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XDM

Multiservice Packet-Optical
Transport Platform
Version 8.4
General Description
417006-2002-0H3-D06



XDM (ETSI) General Description
V8.4
Catalog No: X15811
August 2012
1st Edition






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Contents
Introduction .............................................................................. 1-1
The Future's Bright for Transport Networks ..................................................... 1-1
All-Native Capabilities for Optimal Performance .............................................. 1-3
Next Generation Optics Today ....................................................................... 1-13
Packet-OTS: For Today's Challenges and Tomorrow's Goals ....................... 1-23
XDM Product Lines: Tailored to Your Needs ................................................. 1-28
XDM's Value Proposition ................................................................................ 1-30
Seamless Layered Management .................................................................... 1-34
Comprehensive Solution for All Your Applications ......................................... 1-35
Solutions and Applications .................................................... 2-1
Today's Market Opportunities ........................................................................... 2-1
ILECs ................................................................................................................ 2-3
Cellular Service for a Mobile Society ................................................................ 2-4
Business Services ............................................................................................ 2-7
Utility Telecom ................................................................................................ 2-13
MultiService Operators ................................................................................... 2-17
CoC ................................................................................................................ 2-19
Efficient Triple Play Service Delivery .............................................................. 2-21
Transportation Communications Networks .................................................... 2-23
Government and Defense Solutions .............................................................. 2-26
Municipalities .................................................................................................. 2-28
Education on the Global Campus ................................................................... 2-29
Metro WDM/ROADM Networks ...................................................................... 2-30
Regional/Long Haul DWDM/ROADM ............................................................. 2-31
Repeaterless Undersea DWDM Connectivity ................................................ 2-32
System Architecture ................................................................ 3-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 3-1
Control and Communications Subsystems ...................................................... 3-3
Traffic and Cross-Connect Functionality .......................................................... 3-8
I/O Traffic Interface Configuration Options ..................................................... 3-11
Power Feed Subsystem ................................................................................. 3-18
Engineering Orderwire ................................................................................... 3-19
Contents XDM General Description

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XDM Platform Layout .............................................................. 4-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 4-1
XDM-100 .......................................................................................................... 4-2
XDM-300 .......................................................................................................... 4-5
XDM-900 .......................................................................................................... 4-6
Expansion Shelves for the XDM-100 Product Line .......................................... 4-9
XDM-40 .......................................................................................................... 4-11
XDM-450 ........................................................................................................ 4-13
XDM-500 ........................................................................................................ 4-15
XDM-1000 ...................................................................................................... 4-17
XDM-2000 ...................................................................................................... 4-21
XDM-3000 ...................................................................................................... 4-23
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution ................................................. 5-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 5-1
Introducing ECI's Hybrid
+
Architecture ............................................................. 5-3
Benefits of XDM Family Platforms .................................................................... 5-4
Increased Capacity ........................................................................................... 5-7
Protection Enhancements ................................................................................ 5-9
Quality of Service ........................................................................................... 5-10
OAM ............................................................................................................... 5-13
Synchronization .............................................................................................. 5-14
Security .......................................................................................................... 5-16
XDM Data Services ........................................................................................ 5-18
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary ...................................................................... 5-30
WDM Optical Components and Service Cards ..................... 6-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 6-1
Multidegree ROADM ........................................................................................ 6-3
Mux/DeMux Cards ............................................................................................ 6-9
OADMs ........................................................................................................... 6-11
Transponders ................................................................................................. 6-13
ADM on a Card ............................................................................................... 6-18
Combiners ...................................................................................................... 6-28
CMTR25 Multirate Combiner/Transponder .................................................... 6-33
Pluggable Transceiver Modules ..................................................................... 6-36
Optical Amplifiers ........................................................................................... 6-38
OPM Card ...................................................................................................... 6-45
OMSP Card .................................................................................................... 6-47
Optical Topology Management ...................................................................... 6-48
Optical Modules Designed for the XDM-100 Family ...................................... 6-54
XDM General Description Contents

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TDM Service Cards .................................................................. 7-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 7-1
PDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-4
SDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-5
Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card ......................................................................... 7-7
ATS Service Matrix for 3G Cellular Networks .................................................. 7-8
I/O Protection Modules ..................................................................................... 7-9
Simplified SDH Trail Movement ..................................................................... 7-11
ASON in the XDM ..................................................................... 8-1
Introducing ASON in the XDM .......................................................................... 8-1
ASON Network Advantages ............................................................................. 8-3
Standardizing the Control Plane: ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and UNI/E-NNI
Standards ......................................................................................................... 8-5
ASON Architecture ........................................................................................... 8-8
Control Plane Functionalities .......................................................................... 8-10
ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family ................................................................. 8-14
Network Communications Control ........................................ 9-1
Routing and Forwarding Functionality .............................................................. 9-1
Digital Communications Channel ..................................................................... 9-2
Optical Supervisory Channel ............................................................................ 9-9
General Communications Channel ................................................................ 9-10
Communications Module ................................................................................ 9-11
XDM Protection and Restoration Mechanisms ................... 10-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 10-1
MPLS Protection Schemes ............................................................................ 10-2
Ethernet PB Features ................................................................................... 10-11
ASON Protection and Restoration Capabilities ............................................ 10-18
SDH Protection Schemes ............................................................................. 10-23
Optical Layer Protection ............................................................................... 10-31
Equipment Protection ................................................................................... 10-40
Integrated Protection for I/O Cards with Electrical Interfaces ....................... 10-43
Management ........................................................................... 11-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 11-1
LightSoft NMS Management .......................................................................... 11-2
EMS-MPT ..................................................................................................... 11-22
Local Craft Terminals ................................................................................... 11-27
Contents XDM General Description

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Maintenance ........................................................................... 12-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 12-1
Short MTTR .................................................................................................... 12-2
Built-In Test .................................................................................................... 12-2
Alarms System ............................................................................................... 12-3
Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 12-4
Standards and References .................................................... A-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... A-1
Broadband Forum ............................................................................................ A-1
Environmental Standards ................................................................................. A-2
ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute ............................... A-2
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission .............................................. A-3
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ...................................... A-4
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force ............................................................ A-5
ISO: International Organization for Standardization ......................................... A-7
ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union ................................................ A-8
MEF: Metro Ethernet Forum ........................................................................... A-12
NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology .................................. A-12
North American Standards ............................................................................. A-13
OMG: Object Management Group ................................................................. A-14
TMF: TeleManagement Forum ....................................................................... A-14
Web Protocol Standards ................................................................................ A-14
Glossary .................................................................................. B-1
Index .......................................................................................... I-1


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List of Figures
Figure 1-1: Converged transport network ...................................................................... 1-2
Figure 1-2: Dual matrix approach .................................................................................. 1-4
Figure 1-3: Carrier class Ethernet requirements ............................................................ 1-6
Figure 1-4: MPLS-TP in an E2E network configuration ................................................. 1-8
Figure 1-5: Variety of Ethernet services ....................................................................... 1-10
Figure 1-6: MEF definitions for Ethernet services ........................................................ 1-12
Figure 1-7: xWDM interworking with OTN services access to core ............................. 1-14
Figure 1-8: ECI's 40G transponder/combiner solution ................................................. 1-15
Figure 1-9: Multidegree development .......................................................................... 1-16
Figure 1-10: Multidegree scalability ............................................................................. 1-17
Figure 1-11: Multidegree ROADM capabilities ............................................................. 1-18
Figure 1-12: Typical multidegree ROADM application ................................................. 1-19
Figure 1-13: All-range WDM capabilities ..................................................................... 1-20
Figure 1-14: OTN as a universal transport layer, access to core ................................ 1-21
Figure 1-15: XDM's converged transmission technologies .......................................... 1-24
Figure 1-16: Unrivalled convergence tailored to your requirements ............................ 1-25
Figure 1-17: Converged metro aggregation network ................................................... 1-27
Figure 1-18: XDM products portfolio ............................................................................ 1-28
Figure 1-19: XDM in multi-ring closure mode .............................................................. 1-30
Figure 1-20: Times of transition ................................................................................... 1-33
Figure 1-21: Layered management approach .............................................................. 1-34
Figure 1-22: Comprehensive XDM functionality .......................................................... 1-36
Figure 2-1: XDM: end-to-end service ............................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-2: Service aggregation ..................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3: LTE architecture .......................................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-4: Diverse services with varied QoS ................................................................ 2-9
Figure 2-5: Enterprise Ethernet data service via XDM ................................................ 2-10
Figure 2-6: MPLS/IP VPN ............................................................................................ 2-11
Figure 2-7: Leased-line services via XDM ................................................................... 2-12
Figure 2-8: ECI full solution for the utility telecom network .......................................... 2-14
Figure 2-9: ECI full solution for the MSO network ........................................................ 2-18
Figure 2-10: CoC services via XDM ............................................................................. 2-20
Figure 2-11: IPTV service delivery network architecture ............................................. 2-21
Figure 2-12: Comprehensive military solution .............................................................. 2-27
Figure 2-13: XDM product line in a typical triple play transport network ..................... 2-30
Figure 2-14: 5000 km hybrid backbone network .......................................................... 2-31
List of Figures XDM General Description

vi ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Figure 2-15: Repeaterless undersea DWDM ............................................................... 2-32
Figure 3-1: XDM card architecture ................................................................................. 3-2
Figure 3-2: Control system block diagram ..................................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-3: Timing distribution block diagram ................................................................ 3-6
Figure 3-4: XDM cross-connect scheme ........................................................................ 3-8
Figure 3-5: System architecture ................................................................................... 3-10
Figure 3-6: XIO with slide-in I/O module ...................................................................... 3-16
Figure 3-7: XIO384F with ADM64 configuration .......................................................... 3-17
Figure 3-8: Power distribution ...................................................................................... 3-18
Figure 4-1: XDM-100 platform ........................................................................................ 4-2
Figure 4-2: XDM-100 slot allocation ............................................................................... 4-3
Figure 4-3: XDM-300 platform ........................................................................................ 4-5
Figure 4-4: XDM-300 slot allocation ............................................................................... 4-6
Figure 4-5: XDM-900 platform ........................................................................................ 4-7
Figure 4-6: XDM-900 slot layout .................................................................................... 4-8
Figure 4-7: TPU shelf ..................................................................................................... 4-9
Figure 4-8: XDM-40 platform ........................................................................................ 4-11
Figure 4-9: XDM-40 slot allocation ............................................................................... 4-12
Figure 4-10: XDM-450 platform.................................................................................... 4-13
Figure 4-11: XDM-450 slot layout ................................................................................ 4-14
Figure 4-12: XDM-500 platform.................................................................................... 4-15
Figure 4-13: XDM-500 slot allocation ........................................................................... 4-16
Figure 4-14: XDM-1000 platform ................................................................................. 4-18
Figure 4-15: XDM-1000 slot allocation ......................................................................... 4-20
Figure 4-16: XDM-2000 platform ................................................................................. 4-21
Figure 4-17: XDM-2000 slot allocation ......................................................................... 4-22
Figure 4-18: XDM-3000 front view ............................................................................... 4-25
Figure 4-19: XDM-3000 slot allocation ......................................................................... 4-27
Figure 5-1: All-range carrier class MPLS/Ethernet data solution ................................... 5-2
Figure 5-2: Packet transport network architecture ......................................................... 5-3
Figure 5-3: 10G MoE integrated Ethernet ...................................................................... 5-7
Figure 5-4: Ethernet overlay application ........................................................................ 5-8
Figure 5-5: Traffic management with policer profiles ................................................... 5-11
Figure 5-6: Network traffic management ...................................................................... 5-12
Figure 5-7: Pause frame example ................................................................................ 5-12
Figure 5-8: E2E OAM ................................................................................................... 5-13
Figure 5-9: OAM at the tunnel, link, and service levels ............................................... 5-14
Figure 5-10: Synchronization in mobile backhaul networks ......................................... 5-14
Figure 5-11: PTP protocol stack .................................................................................. 5-15
XDM General Description List of Figures

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Figure 5-12: IEEE 1588v2 synchronization .................................................................. 5-16
Figure 5-13: P2P MPLS tunnel example ...................................................................... 5-18
Figure 5-14: VPLS service example ............................................................................ 5-19
Figure 5-15: VPLS network configuration .................................................................... 5-20
Figure 5-16: Typical H-VPLS topology ......................................................................... 5-20
Figure 5-17: Multiple H-VPLS domains ........................................................................ 5-21
Figure 5-18: P2MP multicast tunnel example .............................................................. 5-23
Figure 5-19: P2MP multicast tunnel example - physical and logical networks ............ 5-23
Figure 5-20: Triple play network solution for IPTV, VoD, VoIP, and HSI
services ........................................................................................................................ 5-24
Figure 5-21: EPL service .............................................................................................. 5-26
Figure 5-22: E-LAN service .......................................................................................... 5-28
Figure 5-23: E2E network management from access to core ...................................... 5-29
Figure 5-24: Smooth E2E network interoperability ...................................................... 5-30
Figure 5-25: MCS functional block diagram ................................................................. 5-33
Figure 5-26: Metro network illustration ......................................................................... 5-34
Figure 5-27: Ethernet packet path ............................................................................... 5-35
Figure 5-28: DIOB block diagram ................................................................................ 5-37
Figure 6-1: Typical directionless and colorless ROADM architecture............................ 6-4
Figure 6-2: ROADM technology: WSS on the drop side ................................................ 6-6
Figure 6-3: ROADM technology: WSS on the add side ................................................. 6-7
Figure 6-4: MO_CW2 with two modules ...................................................................... 6-12
Figure 6-5: TRP40_2 40G transponder ....................................................................... 6-14
Figure 6-6: ECI's 40G transponder .............................................................................. 6-15
Figure 6-7: TRP10_4M block diagram ......................................................................... 6-17
Figure 6-8: AoC typical configuration ........................................................................... 6-19
Figure 6-9: AoC: ring-based services for GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC, OTU1, and
STM-16 ......................................................................................................................... 6-21
Figure 6-10: AoC: routing traffic from access to ring ................................................... 6-22
Figure 6-11: AoC: GCC in-band remote management capabilities ............................. 6-23
Figure 6-12: AoC: dual homing protection ................................................................... 6-24
Figure 6-13: AoC: VC-4 cross connect capabilities ..................................................... 6-25
Figure 6-14: AoC: next-generation transport WDM ..................................................... 6-26
Figure 6-15: AoC protection mixture ............................................................................ 6-27
Figure 6-16: CMBR10_T combiner block diagram....................................................... 6-28
Figure 6-17: Seamless GbE/FC transport from access to core ................................... 6-29
Figure 6-18: CMBR40 40G combiner .......................................................................... 6-30
Figure 6-19: 40G combiner typical usage .................................................................... 6-31
Figure 6-20: OMTR27_2 transponder block diagram .................................................. 6-34
Figure 6-21: OMCM25_4 multirate combiner block diagram ....................................... 6-35
List of Figures XDM General Description

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Figure 6-22: CMTR25 in mixed module mode ............................................................. 6-35
Figure 6-23: CMTR25 typical usage ............................................................................ 6-36
Figure 6-24: Transceiver examples ............................................................................. 6-37
Figure 6-25: MO_OFA_M amplifier .............................................................................. 6-40
Figure 6-26: Typical amplifier configuration for a ROADM node ................................. 6-41
Figure 6-27: OFA-R card .............................................................................................. 6-42
Figure 6-28: Raman amplifier in multispan configuration ............................................ 6-43
Figure 6-29: OSNR improvement with OFA_RM ......................................................... 6-43
Figure 6-30: Single span configuration ........................................................................ 6-44
Figure 6-31: Typical ROPA configuration .................................................................... 6-44
Figure 6-32: OPM cards location and connections to the network manager ............... 6-45
Figure 6-33: Typical OPM configuration in a ROADM site .......................................... 6-46
Figure 6-34: Adding nodes using the OMSP ............................................................... 6-47
Figure 6-35: APC chain model ..................................................................................... 6-49
Figure 6-36: FuN topology map ................................................................................... 6-50
Figure 6-37: PELES chain model ................................................................................. 6-52
Figure 6-38: PELES for mesh topology ....................................................................... 6-53
Figure 7-1: Aurora-G in P2P Ethernet over DWDM configuration ................................. 7-7
Figure 7-2: XDM ATM approach .................................................................................... 7-8
Figure 7-3: ATS ports ..................................................................................................... 7-8
Figure 7-4: TPM protection - four groups of 1:1 ........................................................... 7-10
Figure 8-1: ASON example implementation scenario (Source ITU-T) ........................... 8-4
Figure 8-2: ASON interfaces .......................................................................................... 8-5
Figure 8-3: Control plane interfaces ............................................................................... 8-7
Figure 8-4: Management, control, and transport plane layers ....................................... 8-8
Figure 8-5: ASON-XDM family portfolio ....................................................................... 8-14
Figure 8-6: TST server trails ........................................................................................ 8-15
Figure 8-7: Physical layer view .................................................................................... 8-17
Figure 8-8: SDH layer view .......................................................................................... 8-17
Figure 8-9: XDM network architecture with ASON ....................................................... 8-18
Figure 8-10: Blend of protection mechanisms ............................................................. 8-20
Figure 8-11: ASON associated trails (initial trail configuration) ................................... 8-23
Figure 8-12: ASON associated trails (after 1 fiber cut) ................................................ 8-24
Figure 8-13: ASON associated trails (after 2 fiber cuts) .............................................. 8-24
Figure 8-14: ASON associated trails (after 3 fiber cuts) .............................................. 8-25
Figure 8-15: xMACP card ............................................................................................. 8-26
Figure 9-1: Integrating a variety of DCN schemes ......................................................... 9-5
Figure 9-2: DCC to VC-12 Clear Channel conversion ................................................... 9-7
Figure 9-3: P2P DCC transparency ............................................................................... 9-8
XDM General Description List of Figures

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Figure 9-4: Integrating communication channels ......................................................... 9-10
Figure 10-1: Comprehensive MPLS protection ............................................................ 10-2
Figure 10-2: P2P FRR example ................................................................................... 10-3
Figure 10-3: P2MP link protection example ................................................................. 10-4
Figure 10-4: P2MP node protection example .............................................................. 10-4
Figure 10-5: FRR protection: typical scenario .............................................................. 10-5
Figure 10-6: Dual FRR protection ................................................................................ 10-6
Figure 10-7: PW redundancy and MC-LAG ................................................................. 10-8
Figure 10-8: H-VPLS with dual homing for access rings ............................................. 10-9
Figure 10-9: CCN functionality ................................................................................... 10-10
Figure 10-10: Protection schemes in a typical metro network ................................... 10-11
Figure 10-11: Ethernet ring protection ....................................................................... 10-13
Figure 10-12: Link aggregation group examples ....................................................... 10-15
Figure 10-13: LLCF in P2P configuration ................................................................... 10-16
Figure 10-14: LLCF in hub and spoke configuration .................................................. 10-17
Figure 10-15: 1++ protection ...................................................................................... 10-20
Figure 10-16: 1+R protection ..................................................................................... 10-21
Figure 10-17: Typical SNCP-protected network sites ................................................ 10-24
Figure 10-18: SNCP-protected XDM sites ................................................................. 10-24
Figure 10-19: MSP protection modes ........................................................................ 10-27
Figure 10-20: Two-fiber protection ............................................................................. 10-30
Figure 10-21: OCH protection .................................................................................... 10-32
Figure 10-22: AoC: network protection ...................................................................... 10-33
Figure 10-23: AoC: optical DRI protection ................................................................. 10-34
Figure 10-24: AoC protection mixture ........................................................................ 10-35
Figure 10-25: WSS ROADM N+1 protection ............................................................. 10-36
Figure 10-26: WSS ROADM 1+1 Forever.................................................................. 10-37
Figure 10-27: Optical DRI classic protection model ................................................... 10-38
Figure 10-28: Optical DNI enhanced protection model .............................................. 10-39
Figure 10-29: Line protection ..................................................................................... 10-40
Figure 10-30: Fast IOP protection .............................................................................. 10-41
Figure 10-31: CFM mechanisms ................................................................................ 10-42
Figure 11-1: One management system ....................................................................... 11-2
Figure 11-2: ECI's layered architecture management concept .................................... 11-3
Figure 11-3: LightSoft main window ............................................................................. 11-4
Figure 11-4: GCT example (LightSoft to EMS) ............................................................ 11-5
Figure 11-5: Show ASON Domain ............................................................................... 11-7
Figure 11-6: E-LSP tunnel example ........................................................................... 11-11
Figure 11-7: Bypass tunnel creation .......................................................................... 11-12
List of Figures XDM General Description

