analysis

Surface

Surface toolbar

Automatic surface generation

generation

Surface editing

Surface editing toolbar

Activated by selecting a surface

Curve Generation

Curve toolbar

Uses same curve creation methods

Curve editing

Curve editing toolbar

Activated by selecting a curve

Model Editing toolbar

CopyCAD

PowerSHAPE

Limit Model

General Edits toolbar

Filter and

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Tolerance

Triangle Editing toolbar

CopyCAD

PowerSHAPE

Add triangles

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Delete triangles

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Delete edges

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Swap edges

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Collapse edges

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Triangle Fixing toolbar

CopyCAD

PowerSHAPE

Slice

Use Limit selection (General Edits toolbar)

Remaining

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

options

Triangle Modelling

CopyCAD

PowerSHAPE

Create triangle primitive

Create a solid or surface primitive and then convert it to a mesh

Interactive triangle editing

Use Sculpt (General Edits toolbar)

Morph triangles

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Filter

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Refine

Mesh Fixing & Editing toolbar (see page 3)

Paint Triangles

Format menu

Boolean triangles

Solid features toolbar

Format menu Boolean triangles Solid features toolbar Point cloud manipulation is only available during the Point

Point cloud manipulation is only available during the Point Import process.

Importing files into CopyCAD Pro

Files in the following formats can be imported into CopyCAD Pro.

1. Click

formats can be imported into CopyCAD Pro. 1. Click to display the Select A File To

to display the Select A File To Import dialog box.

2. Select one of the following formats from the Files of type drop- down list

CopyCAD session (*.ccs)

Point Formats (*.asc, *.ris, *.rlf, *.dbt, *.xyz, *.swl, *.m, *.stb, *.job, *.grk, *.cbk,*. hym, *.bsf, *.raw, *.xml, *.pal, *.surf, *.lim, *.mod, *.scn)

Triangle files (*.dmt, *.obj, *.stl, *.tri)

3. Click Open.

Mesh Fixing and Editing

Mesh fixing and editing is included on the Editing and Analysis flyout.

1. Click the Editing options editing flyout

flyout. 1. Click the Editing options editing flyout 2. Select a mesh. button to display the
flyout. 1. Click the Editing options editing flyout 2. Select a mesh. button to display the

2. Select a mesh.

button to display the general

Click

Click to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. 3. Use the following flyouts and buttons

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

3. Use the following flyouts and buttons to fix and edit the selected mesh.

Add triangles (see page 6).flyouts and buttons to fix and edit the selected mesh. Auto Stitch flyout (see page 9).

fix and edit the selected mesh. Add triangles (see page 6). Auto Stitch flyout (see page

Auto Stitch flyout (see page 9).

Auto Stitch (see page 10).Add triangles (see page 6). Auto Stitch flyout (see page 9). Fill Holes (see page 13).

Fill Holes (see page 13).Auto Stitch flyout (see page 9). Auto Stitch (see page 10). Remove undercut regions (see page

Remove undercut regions (see page 17).9). Auto Stitch (see page 10). Fill Holes (see page 13). Delete triangles flyout (see page

Holes (see page 13). Remove undercut regions (see page 17). Delete triangles flyout (see page 7).

Delete triangles flyout (see page 7).

Delete triangles (see page 8).regions (see page 17). Delete triangles flyout (see page 7). Delete triangle e dge (see page

Delete triangle edge (see page 9) dge (see page 9)

Orientate triangles (see page 18).Collapse triangle flyout (see page 19). Collapse triangle edges (see page 19). Swap triangle edges

Collapse triangle flyout (see page 19).Orientate triangles (see page 18). Collapse triangle edges (see page 19). Swap triangle edges (see page

Collapse triangle edges (see page 19).(see page 18). Collapse triangle flyout (see page 19). Swap triangle edges (see page 20). Remove

Swap triangle edges (see page 20).flyout (see page 19). Collapse triangle edges (see page 19). Remove duplicates (see page 22). Refine

Remove duplicates (see page 22).edges (see page 19). Swap triangle edges (see page 20). Refine triangles (see page 21). Tolerance

Refine triangles (see page 21).edges (see page 20). Remove duplicates (see page 22). Tolerance triangles (see page 23). Filter triangles

Tolerance triangles (see page 23).duplicates (see page 22). Refine triangles (see page 21). Filter triangles (see page 25). Morph triangles

Filter triangles (see page 25).triangles (see page 21). Tolerance triangles (see page 23). Morph triangles (see page 26). Align models

Morph triangles (see page 26).triangles (see page 23). Filter triangles (see page 25). Align models (see page 39). Count Triangles

Align models (see page 39).triangles (see page 25). Morph triangles (see page 26). Count Triangles flyout (see page 39). Count

Morph triangles (see page 26). Align models (see page 39). Count Triangles flyout (see page 39).

Count Triangles flyout (see page 39).

Count small triangles (see page 40).models (see page 39). Count Triangles flyout (see page 39). Count thin triangles (see page 41).

Count thin triangles (see page 41).flyout (see page 39). Count small triangles (see page 40). Count overlapping triangles (see page 41).

Count overlapping triangles (see page 41).triangles (see page 40). Count thin triangles (see page 41). Count intersecting triangles (see page 42).

Count intersecting triangles (see page 42).(see page 41). Count overlapping triangles (see page 41). Count badly connected triangles (see page 42).

Count badly connected triangles (see page 42).(see page 41). Count intersecting triangles (see page 42). Count overhanging triangles (see page 43). Measure

Count overhanging triangles (see page 43).page 42). Count badly connected triangles (see page 42). Measure triangle flyout (see page 44). Measure

Measure triangle flyout (see page 44).(see page 42). Count overhanging triangles (see page 43). Measure distance (see page 44). Mesh status

Measure distance (see page 44).(see page 43). Measure triangle flyout (see page 44). Mesh status (see page 46). Delcam CopyCAD

Mesh status (see page 46).43). Measure triangle flyout (see page 44). Measure distance (see page 44). Delcam CopyCAD Pro Delcam

1. The Mesh fixing and editing options are also available from the Tools menu. 2.

1. The Mesh fixing and editing options are also available from

the Tools menu.

2. To exit Mesh Fixing and Editing, click

the Tools menu. 2. To exit Mesh Fixing and Editing, click as shown below: Add Triangle
the Tools menu. 2. To exit Mesh Fixing and Editing, click as shown below: Add Triangle

as shown below:

Add Triangle

Use Add Triangles existing triangle vertices.

Add Triangle Use Add Triangles existing triangle vertices. to add triangles to the model by clicking

to add triangles to the model by clicking on

1. Select a mesh.

2. Click

to the model by clicking on 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click to display the Mesh

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

A section of the mesh shown below has some missing triangles:

section of the mesh shown be low has some missing triangles: 3. Click Add Triangles (Mesh

3. Click Add Triangles

be low has some missing triangles: 3. Click Add Triangles (Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar). 6

(Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar).

