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Mathematics B Regents Examination Review

By Syed Ali, DeWitt Clinton High School

I. Review of Concepts
The best way to figure out how much you know in Math B material is to
take a regents exam. Teachers recommend working from the most
recent exam to the oldest. Don’t do any actual studying for your first
practice test. Note the ones you have even a little trouble with. Then,
use sheets like this and the Barron’s Let’s Review Math B book.

MBV14/MBV23
I. Basic Algebra Review
A. The Rules of Exponents
1. (xm)(xn) = xm + n

2.
3. (xm)n = xmn
4. (xm)(ym)=(xy)m

5.
B. Factoring
1. FOIL (multiplying “First, Outer, Inner, Last” monomials in each
binomial respectively):
(a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd
2. Difference of Squares:
a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)
3. Square of Binomial:
a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2
C. Quadratic Formula
Where ax2 + bx + c

D. Inequalities
1. means OR; means AND.
2. Inequalities whose answers will be conjunctions have < or ≤
Conjunction Ex: -1 < x < 1
3. Inequalities whose answers will be disjunctions have > or ≥
Disjunction Ex: x < -n or x > n

II. Rational Expressions, Algebra, etc.


A. Absolute Value
1. Rule: If |x|=k where k is positive, then: x = k or x = −k
2.
a. Rule#1: If |x|<k (where k is positive), then the solution
set is –k<x<k (conjunction) {x| (x>-k) (x<k)}
b. Rule#2: If |x|>k (where k is positive), then the solution
set is the disjunction {x| (x>-k) (x<k)}
3. Word Problems
Ex: At Jennifer’s sweet 16 party, all of her friends were within 6
months of her age, a.  |a – 16| ≤ 0.5

On the regents, if a graph is given and you are asked to


determine which equation is correct, it is okay to plug
each in and see which matches.
This is the graph of y=|x|
B. Radicals

1.
2. Don’t take square roots of exponents!
Ex:
3. Divide the exponents of the radicand by the index.
4. To divide radicals
 Take the square root of numerator and denominator if
possible.
 Divide radicand in numerator by radicand in
denominator if possible.
 Change the radicand in denominator into a perfect
square (or cube), if possible.—Remember to multiply
numerator & denominator by the same number.
5. Rule: MULTIPLY FIRST then simplify.
6. In order to rationalize a denominator, multiply by both
numerator and denominator by its conjugate (in a binomial, the
same terms with the opposite sign between them). Ex:

7. *NOTE*: Unless the directions ask for positive answer, it is ±!!


C. Rational Expressions
1. When adding/subtracting rational expressions with the same
monomial denominators, keep the denominator the same and
add/subtract the numerator. Afterwards try to simply the entire
expression.
2. Quadratic Formula
Where ax2 + bx + c

4. Rational Exponents
where n is a counting number.
D. Imaginary Numbers
1. i =
2. A pure imaginary number is any number that can be
expressed in the form bi where b is any real number such that
b≠0 and i is the imaginary unit.
3. In general, for any real
Remainde 0 1 2 3
number b, where b > 0:
rs
Answers 1 i −1 − 4. i0=1 i1 = i
i i2 = 1 i3 = −i

5. A complex number is any number that can be expressed in


the form of a + bi where a and b are any real numbers and i is
the imaginary unit. (i.e. 3+5i)
6. Vector: a directed line segment

7.

8. The conjugate of a+bi is a-bi. When you multiply two


conjugates, the answer is a real number.
9. The multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of a +bi is .
E. Quadratics
1. Discriminant b2-4ac
Value of Discriminant Nature of Roots ax2 +bx
+c=0
b -4ac > 0,
2
real, rational, unequal
and b2-4ac is a perfect
square.
b2-4ac > 0, and b2-4ac is real, irrational, unequal
NOT a perfect square.
b2-4ac = 0 real, rational, equal
b2-4ac < 0 imaginary
1) The roots are real when the discriminant ≥ 0.
2) The roots of a quadratic equation are equal when the
discriminant equals zero.
3) Roots are the same as x-intercepts!!!
2. a. The sum of the roots
b. The product of the roots
3. To write a quadratic equation given its roots, use the sum
of the roots formula and the product of the roots formula above.
F. Functions
1. relation: set of ordered pairs. Use “R” or “r” to abbreviate
relation.
2. domain: set of x-values; range: set of y-values
3. A function is a special relation in which each element of
the domain corresponds to 1 and only 1 element in the range.
In a function, there is only 1 y value for every x value.
3. Vertical line test to determine if it is a function.
4. Restricted domain & range