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Figure 11-8: LightSoft drilldown to EMS alarms ......................................................... 11-13
Figure 11-9: Topology Tree ........................................................................................ 11-14
Figure 11-10: Single availability tables for 32-channel OMS trail .............................. 11-15
Figure 11-11: System redundancy ............................................................................. 11-17
Figure 11-12: RDR Shadow backups ........................................................................ 11-18
Figure 11-13: Resource Domain Partitioning ............................................................. 11-19
Figure 11-14: EMS-MPT: Three network perspectives .............................................. 11-22
Figure 11-15: LCT shelf view ..................................................................................... 11-27


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List of Tables
Table 3-1: Examples of maximum ports per shelf ................................................ 3-12
Table 5-2: MPLS/Ethernet card specifications ..................................................... 5-40
Table 6-1: WSS ROADM modules ......................................................................... 6-9
Table 6-2: Mux/DeMux modules - selected subset in the XDM-1000 family ........ 6-10
Table 6-3: OADM cards and modules - selected subset of XDM-1000 family ..... 6-12
Table 6-4: Transponder cards - selected subset .................................................. 6-13
Table 6-5: AoC functionality options ..................................................................... 6-20
Table 6-6: Combiner cards - selected subset ....................................................... 6-29
Table 6-7: OFA cards - selected subset for the XDM-1000 family ....................... 6-39
Table 6-8: Mux/DeMux cards - selected subset for the XDM-100 family ............. 6-54
Table 6-9: OADM modules - selected subset for the XDM-100 family ................. 6-55
Table 6-10: Amplifier modules - selected subset for the XDM-100 family .............. 6-55
Table 7-1: Multiservice components and service cards per platform ..................... 7-2
Table 7-2: PDH service cards ................................................................................. 7-4
Table 7-3: SDH service cards ................................................................................. 7-5
Table 7-4: TPM options ........................................................................................ 7-10
Table 11-1: Service implementations over various technologies ......................... 11-10
List of Tables XDM General Description

xii ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06



417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-1

In this chapter:
The Future's Bright for Transport Networks ................................................... 1-1
All-Native Capabilities for Optimal Performance ........................................... 1-3
Next Generation Optics Today ...................................................................... 1-13
Packet-OTS: For Today's Challenges and Tomorrow's Goals ...................... 1-23
XDM Product Lines: Tailored to Your Needs ............................................... 1-28
XDM's Value Proposition .............................................................................. 1-30
Seamless Layered Management .................................................................... 1-34
Comprehensive Solution for All Your Applications ..................................... 1-35
The Future's Bright for Transport
Networks
The world of telecommunications is driven by changes in consumption patterns.
As illustrated in the following figure, telecommunications is moving from voice
PSTN to voice over IP (VoIP), from Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) leased
lines to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs), from TDM-based 2G and
2.5G mobile networks to 3G/LTE/4G packet-based networks, and from simple
best effort (BE) high speed Internet (HSI) access to advanced triple play
networks for small and medium businesses (SMB) and home use. Telecom
network infrastructures must be able to support the rapidly growing number of
packet-based services and applications as well as high-capacity transport pipes.
Existing SDH transport networks are no longer equal to the task at hand. Today's
challenge is to build an infrastructure that maximizes bandwidth capacity while
minimizing costs.
1
Introduction
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Operators must provide a carrier class standard of service with more bandwidth
at less cost per bit, and still get a satisfactory return on investment (ROI).

Figure 1-1: Converged transport network
Today's demands for multimedia-based services and corporate intranet
applications requiring large amounts of bandwidth are causing a shortfall in
available resources. With the trend of shifting more services from the intranet
environment to the cloud, this problem is only expected to grow. Carriers and
SPs require a highly scalable broadband and metro aggregation infrastructure to
deliver increasing amounts of data traffic to their customers, seamlessly and
transparently.
SDH and PDH have long been dominant technologies in WAN and PSTN
networks that were primarily designed to carry voice. The growing demand for
additional capacity led to increased SDH deployment in metropolitan and core
networks. Recently, these networks have been struggling to cope with a huge
explosion of Ethernet service data traffic.
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Network operators are increasingly using Ethernet (10BaseT, FE, GbE, and
10 GbE) as the connection technology of choice for data communications across
public networks. Ethernet services offer a simpler, more suitable and
cost-effective solution for transparent LAN-to-LAN connectivity. The capacity
needed to meet these new demands has outpaced SDH's ability to cost
effectively scale up to higher speeds; metro WDM has therefore become a
common solution for dramatically increased bandwidth on existing fiber
infrastructure.
What operators need for their next generation transport networks is an
infrastructure that combines the classic carrier class advantages of SDH (remote
OAM&P, guaranteed latency, reliability, and protection) and the capacity of
WDM with the simplicity, ubiquity, scalability, and low cost of Ethernet.
All-Native Capabilities for
Optimal Performance
ECI's XDM

platforms provide All-Native

support for each type of


technology. ECI's All-Native approach supports the full cycle of migration,
enabling you to evolve your network gradually from TDM-based transport to a
mix of TDM and Ethernet to a pure packet-based network, while maintaining
native handling of both TDM and Ethernet. The same equipment can be used
throughout the full life cycle of the transport network as it evolves:
Beginning with TDM traffic carried over TDM.
Gradually adding in Ethernet traffic services, where both Ethernet and TDM
are delivered over TDM.
Increasing packet services to match customer demand, with Ethernet and
TDM both processed natively and independently and delivered over TDM or
Ethernet, as appropriate.
All these options can be carried over WDM, providing an additional dimension
of scale for future growth.
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Figure 1-2: Dual matrix approach
All-Native TDM and packet processing offers the most cost-efficient traffic
handling in a mixed environment. Risk is minimized since infrastructure
investments are linked to service scaling, without any complex, risky, or costly
encapsulation schemes.
The All-Native approach make the XDM platforms ideal for network
convergence at the metro/access aggregation level, reducing the risks associated
with the shift to packet-based transport, protecting your legacy investment, and
giving you a smooth migration path to NG networks with seamless integration
with CESR platforms.
Carrier Class Ethernet and MPLS
Ethernet service, the preeminent LAN technology, is now becoming the
dominant service for the metro domain (WAN) as well. Consumers require
guaranteed service delivery of the appropriate quality, expecting operators to
provide differentiated services with comprehensive carrier class capabilities,
from access to core.
MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism for transporting data
using a connection-oriented approach. Standardized by the IETF, MPLS is a
scalable protocol-agnostic mechanism designed to carry both circuit and packet
traffic over virtual circuits known as LSPs. MPLS fits into the category of
packet-switched networks, falling in between the traditional OSI definitions of
the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) and the Network Layer (Layer 3). MPLS makes
packet-forwarding decisions based on the contents of the label without
examining the packet itself.
MPLS provides a unified data-carrying service for circuit-like packet-switching
client data. MPLS can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including
IP packets, native ATM, and Ethernet frames. MPLS has gradually been
replacing traditional transport technologies, such as frame relay and ATM,
mostly because it is better aligned with current and future technology needs.
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Many network operators now deploy MPLS networks in response to the massive
continued growth of data traffic, the demand for complete service offerings, and
the development of network convergence strategies. Ethernet interfaces and
Ethernet/MPLS services are the main toolbox supporting the MPLS network
operator's strategic goals.
MPLS as a transport layer for metro Carrier Ethernet services, rather than using
Ethernet as both transport and service layers, enhances the Ethernet service,
enabling it to meet a complete carrier class standard. MPLS addresses all key
attributes defined by MEF for Carrier Ethernet:
Hard Quality of Service (QoS), with guaranteed end-to-end (E2E) Service
Level Agreements (SLAs) for business, mobile, and residential users that
enables efficient differentiated services, allowing service providers (SPs) to
tailor the level of service and performance to the requirements of their
customers (real-time, mission-critical, BE, etc.), as well as assuring the
necessary network resources for Committed Information Rate (CIR) and
Extended Information Rate (EIR).
Reliability, with a robust, resilient network that can provide uninterrupted
service across each path. This includes network protection of less than
50 msec using link/node Fast ReRoute (FRR) and meeting a five 9s standard
of E2E service availability.
Scalability of both services and bandwidth, ranging from megabits to
hundreds of gigabytes with variable granularity and hundreds of thousands
of flows supporting controlled scalability for both the number of elements
and the number of services on the network.
End to End Service Management through a single comprehensive
Network Management System (NMS) that provisions, monitors, and
controls many network layers simultaneously. Advancement in the
management of converged networks takes advantage of the condensed
transport layer for provisioning and troubleshooting while presenting
operators with tiered physical and technology views that are familiar and
easy to navigate. The comprehensive NMS simplifies operations by allowing
customers and member companies to monitor and/or control well-defined
and secure resource domains with partitioning down to the port.
Security, with a safe environment that protects subscribers, servers, and
network devices, blocking malicious users, Denial of Service (DoS), and
other types of attacks. Use of provider network constraints, as well as
complete traffic segregation, ensures the highest level of security and
privacy for even the most sensitive data transmissions.
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Figure 1-3: Carrier class Ethernet requirements
However, until recently MPLS encountered difficulties expanding beyond the
network core towards the metro and access domains. This was mainly due to two
reasons:
The historical linkage between MPLS and IP switch/routers. Service
providers were reluctant to introduce these high cost NEs on a large scale.
Introduction of IP elements would also impose a steep learning curve on
metro network managers needing to adapt to an IP configuration.
The distributed control plane was another discouraging factor. Service
providers were reluctant to pay the cost associated with having control plan
functionality distributed and integrated into each node across an
MPLS-based network, and were reluctant to relinquish network control.
To address these hesitations, MPLS-TP has been introduced.
What is MPLS-TP?
MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) is a connection-oriented
packet-switched (CO-PS) application for Layer 2 transport network technology
that incorporates elements of both MPLS and PW architectures, such as the
MPLS forwarding paradigm and PW Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3) client
mapping. MPLS-TP is based on the same architectural principles of layered
networking used in transport network technologies like SDH, SONET, and
OTN.
MPLS-TP is currently being defined under the auspices of the IETF in
cooperation with the ITU-T. The emerging MPLS-TP standard defines a feature
list most relevant for metro transport networks, and supports packet transport
services with a degree of predictability similar to that of existing transport
networks.
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The MPLS-TP design is a natural extension of work begun by ITU-T (SG15), in
a process similar to the development of T-MPLS. In February 2008, the ITU-T
and IETF agreed to work jointly on the MPLS-TP design. Specifications are
defined in a number of RFCs. Many SPs are now requiring an infrastructure that
will also be capable of supporting MPLS-TP.
MPLS-TP is initially planned as a low-cost Layer 2 technology that provides
QoS, E2E OAM, and protection switching. Features not relevant to CO-PS
applications are removed, such as:
Connectionless models
IP in data plane
Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) for E2E OAM
Additional mechanisms supporting critical transport functionality are added,
including supplemental OAM, resiliency, bidirectional LSPs, new protection
schemes, and control/management features that enable maximum synergy with
existing optical transport network operations and management paradigms.
Essential features of MPLS-TP include:
Strict CO-PS network technology basis.
Operates independently of clients and associated control networks, enabling
network operators to maintain a clear separation between their own robust
packet transport network designs and the services and means used to carry
customer traffic.
Supports a wide range of client layer networks and server layer networks,
including OTN, SDH, PDH, and ETH.
Robust OAM capabilities and resilience mechanisms without relying on the
use of a control plane.
Connection management via management or control plane.
Common management and control of multi-layer packet and optical
transport networks.
MPLS-TP uses the MPLS header with standard label swapping and stacking and
PWE3 mapping, supporting P2P, P2MP, and MP2MP connections that match
the ones already defined for MPLS and H-VPLS architectures. MPLS-TP also
supports bidirectional P2P connections (bidirectional LSPs) by matching
forward and backward connections along the same path. MPLS-TP does not use
MP2MP LSPs, Electronic Commerce Messaging Protocol (ECMP), or PHP.
MPLS-TP QoS mechanisms are the same as those of MPLS-TE. MPLS-TP
applies QoS on a per-connection basis. When working with hierarchical LSPs,
QoS is managed independently at each level.
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The MPLS-TP protocol enables more affordable E2E MPLS deployments by
streamlining operations models and consolidating/simplifying network
topologies. For example, one of the key elements is eliminating the costs
associated with distributed control plane functionality being integrated into each
node across an MPLS-based network. This is accomplished through the use of a
more affordable transport-oriented static configuration through a transport-grade
NMS, helping operators reduce their OPEX significantly and get networks ready
to offer true NG service convergence.
ECI, as a leader in MPLS and MPLS-TP technology, is participating in the
standards development process as it unfolds. ECI's MPLS components are
designed to be future proof, capable of incorporating and supporting new
standard requirements as they are defined. ECI is one of the first vendors in the
industry to implement MPLS-TP across all of its transport products in a holistic
approach to network design and configuration that provides smooth
interoperability of MPLS-TP with IP/MPLS.

Figure 1-4: MPLS-TP in an E2E network configuration
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The XDM's MPLS-TP solution is based on the following building blocks:
Management: LightSoft

NMS supports point-and-click MPLS-TP static


tunnel and service provisioning, with smooth integration into dynamic
IP/MPLS service provisioning.
Forwarding: Bidirectional tunnels enable forward and backward traffic
following the same path. Efficient traffic management functionality utilizes
bidirectional paths for traffic and OAM, fully compatible with standard
MPLS, with forwarding based on LSP/PW and labels.
Protection: Resilient protection offered at multiple levels, including
sub-50 msec 1:1 linear protection based on Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) hardware-based OAM, a combination of provider edge
(PE) dual homing based on pseudowire (PW) redundancy and customer edge
(CE) dual homing based on multi-chassis LAG (MC-LAG), and Fast
ReRoute (FRR) for sub-50 msec protection against tunnel, link, and transit
node failures, with sophisticated dual protection options. Enhanced optical
protection mechanisms are available for all topologies, including ring and
star.
OAM: OAM functionality is supported within the data plane, independent of
the control plane. XDM platforms support MPLS tunnel OAM based on
Y.1711, Ethernet link OAM based on IEEE 802.3-05, and service OAM
based on IEEE 802.1ag. Inband OAM is implemented using associated
channels, with PM and FM at the LSP level.
Control Plane: XDM offers an optional ASON (GMPLS-based)
implementation for dynamic provisioning and restoration, with a choice of
1++, 1+R, and 1+1+R restoration.
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Comprehensive Set of Services
The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) has defined carrier class transport solutions
for emerging Ethernet-based applications, including:
Triple play
Business connectivity (enterprise and SMB)
3G (Rel. 5) Ethernet-based mobile aggregation
DSLAM transport and aggregation
These services are offered over MPLS, Ethernet, or a combination of both.

Figure 1-5: Variety of Ethernet services
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The range of data-centric services defined by the MEF standards includes:
Ethernet Line (E-Line) for P2P connectivity, used to create Ethernet
private line services, Ethernet-based internet access services, and P2P
Ethernet VPNs. These include:
Ethernet Private Line (EPL): P2P Ethernet connection that uses
dedicated bandwidth, providing a fully managed, highly transparent
transport service for Ethernet. EPL provides an extremely reliable and
secure service, as would be expected from a private line.
Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL): P2P connectivity over shared
bandwidth. Service can be multiplexed at the user-to-network interface
(UNI) level.
E-Line services may be implemented, for example, through an MPLS-based
Virtual PseudoWire Service (VPWS). This implementation provides P2P
connectivity over MPLS PW, sharing the same tunnel on the same locations
and benefiting from MPLS E2E hard QoS (H-QoS) and carrier class
capabilities.
Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) for multipoint-to-multipoint (MP2MP)
(any-to-any) connectivity, designed for multipoint Ethernet VPNs and native
Ethernet Transparent LAN Services (TLS). These include:
Ethernet Private LAN (EPLAN): Multipoint connectivity over
dedicated bandwidth, where each subscriber site is connected to multiple
sites using dedicated resources (so different customers' Ethernet frames
are not multiplexed together).
Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLAN): Multipoint connectivity
over shared bandwidth, where each subscriber site is connected to
multiple sites using shared resources. This is a highly cost-effective
service, as it can leverage shared transmission bandwidth in the network.
E-LAN services may be implemented, for example, through an MPLS-based
VPLS. This implementation provides multipoint connectivity over MPLS
PW, sharing the same tunnel, and enables delivery of any-to-any
connectivity that expands a business LAN across the WAN. VPLS enables
SPs to expand their L2 VPN service offerings to enterprise customers. VPLS
provides the operational cost benefits of Ethernet with the E2E QoS of
MPLS.
Classic VPLS service creates a full mesh between all network nodes and,
under certain circumstances, this may not be the most efficient use of
network resources. With H-VPLS, full mesh is created only between hub
nodes using Split Horizon Groups (SHGs). Spoke nodes are only connected
to their hubs, without SHGs. This efficient approach improves MP2MP
service scaling and allows less powerful devices such as access switches to
be used as spoke nodes, since it removes the burden of unnecessary
connections.
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E-Tree (Rooted-Multipoint) for point-to-multipoint (P2MP) multicast tree
connectivity, designed for BTV/IPTV services. These include:
Ethernet Private Tree (EP-Tree): In its simplest form, an E-Tree
service type provides a single root for multiple leaf UNIs. Each leaf UNI
only exchanges data with the root UNI. This service is useful and enables
very efficient bandwidth use for BTV or IPTV applications, such as
multicast/broadcast packet video. With this approach, different copies of
the packet need to be sent only to roots that are not sharing the same
branch of the tree.
Ethernet Virtual Private Tree (EVP-Tree): An EVP-Tree is an E-Tree
service that provides rooted-multipoint connectivity across a shared
infrastructure supporting statistical multiplexing and over-subscription.
EVP-Tree is used for hub and spoke architectures in which multiple
remote offices require access to a single headquarters, or multiple
customers require access to an internet SP's point of presence (POP).
E-Tree services may be implemented, for example, through an MPLS
Rooted-P2MP Multicast Tree that provides an MPLS drop-and-continue
multicast tree on a shared P2MP multicast tree tunnel, supporting multiple
Digital TV (DTV)/IPTV services as part of a full triple play solution.
LightSoft provides full support for classic E-Tree functionality as of V9.

Figure 1-6: MEF definitions for Ethernet services
The XDM product line features three independent cardsets for Ethernet in mixed
SDH/Ethernet networks: the Layer 1 Data I/O cards (DIOB and DIOM), the
Layer 2 Ethernet Interface and Switching modules (EIS), and the MPLS Carrier
Class Switch cards (MCS). The MCS cardset supports the full set of MEF
services, including E2E QoS, C-VLAN translation, flow control, and
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) classification. These cards are
described in detail in MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution (page 5-1).
XDM General Description Introduction

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Next Generation Optics Today
Flexible, coarse, dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing and multidegree
Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (WDM/ROADM)
networks, based on directionless, colorless, and contentionless ROADM
technology, are an essential element of next generation (NG) transport networks,
chosen by operators who are motivated by triple play delivery and business data
connectivity demands. These bandwidth demands require the capacity,
resilience, and outstanding flexibility of directionless, colorless, and
contentionless multidegree ROADM as part of an all-range optical network that
offers user-friendly service management and E2E route selection.
The XDM's field-proven 10-degree MEMS-Wavelength Selective Switch
(WSS) ROADM technology, together with multirate combiners and
transponders, multiprotocol Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) on a Card (AoC),
fully tunable lasers, and modular card designs, introduces true flexibility to the
network by providing any wavelength to any node ("any-to-any")
connectivity in any ring or mesh topology. With no need to predefine traffic
demands, remote service provisioning is fast and simple, requiring no
re-engineering or manual tuning adjustments for both native and foreign
wavelengths.
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The unique state-of-the-art architecture of the XDM enables it to cost-effectively
address metro, regional, and long-haul WDM requirements. A single product
line provides complete, fully transparent E2E management over a multi-layered
transport network. Sophisticated protection and restoration mechanisms are
available. The XDM also offers a rich set of Optical Transport Network (OTN)
features and benefits, including OTN framing with enhanced Forward Error
Correction (FEC) and OTN wavelength and payload performance management.
Combiners have Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) sub-wavelength
multiplexing, and OTN in-band management is supported in all transponders
and combiners. The XDM extends the OTN technology layer from the core
down to the metro and access, enabling operators to seamlessly manage their
network wavelength services, end to end. XDM NG optics also offers a full set
of features aimed at simplifying planning, installation, operation, and
maintenance of WDM/ROADM networks.