4. Select the first point (or vertex) with the left mouse button This point is marked in blue.

.
.
with the left mouse button This point is marked in blue. . . 5. Select the
.
.

5. Select the second point

6. Select the last point

.
.

The new triangle is drawn. Open edges that don't match the existing triangles are drawn in yellow.

don't match the existing triangles are drawn in yellow. 7. Add further triangles as required. When

7. Add further triangles as required.

When you have finished adding triangles click Add Triangle cancel the operation.

Delete triangle flyout

Add Triangle cancel the operation. Delete triangle flyout to Use the Delete triangle flyout to delete

to

Use the Delete triangle flyout to delete selected triangles or the edges of selected triangles.

1. Select a mesh.

2. Click

edges of selected triangles. 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click to display the Mesh fixing and

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

3. Click

3. Click to display the Delete triangle flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Delete

to display the Delete triangle flyout.

3. Click to display the Delete triangle flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Delete

4. Click one of the following buttons:

Delete triangles (see page 8).triangle flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Delete triangle edges (see page 9). Delete

Delete triangle edges (see page 9).one of the following buttons: Delete triangles (see page 8). Delete Triangles Use the Delete Triangles

Delete Triangles

Use the Delete Triangles model.

page 9). Delete Triangles Use the Delete Triangles model. to delete the select ed triangles in

to delete the selected triangles in the

1. Select the triangles you want to delete. The selected triangles turn blue.

you want to de lete. The selected triangles turn blue. 2. Click Delete Triangles . This

2. Click Delete Triangles

selected triangles turn blue. 2. Click Delete Triangles . This removes the selected triangles 8 •

. This removes the selected triangles

blue. 2. Click Delete Triangles . This removes the selected triangles 8 • Delcam CopyCAD Pro

Delete Triangle Edges

Use Delete Triangle Edges to delete the edges of the selected triangles in the model.

1. Select the triangles whose edges you want to delete. The selected triangles turn blue.

you want to delete. The selected triangles turn blue. 2. Click Delete Triangle Edges . Auto

2. Click Delete Triangle Edges

.
.
triangles turn blue. 2. Click Delete Triangle Edges . Auto Stitch flyout Use the options on

Auto Stitch flyout

Use the options on the Auto Stitch flyout to:

stitch triangle boundaries together to produce a closed model.

repair holes in the model.

remove undercuts from the model.

Using the Auto Stitch flyout

1. Select a mesh.

2. Click

Using the Auto Stitch flyout 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click to display the Mesh fixing

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

3. Click

to display the Auto Stitch flyout. Auto Stitch flyout.

3. Click to display the Auto Stitch flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Auto

4. Click one of the following buttons:

Auto Stitch (see page 10).Auto Stitch flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Fill Holes (see page 13). Remove

Fill Holes (see page 13).one of the following buttons: Auto Stitch (see page 10). Remove undercut regions (see page 17).

Remove undercut regions (see page 17).Auto Stitch (see page 10). Fill Holes (see page 13). Auto Stitch 1. Select a mesh.

Auto Stitch

1. Select a mesh.

regions (see page 17). Auto Stitch 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh fixing

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch

3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout.

Click

Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout. Click 4. Click Auto Stitch to open the

4. Click Auto Stitch

the Auto Stitch flyout. Click 4. Click Auto Stitch to open the Auto Stitch dialog box.

to open the Auto Stitch dialog box.

flyout. Click 4. Click Auto Stitch to open the Auto Stitch dialog box. 10 • Delcam

5.

Use the options on this dialog box to stitch triangle boundaries together to produce a closed model:

Iteration mode (see page 11).

Tolerances (see page 12).

Additional processing (see page 13).

6. Click Apply.

Initially using the Start tolerance, boundaries that are close together (compared with the tolerance) are stitched by generating new triangles to join the boundaries together. The tolerance is then increased and the stitching process is repeated. This sequence continues until either the mesh is closed, or the Finish Tolerance is reached.

Stitching is applicable only where boundaries are close together. Ifthe mesh is closed, or the Finish Tolerance is reached. there are sizeable holes in the

there are sizeable holes in the mesh, use Fill holes

.
.

Iteration Mode

Use the Iteration Mode options to limit the amount of stitching that happens at one time.

to limit the amount of stitching that happens at one time. Select one of the following

Select one of the following modes:

Single pass - Only a single iteration is performed at the Start Tolerance.

Repeat at same tolerance - Stitching is repeatedly applied. The Start Tolerance is used throughout.

Multi pass - The full iterative process is applied. Stitching starts at the Start Tolerance and increases up to Finish Tolerance in Step increments.

If the triangle mesh is badly damaged, it may be wise to carry out a small amount of stitching, so that d, it may be wise to carry out a small amount of stitching, so that you can verify that nothing unexpected is happening. This also allows you to measure the boundaries for the next tolerance value.

Auto Stitch Tolerances

Use the following options in the Tolerance options area of the Auto Stitch dialog box to set the initial and final tolerances to be used for stitching.

the initial and fi nal tolerances to be used for stitching. 1. Set the Start Tolerance

1. Set the Start Tolerance. This is the initial tolerance you want to

use for stitching. Use by a Step increment.

you want to use for stitching. Use by a Step increment. and to increase or decrease

and

want to use for stitching. Use by a Step increment. and to increase or decrease this

to increase or decrease this value

2. Set the Finish Tolerance. This is the final tolerance you want to

use for stitching. Use by a Step increment.

you want to use for stitching. Use by a Step increment. and to increase or decrease

and

want to use for stitching. Use by a Step increment. and to increase or decrease this

to increase or decrease this value

3. Set the value of Stop Number of Boundaries. This specifies when CopyCAD Pro will stop trying to stitch triangle boundaries

together. Use or enter a value.

When CopyCAD Pro has repaired holes in the mesh so that only the stop number of triangle boundaries remain, no further iterations will take place. If you are stitching an open model, enter 1 to stop the stitching when only one boundary remains - the model's open outer boundary.

bounda ry remains - the model's open outer boundary. and to set the number of boundaries

and

ry remains - the model's open outer boundary. and to set the number of boundaries you

to set the number of boundaries you want,

4. Enter the Step value between each iteration. This specifies the increments to be used to go from the Start Tolerance to the Finish Tolerance.

5. Enter the Max iterations per tol to specify the maximum number of iterations at any given tolerance value. This is a safeguard against excessive processing.

Additional Processing

Use Additional Processing options to run additional triangle fixing operations automatically when stitching.

triangle fixing operations automatically when stitching. The following options are all selected by default: Remove

The following options are all selected by default:

Remove duplicate nodes - You are strongly advised to ensure that coincident nodes are merged before stitching. The job will be done automatically provided that this switch remains on. This is the

same as selecting

Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar.

Reverse backward triangles - Select this option if you suspect that some of the surfaces that generated the mesh were the wrong

way round. This is the same as selecting

(see page 18) from the Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar.