Example: f(x) = What are possible values? 3x +


7≥0
Domain = x ≥ − 7/3 3x = - 7
x= − 7/3
5. Function Notation
In Symbols In Words
1. f: x x + 3 1. Under function f, x maps to x +
3
OR Function f pairs x with x + 3
OR The image of x under function
f is x + 3.
2. 2. Same as #1.
3. f(x) = x + 3 3. f of x equals x + 3.
4. f = {(x,y)|y = x + 3} 4. Function f is the set of ordered
pairs (x,y) such that y equals x+3.
5. y = x + 3 5. y equals x + 3.
6. Composition of functions is an expression where 1 function
follows another.
First function is applied to the result of the second. (not
commutative!!!)
Ex: (F ∙ G)(x) or F(G(x))
G. Exponential Functions and Logarithms (MBV24 starts here)
1. Graphs of Exponential Functions
Form: y = bx where b is positive and does
not equal 1.
Memorize this compared to logarithmic,
trigonometric, and other graphs. (

2. A logarithm is just another way for writing an exponent.


y = bx is the same as logby= x
Add the log on to the first (result) side, and bring the base down
to the lower part of the log and keep the result as the upper part
of the log. The exponent becomes a regular number.
3. Common Logs are exponents to the base 10. If no base is
written for the log, you must presume it to be 10.
Note that logs of decimals are negative.
4. Product of Logarithms Log ab = Log a + Log b
5. Quotient of Logarithms
6. Power Rule of Logarithms LogbAc= c LogbA
II. Coordinate Geometry (MBV23 & 24 Con.)
A. Transformations
Reflections
rx-axis A(x,y) = A’(x, −y)
ry-axis A(x,y) = A’(−x, y)
rorigin A(x,y) = A’(−x, −y)

ry = x A(x,y) = A’(y, x)
ry = -x A(x,y) = A’(−y, −x)

Translations
Tg,h (x,y) = (x+g, y+h)

Rotations
R90° (x,y) = (−y, x)
R180° (x,y) = (−x, −y)
R270° (x,y) = (y, −x)

Dilations
Df (x,y) = (x × f, y × f)

B. Isometry
1. An isometry is a transformation which preserves length.
Line reflections, rotations and translations
NOT dilations.
2. A direct isometry preserves orientation as well as length.
Rotations, Translations
3. An opposite isometry reverses orientation.
Line Reflections
III. Trigonometry
A. The Six Trigonometric Functions
Cosecant, Secant, and Cotangent are
reciprocal trigonometric functions!!!
Easy way to rmbr: c is opposite of s!
B. Pos/Neg. of Trig. Functions With Regards
to Angle Measure
1. The first
figure shows
the quadrants of the coordinate
plane. 
2. Certain
trigonometric
functions are
positive in
certain quadrants. The second figure ()
shows which are where. The burgundy shows a
popular acronym used to memorize
them.
C. Degrees & Radians
1. where θ= central angle measure
r = radius
s = length of intercepted
arc

2.
3.
When converting radians to degrees, multiply by
When converting degrees to radians, multiply the angle
by
D. Angle Measures to Know
0° 30° 45° 60 90° 1 270° 3
° 80° 60°
Sin θ 0 ½ 1 0 -1 0
Cos θ 1 ½ 0 -1 1 1
Tan θ 0 1 Unde 0 Unde 0
f. f.
F. How to Find the Reference Angle
1. Use the chart:
For quadrant I,
θ is the ref.
angle!

Note: Always use the x-


axis with these!

G. Trigonometric Graphs
1.

2. Amplitude and Period


a. for sin and cosine curves, the equations are y = a sin bx
or y = a sin bx
b. frequency = b (number of whole curves in 2 π)
c. amplitude is –|a| ≤ y ≤ |a| (range)
d. period (length of the interval needed for 1 full curve)

Sorry, I got lazy here and refused to go on to do the Geometry unit. All
you have to do for the geometry section staple together a bunch of Mr.
Barry’s handouts and formula sheets.