Figure 1-7: xWDM interworking with OTN services access to core
XDM General Description Introduction

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XDM optical components offer a comprehensive range of next generation
capabilities that are robust, innovative, and future-proof. ECI is an innovator in
implementing Ethernet/MPLS over OTN, utilizing field-proven XDM platforms
to enable smooth migration to packet-over-optics, with an all-range system that
provides cost-efficient solutions for networks ranging from under 100 km to
over 2000 km. XDM platforms are future-proof as well, offering state-of-the-art
40G and 100G (future) solutions that increase capacity while reducing
complexity. With ECI, the optical networks you enjoy today are already paving
the way to the networks of tomorrow.

Figure 1-8: ECI's 40G transponder/combiner solution
Introduction XDM General Description

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Multidegree 40/80-Channel ROADM
Flexibility
Adding new channels and rerouting existing ones in a network based on
Mux/DeMux and fixed OADM technology is complicated, labor-intensive, and
often traffic affecting. Even a minor adjustment often requires invasive network
re-engineering. The XDM's multidegree ROADM technology, together with
fully tunable lasers and innovative modular card design, automatic power and
dispersion control, and smart yet simple E2E service management, eliminates
these limitations by providing any wavelength to any node connectivity in any
ring or mesh topology. With the XDM, there is no need to predefine traffic
demands and virtually unlimited capability to add or reroute wavelengths.

Figure 1-9: Multidegree development
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One key advantage of using a 10-degree WSS ROADM is cost-effective
scalability with no traffic interruptions. Each degree corresponds to a 'colorless'
port that supports one or multiple wavelengths. For initial deployment, the
ROADM may serve as a typical 2-degree OADM node. As the network grows,
other ports are simply configured as multiwavelength degrees for new WDM
rings or P2P connections. Upgrading from 2-degree hardware to 4, 8, or more
ROADM degrees is actually more expensive and disruptive than using ECIs
10-degree ROADM from day one.

Figure 1-10: Multidegree scalability
When considering ROADM deployment, operators expect the following
features:
Flexible wavelength assignment and reassignment, simplifying the
planning process and eliminating the need to predict future traffic flow
Ability to create complex optical topologies, such as:
Subtending CWDM and SDH ring closure
Multi-ring DWDM hub
Mixed mesh and ring topologies
CAPEX savings:
Eliminating regeneration in both ring and hub nodes
Eliminating power tilt in regional/long-haul networks, thereby extending
the distance between regeneration points
Coarse and Dense WDM interworking eliminating back-to-back systems
Reducing spare inventory with widely tunable laser transceivers
OPEX savings through fewer manual operations, such as:
'SDH-like' provisioning, making wavelength provisioning as simple and
quick as for an STM-1
Remote provisioning and reconfiguration
Software-tunable components, such as widely tunable 10G and 40G
transceivers
Enhanced automatic power balancing and channel equalization
Introduction XDM General Description

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The XDM 10-degree ROADM supports all these benefits and more. The
following figure illustrates its 'any wavelengths to any port' flexibility. WSS
technology enables multidegree applications with the ability to create
subtending networks directly from the WSS.

Figure 1-11: Multidegree ROADM capabilities
The 2-degree ROADM is optimized for ring nodes and hub sites with a large
number (40/80) of add/drop channels, such as central offices (COs) or edge sites.
This ROADM is typically integrated with metro and/or regional amplifiers.
XDM General Description Introduction

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To enable flexible and cost-effective utilization of ROADM in both metro and
regional/long-haul networks, the XDM features an innovative
ROADM-optimized amplifier. This amplifier offers low noise, gain flatness, and
high midstage access loss, accommodating a WSS ROADM and dispersion
compensation with no budget penalty. In addition, it has a robust redundant
East/West architecture with no single point of failure (SPoF). Functionally, it is
comparable to a two-stage Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) with discrete
amplifiers used in each direction for total redundancy.

Figure 1-12: Typical multidegree ROADM application
Introduction XDM General Description

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Maximized Capacity and Range
The unique architecture of the XDM enables it to cost effectively address metro,
regional, and long-haul WDM requirements. One product line is used in all
deployments, providing complete E2E management over a multi-layered WDM
network with complete transparency.
Two key aspects of a C/DWDM system are its capacity and range. The XDM is
a single high capacity all-range WDM solution for short, medium, and
long-haul routes. It is optimized for any capacity (8, 16, 32, 40, or 80 channels of
2.5 Gbps, 10 Gbps, or 40 Gbps each), and for any range (80 km to
2,000 km/50 miles to 1250 miles). For example:
Up to 350 km/215 miles (80 x 10 Gbps) single span, with OTU2 Enhanced
FEC (EFEC), EDFA, and Raman amplifiers
Up to 2,000 km/1250 miles (80 x 10 Gbps) with OTU2 EFEC and
double-stage variable-gain EDFAs
Up to 1,500 km/930 miles (80 x 40 Gbps) with OTU3e EFEC, return-to-zero
(RZ) Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation, and
double-stage variable-gain EDFAs

Figure 1-13: All-range WDM capabilities
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The Promise of OTN
The ITU-T defined a set of standards for OTNs, primarily under
recommendation G.709. An OTN is defined through a set of characteristics that
includes wavelength framing, FEC, digital multiplexing of 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps
and to 40 Gbps, multidomain performance monitoring (PM), optical protection,
in-band management, alarm correlation, and more. OTN provides many benefits
to carriers, including:
Universal management layer for wavelengths, regardless of the underlying
services offered (IP, Ethernet, SDH, etc.), simplifying operation
Extended reach via FEC and EFEC
Timing transparency for timing-sensitive applications, such as SDH
services
High capacity in-band management, simplifying and reducing the cost of
managing WDM networks
The XDM offers a rich set of OTN features and advantages, including:
OTN framing and FEC/EFEC used in all XDM transponders for 2.5 Gbps,
10 Gbps, and 40 Gbps, including a class-leading transponder for full-rate
10 GbE LAN to OTN 10 Gbps
OTN combiners that implement OTH multiplexing for timing transparency
and wavelength interworking, with OTN PM
OTN in-band management (General Communications Channel (GCC)
bytes) supported in all XDM transponders and combiners
Furthermore, while OTN development was originally focused on the core, the
XDM extends this technology layer down to the metro and access, enabling
carriers to seamlessly manage their network wavelength services end to end.

Figure 1-14: OTN as a universal transport layer, access to core
Introduction XDM General Description

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Ease of Installation and Operation
One of the key benefits of XDM NG optics is a full set of features aimed at
simplifying planning, installation, operation, and maintenance of
WDM/ROADM networks, tasks that were previously considered fairly complex.
XDM provides all the convenience of modular automated optics technology,
including:
Comprehensive planning tool for bandwidth optimization, optical link
design optimization and verification, shelf layout, and more.
Enhanced Automatic Power Control (EAPC) continuously ensuring
network resiliency, automatically adjusting to changes in optical power
induced by variations in span loss and/or in the number of active
channels - ignoring fiber cuts and maintenance actions and providing
comprehensive status and history information.
Online configuration tool that simplifies network installation and provides
logical easy-to-comprehend information on network connectivity.
ROADM-enabled wavelength management suite included with
LightSoft - XDM's NMS - for remote E2E lambda provisioning.
ASON-based automatic network element (NE), link, and topology
discovery that further simplifies hardware installation and network
connectivity.
XDM General Description Introduction

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Packet-OTS: For Today's
Challenges and Tomorrow's
Goals
Network operators everywhere are trying to convert their networks to a
converged network model that supports existing revenue-generating TDM as
well as carrier class Ethernet and IP through an integrated technology approach.
The most cost-effective solution lies in new packet optical transport capabilities
that simplify and modernize as they transition to NG all-packet networks. The
converged platform is referred to as a Packet Optical Transport System
(Packet-OTS). Due to its straightforward all-inclusive approach to the
industrys imminent transition, Packet-OTS technology has the potential to take
over the telecom market.
Traffic-over-transport networks have been demonstrating their preference for
packet-based transmission. SPs face the challenge of decoupling the linear
linkage between growing capacity needs and the accompanying infrastructure
costs, all the while generating revenues. Common approaches offered by
equipment vendors include the use of WDM ROADM to cope with increased
capacity and shift to a packet-based infrastructure to handle the traffic in a more
cost-effective way. At the same time, SPs must maintain their
revenue-generating TDM-based services. They hesitate to build a new
packet-based infrastructure that will take over their well-proven and trusted
SDH-based infrastructure.
ECI's revolutionary approach enables the best of all worlds - native Ethernet and
SDH based on an optical infrastructure. The XDM family offers a series of
Packet-OTS platforms providing an intelligent balance of technological
flexibility and power. The ability of the XDM family to deliver different types of
services over a variety of physical and technological media makes it the optimal
solution for a mixed TDM/Ethernet environment and a cost-effective platform
for the current era of transition. Even optimists forecast that transition to a
packet-based transport network will take years to complete. Therefore, a solution
that puts the SPs back in the driver's seat to control the pace is something they
welcome.
Introduction XDM General Description

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Packet-OTS: Native to the XDM
The XDM family introduced the concept of a unified transport layer that
integrates SDH, Ethernet/MPLS, ATM, CWDM, and DWDM in a single
platform. ECI pioneered the commercial introduction of convergence as an
innovative approach to optical networking in 2001. Though this concept is now a
trend with most optical network vendors, detailed market research shows that no
other field-proven platform can actually be configured as a pure WDM/ROADM
platform, SDH edge/core multiservice (with non-blocking switching capacities
of 30 Gbps, 60 Gbps, 120 Gbps, or 240 Gbps), Carrier Ethernet, or a converged
packet optical blend.
The XDM is a true converged packet optical platform with built-in Ethernet
Layer 1, Ethernet Layer 2, SDH multiservice transport, and multidegree
ROADM optical capabilities. As a simple example, the XDM can add/drop any
E1 to/from any STM-16/STM-64 wavelength on the same shelf. Colored OTN
interfaces are available for both TDM and Ethernet interfaces. With physical
interfaces ranging from 40G to electrical E1, the XDM lowers both CAPEX and
OPEX.
The XDM is optimally positioned to support the full cycle of network migration,
enabling networks to gradually evolve from pure TDM to a mix of TDM and
Ethernet to a pure packet-based network, while maintaining native handling of
both TDM and Ethernet.
With its XDM family of products, ECI offers SPs a converged solution that
combines NG-SDH, connection-oriented L2 MPLS Ethernet, and WDM/OTN
ROADM - all in a single platform. Full OTN compliance provides protocol
transparency, reduced costs, and interoperability on the optical level. By
providing all of these features on a single platform, ECIs XDM meets the most
stringent Packet-OTS definition.

Figure 1-15: XDM's converged transmission technologies
XDM General Description Introduction

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The XDM feature set targets the evolution towards datacentric networks, and
supports E-Line, EVPL, and MPLS-based VPLS/VPWS services from access to
core, featuring a winning E2E service management approach that offers a
combination of packet efficiency and SDH transport quality. As Ethernet
customers and portions of the network start to migrate towards higher capacity,
the underlying network infrastructure must expand as well. Some of the Ethernet
services are thus provided directly over an optical infrastructure. The XDM
provides the ideal interconnectivity for these services, whether Ethernet-,
SDH-, or WDM/OTN-based.

Figure 1-16: Unrivalled convergence tailored to your requirements
Introduction XDM General Description

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Key Packet-Optical Convergence Benefits
New revenue opportunities as well as cost savings abound for operators adopting
Packet-OTS equipment, migrating to new services on a single platform using the
same infrastructure. Packet-OTS equipment provides full carrier class E2E
differentiated services with statistical multiplexing and high quality traditional
services, together with WDM, OTN, and WSS ROADMs to support flexible
optical meshes.
The optimal network architecture meeting the demands of today's customer is a
convergence of packet and optical capabilities. SPs can retain the benefits and
robustness of SDH while enjoying the advantages of Carrier Ethernet through
the use of MPLS-TP and the high capacity, resilience, and flexibility of
multidegree ROADM. They can continue selling their current TDM and HSI
services and gradually add the triple play services of VoIP, IPTV, and VoD.
They also have the ability to add any other Ethernet-based services for business
(Virtual Private LAN Service or VPLS), 3G/4G Ethernet-based mobile
aggregation, wholesale services, and more, in a single unified network.
The key benefits of a single converged network include:
Cost-optimized solution: Future-proof infrastructure with incremental
CAPEX/OPEX, gradually adding packet-based services while supporting
current TDM services.
Fast time to market (TTM): Adding any service to the existing
infrastructure.
Revenue generation: From new services together with any other
Ethernet-based services (LAN over the metro using VPLS, 3G mobile
services, wholesale bandwidth services, etc.).
E2E service delivery: With MPLS-TP access aggregation to IP/MPLS core
routers, ensuring the appropriate QoS for each service type with MPLS
carrier class networking capability.
Single unified managed network: With the ability to provision any service
E2E, including wavelength, TDM, and packet/Ethernet-based services.
Agile networking capabilities: Enable a quick response to new and
unexpected traffic demands.
Risk minimization: Through an evolving metro aggregation network, rather
than forklift changes to the network with the inherent high risks. New
technologies are implemented without risking network reliability.
XDM General Description Introduction

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Figure 1-17: Converged metro aggregation network
ECIs XDM is specifically designed to address these challenges. By offering a
rich feature set based on innovative technologies and an extensively field-proven
platform, the XDM is the metro/regional packet optical transport system of
choice for more and more SPs and carriers worldwide.
Introduction XDM General Description

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XDM Product Lines: Tailored to
Your Needs
The XDM product lines provide a comprehensive selection of platforms that
address all your networking needs, for all ranges of size, configuration, and
service level requirements. XDM platforms are organized into two groups:
XDM-100 product line, All-Native multiservice packet optical transport
system for metro aggregation and metro networks:
XDM-100: Compact All-Native Packet-OTS for metro aggregation
XDM-300: Compact high-capacity All-Native Packet-OTS for metro
aggregation
XDM-900: Compact high-capacity All-Native Packet-OTS for the metro
XDM-1000 product line, All-Native multiservice packet optical transport
system for metro and metro-core networks:
XDM-40: WDM OTN for metro-access and inline amplifiers
XDM-450: ROADM extension shelf
XDM-500: Compact All-Native Packet-OTS for the metro
XDM-1000: All-Native all-range Packet-OTS for metro and
regional/long-haul networks
XDM-2000: Compact high-capacity All-Native Packet-OTS for the
metro
XDM-3000: High-capacity All-Native Packet-OTS for the metro and
metro-core

Figure 1-18: XDM products portfolio
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The XDM's build-as-you-grow

architecture features universal interface slots,


widely tunable lasers, and hot-swappable cards and modules that are
interchangeable between platforms. This flexibility enables the provisioning of
any combination of topologies, bitrates, protection schemes, interface types, or
protocols to meet any service need, and allows you to design a configuration
tailored to your individual preferences.
The modular cards and components are described in greater detail in
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution (page 5-1), WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards (page 6-1), and TDM Service Cards (page 7-1). In addition, the
shelf layout has been designed to facilitate simple installation and easy
maintenance. The convenient shelf layouts are described in XDM Platform
Layout (page 4-1).
The complete XDM system architecture efficiently integrates all services and
interfaces within a single hybrid All-Native framework. XDM offers SPs a
converged solution that combines native support for NG-SDH with native
support for connection-oriented L2 MPLS Ethernet, transported most efficiently
over WDM/OTN ROADM, all in a single Packet-OTS platform, as described in
System Architecture (page 3-1). The XDM's cutting-edge Automatically
Switched Optical Network (ASON) capabilities are introduced in ASON in the
XDM (page 8-1). This manual also introduces the XDM's range of options for
Network Communications Control (page 9-1) and the variety of sophisticated
XDM Protection and Restoration Mechanisms (page 10-1). Management (page
11-1) and Maintenance (page 12-1) utilities are described, and a reference to the
relevant standards (page A-1) and a glossary (page B-1) are included as well.
Introduction XDM General Description

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XDM's Value Proposition
The XDM innovative design meets all the requirements of modern transmission
networks in a single platform with integrated network management and control
plane functionality. XDM incorporates CWDM and DWDM capacity, full SDH
connectivity, sublambda grooming, and efficient data switching and transport.
Multidegree ROADM, market-leading Packet-OTS capabilities, and advanced
MPLS/Ethernet service delivery are provided. The XDM is a single converged
platform that integrates the best technologies available for the services
currently being offered. In addition, its unique architecture allows future
technology to be added to existing platforms for smooth in-service migration.

Figure 1-19: XDM in multi-ring closure mode
The modular architecture of the XDM enables network expansion according to
market demand. A simple configuration can easily be upgraded with higher
capacity and greater functionality. This is done in-service and at very low cost.
The XDM modular architecture enhances all aspects of system operation,
featuring:
Unique convergence of SDH/SONET, TDM/ATM, Carrier
Ethernet/MPLS, and all-range WDM/OTN ROADM with colored SDH
OTU1/OTU2 interfaces on a single platform.
All-Native independent handling of both Ethernet/MPLS-TP and Ethernet.
Maximum leverage of current assets, with:
Introduction of new services over existing infrastructure.
Preservation of investments in TDM-based equipment.
Minimal OPEX by keeping the same working procedures.
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Reduction of risks associated with rolling out new services through gradual
and controlled expenditures.
Modular card components that can be configured as needed, with the same
hardware used among various family members, tailored to individual system
requirements.
Integrated GbE encryption capabilities.
SDH advantages:
Partner for growth, offering smooth capacity scalability from 30 Gbps
to 240 Gbps with migration from pure TDM to pure packet Carrier
Ethernet services over optical transport networks.
Full LO/HO non-blocking cross-connect technology, enabling
complete interconnectivity and switching capabilities for SDH-based
and Ethernet over SDH (EoS) services at all granularities, supporting up
to 240 Gbps in a single platform.
ASON and GMPLS control plane capabilities, for improved network
resiliency, efficiency, and differentiated CoS, integrated into new and
existing networks through an innovative 'Add-on' concept.
Packet advantages:
All-Native Ethernet/MPLS-TP switch capacity of up to 500 GbE.
E2E carrier class Ethernet services over MPLS-TP, providing:
Any service: VPWS, VPLS, IPTV MPLS multicast, 3G mobile
backhaul, bandwidth services, and Ethernet leased line.
Complete E2E QoS, resiliency, and synchronization, with policing,
CoS definitions, full MPLS-TP functionality and built-in offload
capabilities to pure packet infrastructure.
Sophisticated management plane for point-and-click service
creation.
Optics advantages:
'Any-to-Any' directionless, colorless, and contentionless
connectivity for any wavelength to any node, through the powerful
combination of multidegree ROADM technology, 40/80-channel
tunable lasers, and all-range components.
Extensive ROADM portfolio ranging from 2-degree up to 10-degree
connectivity, offering advanced restoration/protection schemes.
All-range optics, from cost-effective metro solutions through
state-of-the-art regional configurations to long-haul and repeaterless
undersea WDM service reach.
Introduction XDM General Description

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Selection of 2.5/10/40 Gbps transponders and combiners:
40G transponders and combiners utilizing advanced RZ-DQPSK
modulation for longer reach and improved Polarization Mode
Dispersion (PMD) and Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance.
Mixtures of 40G and 10G rate services can be easily deployed
without the need for a guard band, thus ensuring full utilization of all
wavelengths.
10G double density multiservice transponders and
multiprotocol AoC, for flexible service connectivity with add/drop
and drop-and-continue TDM, SAN, and data services, supporting
common HO interfaces (GbE, FC (1GFC, 2GFC), STM-16) and
offering multirate combiner capabilities up to OTU2.
Native MPLS over OTN service, with colored OTN interfaces available
for both MPLS/Ethernet and TDM interfaces.
GCC in-band management with no need for expensive optical
supervisory channels.
Convenient plug-and-play optics with automatic discovery operation
and E2E lambda provisioning through the entire ROADM network.
Optimal Financial Choice
The XDM integrated architecture yields enormous cost savings. By replacing
several systems with a single XDM platform, operators and SPs substantially
reduce the number of elements and intraoffice interfaces normally required
between ADMs, digital cross connects, and WDM shelves. This cuts down on
CAPEX and significantly reduces financial risk.
The platform's small footprint and low power consumption, together with its
reliability and ability to simplify the network, also reduces OPEX. Moreover, the
mixture of new TDM, data, and optical services with legacy TDM on the same
wavelength permits more efficient utilization of valuable bandwidth.
The XDM converged transport network is a cost-effective, pay-as-you-grow
solution, enabling:
Increased ROI for your existing transport network infrastructure as you add
services.
Incremental CAPEX investment, because with XDM carriers you can:
Add new service cards to existing transport networks.
Minimize the need for very high cost Layer 3 routers by offloading Layer
2 VPN services over the transport network.
Reduced OPEX, through:
A single integrated management system for a converged service oriented
network and true remote provisioning of all layers from wavelengths to
Ethernet.
E2E carrier class Ethernet services from access to core.
XDM General Description Introduction

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Smooth Risk-Free Transition to the Future
Consumers are looking for fast Web browsing, interactive gaming, music, video,
and more personalized services, all of which places new demands on transport
networks. The XDM platform is the optimal choice to meet these requirements
and provide the services expected by today's market, namely, packet-based
VPNs, VoIP, IP Television (IPTV), Video on Demand (VoD), HSI, and of
course all legacy TDM services.
Today's Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) must meet the demand for
full triple play service. Mobile operators must meet a demand for the 3G/4G
networks that are the wave of the future. Businesses must respond to an ever
increasing range of required services, moving from more basic point-to-point
(P2P) networks into expanded multipoint-to-multipoint (MP2MP) networks,
with all their associated benefits and complexities.