Select Remove duplicate triangles to delete identical triangles

after stitching has finished. This is the same as selecting (see page 22)move duplicates from the Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar.

duplicates from the Mesh Fixing and Editing toolbar. Remove duplicates (see page 22) from the Orientate

Remove duplicates (see page 22) from the

Editing toolbar. Remove duplicates (see page 22) from the Orientate Triangles Re Fill Holes Use this

Orientate Triangles

Remove duplicates (see page 22) from the Orientate Triangles Re Fill Holes Use this option to

Re

Fill Holes

Use this option to fill holes in the model by selecting the open boundaries.

If the hole to be filled covers an area of different curvature, you can split the hole into smaller regions, and fill them separately.

This allows more complicated holes to be fixed without the need for full manual triangle editing. After selecting a hole to fill, you can pick two points on the boundary to split the hole into two regions. If the wrong side is highlighted by default, click to select the region that you want to fill.

For example, using the plate.stl example, fill the hole in two parts, filling the flat area with a planar cap, and the curved area with a curvature cap.

a planar cap, and the curved area w ith a curvature cap. 1. Select a mesh.

1. Select a mesh.

the curved area w ith a curvature cap. 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch

3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout.

Click

Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout. Click 4. Click Fill Holes to display the

4. Click Fill Holes

the Auto Stitch flyout. Click 4. Click Fill Holes to display the Fill Holes dialog box.

to display the Fill Holes dialog box.

flyout. Click 4. Click Fill Holes to display the Fill Holes dialog box. 14 • Delcam

5. Select the hole by clicking its boundary turns blue.

5. Select the hole by clicking its boundary turns blue. . The selected boundary 6. Select

. The selected boundary

clicking its boundary turns blue. . The selected boundary 6. Select two points to specify part

6. Select two points to specify part of hole you want to fill first. CopyCAD Pro adds a mark at the position of the first point. A line connects the first point to the second point. The area to be filled is

. The alternative selection is outlined by

to be filled is . The alternative selection is outlined by outlined as a blue hole

outlined as a blue hole

alternative selection is outlined by outlined as a blue hole a dashed blue line outline of

a dashed blue line

outline of the region required.

. Swap the the selection by clicking the

region required. . Swap the the selection by clicking the 7. Select one of the following

7. Select one of the following Fill Mode options:

Use central node generates a node at the centre of the hole by averaging the positions of the nodes around the boundary. A new triangle is generated for each boundary edge, using the central node as the third vertex. However, if the hole has only three edges, it is filled with a single triangle, and if it has four edges, it is filled using two triangles.

Planar cap generates a nominal plane that passes through the boundary nodes (approximately if the boundary is not planar). New nodes that are within the boundary are generated on the plane. New triangles are generated using the boundary nodes and the new nodes.

Curvature cap calculates the curvature needed to fill the hole by examining the surrounding triangles. New nodes are generated on the curved area. New triangles are generated using the boundary nodes and the new nodes.

The examples below show how important it is to select the correct Fill Mode option. The example shows that in this case, as the hole is on a curved area, you should use the Curvature cap option.

on a curved area, you should use the Curvature cap option. Hole Filled with a Central
on a curved area, you should use the Curvature cap option. Hole Filled with a Central
on a curved area, you should use the Curvature cap option. Hole Filled with a Central

Hole Filled with a Central Node

Hole Filled with a Planar Cap

Hole Filled with a Curvature Cap

When you select either of the 'cap' modes, the average length between nodes surrounding the hole is displayed in the Distance between cap nodes. This value governs the density of the new nodes when using the Planar cap and Curvature cap methods. You can amend it if you require.

8.

If you are filling a split hole, repeat the steps to fill the other parts of the hole.

9. Click Apply when you have finished filling the hole.

Remove undercut regions

Use this option to remove undercut regions by overlaying a grid in the XY plane and generating a new mesh from this grid.

in the XY plane and generating a ne w mesh from this grid. 1. Select a

1. Select a mesh.

and generating a ne w mesh from this grid. 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch

3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout.

Click

Click 3. to display the Auto Stitch flyout. Click 4. Click Remove undercut regions Undercuts dialog

4. Click Remove undercut regions Undercuts dialog box.

4. Click Remove undercut regions Undercuts dialog box. to display the Remove 5. Enter a value
4. Click Remove undercut regions Undercuts dialog box. to display the Remove 5. Enter a value

to display the Remove

5. Enter a value for Sampling stepover (the grid tolerance).

6. Click Apply.

The bottle has had the undercut regions removed.

The bottle has had the unde rcut regions removed. Orientate Triangles Use this option to reverse

Orientate Triangles

Use this option to reverse triangle normals.

Triangles Use this option to reverse triangle normals. Two triangles are inconsistently orientated if their normals

Two triangles are inconsistently orientated if their normals point in conflicting directions (in which case the shared edge will be a boundary edge). In order to produce a closed mesh, all triangles must point in consistent directions. Some CAD systems do not care in which directions their surfaces point, and are therefore prone to produce inconsistently orientated triangles.

e prone to produce inconsistently orientated triangles. We recommend that you remove duplicate nodes before

We recommend that you remove duplicate nodes before orientating triangles.

1. Select a mesh.

nodes before orientating triangles. 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Orientate Triangles

3. to display the Orientate Triangles dialog box.

4. Re-orientate the triangles in one of the following ways:

Click

Click Reverse backward triangles to reverse individual triangles. This eliminates or minimises inconsistencies of the triangle orientation.

If the set of triangles consists of a number of separate connected pieces, each piece will be orientated separately. Sometimes it is not possible to consistently orientate all triangles in a connected group in which case a minimal set of inconsistencies will remain after orientation.

Click on Reverse all triangles to reverse all the triangles in the model.

Collapse triangles flyout

Use the Collapse triangle flyout to collapse and swap triangles edges.

1. Select a mesh.

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

2. Click

3. Select a triangle.

4. Click

to display the Collapse triangles flyout. Collapse triangles flyout.

4. Click to display the Collapse triangles flyout. 5. Click one of the following buttons: Collapse

5. Click one of the following buttons:

Collapse Triangle Edges (see page 19).triangles flyout. 5. Click one of the following buttons: Swap Triangle Edges (see page 20). Collapse

Swap Triangle Edges (see page 20).following buttons: Collapse Triangle Edges (see page 19). Collapse Triangle Edges Use this option to delete

Collapse Triangle Edges

Use this option to delete the edges of selected thin or small triangles.

Collapse Triangle Edges collapses a shared triangle edge. This removes the triangles on either side and extends the neighbouring triangles to fill the gaps.

The examples below shows how the collapsed edge is replaced by a single point at its centre point, with the neighbouring triangles using this as a node.

at its centre point, with the neighbouring triangles using this as a node. Delcam CopyCAD Pro

The resulting triangles looks like this:

The resulting triangles looks like this: To collapse triangle edges: 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click

To collapse triangle edges:

1. Select a mesh.

like this: To collapse triangle edges: 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click 3. Click on the

2. Click

3. Click on the triangle edge to collapse. The selected edge of the triangle is displayed in blue.

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Be careful to select only the edge or edges you want to collapse. If you select a number of triangles, you edge or edges you want to collapse. If you select a number of triangles, you may delete triangles that you want to keep

4. Click

Collapse Triangle Edges. .