Figure 1-20: Times of transition
XDM platforms provide complete flexibility and scalability. The product line
offers a choice of platforms that can be configured to meet your needs, with
capacity ranging from a few Gbps to hundreds of Gbps, support for any service
(be it TDM, ATM, WDM, or Ethernet/MPLS) over any topology (multi-ring,
mesh, start, etc.), with carrier grade performance. Everything is operated with
E2E service provisioning tools and a layered network view that lets you manage
multiple layers (physical, optical, SDH, and Ethernet) through a unified
user-friendly graphic interface.
Introduction XDM General Description

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Seamless Layered Management
LightSoft controls several transmission technologies, each represented as a
layer. These include wavelength, SDH, OTN, and Ethernet/MPLS, as well as the
standard physical layers (fibers, microwave radio, copper, and other equipment).
LightSoft views of technology and physical network layers are immediate and
clear, simplifying operator tasks.

Figure 1-21: Layered management approach
The layered architecture concept provides comprehensive control of all transport
equipment in your network. LightSoft updates and monitors network topology
status, provides statistical and inventory reports, defines E2E traffic trails,
downloads software, performs alarm filtering, configures elements in the
network, and runs PM tests.
The network management suite includes comprehensive configuration, fault
management, PM, administration, maintenance, and security tools for all the
technologies in your network, ensuring efficient resource control, streamlined
operation, and high QoS. You can view all aspects of the network at a glance and
fully control all elements. In addition, multiple users can simultaneously
configure the network without causing access conflicts.
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Network configuration and provisioning tasks for OTN links, optical trails,
MPLS-TP tunnels, and Ethernet services are native to LightSoft. The intuitive
point-and-click interface facilitates LP, ODU, and OCH provisioning, as well as
Ethernet/MPLS-TP tunnel configuration and top-down provisioning. E2E trail
provisioning utilizes a sophisticated Pathfinder algorithm. Downtime is
significantly reduced due to fast alarm handling, online reports, flexible
management, and comprehensive logs. Failsafe database backup and disk
mirroring ensure uninterrupted operation and data integrity.
LightSoft provides a holistic solution for your network management challenges:
simple, smart, scalable, and centralized. Its intuitive front-end GUI is backed up
by sophisticated server engines. Its on-demand service provisioning and pinpoint
bandwidth allocation dramatically reduce equipment and operating costs usually
incurred by multiple management systems.
Comprehensive Solution for All
Your Applications
Whether you are building a new network to supply new services or gradually
upgrading your legacy network to address new market demands, XDM is the
solution. The platform provides a comprehensive solution featuring full
convergence, cost effectiveness, and universality. The XDM helps you
customize your network, tailoring it to the needs of today while positioning it to
meet the demands of tomorrow. Be it metro, regional, or long-haul, the XDM
provides a complete field-proven solution for all service providers, offering the
best combination of capacity, reliability, flexibility, and economy.
Introduction XDM General Description

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Figure 1-22: Comprehensive XDM functionality


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-1

In this chapter:
Today's Market Opportunities ......................................................................... 2-1
ILECs ............................................................................................................... 2-3
Cellular Service for a Mobile Society ............................................................. 2-4
Business Services ............................................................................................ 2-7
Utility Telecom .............................................................................................. 2-13
MultiService Operators .................................................................................. 2-17
CoC ................................................................................................................ 2-19
Efficient Triple Play Service Delivery .......................................................... 2-21
Transportation Communications Networks ................................................... 2-23
Government and Defense Solutions .............................................................. 2-26
Municipalities ................................................................................................ 2-28
Education on the Global Campus .................................................................. 2-29
Metro WDM/ROADM Networks .................................................................. 2-30
Regional/Long Haul DWDM/ROADM ........................................................ 2-31
Repeaterless Undersea DWDM Connectivity ............................................... 2-32
Today's Market Opportunities
The XDM platform is a unique, fully integrated converged-technology platform
that is exceptionally versatile, allowing effective deployment in a variety of
applications for diverse customers. The XDM boosts service revenue in all
network tiers, making it a single-element solution for almost all transport
requirements.
The XDM platform has been designed to meet the needs of the most demanding
customers, providing solutions for virtually any SP. It is suitable for ILECs,
cellular SPs, utility telecom companies (Utelcos), MultiService Operators
(MSOs), Carrier of Carriers (CoC), government and military agencies, and
storage area networking/disaster recovery (SAN) SPs.
2
Solutions and Applications
Solutions and Applications XDM General Description

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For customers with their own infrastructure, like MSOs and ILECs, the XDM
acts as a resilient, provisionable, converged-technology transport layer. With its
integrated multiservice, DXC, Carrier Ethernet, and xWDM interworking
functions, this transport platform can be used from the metro/access edge to the
metro-core. A variety of carrier class services are supported, including legacy
circuit-based TDM services, wavelength services, and emerging Carrier
Ethernet services.
For SPs that do not have their own infrastructure, like Competitive Local
Exchange Carriers (CLECs), the XDM can be used as a POP service platform
enabling efficient transmission of multiple services over leased bandwidth, and
then easily migrate to a transport platform when needed.
The XDM is a comprehensive package ensuring a custom-fit solution addressing
the needs of a variety of network SPs. The XDM solution features:
Single multiservice architecture that can be scaled to meet the needs of every
network scenario
Complete portfolio of managed business services
Seamless transition from legacy to NG services
Lowest total cost on the market today

Figure 2-1: XDM: end-to-end service
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

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ILECs
Due to competitive offerings from many other operators such as CLECs,
cellular, over the top, and cable companies, ILECs today are facing fierce
competition in their traditional area of voice services. As a result, ILEC
profitability is decreasing and they are now searching for ways to increase
revenues while reducing expenses. An example of this is the ILEC move into
next generation network (NGN) topology and providing IPTV media services to
both private and business customers.
The trend in consumer markets is triple play, where subscribers receive not only
traditional voice, but also broadband Internet access and video services from
their phone company. Many ILECs are now looking towards quadruple play,
adding mobility to the triple play mix. This would position ILECs as the sole SP
of telephone, television, HSI, and wireless services. To accomplish this goal,
they are looking for suppliers of network equipment that is secure, reliable,
flexible, future-proof, and cost effective.
They require efficient ways to provide multiplay services over a unified platform
to their residential and business customers. They want their network to be carrier
grade, to stay ahead of the competition with a full suite of service offerings, and,
at the same time, to be profitable with reasonable ROI. Network management
must efficiently keep OPEX down and enable fast TTM of new services. The
infrastructure must be future-proof to enable new services, upgraded bandwidth,
and new QoS schemes.

Figure 2-2: Service aggregation
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Independent carriers today must prepare to meet the demands of tomorrow's
market. They can do this in one of two ways: revolution or evolution.
The revolutionary approach guides ILECs to build completely new
infrastructures. The new infrastructure is usually built on IP-based DSLAMs
or xPON access technology, high-end Ethernet switches, and routers. These
NEs must be connected through a flexible high speed optical infrastructure
that provides logical connectivity between elements, overcoming the
constraints of the physical network. ECI's XDM is the best choice for this
approach. It provides the high capacity and flexible connectivity necessary
to overcome the physical constraints of the actual fiber topology. In addition,
the XDM can link the new network infrastructure to any legacy network
equipment.
Advocates of the phased evolutionary approach look for ways to expand
their current service offerings while carefully linking the associated costs
with service revenues. These carriers want to offer new services without
having to first build an expensive new network infrastructure. The XDM is
ideal for this approach, as it enables adding functionality when and where
needed without major investments. In addition, the XDM enables ILECs to
maintain their current service offerings without interruption or change.
Cellular Service for a Mobile
Society
Mobile data traffic volume has been exploding, driven to greater and greater
heights by the changing character of consumer behavior and application usage.
Pushed to a great extent by smartphone technology, consumer demand for
internet, gaming, video, and other data traffic applications has jumped
exponentially.
At the same time, consumers expect to pay less for their bandwidth while
receiving more services. Driven by the desire to increase revenues, many cellular
operators are interested in offering additional nonmobile services through their
infrastructure - services to the business community, services for other carriers,
or even services to residential users. Cellular operators therefore need a product
line that is flexible and scalable in size and services to accommodate both the
capacity growth and the increased diversity, in protocols as well as in services.
Traditionally, cellular networks such as 2G and 3G are hierarchical in nature.
Base stations communicate with their respective controller (BSC or RNC) over a
backhaul network. The controllers are connected to the core elements over the
backbone network (packet core through Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSNs)
and voice core through Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs)). There is no direct
communication between the base stations and the core elements.
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

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LTE, the next generation in the cellular evolution, defines a network architecture
that eliminates the controller. Controller functions are redistributed to the core
and the new eNB base stations (terminology for LTE base stations). A logical
interface between eNBs, the X2, allows communication between base stations
during handovers. eNBs are also connected through two different S1 interfaces
to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC): the S1-MME to the Mobility Management
Entity (MME) and the S1-U to the Serving Gateway (S-GW). MMEs handle
authentication and signaling aspects of the mobility management control plane.
S-GWs terminate the user plane traffic. eNBs may be connected to a pool of
S-GWs and MMEs, configured as a many-to-many relationship between
MMEs/S-GWs and eNBs.
The following figure taken from 3GPP TS 36.300 illustrates LTE network
architecture.

Figure 2-3: LTE architecture
LTEs flat architecture model enables a wide range of options for network
topology design, ranging from a variation of simple traditional hub and spoke
architecture to full mesh topology. Alternatively, network operators can select
points of connectivity between adjacent nodes for a partial mesh topology. This
reduces the pressure on core nodes without the higher traffic flow complexity
and load of a full mesh topology.
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LTE and 3G force service providers to face the challenge of decoupling the
linear linkage between growing capacity needs and the accompanying
infrastructure costs, all while generating revenues. Common approaches offered
by equipment vendors include the use of optical infrastructure,
(WDM/ROADM), to cope with increased capacity and shift to a packet-based
infrastructure for more cost-efficient traffic management. At the same time,
service providers must maintain their revenue-generating TDM-based services.
Due to the need to support multiple wireless generations, wireless backhaul is a
classic example of a mixed TDM and packet environment. XDM tackles the
challenges of mixed environments, providing the most efficient service for the
current mixture as well as a strong, future proof solution supporting NG LTE
requirements, including:
High packet capacity
Packet synchronization
Highly secured links
MP2MP x 2 interface support
Extensive OAM
Cost-effective multi-generation support (2G, 3G, LTE)
With the variety of technologies embedded in the XDM (TDM, ATM,
Ethernet/MPLS, WDM/ROADM) carriers can match the capital they invest in
infrastructure with the revenues they expect to generate. A win-win situation
results, in which subscribers enjoy advanced services at affordable rates, while
carriers increase their profits and improve their margins despite the pressure of
drastic revenue-per-bit reduction.
The XDM addresses the following main challenges:
1. Linking associated backhauling costs with scaling of services and revenues.
2. Reducing the risks and costs associated with rolling out new services and
new 3G and LTE infrastructure.
3. Ensuring that existing investments in the network are leveraged to the
maximum.
ECI's Cellular Solutions web site
http://www.ecitele.com/Solutions/Cellular%20Backhaul/Pages/WirelessBackhaul.aspx
offers a series of papers that provide a deeper understanding of today's cellular
technology, its rich potential, the practical means to realize this potential, and the
advantages and value proposals offered by ECI's cellular solutions.
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

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Some of the topics covered include:
Wi-Fi Offload: Essential for Profitable Mobile Data Service
LTE-Ready Microwave for NG Wireless Backhaul
Synchronization over Packet-Based Microwave Mobile Backhaul
Demystifying LTE Backhaul
Demystifying Synchronization in Packet-Based Networks
XDM: Optimized ATM Backhaul Solution for Rapid ROI and Profitability
Selecting the Right Ethernet Backhaul Technology in MSPP Networks
Backhaul Migration Toward 3G and Beyond
Business Services
Business services are a significant market segment with relative high revenues
per customer. As such, they are offered by all types of network operators.
Business customers view internal and external communications as a key factor
for success. Multisite mission-critical applications demand high capacity
bandwidth and SLA-compliant networks capable of both flexibility and
stringency.
Until recently, businesses built their own Ethernet networks based on operator
leased lines and/or transmission connections. The introduction of new
packet-based networks allows operators to build and offer a variety of VPN
services to business customers beyond the regular SDH and TDM services. Most
enterprises and SMBs are willing to outsource their entire data networks to a
reliable carrier operator, enabling them to concentrate on their core competence.
In addition, growth in enterprise multisite storage needs requires flexible,
reliable, and cost-effective backup and data protection solutions. These are
performed more easily and quickly by VPN services than by any other solution.
Many operators are attracted to the Ethernet promise of higher profitability,
reinforced by its sheer simplicity and reduced costs. Moreover, Ethernet also
happens to be the preferred network interface for triple play aggregation and
VPN connectivity, all supported by the same infrastructure. But operators also
want the high reliability, low latency, and security that are required for
supporting many of the business applications, features which they are
accustomed to getting with transmission networks.
The XDM is the ideal solution for carriers that want to offer enterprises a richer
set of service options and scalable bandwidth over a converged infrastructure,
allowing carriers to maximize their revenue and profit potential. Ethernet
services based on the XDM offer an E2E solution that enables enterprises to
transform their individual WAN connections into a natural extension of their
internal LAN.
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The XDM facilitates EPL services with granularities of VC-12, VC-3, and VC-4
for Ethernet and GbE interfaces. Bandwidth allocation is software-configurable
and is provided at the click of a mouse, using the underlying technologies of
LCAS, GFP, and VCAT. Private line services can also be provisioned over an
OTN infrastructure. Full interoperability exists between services provisioned
directly over the optical infrastructure and services provisioned over SDH.
The XDM also supports a vast variety of network connections needed by
business customers, including SAN connection services (ESCON, 1GFC,
2GFD, and 4GFC), FDDI, GbE, and 10 GbE Ethernet connections, as well as
wavelength (lambda ) services up to 10 GbE with reshaping, regenerating (2R)
or reshaping, regenerating, retiming (3R) functionality and with optional Y
protection for all these types of connections. Some of these services are
described in this section.
All-Native Ethernet Services
Enterprises are looking for ways to boost their productivity, growth, and
profitability. Business customers view internal and external communications as
one of the key enablers of success. Companies with multiple sites require greater
bandwidth and more flexibility. This must be accomplished even as they attempt
to lower communication expenses and ensure network robustness and reliability.
They seek a wider range of services, from dedicated P2P to MP2MP
connectivity, over dedicated or shared infrastructures.
The SPs' challenge is to respond to this trend, efficiently creating an appealing
service position while minimizing risks. Enterprises have been particularly
attracted to WAN Ethernet services, offering simplicity, familiarity, flexibility,
and more capacity at reduced costs.
The Ethernet services in greatest demand include:
E-Line: For P2P connectivity, used to create Ethernet-based Internet access
services and P2P Ethernet VPNs. P2P connectivity can be provisioned over
dedicated infrastructure as EPLs and over shared infrastructure as EVPLs.
E-LAN: For MP2MP (any-to-any) connectivity designed for multipoint
Ethernet VPNs and native Ethernet TLS. Any-to-any connectivity can be
provisioned over dedicated infrastructure as EPLANs, and over shared
infrastructure as EVPLANs. For improved efficiency, H-VPLS is used to
create a full mesh only between hub nodes. Spoke nodes are only connected
to their own hubs. This efficient approach improves MP2MP services
scaling and allows less powerful devices such as access switches to be used
as spoke node.
E-Tree: For P2MP multicast tree connectivity, used for EP-Tree, EVP-Tree,
and drop-and-continue multicast tree services.
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The XDM is the ideal solution for carriers that want to offer enterprises a richer
set of service options and scalable bandwidth. Using existing infrastructure
maximizes revenue and profit potential.
EVPL bandwidth can be configured in 64-Kb increments. With tiered QoS in
terms of resiliency as well as differentiated service priority, the carrier can
customize the services and SLA offered.

Figure 2-4: Diverse services with varied QoS
XDM offers private networks over dedicated or shared infrastructure. Dedicated
infrastructures are completely isolated from other traffic, as with legacy TDM
private lines. Multiple private LANs can be built over the same physical
network, each with its own logical topology, priority handling scheme, routing
tables, and encapsulation methods.
Private networks can also be offered over a shared infrastructure. With the
XDM, carriers have a choice of offering Ethernet VPN by using QinQ and/or the
more sophisticated MPLS-based VPLS service schemes. Tiered QoS can be
provisioned to fulfill individual SLA requirements. The amount of transport
bandwidth carved out for the private or shared network can be varied per link,
with granularities of VC-12/3/4.
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The following figure shows an Ethernet VPN with regional and branch offices
connected over a varied infrastructure to both the main corporate center and its
backup site. One branch office is connected using native Ethernet in the last
mile. Another branch office is connected via SDH, carrying both TDM and
Ethernet services. The third regional office is connected via an OTN
infrastructure. This entire scenario is implemented through the XDM platform.

Figure 2-5: Enterprise Ethernet data service via XDM
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IP VPN Services
Aside from promoting Ethernet services, many carriers are also marketing IP
VPNs as a service to their clients. The business community is embracing this
approach, with many enterprises looking into IP VPN services as the preferred
means of connectivity between distant branches.
Traditionally, connectivity between customers and the edge of the IP VPN
network cloud is provided through PDH or SDH private lines. This type of
connectivity is relatively expensive for both the customer and the carrier and is
inflexible to changes.
Ethernet can serve as the ideal vehicle for connectivity to the IP VPN cloud via a
private line service provided over dedicated or shared infrastructure. In such
cases, connection capacity can be provisioned to match the bandwidth required
by the clients IP VPN data services. Bandwidth allocation is
software-configurable and is provided at the click of a mouse. This eliminates
site visits by field technicians because meeting the varying bandwidth
requirements does not involve equipment replacement or changing physical
interfaces.
The following figure illustrates how various branch offices can be connected to
the IP VPN network using several methods on the same platform. This network
scenario is similar to the one described in All-Native Ethernet Services (page
2-8), with a different application.

Figure 2-6: MPLS/IP VPN
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Leased-Line Services
The XDM features a comprehensive set of interfaces and connectivity options to
support all leasing scenarios. It enables CoCs to offer a variety of direct services
as well as an innovative repackaging of conventional services. The XDM's fully
non-blocking 4c/4/3/1 matrixes, as well as its unique handling of data services,
enable CoCs to enhance the packages offered to their customers by providing a
variety of interfaces from a single location. The XDM treats data with
encapsulation into N x VC-3, plus virtual concatenation conversion, as well as
integrated WDM capabilities. CoCs can logically separate the interfaces offered
at each location from the pipes connecting each site. This capability eliminates
the need to purchase multiple NEs, thus reducing initial investment, OPEX, and
CAPEX.
The XDM enables CoCs to sell E1, SDH, wavelength, and data services right out
of the box by simply plugging the required line cards into the platforms.

Figure 2-7: Leased-line services via XDM
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Customer Network Management
SPs leasing bandwidth from CoCs expect to be provided with full network
visibility and to be able to reconfigure the connectivity of their part of the
network in real time. They need to know when there is a problem in the network
and to be able to react quickly, without having to rely on the CoC engineers. In
short, they expect to be provided with a CNM system.
A CNM is an NMS that allows SPs leasing bandwidth to view and control their
part of the network. Managed by the innovative LightSoft NMS, the XDM
enables CoCs to offer CNM services with transmission resources that can be
managed by each customer as proprietary services. This includes virtual
topology views and service provisioning. CNM clients have complete visibility
of their networks. They can monitor, control, and maintain them, and change
connectivity as needed, responding in real time to dynamically changing needs
and customer requirements.
Utility Telecom
In recent years, utilities have been installing more metering and monitoring
devices to improve their network visibility. This enables them to support features
like real-time control, computer networking, monitoring of safe drinking water,
security access, and video monitoring of facilities. Utilities are using fibers along
their right-of-ways to meet the additional bandwidth demand driven by these
features, as well as upgrading their surveillance network to support new Ethernet
and IP-based communications.
Utilities have recognized that their networks can be leveraged to provide
commercial telephony services. Many are therefore offering CoC and enterprise
services, as well as HSI and telephony services to the residential market.
These new trends present a major challenge to utility network planners. The
optical transmission layer, a key part of the network, must be carefully designed
to support current services and be future-ready for new ones. Network planners
must select transmission equipment that will support evolving utility needs over
the next several years in a very dynamic environment. Failure to plan properly
puts utilities in the dangerous position of having to constantly redesign their
network and replace transmission equipment.
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To support the dynamic nature of the commercial telecom environment, the
optimal network design must:
Be flexible enough to support current legacy services as well as new
advanced services.
Be able to scale its capabilities and costs to match current needs as
efficiently as possible.
Provide smooth migration as bandwidth demands increase or when shifting
from one business model to another.
Meet the carrier class and reliability requirements expected by the
industry.
ECI's XDM delivers an optimized transport solution for utility networks. It
integrates ADM, data (Ethernet Layer 1/Layer 2, MPLS), and multidegree
ROADM capabilities into a single carrier class platform. Its build-as-you-grow
concept eliminates the need for multiple elements at the same site, enabling
utilities to move in any business direction.

Figure 2-8: ECI full solution for the utility telecom network
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Intelligent Networking Solutions for the
Smart Grid
The challenges of rising global energy demands, climate change, increasing
import dependence, aging infrastructure, and higher energy prices are driving the
need to deliver sustainable, secure, and competitive energy. As a result,
initiatives are being implemented worldwide to increase the efficiency, safety,
and reliability of electricity transmission and distribution systems by
transforming the current electricity grid into an interactive (customer/operator)
service network, often referred to as a Smart Grid.
Utility network modernization and Smart Grid implementation are proving to be
major challenges for utilities. The Smart Grid creates a complete nervous system
for the power grid and relies on advanced efficient communications between the
different grid components. To remain competitive and stay ahead in the market,
utilities require reliable and efficient internal communication networks to
control and monitor various mission-critical applications. Support for new
applications is crucial for grid automation and must include:
Teleprotection
Operational voice
Surveillance video
Grid monitoring
Automated meter reading
Power quality monitoring and load management
It is crucial that the networking solutions utilized by Smart Grids address certain
specific issues, including:
Future-proof capability to support current and future applications, such as IP
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), or to pursue new
revenue opportunities in the telecom sector by becoming a Utelco
High-availability platform to assure uninterrupted service delivery for
mission-critical applications
Legacy service support of remote terminal units, meters, sensors, and private
branch exchanges
Agile multiservice transport solution supporting all required services
Strong data encryption to prevent cyber attacks - from espionage to sabotage
Multi-layered management architecture with easy deployment and operation
of multiple communication protocols and networks
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ECI's 1Net framework addresses these needs by providing an integrated and
holistic networking approach based on our product portfolio. We offer one of the
most comprehensive multiservice transport solutions available today, supporting
core, metro, and access portions of the network. Our solutions provide several
benefits, including:
Integration of low-rate SDH, Carrier Ethernet, and WDM services in a single
platform
Support for a wide variety of network protection mechanisms with no SPoF
Simple service deployment and uninterrupted scaling to higher capacity
Build-as-you-grow seamless rollout of new services and applications
Support from planning stages to service management
ECI provides utilities companies with the solution that matches their specific
needs a solution that enables them to optimally fulfill their networking
objectives, both efficiently and cost effectively.
Building the Digital Oilfield of the Future
Oil and gas companies currently face rising costs due to the increased
complexity of their industry tasks - deeper drilling, remote exploration and
production sites, complex geology, and extreme climate conditions. Seeking
ways to automate their activities as much as possible has led to a growing
demand for real-time data acquisition and direct interaction between personnel at
the wellhead and production fields. To address these needs, companies require
reliable and secure telecommunication solutions. It is crucial that voice and data
flow smoothly between all sites to enable efficient timely decision-making.
At ECI we constantly strive to meet evolving communications requirements.
Our 1Net framework provides an integrated communications solution for oil and
gas companies that significantly reduces operational complexity and cost, and
provides:
Single-vendor E2E solution, enabling deployment to a single
telecommunication network infrastructure for all applications, addressing
the overall communications solution
Carrier class performance, ensuring reliable telecommunications
infrastructure for mission-critical services
Easy deployment and operation of current and future applications
Ability to pursue new revenue opportunities in the telecommunications
sector with minimal additional investment
Full lifecycle support, including consultation, network design, managed
services, network operation, and maintenance
ECI is a one-stop shop providing E2E communication network solutions that
meet all oil and gas telecommunications requirements, including grid control,
automation, corporate communications, and security applications.
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MultiService Operators
MSOs are currently coping with a market environment where prices and
revenues are dropping significantly. They are therefore seeking new service
markets to increase profitability. For example, once considered purely a
conveyor of video programming, cable broadband infrastructure provides an
ideal pipeline for the delivery of new advanced services like VoD, switched
digital video (SDV), interactive television, HSI access, and IP telephony. To
leverage their network assets, they are also expanding into non-traditional
markets of cellular backhaul and business services.
All these services require high capacity networks. To support the bandwidth
demand, MSO networks use a WDM layer with most of the wavelengths
dedicated to VoD and broadcast TV, with the rest for voice and HSI.
The XDM offers a choice of either a standalone multidegree ROADM system or
a converged technology system that incorporates optics with integrated Carrier
Ethernet and multiservice functionality. The all-range ROADM capabilities of
the platform ensure a highly cost-effective solution for all network distances,
from metro through regional to long haul, eliminating the need for multiple
WDM product lines. In addition, the XDM's multidegree and plug-and-play
capabilities simplify management of dynamic optical environments such as
MSO networks. The XDM also provides an efficient video distribution solution
through any of the following technologies:
Multidegree ROADM with flexible wavelength add/drop functionality
AoC with GbE drop-and-continue functionality
MCS with statistical multiplexing and efficient, reliable multicast
distribution
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Used as a converged packet optical system, the XDM supports business
customer services, including TDM, Ethernet leased lines, and advanced services
such as Ethernet VPNs, VPLS, lambda/sub-lambda, and storage services to the
enterprise market. Network operation is controlled through a simple efficient
NMS.

Figure 2-9: ECI full solution for the MSO network
MSOs are in a position to offer mobile backhaul services at competitive rates,
thereby increasing revenue from their core assets. A smooth and cost-effective
migration from cellular 2G to 2.5G to 3G is provided by ECI's XDM
transmission platforms, together with a series of BroadGate

miniature
multiplexers that support TDM grooming for 2G/2.5G/3G networks, ATM
aggregation for 3G Rel.4 networks, and IP aggregation for 3G Rel.5 networks,
all over a single infrastructure.
ECIs offering has been predesigned with all the required network elements in
place, ensuring swift cost-effective implementation. Our solutions are installed
at leading MSOs around the world.
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CoC
Rather than build their own network infrastructure, which is extremely costly,
many customers prefer to lease services from CoCs. The demand for such
services has increased significantly over the past few years.
CoC customers no longer demand only simple, rigid, P2P services: they now
require multiple services, bitrates, and protocols over a single transparent
transmission-leased pipe. In addition, major customers seeking higher quality
services are shifting from monitored leased lines, which cannot be managed
directly, to fully managed Customer Network Management (CNM) systems.
Since CoCs serve multiple operators requiring different services, they must
provide several leasing options. Cellular providers, for example, typically lease
TDM/SDH and Ethernet links for traffic backhauling and SDH, or Ethernet links
for connectivity between the MSCs. ISPs mainly lease Ethernet and SDH links
to connect between the routers in the ISP POPs, while interexchange carriers
(IXCs) typically lease SDH, Ethernet, and wavelength links to connect between
their COs.
ECI's 1Net framework, an integrated, holistic networking approach, specifically
addresses the needs of CoCs and offers a product portfolio with one of the most
comprehensive multiservice transport solutions available. By integrating TDM
cross connect, Ethernet/MPLS switching, and WDM capabilities in a single
carrier class platform, and by supporting multiple platforms and different
capacities, the XDM product line provides a level of flexibility that is unique in
the market.
The XDM provides All-Native support for the leasing options required by CoCs,
including PDH connectivity, SDH, Ethernet, and wavelength services. ECI's
Hybrid
+
platforms provide native handling of both TDM and Ethernet. The same
equipment can be used throughout the full lifecycle of the transport network,
evolving from TDM-based to packet-based while supporting:
TDM traffic carried over TDM
Ethernet and TDM traffic delivered over TDM
Ethernet and TDM traffic processed natively and independently and
delivered over TDM or Ethernet, as appropriate
Pure packet-based infrastructure
All these approaches can be integrated seamlessly with CESR platforms.
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XDM's best-in-class multidegree WSS ROADM technology, together with fully
tunable lasers and power equalization capabilities, introduces a true agile optical
network, providing up to 40G wavelength to any node connectivity
("any-to-any") in ring or mesh topology.
Most end customers demand full visibility of their network's performance. ECI's
optical solution is based on OTN technology, which provides carrier-grade
capabilities and ensures the appropriate QoS for each service type. SDH and
Ethernet services can be groomed over a single pipe, while each service is kept
intact with its overhead, original timing clock, and own protection scheme (in
accordance with the end customer's SLA).
XDM is designed to provide a cost-effective agile optical layer to any third-party
switch/router ("alien lambda"). Colored interfaces right off the end customer
switch or router can be transmitted directly over the XDM photonic layer,
eliminating the need for an additional transponder and thereby reducing overall
network cost while maintaining full network visibility and reliability.

Figure 2-10: CoC services via XDM
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Efficient Triple Play Service
Delivery
Operators are looking for easy, convenient, top-quality, efficient ways to offer
telephone, television, HSI, and wireless services to their customers. SPs need
suppliers of top quality network equipment that is secure, reliable, flexible, and
cost effective.
The XDM platforms address these requirements and are the ideal choice for
triple play. Multicast technology defines an optimal P2MP multicast tree for
downstream (unidirectional) IPTV traffic, enabling extremely efficient use of
bandwidth capacity. Dedicated P2MP tunnels are generated for IPTV multicast
group content, such as TV channels. These P2MP tunnels are designed in a
multicast tree structure that defines the shortest possible path to each Provider
Edge (PE). The efficiency of the multicast approach means that only one packet
copy is required per link or branch. Using IGMP snooping, the access link
carries only the sum of the subscriber-requested channels, minimizing any
unnecessary bandwidth burden on the DSLAM or PON devices at the customer
edge (CE).
At the same time, the same infrastructure is used for bidirectional VPLS VPN
traffic, carrying the IPTV subscriber control traffic (IGMP packets) back
upstream to the edge routers, as well as transporting additional bidirectional
VoD, VoIP, and HSI services. This means that a single infrastructure can be used
to supply all triple play service requests, optimizing network efficiency and
capacity with minimal overhead in cost or complexity.

Figure 2-11: IPTV service delivery network architecture
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As illustrated in the preceding figure, when a user selects a channel using a
remote control, the set-top box (STB) or home gateway sends an IGMP report
(join request) packet upstream with information about the channel selected. This
IGMP join packet is snooped by the leaf PE MCS device, which, in addition to
allowing the packet to proceed upstream, also updates the forwarding table with
the requested channel.
On the downstream path, one copy (packet) of each TV channel is delivered
from the MultiService Edge Router (MSER) to the root PE MCS device. The
channel content is then sent across the P2MP tunnel multicast tree downstream
to the terminating point of the leaf PE. The leaf PE forwards to the DSLAM only
those channels that have been requested by the users and which are served by the
DSLAM. The leaf PE forwarding knowledge is based on IGMP snooping
performed on the upstream.
Channels that have not been requested are blocked at the leaf PE and not
forwarded to the IP DSLAM. When a user changes a channel, an IGMP leave
request and an IGMP join request are sent upstream. The IGMP leave request
includes the information regarding the channel to be deselected. The IGMP leave
request is snooped by the leaf MCS PE device, which, in addition to letting the
packet proceed upstream, in turn updates the forwarding table and removes the
channel from it.
The P2MP tunnel multicast tree improves network efficiency by reducing the
bandwidth and the fiber needs of the metro network. IGMP snooping reduces the
IP DSLAM bandwidth bottleneck and also allows other triple play services, such
as VoD, VoIP, and HSI, to obtain their required capacity.
As illustrated in the preceding figure, connecting a backup multicast router
(second MSER) to a second root PE can be used to protect against root PE/router
failure.
Star VPLS is also connected to the backup root PE/router (second MSER). This
forms a double star VPLS that connects from the multiple leaf PE to the double
root PE devices. In this way, all P2P triple play services are protected with
sub-50 msec protection as well as IGMP control packets.
SPs deploying ECI's IPTV multicast solution can fully exploit metro network
bandwidth and benefit from the savings and cost effectiveness of the IPTV
solution. SPs also benefit from the MPLS-assured E2E QoS IPTV delivery and
E2E carrier class capability.
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Transportation Communications
Networks
Transportation companies are going to considerable lengths to provide more
reliable and secure benefits to their customers as they introduce new
revenue-generating network-based services. These companies require advanced,
sophisticated communications solutions to provide support for additional
services (increased monitoring, real-time control, etc.).
At ECI we have a proven track record of partnering with transportation
companies to support their communications needs. Our solutions are designed to
support legacy applications as well as to provide a smooth migration path to
NGNs.
Keeping the Trains on Track
In recent years, railway and subway operators have increased service frequency
and added features such as video surveillance, real-time control, and automation.
These advances have led to a tremendous increase in rail and subway
communications requirements for computer networking, video monitoring,
telephony services, ticketing management, and passenger control.
With requirements increasing at a phenomenal rate, railway and subway
operators need a cost-effective and future-proof solution that provides them
with:
Reduced operational complexity and cost
Support for existing as well as new introduced services
A carrier-grade platform
Flexibility to pursue revenue opportunities in the telecommunications sector
ECI provides rail and subway operators with the best possible solution matched
to their specific needs and networking goals. We offer a full single-vendor
solution based on our multiservice platforms, providing:
Converged solutions
Service continuity and scalability
Generation of new revenues
Gradual investment supporting both current and future services
Friendly operation
Strategic partner for operators
Wireless equipment such as microwave, WiMAX, or Wi-Fi can also be
integrated into the design, providing a full networking solution.
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Flying High at the Airport
Airport telecom operators run some of the most complex advanced networks in
the world, supporting numerous systems for many types of customers. These
include aviation- and non-aviation-related systems, as well as serving stores and
other facilities throughout the airport.
Over the past few years, airport networks have been evolving to meet increased
demand for new Ethernet services and bandwidth. To implement NGNs, airport
telecom operators need a solution that allows them to expand and evolve
according to customer requirements, including:
Flexibility to support advanced services together with traditional and
mission-critical services at any location in the airport
Reliability to provide carrier class performance as required by airport
telecom networks
Ease of operation to implement new services simply and efficiently across
the various protocols and layers
ECI has a long track record of success designing networks that meet the
challenges and complexities facing airport network operators. We provide a full
E2E transmission solution covering the different technologies, tailored to each
airports specific requirements. Our solution includes:
Complete multiservice transmission offering
No SPoF and a variety of network protection mechanisms
Any-to-any connectivity, any service to any location in the airport
Intelligent, powerful, and simple-to-operate system
Advanced maintenance services
ECI solutions meet all of the major challenges facing airport operators,
providing a revenue-generating comprehensive solution that answers ALL the
requirements of todays complex airport environment.
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Moving into the Fast Lane of Highway
Transportation
To maintain and expand their business, highway operators are constantly
looking to boost productivity. This in turn creates the need for additional
services, such as surveillance, real-time control, and automation equipment.
Advanced communication capabilities are required to support the new services,
which include video surveillance, operational voice, and telemetry, as well as
electronic ticketing, information services, and Internet access.
To meet their growing requirements, highway operators look for a flexible,
cost-effective, and future-proof solution that provides them with:
Reduced operational complexity and cost
Support for existing as well as new services
Carrier-grade platform providing a reliable telecommunications
infrastructure for mission-critical services
Flexibility and scalability to support current and future applications while
enabling pursuit of revenue opportunities in the telecommunications sector
ECI provides highway and utility companies with the solutions they need. We
offer:
Integrated circuit, optical, and data services in a single solution
Service continuity and scalability
New revenue generation
Lower total cost of ownership (TCO) with multiservice platforms supporting
build-as-you-grow investment
Easy deployment and operation
Strategic partnering with railway operators
By integrating all traffic services, from legacy to NG, under a single carrier class
platform, and supporting multiple cages and varied capacities, ECI provides
highway operators with a level of flexibility and agility that is unique in today's
market.
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Government and Defense
Solutions
Today's complex battlefield demands a complete network solution with
zero-hour deployment and absolute certainty that all components work together
as the legendary "lean mean fighting machine". The ultramodern Network
Centric Warfare (NCW) arena must ensure:
Flexibility
Reliability and durability
Full connectivity and wide deployment, supporting both local and remote
combined forces
Upgradeability
Rigorous information security (INFOSEC)
Aside from being technology pioneers, ECI offers several noteworthy
advantages with significant INFOSEC and efficiency application in the military
communications field. These include:
On-the-shelf single-slot encryption card, supporting P2P and P2MP
encryption traffic
Out-of-Band Data Communications Channel (OOB DCC) for maximum
management security
Battle-proven solutions using mobile shelters with exceptional strength and
total environmental control
Single-source integrated solution - ECI serves as a single point of contact for
all manufacturers of network components
The XDM is a mature and field-proven product with a robust practical design
that reflects a significant installed base of operating military networks. The
XDM rapid deployment capabilities mean that your network is up and running
ahead of time, with proven Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) technology
adapted to meet rigorous Command, Control, Communication, Computer, and
Intelligence (C4I) needs without sacrificing performance, integration, reliability,
and sturdiness. And exclusive use of INFOSEC-conscious components and
management means that your sensitive applications and data are always in the
right hands.
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-27

ECI has the knowledge and experience to team up and supply a multi-layer,
NCW-proven communications system that suits long-term strategic needs.