Swap Triangle Edges

Using this option to:

Manually align triangle edges with features.

Create triangles with better aspect ratios.

To swap the triangle edges:

1. Select a mesh.

aspect ratios. To swap the triangle edges: 1. Select a mesh. 2. Click 3. Click on

2. Click

3. Click on the triangle edge to swap. The triangle edge is coloured blue.

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Do not select more than one triangle at a time, as CopyCAD Pro will not know which edge to swap first iangle at a time, as CopyCAD Pro will not know which edge to swap first and you will end up with a worse quality triangle model.

4. Click

will end up with a worse quality triangle model. 4. Click to swap the edges of

to swap the edges of selected pair of triangles.

CopyCAD Pro takes the pair of triangles either side of the selected edges and swaps their diagonals, as shown in the example below:

and swaps their diagonals, as shown in the example below: The resulting triangles look like this:

The resulting triangles look like this:

the example below: The resulting triangles look like this: Refine Triangles Use option to increase the

Refine Triangles

Use option to increase the density of the triangle model by dividing each triangle into four new triangles.

CopyCAD Pro refines the triangles by curving the original triangles to create a smooth surface. The vertices of the new triangle are calculated in one of the following ways:

If the deviation is less than the tolerance, the new triangles are based on the curved triangles.

If the deviation between the curved and flat triangles is greater than tolerance, the new vertices are based on the flat triangles.

The example below shows a curved triangle representation in relation to a flat triangle.

tria ngle representation in relation to a flat triangle. From this, the new triangles are either

From this, the new triangles are either based on the flat or curved edges, depending on the tolerance set:

You can refine either all the triangles in the model, or just selected triangles. For
You can refine either all the triangles in the model, or just selected triangles. For

You can refine either all the triangles in the model, or just selected triangles. For both options you can select whether or not you want to refine the triangles adjacent to an open boundary. You may want to leave these triangles unchanged if they fit another boundary: if you refine the boundary, an additional boundary will be created between the two models.

1. Select a mesh.

w ill be created between the two models. 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Refine Triangles

3. to display the Refine Triangles dialog box.

Click

3. to display the Refine Triangles dialog box. Click 4. Select the required tab: Whole Model

4. Select the required tab:

Whole Model to refine triangles on the whole model.

Picked Triangles to refine selected triangles.

5. If the Picked Triangles tab is selected, click the triangle edges to refine. The selected triangle edges turn blue.

6. Enter the tolerance for the refinement. The higher the tolerance, the more curved refinement will be possible, resulting in a less faceted model.

7. Deselect Refine Open Triangle Boundary to leave the triangles adjacent to an open boundary unrefined. This option is selected by default.

8. Click Apply to refine the triangle model.

9. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box.

Remove Duplicates

Use this option to merge, duplicate nodes and triangles.

Nodes that are close together or coincident are called duplicate nodes. Triangles that are defined on the same three nodes are called duplicate triangles.

1. Select a mesh.

nodes are called d uplicate triangles . 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Remove Duplicates

3. to display the Remove Duplicates dialog box.

Click

3. to display the Remove Duplicates dialog box. Click 4. Using Node Duplicates : a. Specify

4. Using Node Duplicates:

a. Specify the proximity of the nodes by entering a Tolerance.

b. Select Boundary nodes only to merge only the nodes on boundaries

c. Click Remove to remove all duplicate nodes.

5. Using Triangle Duplicates:

a. Select Delete both triangles when opposing to delete both triangles in an opposing pair By default, one triangle in an opposing pair is deleted.

b. Click Remove.

6. Use Renumber to pack the nodes and triangles. If you have a large number of triangles, this may improve performance.

Tolerance Triangles

Use this option to reduce the number triangles in the model.

1. Select a mesh.

2. Click

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

3. Click

3. Click to display the Tolerance Triangles dialog box. 4. Select one of the following to

to display the Tolerance Triangles dialog box.

3. Click to display the Tolerance Triangles dialog box. 4. Select one of the following to

4. Select one of the following to specify the method used to reduce the number of triangles:

Use Tolerance to reduce the number of triangles, while maintaining the shape to tolerance.

Use Percentage to reduce the number of triangles by a specified percentage.

5. Specify the following options for tolerancing triangles:

Enter the Maximum triangle aspect ratio.

The aspect ratio of a triangle is the ratio between the height of the triangle (h) and the length of the base of the triangle. The aspect ratio of an equilateral triangle is defined to be 1, that is a ratio of 1:1.

triangl e is defined to be 1, that is a ratio of 1:1. The aspect ratio

The aspect ratio of triangles is particularly important if you want to use the triangle model for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Most FEA programs require triangles thave a maximum aspect ratio of 6, that is a ratio of 1:6.

When tolerancing triangles CopyCAD Pro will attempt to generate new triangles that have a better aspect ratio (lower value) than the specified Maximum triangle aspect ratio.

If required, deselect Tolerance open triangle boundary to turn off tolerancing of an open triangle boundary.

If this option is deselected, CopyCAD Pro maintains the accuracy of the boundary of the mesh. Triangles next to the boundary remain unchanged. This is particularly useful when working with two halves of a 3D model, that will be joined together.

Filter Triangles

Use this option to reposition the triangles, within tolerance. This filters out noise in the mesh, producing a smoother model.

1. Select a mesh.

in the mesh, pr oducing a smoother model. 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Filter Triangles

3. to display the Filter Triangles dialog box.

Click

3. to display the Filter Triangles dialog box. Click 4. Select a filtering Method from the

4. Select a filtering Method from the drop-down list.

4. Select a filtering Method from the drop-down list. Use Weighted Average Smooth to reposition each

Use Weighted Average Smooth to reposition each triangle node. The new position is the average position of the node and neighbouring nodes that are within Tolerance.

Use Triangle Edge Optimisation to align triangle edges with features in the mesh.

Use Triangle Edge Optimisation (Max) to align triangle edges with features in the mesh. The maximum number of times that you want CopyCAD Pro to carry out the calculation is specified by Maximum number of iterations.

calculation is specified by Maximum number of iterations . The last two options allow you to

The last two options allow you to optimise imported triangle meshes.

5. Enter a Tolerance. This distance is used to determine the nodes that are used when using Weighted Average Smooth.

6.

Specify the Maximum number of iterations to be used in the filtering process.

Morph Triangles

1. Click

be used in the filtering process. Morph Triangles 1. Click to display the Morph Triangles dialog

to display the Morph Triangles dialog box.

1. Click to display the Morph Triangles dialog box. 2. Use this dialog box to transform

2. Use this dialog box to transform different regions of a triangle model using the following tabs:

Single Region (see page 30)

Two Polygon Regions (see page 33)

Three Regions (see page 36)

Blend Types

Use the Blend Regions section of the dialog box to specify blend regions when morphing triangle models. This allows a smooth transition between the different regions of the model.