Figure 2-12: Comprehensive military solution
Solutions and Applications XDM General Description

2-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Municipalities
Municipalities are upgrading their infrastructure to ensure that the city remains
an attractive location for residents and for investment. Improved infrastructure
makes it possible to improve departmental collaboration and productivity, break
down the digital divide between citizens, improve public safety, and stimulate
economic development. Key areas of activity include access and transportation
systems, investment in telecommunications and energy, cultivation of an
enterprise culture, job opportunities, a world-class business environment with
increased research, development, and innovation, and the sustainable
development of the tourism sector.
Municipalities today must be able to handle multiple organizations in real time,
requiring an infrastructure that provides:
High availability: always up and running
Survivability: the ability to endure cyber attacks and sabotage
Agility: flexibly adapting to the information flow path
Capacity to enable and differentiate quality of data, voice, video, and mobile
applications
Robust information security
User-friendly system interface to reduce OPEX and reaction time
Connection with different elements from different organizations and
agencies
ECI meets the evolving requirements of municipal communications by
developing future-proof transmission solutions that provide the optimal
migration path to NG applications and services. ECIs 1Net framework provides
an integrated communications solution for local government that significantly
reduces operational complexity and cost. It includes all the network building
blocks from access to core, supporting wireless, wireline, and combination
solutions. ECI combines telecom expertise and vast networking experience to
provide a complete municipal broadband solution with the flexible options
needed to accomplish networking goals.
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

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Education on the Global Campus
Educational campuses all over the world universities, research centers, and
even high schools are facing new challenges that necessitate improved access
to electronic information and content for a plethora of advanced applications.
The enormous amount of data being transmitted, and the multitude of users
trying to access that data, is consistently pushing the limits of existing
infrastructures. Demand for bandwidth is exploding. Fast and reliable data traffic
within the campus intranet, as well as Internet access to external institutions and
libraries, are a must.
The Internet has provided students with access to valuable and useful sources of
information. Unfortunately, the Internet also provides easy access to
inappropriate or illegal content, and campus networks can be used for
non-educational pursuits. Managed Security Service Providers (MSSPs) make it
possible for education institutions to ensure student compliance with their
Internet access policies, reduce access to inappropriate content, prevent
intrusions into academic record and exam data-stores, block usage of campus
networks for illegal content-sharing, protect against rapid propagation of
viruses, worms, and other content-based threats, and minimize exposure to
potential liability.
The massive increase of information has also created a demand for storage and
recovery services with high speed connections to ensure smooth recovery from
disaster scenarios. With requirements growing at a phenomenal rate, campuses
require an agile and reliable solution.
ECI understands these needs. Our solution offers:
Comprehensive multiservice transmission for all campus needs
Carrier class performance
Flexibility
Single comprehensive E2E network management and security solution
Advanced maintenance services
Strategic partnering for operators
At ECI we view quality educational facilities as a strategic step in improving
global welfare, and we have focused our expertise on upgrading the
communications infrastructure for educational institutions in order to support
new demands and services.
Solutions and Applications XDM General Description

2-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Metro WDM/ROADM Networks
For a triple play and business continuity transport network, a cost- and
size-optimized chassis can be selected to accommodate node traffic
requirements. Usually, the compact XDM-40 is installed as Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE) or a remote aggregation unit. An XDM-500 is installed at a
metro POP, and the XDM-1000 can be placed at the core nodes. Since all
elements share the same traffic, photonics, and common cards, operational
simplicity and cost optimization of spare parts is achieved. The XDM universal
base is used in all nodes, configured to support the specific service mix to line
rates of 2.5 Gbps, 10 Gbps, or 40 Gbps. Multidegree ROADM cards are used to
construct the desired ring, multi-ring, or mesh topology, and a variety of optical
line modules and amplifiers bridge the required distances.

Figure 2-13: XDM product line in a typical triple play transport network
XDM General Description Solutions and Applications

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Regional/Long Haul
DWDM/ROADM
The XDM all-range architecture provides the ability to cover various link
distances of up to 2,000 km (1200 miles), with a wide range of channel bitrates
and capacities offering a choice of topologies such as ring and mesh.

Figure 2-14: 5000 km hybrid backbone network
Solutions and Applications XDM General Description

2-32 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Repeaterless Undersea DWDM
Connectivity
By incorporating advanced modulation techniques, powerful FEC schemes, high
power amplifiers, and more, the XDM proves highly cost effective in
repeaterless undersea applications of up to 400 km (250 miles). A recent
example is ECI's repeaterless undersea DWDM long-haul solution in the
Caribbean.

Figure 2-15: Repeaterless undersea DWDM


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-1

In this chapter:
Overview ......................................................................................................... 3-1
Control and Communications Subsystems ...................................................... 3-3
Traffic and Cross-Connect Functionality ........................................................ 3-8
I/O Traffic Interface Configuration Options .................................................. 3-11
Power Feed Subsystem .................................................................................. 3-18
Engineering Orderwire .................................................................................. 3-19
Overview
This section describes the XDM system architecture, focusing on the following
components:
Control and communications subsystems, including:
Control
Communications
Timing and synchronization
Traffic and cross-connect and packet switching subsystems
I/O traffic subsystem
3
System Architecture
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Power feed subsystem
Engineering orderwire (OW)

Figure 3-1: XDM card architecture
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-3

Control and Communications
Subsystems
In all XDM platforms, the controller subsystem is responsible for the following
functionality:
Internal multiplexer control and traffic processing, accomplished through the
main processor that has the main activation software and a nonvolatile
backup memory (NVM)
Internal platform and card control
Internal communications and processing
Timing and synchronization
SDH traffic cross connection through a switch that handles aggregate and
tributary interface traffic
Double redundancy backup protection
Communications with external equipment and management.
Comprehensive DCC functionality with dynamic Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) routing
Alarms and maintenance
Built-In Test (BIT), described in Built-In Test (page 12-2)
NE software and configuration backup
Control
The main controller subsystem supports central control, alarms, maintenance,
and communications functions. It also communicates with the control processors
of the various cards using a master-slave control hierarchy.
Each controller unit contains an NVM that stores a complete backup of both the
system software and its NE configuration. Through the NVM, the XDM benefits
from superior management and control availability, ensuring that a faulty
controller unit does not affect traffic, even when only a single component is
installed.
Double redundancy in every platform can be obtained using a redundant NVM
unit in the second redundant controller subsystem, which is updated
automatically on an hourly basis. To maintain synchronization, the operator can
also initiate a manual NVM update whenever a change occurs in the
configuration.
The choice of redundant or nonredundant configuration depends on your
preferences.
System Architecture XDM General Description

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In the XDM-100 product line, the controller is part of the main cross connect
control (MXC), a single card that integrates matrix, control, and timing
functionalities. Two controller units operate in parallel. Each matrix supports
full non-blocking connectivity at all VC levels. The matrixes are connected to all
I/O modules, providing 2.5 Gbps capacity to each of them. Full one-to-one
redundancy enables continuous sanity checking, instantaneous switching as
needed to maintain complete uninterrupted service, and full redundancy
protection of the TMU and power supply. The XDM-100 platform provides
several types of XCs in compliance with applicable ITU-T and Telcordia
standards. These include broadband, wideband, and integrated
broadband/wideband XCs.
You can also operate the XDM-100 in a nonredundant configuration, in which
the platform is fitted with a single nonredundant controller unit together with a
bridge card. In this configuration, the protection trails are routed via the bridge
card to additional parts of the single matrix. The bridge card bridges traffic from
I/O modules to the dedicated traffic buses located in the controller unit with a
total capacity of 10 Gbps.
In the XDM-1000 product line, the controller is implemented in the xMCP
card. The platforms can be operated in a redundant configuration, in which the
main controller card is protected with a second identical card. The redundant
card contains a database identical to the active card, and operates as a
full-capability standby control and communication card.
The XDM control subsystem is separate from the traffic subsystem. When
working with a redundant system configuration, traffic is not impaired if the
controller unit fails or is extracted. In this case, communication capability with
the management station is switched over to the second controller unit, as shown
in the following figure. In fact, as each unit has a separate local controller, once
started, the XDM can operate without either controller unit. In this case,
however, it loses its communication capability with the management station.

Figure 3-2: Control system block diagram
The controller subsystem enables easy software upgrades using a remote
software procedure operated from the EMS-MPT. It can store several different
software versions at the same time and enables a quick switchover between the
different versions when required.
XDM General Description System Architecture

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Communications
The main control processor subsystem is responsible for communication with
external NEs and management stations.
The xMCP and MXC cards enable comprehensive DCC functionality with
dynamic OSPF routing. The xMCP/MXC cards are responsible for
communication with external NEs and management stations. Communication
with other SDH NEs is via the DCC channel embedded in each SDH link;
communication with C/DWDM elements is via the Optical Supervisory Channel
(OSC) or inband GCC.
The XDM performs IP forwarding between all network interfaces, including
DCC and Ethernet gateway management interfaces. The DCC enables operators
to integrate several platforms with their own workstations, and to pass this
management traffic through the XDM.
The XDM implements dynamic OSPF routing over the network interfaces to
automatically determine the routing table. OSPF support includes P2P protocol
(PPP) encapsulation of IP packets with high level data link control (HDLC)
framing over RS-DCC, MS-DCC, and "Clear Channel" communication
channels as defined in ITU G.7712. Support is also provided for legacy LAN
emulation encapsulation, with full software configurability between all
communication modes.
An Ethernet interface is used to communicate with the EMS-MPT. The
controller subsystem can also communicate with a desktop or laptop PC-based
craft terminal (LCT-XDM (page 11-27)) via a serial interface or Ethernet.
Note that this section provides only brief highlights to introduce the XDM's
sophisticated communication subsystem. For more detailed information and
component descriptions, see Network Communications Control (page 9-1).
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Timing and Synchronization
The XDM features a central synchronization subsystem that provides fully
redundant high quality system timing to all traffic cards and functions.
The main component in the XDM synchronization subsystem is the timing unit
(TMU) residing in the XDM XIO/HLXC cards. Timing is distributed
redundantly from the TMUs to all traffic and matrix cards, minimizing unit types
and reducing operation and maintenance costs.


NOTE: In V6.1 of the XDM, ECI released a new revision of
the TMU named TMU_L. The TMU_L supports all
functionality of the original TMU, and in addition is optimized
to work with the stricter timing requirements of the XIO384F
and HLXC768. The TMU_L is installed automatically where
appropriate, with no action required on the part of the user.
From the user's perspective, there is no difference between the
TMU and the TMU_L. In this manual the term "TMU" refers
to both the TMU and the TMU_L modules. The term
"TMU_L" refers only to the TMU_L module.


Figure 3-3: Timing distribution block diagram
The TMU and internal and external timing paths are fully redundant. The
distributed BIT mechanism ensures top performance and availability.
XDM General Description System Architecture

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To provide a reliable timing source, the XDM supports multiple synchronization
reference options. Up to four of the following timing references can be
monitored simultaneously by each XDM platform:
2 x 2 MHz (T3) external timing input sources
2 x 2 Mbps (T3) external timing input sources
STM-n line timing from any SDH interface card
E1 2M PDH line timing from any PDH interface card
(XDM-1000/XDM-2000 product line)
Local interval clock
Holdover mode
SyncE
IEEE 1588v2 (master and slave)
Each input timing source has its own 8 kHz frame timing delivered to the timing
generator. The TMU selects one of the timing sources as a system reference.
The timing signal is received from each of the I/O cards and is routed to the
TMU through the timing reference bus. Any SIO/PIO interface card can be
selected as a reference source, transferring an 8 kHz timing signal to the TMU.
The external clock signal is routed directly to the clock unit, where the 8 kHz
signal is extracted.
The TMU provides direct control over the source selection (which it receives
from the system software) and the frequency control loop. The definition of the
synchronization source depends on the source quality and on the synchronization
mode, according to the network timing topology.
The operator can remotely manage network synchronization using the
EMS-MPT, and can select and determine the priority for each XDM timing
source reference. As described, these sources can include any external reference
clock, PDH line signal, SDH line signal, or internal clock. In addition, the
EMS-MPT can be used to define overall network synchronization, network
synchronization maps, and alternative synchronization maps for different
contingency events.
Synchronization references are classified at any given time according to a
predefined priority and prevailing signal quality. The XDM synchronization
subsystem synchronizes to the best available timing source using the
Synchronization Status Marker (SSM) protocol. The TMU, a Temperature
Compensated Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (TVCXO), is
frequency-locked to this source, providing internal system and SDH
line-transmission timing. The system is synchronized to this central timing
source.
System Architecture XDM General Description

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In addition, the system provides synchronization outputs to synchronize external
equipment within the site. There are two external T4 interfaces that can provide
2.048 MHz/2.048 Mbps external timing as required. These outputs can be used
to synchronize any peripheral equipment or switch.
The XDM supports SyncE synchronization, which is fully compatible with the
asynchronous nature of traditional Ethernet. SyncE is defined in ITU T standards
G.8261, G.8262, G.8263, and G.8264.
The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) provides a standard method for
high precision synchronization of network connected clocks. PTP is a time
transfer protocol enabling slave clocks to synchronize to a known master clock,
ensuring that multiple devices operate using the same time base. The protocol
operates in master/slave configuration using UDP packets over IP.
XDM supplies a 4.6 ppm stable holdover mode when all alternative
synchronization sources are temporarily unavailable.
The XDM default clock accuracy complies with applicable ITU-T and Telcordia
standards at the network level. Optional G.812 or G.811 synchronization quality
can be provided using additional external units.
Traffic and Cross-Connect
Functionality
The heart of the XDM is a powerful, high capacity, non-blocking 4c/4/3/1
HO/LO cross connect matrix (MXC, XIO, or HLXC). It is the architecture of the
XDM that enables its outstanding configuration flexibility. The XDM enables
efficient and cost-effective connections for VC-12 granularity for all types of
equipment, from E1 to 10 Gbps. The platform's scalability and non-blocking
4c/4/3/1 connectivity and expandability make it the platform of choice for
modern networks. When working with the XDM platform, if you can connect it,
you can cross connect it!

Figure 3-4: XDM cross-connect scheme
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-9

All interface modules (PDH, SDH, or Ethernet service cards) connect to the
central matrixes in a star configuration. The main functions of the matrix
include:
HO and LO SDH 4c/4/3/1 matrix XCs at the VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, and
VC-nc order, up to 1536 VC-4 equivalents and connecting STM-1, STM-4,
STM-16, and STM-64 optical interfaces.
Note that different platform and matrix combinations have different capacity
upper bounds, ranging from 20 Gbps all the way up to 240 Gbps in a single
platform. The wide range of configuration options enables both
build-as-you-grow and pay-as-you-grow flexibility.
Overhead XC of SDH overhead bytes (such as E1, E2, F1, F2, and unused).
This capability is available in all STM-n ports.
Depending on system capacity requirements and network configuration, the
XDM is equipped with two redundant matrix cards where applicable. Each I/O
module is directly connected to the matrix cores (both main and protection,
where applicable) and linked to every cross connect direction and level. The link
is fully redundant at both the intrashelf and intershelf levels (if expansion shelves
are used). The I/O interface cards switch to the second core within 50 msec.
System Architecture XDM General Description

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The following figure illustrates the simplified XDM internal traffic flow. It
provides an overview of both the physical and functional partitioning of the
system. Each of the blocks represents an I/O slot that can accommodate any type
of card with any bitrate and service.

Figure 3-5: System architecture
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-11

I/O Traffic Interface
Configuration Options
The capability to support and aggregate a wide range of services over a variety of
technologies and media enables operators to deploy the XDM in different
infrastructures. This ensures smooth integration with existing and future
networks and enables the XDM to support:
HO transmission paths for HO and LO subnetworks and for IP networks (for
example, LAN to LAN connectivity: GbE GbE)
Leased lines at various bitrates, from 2 Mbps up to 10 Gbps
Data and other digital services
These services are provided through a wide range of interfaces such as:
TDM: E1, E3, DS-3, STM-1 electrical interface, STM-1 optical interface,
STM-4, STM-4c, STM-16, STM-16c, STM-64
Data: Ethernet, FE (electrical or optical interface), GbE (electrical or optical
interface), 10 GbE WAN, 10 GbE LAN, STM-256
OTN: OTU1, OTU2/2e/2f, OTU3e, protocol independent
(50 Mbps - 2.7 Gbps over C/DWDM)
All electrical and optical I/O interfaces are fully compatible with applicable
optical ITU-T and ETSI standards. The XDM enables flexible assignment of
I/Os. Any combination of I/O cards is allowed, provided the total matrix capacity
is not exceeded.

XDM General Description System Architecture


3-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06
The following table lists examples of maximum numbers of services supported on the various XDM shelves.
Table 3-1: Examples of maximum ports per shelf
Traffic type XDM-100 XDM-300 XDM-900 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 XDM-3000
Over SDH (through the SDH matrix)
2 Mbps 504 1008 1008 --- 336 924 --- ---
34 Mbps 24 48 48 --- 64 176 --- ---
45 Mbps 24 48 48 --- 64 176 --- ---
STM-1 80 128 144 --- 48e/
160o
176e/
368o
192o 384
STM-4 40 128 144 --- 96 192 192 384
STM-16 12 40 48 --- 24 48 48 96
STM-64 --- 10 12 --- 4 12 12 24
FE Layer 1 64e/32o 128e/64o 128e/64o --- 96o 96e/96o 96o 192o
FE Layer 2/MPLS 32e/32o 64e/64o 64e/64o --- 60o 96e/80o 80o 80o
GbE Layer 1 32e/32o 64e/64o 64e/64o --- 96o 96e/96o 96o 192o
GbE Layer 2/MPLS 24e/24o 96e/96o 96e/96o

60o 64e/80o 80o 80o
10 GbE Layer 2/MPLS 8o 32o 32o --- 6o 32o 32o 32o
Over Backplane (direct connectivity between adjacent slots)
10 GbE MPLS (intercard) --- --- 4 --- 4 12 12 12
Over C/DWDM (direct mapping to a wavelength, without the SDH matrix)
GbE/FC/FICON over
2.5 Gbps C/DWDM
16 32 32 8 24 48 48 ---
GbE over
10 Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 16 48 96 96 ---


System Architecture XDM General Description
417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-13
Traffic type XDM-100 XDM-300 XDM-900 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 XDM-3000
10 GbE LAN/WAN/
STM-64/OTU2/10GFC
over DWDM
--- --- --- 4 12 24 24 ---
STM-16 over
2.5 Gbps C/DWDM
--- 24 48 8 24 48 48 ---
STM-16 over
10 Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 8 24 48 48 ---
Protocol-independent
50 Mbps-2.7 Gbps
over C/DWDM
16 16 16 2 6 12 12 ---
STM-256
over 40 Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 1 3 6 6 ---
STM-64/10 GbE LAN
over 40 Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 4 12 24 24 ---

System Architecture XDM General Description

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HLXC Cards
The heart of the XDM-1000 product line is its powerful high capacity 4c/4/3/1
non-blocking HLXC matrix card. It is available in several versions:
HLXC192: capacity of 192 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (30 Gbps).
HLXC384: capacity of 384 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (60 Gbps). Note
that the HLXC384 supports 32 STM-1 streams per I/O slot (12 x 32 = 384).
HLXC768: capacity of 768 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (120 Gbps). Note
that the HLXC768 supports 64 STM-1 streams per I/O slot (12 x 64 = 768),
working with the upgraded TMU-L and xMCP-B.
HLXC1536: capacity of 1536 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (240 Gbps). Note
that the HLXC1536 supports 64 STM-1 streams per I/O slot
(24 x 64 = 1536), working with the xMCP-B2G (Rev.D).


NOTES:
The HLXC192 is supported in the following shelves:
XDM-500
XDM-1000
XDM-2000
The HLXC384 and HLXC768 are supported in the
following shelves:
XDM-1000
XDM-2000
The HLXC768 cards require use of the high power fan
control unit xFCU (xFCU-HP).
The HLXC1536 cards are designed for use in the
XDM-3000 shelf only, and require use of the FCU3000, the
INF3000, the TMU-L, and xMCP-B2G Rev.D components.
See the XDM Installation and Maintenance Manuals for more
information.

The HLXC supports multiple functionalities, including:
HO and LO XC at the VC-12/3/4 and VC-4 order levels.
Space-time switching in a square architecture of 192/384/768/1536 STM-1
equivalents with fully non-blocking XCs (4c/4/3/1), implementing time slot
interchanges for the entire matrix capacity. This optimal method provides
the following benefits:
Modular design, enabling the implementation of higher capacity XCs
using the same building blocks and components
Strictly non-blocking solutions without rearrangements in single stage
and multistage configurations
Unlimited broadcast and multicast capabilities
Multiplexer timing unit integrated into the HLXC cards.
XDM General Description System Architecture

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In addition to its multi-ring support, the XDM matrix can serve both as a 4/4 and
3/3 XC, as well as a 4c/4/3/1 XC, thus providing a full network backbone layer
digital cross-connect solution. These capabilities are all contained in a
single-shelf unit. By eliminating the need for separate cross-connect nodes, the
XDM provides huge operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
(OAM&P) savings.
For hardware redundancy, the XDM contains two identical HLXC matrix cards.
Both cards perform the cross connect and node synchronization functions
simultaneously in a 1+1 protection configuration. The I/O interface cards switch
to the backup HLXC within 50 msec. Similarly, the backup TMU takes over
timing control with no traffic disruption.
The XDM product line design provides a clear migration path from HLXC192 to
HLXC384 and from HLXC384 to HLXC768 within the same platform. You can
also migrate from XDM-1000/XDM-2000 platforms to the XDM-3000 with the
HLXC1536 matrix card. This flexible scalability capability enables you to
increase your network capacity only as needed, in tune with your network
expansion and growth. Note that the HLXC768 fully supports all standard
service cards while simultaneously enabling use of the newer high-density
service cards. Migration to the HLXC1536 is accomplished while preserving all
services, using utilities in the management workstation.
System Architecture XDM General Description

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XIO Cards
The XIO is a combo card, combining HLXC matrix functionality and I/O card
functionality within a single board, thereby providing simpler and more
cost-effective ADM solutions. Use the XIO card to expand the XDM platform's
I/O capacity, freeing up two additional slots for I/O use.
Like the HLXC, XIO cards perform cross-connect and node-synchronization
functions simultaneously in a 1+1 protection configuration. I/O interface cards
can switch to the backup XIO card within 50 msec. If required, the backup TMU
can take over timing control from the operational XIO with no traffic disruption.
As an I/O card, the XIO192 simultaneously supports up to 1 x STM-16 interface
and 4 x STM-1 interfaces, or 1 x STM-16 interface and 1 x STM-4 interface. The
XIO384F supports up to 4 x STM-16/OTU1 interfaces or 1 x STM-64/OTU2
interface. The XIO card and the SDH I/O cards share the same extractable OMs,
supporting both colored and noncolored interfaces. The XIO card supports hot
insertion of I/O modules. The following figure illustrates the simplicity with
which you can slide an I/O module into the XIO card.

Figure 3-6: XIO with slide-in I/O module
XDM General Description System Architecture

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The XIO192/XIO384F card series is designed to optimize cost-effective
ADM4/16 (XIO192) and ADM16/64 (XIO384F) configurations, due to the
matrix's fully non-blocking LO granularity, capable of extracting a single E1
from a 40 x 10 Gbps DWDM signal. The XIO384F supports software
configurable interfaces for both SDH (STM-16/STM-64) and OTN
(OTU1/OTU2, including FEC and EFEC). This flexibility provides added value,
especially when working in a converged configuration where some interfaces
connect to a network without FEC while others may, for example, close a core
ring over C/DWDM with FEC. The following figure illustrates a typical ADM64
configuration using an XIO card.

Figure 3-7: XIO384F with ADM64 configuration
MXC Cards
The MXC is the main cross connect card for the XDM-100 product line,
combining matrix, power feeding, and timing functionality. MXC capacity is
tailored to each member of the XDM-100 product line:
MXC100B: Designed for the XDM-100 platform suite, with a capacity of
192 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (30 Gbps)
MXC300: Designed for the XDM-300, with a capacity of 384 VC-4
equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (60 Gbps)
MXC900: Designed for the XDM-900, with a capacity of 768 VC-4
equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (120 Gbps)
MXC cards support the following capabilities:
Multiplexer control and traffic processing.
SDH traffic cross connection. The switch handles aggregate and tributary
interface traffic where the maximum capacity depends on the specific
platform and component configuration.
Multiplexer timing unit.
Communications and control.
Alarm and maintenance.
Routing and handling of DCC channels.
System Architecture XDM General Description

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Like the HLXC, the XDM supports several types of cross connects in
compliance with applicable ITU-T and Telcordia standards. These include
broadband, wideband, and integrated broadband/wideband cross connects. In
addition, the MXC accommodates the NVM compact flash memory card.
The additional MXC card provides 1+1 protection to the cross connect matrix
and full 1:1 protection to all other functions, since the standby MXC maintains a
database identical to the active MXC. The I/O interface modules switch to the
protection MXC within 50 msec. The backup TMU takes over the timing control
with no disruption in traffic.
Power Feed Subsystem
XDM features a distributed fully redundant power feed subsystem. Two external
power inputs are available. Two redundant modules filter and distribute the -48
VDC nominal battery plant inputs to all internal cards through fully redundant
power buses. Each card generates its own local voltage using high quality
DC/DC converters. This distributed power concept assures system upgrading
and efficient heat distribution. It also ensures maximum reliability of the power
feed subsystem. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 3-8: Power distribution
Additional features of the power subsystem include:
Reverse polarity protection
Surge protection (2 kV line to line, 4 kV line to ground)
Over-voltage protection
Over-current and short circuit protection
Redundancy and current sharing between power units
Power fail detection + 10 msec holdup
Under-voltage detection
Lightning strike protection
Note that if the power feeding source is AC, ECI offers AC to DC converters for
up to 60A consumption with redundancy and backup batteries sufficient for
several hours.
XDM General Description System Architecture

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In the XDM-100 product line, the power feed subsystem is integrated in the
MXC, serving as an interconnection device between the modem card
and -48 VDC to -57.6 VDC power sources.
Engineering Orderwire
The Engineering Orderwire (EOW) provides 64 kbps voice communication
channels between NEs. The XDM product line currently supports two options,
pure OW and an OverHead Unit (OHU).
The XDM EOW facility is an internal communications interface that provides
voice communication service between NE sites over SDH through 64 kbps
channels, facilitating voice contact using OW (E1 and E2) and F1 bytes. It is
based on a telephone "party line" concept, where all connected parties, typically
technicians, can participate in concurrent voice-based service calls. As such, it
enables one or more technicians to make calls simultaneously using dedicated
OW channels rather than regular SDH lines.
OW lines are normally used between a remote site and the CO during initial
installation of the system, or when no telephone line is available. All calls are
bidirectional.
The OW module supports analog-to-digital encoding, decoding, and routing
functions, thus facilitating voice contact via the E1, E2, or F1 bytes (OW or
user-channel) in the SDH Section Overhead (SOH). (Note that user-channel
functionality via F1 V11 is not supported.)
The OW paths are configured by LightSoft or the EMS-MPT and the site phone
ID number is programmed by the local LCT.
The OW capability is a fully integrated feature of the XDM product line. It
supports P2P, all-broadcast, and conference calls, allowing a person at any NE
site to communicate individually or simultaneously with the sites in the network.
The OW consists of a module plugged into a dedicated Main Equipment Control
Panel OrderWire (MECP_OW) card (in the XDM-1000 product line) or into a
dedicated I/O slot (in the XDM-100 product line) with an integrated Dual Tone
MultiFrequency (DTMF) handset, cable connections, and configuration
interfaces. No other ancillary equipment is required.



System Architecture XDM General Description

3-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06





417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-1

In this chapter:
Overview ......................................................................................................... 4-1
XDM-100 ........................................................................................................ 4-2
XDM-300 ........................................................................................................ 4-5
XDM-900 ........................................................................................................ 4-6
Expansion Shelves for the XDM-100 Product Line ........................................ 4-9
XDM-40 ........................................................................................................ 4-11
XDM-450 ...................................................................................................... 4-13
XDM-500 ...................................................................................................... 4-15
XDM-1000 .................................................................................................... 4-17
XDM-2000 .................................................................................................... 4-21
XDM-3000 .................................................................................................... 4-23
Overview
This chapter describes the shelf layout of each platform in the XDM family.
XDM carrier class All-Native multiservice platforms are organized into two
groups; the XDM-100 product line, compact Packet-OTS for access aggregation
and metro/edge networks, and the XDM-1000 product line, converged
Packet-OTS platforms with integrated all-range ROADM for
metro/regional/metro-core networks.
XDM platforms have been designed to facilitate simple installation and easy
maintenance. Hot insertion of cards and modules is allowed to support quick
maintenance and repair activities without affecting traffic. The cage design and
mechanical practice of all platforms conform to international mechanical
standards and specifications.

4
XDM Platform Layout
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06


NOTE: All installation instructions, technical specifications,
restrictions, and safety warnings are provided in the XDM
Installation and Maintenance Manuals. See these manuals for
specific instructions before beginning any XDM platform
installation.
XDM-100
The XDM-100 is an economical, highly-scalable metro access multiservice
Packet-OTS aggregation platform with add-on C/DWDM capability. Ideal for
developing organizations, this modular shelf accepts a large variety of interfaces,
supports a wide range of redundant/non-redundant configurations, and covers E1
to STM-16 with the full range of carrier class Ethernet services.

Figure 4-1: XDM-100 platform
The XDM-100 boasts a completely modular structure that supports a range of
converged multiservice shelf configurations, including:
Redundant standard configuration
Expanded multiservice with I/O protection through the Tributary Protection
Unit (TPU) expansion shelf
Expanded multiservice/CWDM through the TPU/OCU expansion shelf
Typical power consumption for the XDM-100 is 350 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, please refer to the XDM-100
Installation and Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications.
Power consumption is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-3

Multiple Configuration Options
The XDM-100 shelf is housed in a 231 mm deep, 443 mm wide, and 200 mm
high equipment cage, with the exact configuration tailored to meet specific client
requirements.
Integrated Multiservice Configuration
The XDM-100 can be configured as an integrated multiservice platform
providing both SDH and Ethernet services using a cost-effective approach that
maximizes bandwidth utilization while delivering both data and voice services.
Platform components for the redundant multiservice configuration are arranged
as follows:
Eight slots (I1 to I8) flexibly allocated to up to eight I/O interface modules,
supporting a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet services
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC cards, where each
MXC has two slots (A1 and A2, B1 and B2) to accommodate SDH aggregate
modules
One slot allocated to the ECU900 module
One FCU that consists of nine separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on the MXC cards
All electrical connections are located directly in the tributary modules; therefore,
the XDM-100 does not need additional electrical interface connections. To
support system redundancy, each MXC contains an integrated XDM
xINF/xINF-H unit with connectors for two input power sources. The ECU900 is
located beneath the MXC cards. Its front panel features several interface
connectors for management, external timing, alarms, and overhead (future
release). It also includes alarm severity colored LED indicators and selectors
plus a display for selecting specific modules and ports for monitoring purposes.
The following figure depicts the layout of the basic XDM shelf.

Figure 4-2: XDM-100 slot allocation
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Expanded Multiservice with I/O Protection
Another option is to configure the XDM-100 as an expanded multiservice
platform with I/O protection. In this configuration, a TPU is mounted on top of
the basic shelf to provide protection to the I/O modules, as described in TPU
Expansion Shelf (page 4-9).
Multiservice CWDM Configuration
The multiservice CWDM configuration integrates all the functionality and
features of both multiservice transport and CWDM. This is a compact CWDM
platform for metro-access networks a cost-effective, standalone, carrier class
CWDM solution. The CWDM configuration is based on a completely modular
structure, providing a variety of data, lambda, and SDH transmission services.
The platform's versatility and increased capacity make it perfectly suited for P2P
topologies and ring configurations spanning over 100 km (60 miles),
accommodating up to 16 CWDM channels.
The multiservice CWDM configuration includes one or two TPU/OCU units
mounted on the main platform shelf, each including:
Four slots (OCM1 to OCM4) for supporting any mix of Mux/DeMux,
splitter/coupler, OADM, or optical amplifiers, described in OCU Expansion
Shelf (page 4-10), or Tributary Protection Modules (TPMs), described in
TPU Expansion Shelf (page 4-9)
One Tributary Control (TC) or Tributary Control and Fan (TCF) module for
carrying the power and control from the main shelf to the TPU/OCU
backplane
Various types of transponder modules with a variety of client data and SDH
interfaces are available for the module section. A combiner module supporting
GbE, FC, and FICON data services is also available.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-5

XDM-300
An extremely flexible and optimized platform for operator metro networks, the
XDM-300 breaks the barrier between metro edge and metro access functionality,
supporting a wide-ranging and attractive combination of cost-effective
high-performance carrier class Ethernet, SDH, PDH, and C/DWDM services.
This compact All-Native multiservice Packet-OTS is optimized for cost- and
physical size-effective implementation of MADM-64 and MADM-16 NEs. The
XDM-300 platform has been designed to meet the needs of the most demanding
customers, providing a complete solution for metro and cellular RAN
infrastructure needs and services. It provides an optimized migration path from
TDM to Ethernet-based services and from 2.5G to 10G networks. Preamplifiers
are available for STM-16 and STM-64 links over a maximum of 180 km. The
XDM-300 is versatile - its modular cards can be used interchangeably in all
members of the XDM-100 product line.

Figure 4-3: XDM-300 platform
The XDM-300 is a small footprint subrack that fits both ETSI and 19 racks. Its
dimensions are 325 mm high, 450 mm wide, and 300 mm deep. The XDM-300
standard shelf is arranged as follows:
Eighteen slots (I1 to I18) flexibly allocated to up to eighteen I/O interface
modules, including 2 SDH quad I/O modules (wide slots) and 16 tributary
interface modules (PIM, SIM, and Ethernet cards DIOM, EISMB, and
MCSM). These modules enable a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet
services.
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC300 cards.
One slot allocated to the ECU300 module.
One FCU300 that consists of eight separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on the MXC cards.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-300 can be expanded through three expansion shelves, using TPU
shelves to add tributary protection capability, and/or OCU shelves to add
CWDM modules (Mux/DeMux, OADM, optical filters).

Figure 4-4: XDM-300 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-300 is 800 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-300 Installation and
Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications. Power consumption
is monitored through the management software.
XDM-900
The XDM-900 is a high density carrier class All-Native multiservice
Ethernet/TDM platform optimized for high-capacity nodes in metro and
metro-core networks.
The XDM-900 offers both native Ethernet and native TDM transport. By
supporting the most advanced carrier class Ethernet-based services (Layer 1,
Layer 2, EoS, MPLS-TP over transport as well as native Ethernet/MPLS-TP),
the XDM-900 is well positioned to implement cellular backhaul
transition/migration plans while supporting full triple play services for
residential NGN applications. This platform lets you preserve your existing
network structure and working procedures as you move towards packet-based
delivery.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-7

The XDM-900 provides high density (120 Gbps TDM and 240 Gbps switching)
cost-optimized native Ethernet and TDM handling, from MADM-16/64 to full
blown 10 GbE Layer 2 Ethernet and MPLS-TP switching, all in a single chassis,
enabling cost-effective network expansion and smooth migration to NG
packet-based transport networks. This future-proof platform offers best-of-breed
capabilities and optional ASON control support for enhanced protection and
restoration. With minimal power consumption and a reduced physical footprint,
the XDM-900 is the greener way to do more with less at a lower cost.

Figure 4-5: XDM-900 platform
The XDM-900 is a small footprint subrack that fits into ETSI, 19, and 21
racks. Its dimensions are 325 mm high, 443 mm wide, and 300 mm deep. Up to
three XDM-900 platforms can be installed per rack, providing up to 360 Gbps
capacity per rack with low power consumption. The XDM-900 standard shelf is
arranged as follows:
Eighteen slots (I1 to I18) flexibly allocated to up to eighteen I/O interface
modules, including 2 SDH quad I/O modules (wide slots) and 16 tributary
interface modules (PIM, SIM, and Ethernet cards DIOM, EISMB, and
MCSM). These modules enable a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet
services, supporting up to 12 STM-64 or up to 48 STM-16 interfaces.
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC900 cards, for 120G
cross connect control. Integrated ASON control capabilities are available
using an optional ASON module in the MXC-900.
One slot allocated to the ECU900/ECU900F module.
One FCU-900 that consists of eight separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on the MXC cards.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-900 can be expanded through three expansion shelves, using TPU
shelves to add tributary protection capability and/or OCU shelves to add CWDM
modules (Mux/DeMux, OADM, optical filters).

Figure 4-6: XDM-900 slot layout
Typical power consumption for the XDM-900 is 1000 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-900 Installation and
Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications. Power consumption
is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-9

Expansion Shelves for the
XDM-100 Product Line
TPU Expansion Shelf
TPU expansion shelves can be added to the basic XDM-100 product line
platforms to add protection to electrical I/O modules. The TPU shelf attaches to
a connector on top of the main XDM shelf, which provides the power and control
buses required for its operation. When the TPU is not installed, a protection cap
covers this connector.
The TPU is a 231 mm deep, 443 mm wide, and 75 mm high unit. The TPU
modules are distributed as follows:
Four slots flexibly allocated for optical networking modules or TPMs
(single-slot or double-slot modules are supported)
One slot allocated for a TC or TCF module
Each TPM is connected to the operating and protection modules of the XDM
shelf respectively. If a failure is detected in one of the operating I/O modules, the
XDM control system sends control signals to the appropriate TPM relays to
switch traffic from the operating I/O module to the protection module. Several
types of TPMs for 1:1 or 1:3 protection schemes are supported. For more
information, see I/O Protection Modules (page 7-9).
The TC or TCF is connected to the DC and control buses of the MXC cards via
the TPU backplane. It controls the switching of traffic from the main to
protection I/O module by relays in the corresponding TPM. In addition, the TCF
has four fans that provide cooling air to the modules installed in the TPU
(optional).
The TPU standard layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-7: TPU shelf
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OCU Expansion Shelf
An OCU can be mounted on top of the XDM-100H and XDM-300 platforms,
housing passive optical expansion modules and providing interfaces to the
CWDM network when the XDM is configured as a WDM platform. The
modules are connected externally to the I/O modules, at the front of the unit.
The OCU can support any combination of up to four Mux/DeMux, OADM,
amplifiers, and passive splitter/coupler modules. The Mux/DeMux and OADM
modules may include eight (up to sixteen in the future) different CWDM
wavelengths, some featuring a built-in OSC filter, as follows:
Mux/DeMux for four C band CWDM lambdas, with a 1310 nm OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for four S and L band CWDM lambdas, without an OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for eight C, S, and L band CWDM lambdas, including a
1310 nm OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for sixteen O, C, S, and L band CWDM lambdas (future
release)
Expandable Mux/DeMux for four C band CWDM lambdas, including a
1310 nm OSC filter, expandable to support eight lambdas
Optical AB-type OADM1 modules for adding/dropping any one of eight
CWDM lambdas, including a 1310 nm OSC filter
Dual-lambda AB-type OADM2 modules for several lambda pairs, including
a 1310 nm OSC filter
Amplifiers, boosters, and preamplifiers for single STM-16 and STM-64
links
The coupler/splitter modules include:
Quad coupler/splitter (50%) for single-mode fiber (SMF) 1310 nm
Quad coupler/splitter (50%) for multimode fiber (MMF) 850 nm
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-11

XDM-40
The XDM-40 is a small, powerful WDM and OTN platform designed for
broadband metro-access and CPE applications. This small platform is ideal for
customer premises and co-location in metro networks with low wavelength
requirements. With its ability to transparently deliver 1/2.5/10 GbE and storage
services, the XDM-40 partners well with the XDM-1000 product line platforms
for an integrated metro-access to core/regional solution, driving additional
capital/operational cost savings.
The XDM-40 enables SPs to build E2E, flexible, standards-based OTN solutions
that address the growing demand for business data transport. It gives SPs the
flexibility to take full advantage of their existing networks while providing a
smooth and fully supported migration to IP over optics. The XDM-40 is ideal for
transporting traffic to network hubs, featuring a small footprint and flexible
packaging, with high availability from CWDM to DWDM including pluggable
optics, and offering WDM capabilities, optimal support for STM-1, STM-4,
STM-16, STM-64, 1GFC, 2GFC, 10GFC, GbE, OTU1, OTU2, and OTU3
storage extension, and support for SDH-all on a single platform. The XDM-40
also functions as an optimal amplification element in regional/long-haul
networks.