The area to be reshaped is shown shaded in green, bounded by the Separating Planes 1 and 3. The blend areas between Separating Planes 1 and 2, and between Separating Planes 3 and 4, are shaded red.

You can only blend between transformations of the same type, or between a transformation in one region and none in the next region. For example, if you are reshaping three regions and select Move in Transform Region 1 and Scale in Transform Region 2, you cannot use a blend region between them.

Blend Types

Select one of the following from the Blend Type drop-down list:

Select None if you require no blend between the transformed

region and the adjoining regions

.
.
the transformed region and the adjoining regions . Select Smooth to ensure a smooth curve between

Select Smooth to ensure a smooth curve between adjoining transform regions. The curve is tangential at both edges of the blend region.

The curve is tangential at both edges of the blend region. Select Linear to create a

Select Linear to create a straight-line blend between the two transform regions.

a straight-line blend between the two transform regions. Select Smooth to Sharp to create a transition

Select Smooth to Sharp to create a transition that uses a

tangential curve next to the first transform region

blend next to the second transform region

.
.
transform region blend next to the second transform region . , and a linear Delcam CopyCAD
transform region blend next to the second transform region . , and a linear Delcam CopyCAD

, and a linear

Select Sharp to Smooth to create a transition that uses a linear

Sharp to Smooth to create a transitio n that uses a linear blend next to the

blend next to the first transform region

next to the second transform region

.
.
first transform region next to the second transform region . , and a tangential curve Blending

, and a tangential curve

Blending Between Regions

When transforming a region, set blend regions so that there is a smooth transition between the different regions of the model.

The colours used are:

Transform regions are shaded green

Blend regions are shaded red.

Blending between the regions separated by Plane 1

1. Select a blend type (see page 26) from the Blend Type drop down list in the Blend Region 1 of the dialog box.

2. Enter an appropriate Tolerance value to refine the triangles (see page 21) in the blend region.

3. Click Define Separating Plane 2 to display the Define Plane dialog box (see page 29).

2 to display the Define Plane dialog box (see page 29). 4. Use the Define Plane

4. Use the Define Plane dialog box to define the other boundary for the blend region.

box to define the other boundary for the blend region. Steps 1 to 4 above describe

Steps 1 to 4 above describe how to create a blend region for Plane

1. To create a blend region for the other separating plane:

1. Select a blend type and enter an appropriate tolerance in the

Blend Region 2 area of the dialog box.

2. Click Define Separating Plane 4 to define the other boundary for the blend region.

Define Plane

This dialog box is displayed when you click Define Separating Planes on the Morph Triangles dialog box (see page 26).

Planes on the Morph Triangles dialog box (see page 26). Use the Define Plane dialog box

Use the Define Plane dialog box to define a plane through the current model. This plane can then be used to divide up the model.

model. This plane can then be used to divide up the model. 1. Select one of

1. Select one of the following options from the Type drop-down list:

X Plane

Y Plane

Z Plane

Point + Point

Point + Angle

Point + Normal

2. If you select X Plane, Y Plane or Z Plane, enter the coordinate of the origin in one of the following ways:

Enter the coordinate of the Point.

Select a point on the screen using the left mouse button.

3.

If you select Point + Point, specify the plane in one of the following ways:

Enter the coordinate of the Point.

Select a point on the screen using the left mouse button.

The plane is created normal to the current view.

4. If you select Point + Angle, specify the plane in one of the following ways:

Select a point on the screen using the left mouse button.

Enter the coordinate of the Point and enter an Angle.

The plane is created normal to the current view.

5. If you select Point + Normal, specify the plane in one of the following ways:

Select a point on the screen using the left mouse button.

Enter the coordinate of the Point and enter the Normal.

6. Click OK to define the plane.

Morph Triangles - Single Region

Use this option to transform a single region of the model. This region is defined between two planes. To define a transform zone shown below, you must select X planes as Separating Plane 1 and Separating Plane 3.

X planes as Separating Plane 1 and Separating Plane 3 . To blend the transformed region

To blend the transformed region into the surrounding regions of the model, use one of the blend types (see page 26).

In the example below:

one of the blend types (see page 26). In the example below: shows the original bottle

shows the original bottle

shows the bottle whose centre re gion has been expanded by 20%, using a 1.2

shows the bottle whose centre region has been expanded by 20%, using a 1.2 scale factor in the Y axis. The outer regions have been allowed to move to avoid overlapping triangles.

have been allowed to move to avoid overlapping triangles. When scaling a single region without using

When scaling a single region without using a blend region, the outer regions are allowed to move. This prevents the scaled region from overlapping the other regions. In the example above, leaving the Allow outer regions to move when scaling with no blends option deselected, will stop the model increasing in length because the transformed region's triangles will overlap the base and top areas.

To transform a single region:

1. Select a mesh.

top areas. To transform a single region: 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Morph Triangles

3. to display the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Click

4.

Select the Single Region tab to define the settings to be used to transform a single region.

the settings to be used to transform a single region. The default settings will transform a

The default settings will transform a single region, using the values in the Transform Region section of the dialog box. No blending between the transformed central region and the outer regions will occur, as the Blend Region 1 and Blend Region 2 areas are set to None.

5. Specify two planes that define the central region. The region between the planes will be transformed using the settings in the Transform Region area.

a. Click Define Separating Plane 1 to display the Define Plane dialog box (see page 29).

b. Enter plane details to define the start of the region to be transformed.

c. To blend the transformation (see page 28) into the surrounding areas, select a Blend Type (see page 26).

d. Click Define Separating Plane 3 to display the Define Plane dialog box (see page 29).

e. Enter plane details to define the end of the region to be transformed.

f. To blend the transformation (see page 28) into the surrounding areas, select a Blend Type (see page 26).

6. Specify how you want to transform the region you have defined:

how you want to transform the region you have defined: a. Select the transform method from

a. Select the transform method from the drop-down list.

b. Enter the X, Y and Z value for the transformation.

For example if you want to increase the size of the region by 20% along the Y axis, select X = 1.0, Y = 1.2, Z = 1.0.

c. If you select Scale or Rotation, enter the Transformation Origin coordinates.

7. Select Allow regions to move when scaling with no blends to prevent the scaled region from overlapping other regions. By default this option is deselected.

8. When you have entered the correct values:

a. Click on the Preview button to view a quick preview of the transformation. Previewing does not display blend refinement.

b. Click on the Apply button to transform the region.

c. Click on Dismiss to close the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Morph Triangles - Two Polygon Regions

Use the following two polygons to define transform regions on a model.

Inner polygon.two polygons to define transform regions on a model. Outer polygon. This lets you reshape up

Outer polygon.to define transform regions on a model. Inner polygon. This lets you reshape up to three

This lets you reshape up to three regions on the model:

Within an inner polygon (Transform region 1).This lets you reshape up to three regions on the model: Between the two pol ygons

Between the two polygons (Blend region). ygons (Blend region).

Outside an outer polygon (Transform region 2). This method lets you move an area (as

Outside an outer polygon (Transform region 2).

Outside an outer polygon (Transform region 2). This method lets you move an area (as small

This method lets you move an area (as small as a single point) and blend the moved area into the rest of the model.

This is useful to counteract the sagging of the centre of a part after it has been manufactured.

Transforming two polygon regions

1. Select a mesh.

Transforming two polygon regions 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Morph Triangles

3. to display the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Click

4.

Select the Two Polygon Region tab to define the settings to be used to transform a single region.

define the settings to be used to transform a single region. 5. Use Inner Transform Region

5. Use Inner Transform Region to specify how you want to transform the region defined by the inner polygon:

a. Select the transform method from the drop-down list.

b. Enter the X, Y and Z value for the transformation.

For example if you want to Move the region by 2.0 along the Y axis, enter X = 0.0, Y = 2.0, Z = 0.0

c. If you select Scale or Rotation, enter the Transformation Origin coordinates.

6. Use Define Inner Polygon to define the first transform region using one of the following options:

a. Sketched Polygon - With this option selected, click Sketch Inner Polygon. Sketch a closed polygon, clicking on the model. To close the polygon, finish by clicking on the first point.

b. Single Point - With this option selected, click Centre of Gravity to select the centre of the model.

Alternatively. click on Sketch Inner Polygon and click on the point to be used.

7. Select a blend type (see page 26) from the Blend Region drop- down list to blend the changes between the two polygons.

If you leave the Blend Region set to None, you cannot select an outer polygon. The area within the inner polygon is treated as Transform Region 1 and the area outside the inner polygon as Transform Region 2.

8. If you selected a blend type, use Define Outer Polygon option to define the transform region using one of the following options:

a. Sketched Polygon - With this option selected, click Sketch Outer Polygon. Sketch a closed polygon, clicking on the model. To close the polygon, finish by clicking on the first point.

b. Offset from Inner - With this option selected, enter an Offset distance.

- With this option selected, enter an Offset distance. If you define an outer polygon, ma

If you define an outer polygon, make sure that it completely encloses the inner polygon. If it does not, an error message is displayed.

9. Use Outer Transform Region to specify the transformation of the region outside the outer polygon.

If you are using a blend region, the type of transformation must be the same type as used for Transform Region 1.

If you are not using a blend region, select None.

10.When you have entered the correct values:

a. Click on the Preview button to view a quick preview of the transformation. Previewing does not display blend refinement.

b. Click on the Apply button to transform the region.

c. Click on Dismiss to close the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Morph Triangles - Three Regions

Use the Three Regions tab to transform three regions of the model at the same time. This option is the similar to the Single Region tab, except that you can also transform the outer regions, Transform Region 1 and Transform Region 3.

In the example below:

shows the original bottleIn the example below: shows the bottle whose centre region has been scaled by 0.8 in

shows the bottle whose centre region has been scaled by 0.8 in the X axis, and the top and bottom regions have been scaled by 0.8 in the X axis, and the top and bottom regions have been scaled by 1.2 in Y.

the top and bottom regions have been scaled by 1.2 in Y. To transform three regions

To transform three regions at the same time:

1. Select a mesh.

transform three regions at the same time: 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Morph Triangles

3. to display the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Click

4. Select the Three Regions tab.

4. Select the Three Regions tab. 5. Use the Define Separation Plane 1 and Define Separation

5. Use the Define Separation Plane 1 and Define Separation Plane 3 buttons to divide the model into three areas.

For details on defining a separation plane, see Morph Triangles - Single Region (see page 30).

plane, see Morph Triangles - Single Region (see page 30). If you want to use blend

If you want to use blend regions, use Blend Region 1 and Blend Region 2 areas to specify the type of blend you want to use. Then use Define Separation Plane 2 and Define Separation Plane 4 to create the blend regions.

For detailed instructions using blend regions, see Blending Between Regions (see page 28).

6. Use Transform Region 1, Transform Region 2 and Transform Region 3 to define the type of transformation you want to carry out on each region of the model.

7. Enter the origin for the scale or rotation in the Transformation Origin area.

8. When you have entered the correct values:

a. Click on the Preview button to view a quick preview of the transformation. Please note that no blend refinement is carried out when previewing.

b. Click on the Apply button to transform the model's region.

c. Click on Dismiss to close the Morph Triangles dialog box.

Align Models

Use this option to adjust the alignment of the model using large and small increments

1. Select a mesh.

model usi ng large and small increments 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Align Models

3. to display the Align Models dialog box.

Click

Click 3. to display the Align Models dialog box. Click 4. Dynamically adjust the positio n

4. Dynamically adjust the position of the model using the Move alignment model buttons. Enter new values to change the small and large increments.

5. Dynamically adjust the rotational alignment of the model using the Rotate alignment model buttons. Enter new values to change the small and large increments.

6. Click OK to accept the alignment changes.

Count Triangles flyout

Use the Count triangle flyout to count, select and delete triangles.

1. Select a mesh.

2. Click

to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

3. Click

3. Click to display the Count triangles flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Small

to display the Count triangles flyout.

3. Click to display the Count triangles flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Small

4. Click one of the following buttons:

Small triangles (see page 40).triangles flyout. 4. Click one of the following buttons: Thin triangles (see page 41). Overlapping triangles

Thin triangles (see page 41).one of the following buttons: Small triangles (see page 40). Overlapping triangles (see page 41). Intersecting

Overlapping triangles (see page 41).Small triangles (see page 40). Thin triangles (see page 41). Intersecting triangles (see page 42). Badly

Intersecting triangles (see page 42).(see page 41). Overlapping triangles (see page 41). Badly connected triangles (see page 42). Overhanging

Badly connected triangles (see page 42).(see page 41). Intersecting triangles (see page 42). Overhanging triangles (see page 43). Small Triangles Use

Overhanging triangles (see page 43).(see page 42). Badly connected triangles (see page 42). Small Triangles Use this option to highlight

Small Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete small triangles.

1. Click Small Triangles dialog box

small triangles. 1. Click Small Triangles dialog box to display the Small Triangles 2. Use Height

to display the Small Triangles

Small Triangles dialog box to display the Small Triangles 2. Use Height (less than) to specify

2. Use Height (less than) to specify the triangles to select. The height of a triangle is the distance between the longest side and the third node.

3. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are considered small. This displays not computed if the number of

small triangles has not been calculated by clicking

display the number of small triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model.

small triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click to 4. Click

. Click

and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click to 4. Click Delete to

to

4. Click Delete to delete all the small triangles.

5. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box.

Thin Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete thin triangles.

1. Click Thin Triangles box.

and delete thin triangles. 1. Click Thin Triangles box. to display the Thin Triangles dialog 2.

to display the Thin Triangles dialog

Thin Triangles box. to display the Thin Triangles dialog 2. Use Aspect ratio (greater than) to

2. Use Aspect ratio (greater than) to specify the triangles to select. The aspect ratio of a triangle is the ratio of its height to the length of its longest side. The default ratio is 1:1000.

3. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are thin. This displays not computed if the number of thin triangles has

not been calculated by clicking

number of thin triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model.

thin triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click button to display

. Click

and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click button to display the 4.

button to display the

4. Click Delete to delete all the thin triangles.

Overlapping Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete overlapping triangles.

1. Click Overlapping Triangles

overlapping triangles. 1. Click Overlapping Triangles button to display the Overlapping Triangles dialog box. 2.

button to display the

Overlapping Triangles dialog box.

button to display the Overlapping Triangles dialog box. 2. Use Tolerance to specify the triangles to

2. Use Tolerance to specify the triangles to select. Adjacent triangles that make an angle below the given tolerance are defined as overlapping.

3. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are overlapping. This displays not computed if the number of

overlapping triangles has not been calculated by clicking

to display the number of overlapping triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model.

triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click 4. Click Delete to

. Click

and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click 4. Click Delete to delete

4. Click Delete to delete all the overlapping triangles.

Intersecting Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete intersecting triangles.

this option to highlight a nd delete intersecting triangles. 1. Click Intersecting Triangles to display the

1. Click Intersecting Triangles

to display the Intersecting

Click Intersecting Triangles to display the Intersecting Triangles dialog box. In a valid mesh there are

Triangles dialog box.

In a valid mesh there are no intersecting triangles, though adjacent triangles must touch.

The speed of calculating the number of intersecting triangles is improved by subdividing space into boxes, then testing for intersection within each box. If any box contains more than a specified number of triangles, the box is further subdivided.

2. Use Element per box to specify the maximum number of triangles that a box may contain.

3. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are intersecting. This displays not computed if intersecting triangles

has not been calculated by clicking

number of intersecting triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model.

triangles a nd to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click to display the

. Click

a nd to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click to display the 4.

to display the

4. Click Delete to delete all the intersecting triangles.

Badly Connected Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete badly connected triangles.

1. Click Badly Connected Triangles

connected triangles. 1. Click Badly Connected Triangles button to display the Badly Connected Triangles dialog box.

button to display the

Badly Connected Triangles dialog box.

button to display the Badly Connected Triangles dialog box. Badly connected triangles indicate areas where the

Badly connected triangles indicate areas where the outer edges of the mesh may have overlapped and converged. In such cases, there tend to be three or more triangles adjacent on the same edge.

2. Select Delete smallest in each group to delete only the smallest triangle in each group. This is sufficient to ensure that the other members of the group are well connected. The option is selected by default.

Deselect Delete smallest in each group to delete all the triangles in each badly connected group.

3. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are badly connected. This displays not computed if badly connected triangles has not been calculated by clicking

.
.

Click

highlight them in blue on the model.

by clicking . Click highlight them in blue on the model. to display the number of

to display the number of badly connected triangles and to

4. Click Delete to delete the badly connected triangles.

Overhanging Triangles

Use this option to highlight and delete overhanging triangles.

1. Click Overhanging Triangles

to display theoverhanging triangles. 1. Click Overhanging Triangles Overhanging Triangles dialog box. Overhanging triangles are

Overhanging Triangles dialog box.

Triangles to display the Overhanging Triangles dialog box. Overhanging triangles are those that point downwards

Overhanging triangles are those that point downwards relative to a given direction. Although downward pointing triangles are not a problem, they may indicate where support structures are required during rapid prototype manufacture. By deleting overhanging triangles, you can obtain a 2½D model that can be machined.

2. Number of Triangles displays the number of triangles that are overhanging. This displays not computed if overhanging triangles

has not been calculated by clicking

number of overhanging triangles and to highlight them in blue on the model.

. Clicktriangles and to highlight them in blue on the model. to display the Delcam CopyCAD Pro

and to highlight them in blue on the model. . Click to display the Delcam CopyCAD

to display the

On the example below, highlighted and selected on a 3D m odel that is part

On the example below,

highlighted and selected on a 3D model that is part of a sphere.

shows overhanging triangles

m odel that is part of a sphere. shows overhanging triangles 3. Enter X, Y and

3. Enter X, Y and Z coordinates to define the Up vector. This is the plane from which triangles will be considered to be overhanging.

from which triangles will be considered to be overhanging. Any workplane you have created is ignored.

Any workplane you have created is ignored.

X Y and Z should have the values of 1, 0 or -1

4. Click Delete to delete the overhanging triangles.

Measure triangles flyout

Use Measure triangles to:

Measure the distance between points.

Display information about the mesh.

Use the Measure triangles flyout as follows:

1. Select a mesh.

the Measure triangles flyout as follows: 1. Select a mesh. 2. to display the Mesh fixing

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar.

Click

2. to display the Mesh fixing and editing toolbar. Click 3. to display the Measure triangles

3. to display the Measure triangles flyout.

Click

Click 3. to display the Measure triangles flyout. Click 4. Click one of the following buttons:

4. Click one of the following buttons:

Measure Distance (see page 44).

Measure Distance (see page 44).

Mesh Status (see page 46).

Mesh Status (see page 46).

Measure Distance

Use this option to measure the distance between two points.

1. Click

1. Click to display the Measure dialog box. 2. Select a method for picking the points

to display the Measure dialog box.

1. Click to display the Measure dialog box. 2. Select a method for picking the points

2. Select a method for picking the points from the Location Method drop-down list:

Use Cursor to pick a point anywhere on the model CopyCAD Pro selects the point lying in an arbitrary plane, perpendicular to the current viewing direction.

Use Boundary Point to pick the closest boundary point to the location you click on the model.

Use Boundary Edge to pick the closest point on a boundary edge to the location you click on the model.

3. With Cursor selected from the drop-down list, enter the location of the two points in one of the following ways:

Using the mouse:

 

Click Manual and select the points using the cursor. The First

Point

Point is identified by a circle, and the Second Point

is identified by a circle, and the Second Point

Point is identified by a circle, and the Second Point

is identified by an asterisk.

circle, and the Second Point is identified by an asterisk. The X , Y and Z

The X, Y and Z boxes display the co-ordinates of the selected points. The Distance between the two points is displayed in the dialog box.

Entering values:

 

Click Manual and enter the X, Y and Z coordinates for the First Point and the Second Point. The Distance between the two points is displayed in the dialog box.

Click Auto to automatically find the smallest gap between a boundary point and a neighbouring boundary edge. This option can be used to find the Start Tolerance required in the Auto Stitch dialog box (see page 10).

4. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box.

Mesh Status

Use this option to display information about the mesh and its boundaries.

to display information about the mesh and its boundaries. 1. Click to display the Mesh Status

1. Click

to display the Mesh Status dialog box.

1. Click to display the Mesh Status dialog box. 2. Select a tab to display the

2. Select a tab to display the following mesh status information:

Boundaries (see page 46)

Triangles (see page 47)

Size (see page 48)

Statistics (see page 48)

Properties (see page 49)

Mesh Status - Boundaries

Select the Boundaries tab of the Mesh Status dialog box to display the following information about the boundaries of the selected mesh:

Number of boundaries in the mesh.

Number of boundary edges in all the boundaries in the mesh.

Boundary Edge Distribution shows the number of boundaries there are for each boundary edge count. If the mesh is closed, this information is displayed.

ount. If the mesh is closed, this information is displayed. Mesh Status - Triangles Select the

Mesh Status - Triangles

Select the Triangles tab to display information about the triangles in the selected mesh.

information about the triangles in the selected mesh. The following Node information is displayed: Number of

The following Node information is displayed:

Number of Nodes displays the number of triangle nodes in the mesh.

Max node number box displays the maximum node number. This is the same as the number of nodes if nodes are numbered consecutively.

The following Triangle information is displayed:

Number of Triangles in the mesh.

Max triangle number displays the maximum triangle number. This is the same as the number of triangles if triangles are numbered consecutively.

Mesh Status - Size

Select the Size tab to display information about the size of the selected mesh.

to display information about the size of the selected mesh. Min X , Max X ,

Min X, Max X, Min Y, Max Y, Min Z and Max Z display the physical extent of the mesh.

Mesh Status - Statistics

Use this tab to display statistical information about the mesh.

this tab to display statistical information about the mesh. 1. Select Stats to display a list

1. Select Stats to display a list of buttons that you can use to display the following Count Triangles dialog boxes:

Small Triangles (see page 40).

Thin Triangles (see page 41).

Overlapping Triangles (see page 41).

Intersecting Triangles (see page 42).

Badly Connected Triangles (see page 42).

Overhanging Triangles (see page 43).

2. Click on Dismiss to close the Mesh Status dialog box.

Mesh Status - Properties

Use this option to display information about the properties of the model.

to display informati on about the properties of the model. 1. Select Properties to display the

1. Select Properties to display the following information about the model:

Surface Area displays the surface area of the triangles in the mesh.

Volume displays the volume of the triangles in the mesh. If the triangles are not closed, the volume between the triangles and the XY plane is calculated.

Centre of Gravity displays the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the mesh.

Maximum Triangle Aspect Ratio displays the maximum aspect ratio in the mesh. This reflects the aspect ratio of the thinnest triangle.

Average Triangle Aspect Ratio displays the average aspect ratio of the mesh.

2. Click on Dismiss to close the Mesh Status dialog box.

Painting Triangles

Use the Paint Triangles dialog box to:

Paint selected triangles (see page 50) in a selected colour.

Colour triangles surrounding the picked triangle using flood fill (see page 52).

Colour all the triangles (see page 55) in the mesh with the selected colour.

Mix colour with existing colour (see page 57).

Enable painting over gaps (slower) (see page 60).

Create a colour STL or VRML triangle file.

Create new meshes based on the mesh colours (see page 61).

Painting Picked Triangles

Use this option to paint a selection of picked triangles with the selected colour.

1. Ensure a mesh is selected.

2. Select Format > Paint Triangles to display the Paint Triangles dialog box.

Format > Paint Triangles to display the Paint Triangles dialog box. 50 • Delcam CopyCAD Pro

3.

Select the colour to paint the triangles, using one of the following methods:

paint the tr iangles, using one of the following methods: Use the colour drop-down list paint

Use the colour drop-down list paint the triangles.

If the colour you want is not displayed in the palette, click on the Other button to display the Color window. Create a custom colour by specifying the RGB, Hue, Saturation and Luminosity values.

Use Pick Colour to select a colour that is already used in the

mesh. Click

picked colour is displayed in the colour drop-down list.

to specify the colour to

in the colour drop-down list. to specify the colour to and then click on the colour

and then click on the colour on the mesh. The

4. Select one of the following Pick methods:

Click

Click to pick a single triangle or all the triangles under a

to pick a single triangle or all the triangles under a

selection box. Point or Box Picking is the default picking method.

Click

Click and sketch a polygon on th e mesh. Triangles that are

and sketch a polygon on the mesh. Triangles that are

within the polygon are selected using this Lasso Picking method.

5. Click

6. Select the Mix colour with existing colour to mix the selected colour with the colour of the underlying triangles.

7. Select the triangles to colour. The method depends on the Pick method selected in step 4. As you select the triangles, they are painted in the selected colour.

the triangles, they are painted in the selected colour. to select Paint Picked triangles . If

to select Paint Picked triangles.

If you selected the Point or Box Picking

If you selected the Point or Box Picking , click to select a

, click to select a

single triangle, or click and drag to paint all the triangles under the selection box.

If you selected Lasso Picking

, click on the mesh

, click on the mesh

repeatedly to define a closed polygon region. When you pick the last point to close the polygon, all the triangles in the region will be coloured using the selected paint colour.

region will be coloured using the selected paint colour. Use to paint or undo the paint

Use

will be coloured using the selected paint colour. Use to paint or undo the paint operation

to paint or undo the paint operation (returning the

triangles to the previous colour) .

operation (returning the triangles to the previous colour) . If you are using Point or Box

If you are using Point or Box Picking,

triangles to return them to their original colour.

on individual

If you are using Lasso Picking, only.

If you are using Lasso Picking , only. to undo the last click 8. Complete the

to undo the last click

8. Complete the Paint operation in one of the following ways:

Click Undo to reverse the colour operation.

ways: Click Undo to reverse the colour operation. Undo only works on the last operation. If

Undo only works on the last operation. If you are unhappy with the result of the paint operation, click Undo before proceeding with another paint operation.

Split the mesh based on the colour regions. (see page 61)

Click OK to save the coloured mesh.

Click Cancel to cancel all the changes to the mesh since opening Paint Triangles dialog box.

Painting using the Flood Fill Options

Use a range of flood fill options to paint triangles in the selected mesh.

1. Ensure a mesh is selected.

2. Select Format > Paint Triangles to display the Paint Triangles dialog box.

Triangles to display the Paint Triangles dialog box. 3. Select the colour to paint the tr

3. Select the colour to paint the triangles, using one of the following methods:

Use the colour drop-down list paint the triangles.

Use the colour drop-down list paint the triangles. to specify the colour to

to specify the colour to

If the colour you want is not displayed in the palette, click on the Other button to display the Color window. Create a custom colour by specifying the RGB, Hue, Saturation and Luminosity values.

Use Pick Colour to select a colour that is already used in the

mesh. Click

and then click on the colour on the mesh. The

and then click on the colour on the mesh. The

picked colour is displayed in the colour drop-down list.

4. Click

colour is displayed in the colour drop-down list. 4. Click to select Point or Box Picking

to select Point or Box Picking.

5. Select one of the following options:

Use Flood fill to discontinuity angle to paint the triangles adjacent to the start position until the angular difference between the triangles is greater than the discontinuity angle that is indicated by the Flood fill range slider.

Use Flood fill to local horizon angle to paint the triangles from the start position to the horizon angle indicated by the Flood fill range slider.

Use Flood fill to view horizon angle to paint the triangles from a start position set at the centre of the view orientation to the horizon angle indicated by the