Figure 4-8: XDM-40 platform
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The compact XDM-40 shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 447 mm wide, and 256
mm high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Two slots (I1 and I2) flexibly allocated to I/O optical transponders,
combiners, and/or amplifiers
Two slots (M1 and M2) allocated to DWDM/OADM, optical amplifiers, and
accessories modules
One slot (C1) allocated to the xMCP-B card
One slot (C3) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces
Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy
One ECM to facilitate routing of external management interfaces,
connecting the management, overhead access (OHA), and OW interfaces to
the active xMCP
One xFCU that consists of three separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, as well as the PSFU
The FCU at the right side of the shelf provides cooling air to the system. It
contains nine separate fans, which add to system redundancy. Air is drawn in by
the fans from the right side of the chassis, and is exhausted through the
horizontally mounted cards and modules and through the left side of the chassis.
The fan assembly is hot-swappable.
The XDM-40 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-9: XDM-40 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-40 is 360 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-40 Installation and
Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications. Power consumption
is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-13

XDM-450
The XDM-450 platform is a standalone Computer Control Panel (CCP) shelf for
optics overlay. It provides an efficient cost-effective way to add optical capacity
to your network configuration. This platform can serve as an add-on to host
additional OMs such as amplifiers and ROADMs. The XDM-450 is especially
valuable for use with the XDM-300, XDM-1000, XDM-2000, XDM-3000, and
ECI's CESR 9000 platforms, supporting alien lambda extensions and enabling a
smooth DWDM upgrade path.
In a classic example of efficient modular design, the XDM-450 uses the same
CCP cage modules as all other members of the XDM-1000 product line,
providing nine additional module slots within a small footprint platform of only
8.5U height.

Figure 4-10: XDM-450 platform
The standard XDM-450 is located in a 275 mm deep, 492 mm wide, and 374 mm
high shelf with a single cards cage section. The XDM-450 standard shelf is
arranged as follows.
Nine CCP slots (M1 to M9) flexibly allocated to DWDM modules such as
ROADMs, Mux/DeMuxes, and amplifiers.
One slot (C0) allocated to the xECM-450 card, for user and management
interfaces.
One slot (C1) allocated to the xMCP-B2G card.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

One slot for optional OSC Mux/DeMux module with integrated C/T filter
(ACC4OSC5).
Two xINF-450 modules designed for power supply redundancy.
xFCU-450 fan unit to support cooling system redundancy.
The XDM-450 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-11: XDM-450 slot layout
Typical power consumption for the XDM-450 is 280 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-450 Installation and
Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications. Power consumption
is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-15

XDM-500
The XDM-500 is a compact multiservice Packet-OTS with integrated all-range
WSS ROADM, for high capacity aggregation of TDM and Ethernet/MPLS
services over optical infrastructure in metro and regional networks. The
XDM-500 is optimized for the metro-edge, where it collects multiple services
and delivers them to the COs and POPs in the core. The XDM-500 provides
traditional broadband services as well as sophisticated optical capabilities such
as multidegree ROADM technology and highly advanced data services such as
adaptive rate GbE, sophisticated Layer 2 Ethernet, and Packet over SDH (PoS).
It can be used either as a simple ADM or as a multi-ADM/TM for distributed
ring cross connectivity.

Figure 4-12: XDM-500 platform
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-500 compact shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and
725 mm high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Six slots (IC1 to IC6) flexibly allocated to I/O cards and/or transponders
(depending on the configuration)
Four slots (MC1 to MC4) allocated to electric interface connection modules
or DWDM/OADM modules
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated to the HLXC or XIO matrix cards
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards
One slot (C3) allocated to the MECP card, for connecting the OHA and OW
interfaces to the active xMCP card
Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy
Three xFCUs to support cooling system redundancy
The XDM-500 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-13: XDM-500 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-500 is 720 W. For more information
about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-500 Installation and
Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications. Power consumption
is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-17

XDM-1000
The XDM-1000 is a future-proof converged All-Native multiservice
Packet-OTS with integrated all-range WSS ROADM for high capacity
aggregation of TDM and Ethernet/MPLS services over optical infrastructure,
optimized for metro and regional networks. The XDM-1000 offers a unique
convergence of SDH, TDM/ATM, Carrier Ethernet/MPLS, and all-range
WDM/OTN ROADM on a single platform, leading the Packet-OTS market
segment.
With a 100% non-blocking E1 to STM-64 switching matrix of 120 Gbps, up to
400 Gbps of Ethernet/MPLS-TP switching capacity, and a variety of interfaces
(E1, STM-1/4/16/64, OC-3/12/48/192, FE/GbE/10 GbE) over up to 40/80
DWDM channels, it fits a broad range of applications and services, including
mobile backhaul, business, MSO, CoCs, and residential triple play. With
extensive support for both data (Layer 1, Layer 2, EoS, MPLS) and optics
(C/DWDM and WSS ROADM), the XDM-1000 supports a smooth migration
path to packet-based networks.
The XDM-1000 can be configured as pure multiservice platform (up to n x
STM-64), or as a pure C/DWDM and multidegree ROADM. As a DXC, it forms
a fully protected mesh core; as a multi-ADM, it simultaneously closes STM-64
core MS-SPRing and multiple edge SNCP rings; as a DWDM, it enables
migration from SDH to DWDM networks, providing high capacity and
sublambda grooming and reliability. The XDM-1000 provides connectivity
between CO legacy switches from E1 to STM-1 trunks, and between POPs over
native FE, GbE, SAN, or POS, while efficiently grooming traffic from edge
rings.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06


Figure 4-14: XDM-1000 platform
The standard XDM-1000 is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and
1100 mm high shelf with a modules cage and a cards cage section. The
XDM-1000 standard shelf is arranged as follows.
Twelve slots (I1 to I12) flexibly allocated to I/O cards and/or transponders,
depending on the configuration.
Eleven slots (M1 to M11) allocated to electric interface connection modules
or DWDM/OADM, optical booster, optical preamp modules.
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated to the HLXC or XIO matrix cards. Note that
HLXC cards in these two slots support greater matrix functionality, enabling
greater port capacity per slot, while XIO cards in these two slots provide
additional I/O functionality, enabling greater port density per slot.
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-19

One slot (C0) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces.
Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy.
Three xFCUs to support cooling system redundancy.
The modules cage contains 11 double-slot connection modules. Electrical I/O
cards installed in the cards cage interface with the XDM-1000 shelf via interface
connection modules installed in the modules cage. The modules are extractable,
thus allowing a flexible assignment of physical I/O ports.
Optical I/O cards utilize internal slide-in I/O modules for signal interfacing and
do not require connection modules in the modules cage. The free modules cage
slots in optical systems can therefore be allocated to DWDM or OADM
multiplexing and amplification modules.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-1000 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-15: XDM-1000 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-1000 is 1200 W. For more
information about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-1000
Installation and Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications.
Power consumption is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-21

XDM-2000
Optimized for pure DWDM and converged optical applications, the XDM-2000
is designed for metro and metro-regional cores. The XDM-2000 is a high density
DWDM platform providing intelligent sublambda grooming and optimum
wavelength utilization, transporting up to 1.6 Tbps and integrating the most
advanced optical units with varied interfaces and an ultra high-capacity matrix,
all in one small low-cost package.
As the most flexible optical switch on the market today, the XDM-2000 can be
configured as a pure C/DWDM and ROADM, as a converged Packet-OTS, or as
a pure multiservice platform (up to n x STM-64).

Figure 4-16: XDM-2000 platform
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-2000 shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and 775 mm
high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Twelve slots (I1 to I12) flexibly allocated to OMs (transponders and/or other
optical amplifiers)
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated for Mux/DeMux cards or for XIO/HLXC
cards, depending on the system configuration
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards
One slot (C0) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces
The XDM-2000 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-17: XDM-2000 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-2000 is 1200 W. For more
information about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-2000
Installation and Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications.
Power consumption is monitored through the management software.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-23

XDM-3000
The XDM-3000 is a high capacity Packet-OTS (240 Gbps TDM and up to
500 Gbps Ethernet/MPLS-TP switching), ideal for regional metro-core
networks. The platform offers a large fan-out with 24 slots for service cards.
Built-in support for both TDM and carrier class Ethernet services enables
efficient use of existing network infrastructure while supporting smooth
migration to NG networks.
The XDM-3000 is designed for ever-expanding optical transport traffic
demands, with network migration to n x 10G interfaces increasing the bulk
bandwidth requirements for core platforms. Adding the high capacity of the
XDM-3000 to heavily populated sites relieves traffic bottlenecks on a per-site
basis without introducing changes to the rest of the network. The platform
enables network expansion and improved bandwidth efficiency through the use
of 10 Gbps cards to maximize utilization of available slots.
As a multi-ADM, the XDM-3000 provides multi-ring closure, simultaneously
closing STM-16/STM-64 core MS-SPRing and multiple edge SNCP rings, and
providing improved protection and restoration capabilities. The XDM-3000 can
also be used as a cost-effective DXC for heavy traffic sites, forming a fully
protected mesh core. The large amount of LO traffic handled by this platform
enables full connectivity for TDM networks. The XDM-3000 also offers built-in
ASON for enhanced protection and restoration capabilities.
The XDM-3000 can handle the complete range of SDH data rates (STM-1 to
STM-64) through high capacity SDH interfaces. In the metro core, services are
usually HO STM-16/STM-64. The XDM-3000 can also aggregate SDH or data
traffic into colored 2.5G/10G DWDM/OTN wavelengths, with configurable
FEC. Traffic can thereby be directly connected to external DWDM
Muxes/DeMuxes with no need for transponders.
The combination of the XDM-3000's unique full switching capabilities at the
VC-12 level, together with its carrier class Ethernet/MPLS capabilities, provides
network operators with a mature, reliable, cost-effective functionality that
enables operators to meet their customer's expectations and expand their data
services with fine granularity over an SDH network.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-3000's 100% LO (VC-12) non-blocking connectivity greatly
increases network efficiency, for two simple reasons:
With the XDM-3000, a single high capacity platform also provides full
service connectivity. There is no need to waste resources on an additional
platform.
NG data services are ideally transmitted using LO granularity. This saves the
operator bandwidth and the customer money. The platform used must
therefore support as large a capacity of LO traffic as possible. In this case, it's
a matter of the more, the better.
However, LO capacity at the portal is often limited by the capacity of the
platforms handling the LO interfaces. When using an XDM-3000, the LO
connectivity capacity offered by the XDM-3000 matches the full 240 Gbps
capacity supported by the XDM-3000, rather than being limited to the lower
capacity of any additional platform.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-25


Figure 4-18: XDM-3000 front view
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The XDM-3000 is located in a 350 mm deep, 492 mm wide, and 1550 mm high
shelf. The XDM-3000 consists of an I/O card cage arranged in four sections,
together with additional power, communication, and control units, as follows:
24 slots (I1 to I24) flexibly allocated to I/O cards and/or amplifiers,
depending on the configuration. I/O card options include combinations of up
to 24 SIO or DIOB cards, and/or up to 10 MCS cards. Single channel OFA2
or OFA_M amplifiers can be used for long distance applications.
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated to HLXC1536 matrix cards.
Two slots (A1 and A2) allocated to ACP3000 ASON cards.
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP-B2G cards.
One slot (C0) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces.
One ECB3000 that provides external connections for the MECP card.
Two INF3000s designed for power supply redundancy.
Two FCU3000 fan units with ten fans each.
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-27

The XDM-3000 slot layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-19: XDM-3000 slot allocation
Typical power consumption for the XDM-3000 is 3300 W. For more
information about power consumption requirements, see the XDM-3000
Installation and Maintenance Manual and the XDM System Specifications.
Power consumption is monitored through the management software.



XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06






417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-1

In this chapter:
Overview ......................................................................................................... 5-1
Introducing ECI's Hybrid
+
Architecture .......................................................... 5-3
Increased Capacity ........................................................................................... 5-7
Protection Enhancements ................................................................................ 5-9
Quality of Service .......................................................................................... 5-10
OAM .............................................................................................................. 5-13
Synchronization ............................................................................................. 5-14
Security .......................................................................................................... 5-16
XDM Data Services ....................................................................................... 5-18
Benefits of XDM Family Platforms .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary ..................................................................... 5-30
Overview
The volume and patterns of telecommunication traffic are constantly changing.
Volume is growing exponentially, with most of the expansion driven by new
data services for businesses together with new residential triple play services
(voice, video, and HSI) offered by both fixed and mobile SPs. The data services
in greatest demand include:
Business Applications: Enterprises need increasing bandwidth to support
new applications like VoIP, video conferencing, instant messaging, file
sharing, and very high speed connections to the Internet and between
geographically dispersed branches. ISPs and other Application Service
Providers (ASPs), such as Storage Service Providers, require data
connectivity to connect their POPs and reach their customers.
5
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Mobile: Data traffic growth in mobile networks is driven by several factors.
Mobile Internet is gaining momentum, as well as new multimedia
applications like mobile TV, gaming, and Multimedia Messaging Service
(MMS). The shift to 3G-based IP infrastructures for delivering more
bandwidth at a lower cost per bit is another factor. In addition, mobile
operators are expanding into new businesses, exploiting their massive
presence in metro areas to provide business services and to lease bandwidth
(Carrier of Carrier (CoC) service).
Residential Triple Play: Always on the lookout for new revenues while
trying to keep their positioning competitive, SPs are extending their business
model to offer triple play service bundles including voice, HSI, and video
(IPTV and VoD). While downlink is still the dominant channel, more and
more bandwidth is also required for uplink to support peer-to-peer
applications.

Figure 5-1: All-range carrier class MPLS/Ethernet data solution
To meet these evolving demands, telecommunications is moving from voice
PSTN to VoIP, from TDM leased lines to Ethernet VPNs, from TDM-based 2G
and 2.5G mobile networks to 3G/4G data networks, and from simple BE HSI
access to advanced triple play networks for SMB, enterprise, and home use.
Today's operator challenge is to build an infrastructure that maximizes
bandwidth capacity while minimizing costs. Network upgrades must be
relatively smooth and painless, maintaining revenue flow from legacy services
and not requiring a major change to operations. Operators must be able to
provide a carrier class standard of service with more bandwidth at less cost per
bit, and still get a satisfactory ROI.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-3

This is where ECI solutions come into play. ECI's All-Native transport solution
combines native TDM service with native Ethernet service and MPLS TP
connectivity, for a NG All-Native Packet-OTS platform that provides cost
efficient transport of both TDM and Ethernet services with the scalability,
reliability, and the strict QoS requirements dictated by modern communication
applications.
Introducing ECI's Hybrid
+

Architecture
Hybrid
+
is a suite of hardware modules, software features, and management
tools that together enable All-Native capabilities in the XDM platforms. The
modular design enables smooth, cost-efficient, painless upgrades from existing
(TDM-based) MSPP systems to powerful hybrid TDM/packet transport
platforms that offer:
Native packet and TDM handling
Any service (TDM, Ethernet) over any medium (fiber, microwave)
One management system for all network layers and technologies
E2E provisioning, protection, OAM, MPLS-TP, and synchronization
capabilities, providing SDH-like performance and management for NG
packet-based services
Minimize OPEX by maintaining continuity in working procedures
Low risk with gradual and controlled expenditures only as needed to meet
expanding service demands
Minimize TCO for Ethernet overlay

Figure 5-2: Packet transport network architecture
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

To support this architecture, XDM platforms have enhanced their product
offering with the following expanded capabilities:
Increased Capacity: Through a comprehensive set of mechanisms,
including:
Greatly increased scale of the MCS30/MCS50 cards
Intercard MoE that enables efficient Ethernet overlay
Centralized hybrid matrix supporting increased capacity for All-Native
TDM and packet traffic
Synchronization: Enabling a carrier-class quality of service for
packet-based services through support for both SyncE and IEEE 1588v2
synchronization.
MPLS-TP Functionality: Support for bidirectional tunnel service with
MPLS-TP tunnel OAM, based on Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
(BFD).
Enhanced Protection: Dual parenting protection, offering resilient
protection through a combination of provider edge (PE) dual homing based
on pseudowire (PW) redundancy and customer edge (CE) dual homing
based on multi-chassis LAG (MC-LAG).
Benefits of XDM Family
Platforms
Many network operators have started to deploy MPLS networks that provide a
cost-effective solution supporting all services with carrier class capabilities and
significant OPEX and CAPEX reduction. MPLS technology is used as a
transport layer to carry Ethernet service across the network metro and core. The
enhanced carrier class Ethernet data functionality provided by ECI platforms
offers the following unique value propositions:
Complete solution portfolio, supporting Layer 1, Layer 2, and MPLS for
residential, cellular, and business applications, access/RAN to core. Offering
E2E carrier class MPLS/Ethernet solutions with high reliability, five 9s
service availability, and assured service delivery.
Easy-to-use network management across different networks (MPLS,
PB, UME third-party devices) through LightSoft. LightSoft enables
point-and-click service creation and E2E service provisioning. Efficient
resource management is accomplished with preprovisioned Connection
Admission Control (CAC) to check for resource availability. Operators can
define Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLGs) to enhance and guarantee
protection.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-5

Smooth third-party interworking, supporting popular E-LSP as well as
L-LSP tunnels for MPLS over Transport (MoT), MPLS over Fabric (MoF),
and MPLS over Ethernet (MoE), enabling smooth interworking with
third-party Carrier Ethernet equipment. Optional S-VLAN encapsulation of
MPLS traffic enables transparent transport of MPLS tunnels over the
IP/MPLS core.
Enhanced Ethernet QoS: MPLS-TE and other mechanisms such as
classification, VLAN manipulation, policing, Weighted Random Early
Detection (WRED), scheduling, and shaping enable Ethernet service to offer
differentiated services with the appropriate QoS or QoE. This is
accomplished through MPLS-TE controlling required service parameters
such as delay, delay variation, and loss. SLAs can be extended with
meaningful performance-related criteria.
Increased network and service scalability: MPLS supports hundreds of
thousands of Ethernet services, removing VLAN and Media Access Control
(MAC) scalability limitations.
Full E2E OAM for efficient fault localization, utilizing the following
mechanisms:
Ethernet link OAM (IEEE 802.3-05 (formerly 802.3ah))
MPLS tunnel OAM (ITU-T Y.1711)
BFD for MPLS-TP bidirectional tunnels
Service OAM featuring CFM (IEEE 802.1ag)
Extensive E2E protection mechanisms, supporting:
Fast Input/Output Protection (IOP) for card protection.
Sub-50 msec protection using MPLS FRR, offering sophisticated link,
node, and dual protection options.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) protection against link or node
failures in Ethernet networks, used for loop resolution and restoration in
ring and multi-ring configurations.
Dual homed/attached protection for H-VPLS network configurations,
utilizing Customer Change Notification (CCN) and ERP mechanisms.
Link Aggregation Groups (LAG), configured for load sharing or
protection purposes, for all ETY and EoS port types (UNI, E-NNI, and
I-NNI).
Ethernet Ring Protection (ERP), enabling sub-50 msec protection for
Ethernet rings.
Multichassis LAG (MC-LAG) provides link protection between ports on
the same or different cards.
Pseudowire (PW) protection against endpoint node failures for dual
homed services. PW protection interworks with MC-LAG for complete
E2E protection.
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Comprehensive security, offering protection for the network, the user, and
the provider through use of Virtual Switch Instance (VSI) VPN segregation,
VLAN filtering, Forwarding Information Base (FIB) quotas, and Broadcast
Storm Control (BSC). Each client is separated from the other as well as
secured from MAC DoS attacks. Each client is maintained within its own
Ethernet switch, using thousands of virtual switches.
Low TCO providing a cost-effective solution that includes:
Reduced OPEX and CAPEX through integration of multiple networks
(TDM, carrier class Ethernet, WDM) and multiple services into a single
converged MPLS network.
Optimized triple play solutions and IPTV bandwidth efficiency using
multicast trees.
Lower cost per port compared to other carrier class solutions.
Future-readiness for carrier class solution evolution using MPLS-TP.
Software-upgradable for future services.
SP revenue generation through any market segment with efficient
provisioning of all MPLS-based Ethernet services:
E-Line, both EPL and EVPL, including VPWS P2P service using
Martini encapsulation.
E-LAN, both EPLAN and EVPLAN, including VPLS-LAN over the
metro with MP2MP service in a full mesh scheme, as well as H-VPLS
for improved MP2MP efficiency.
E-Tree, both EP-Tree and EVP-Tree, including hub and spoke
configurations, rooted MP multicast, and P2MP drop-and-continue
multicast for Broadcast TV (BTV) and e-learning services.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-7

Increased Capacity
Capacity is a key factor in NG telecom. Network operators need cost-effective
ways to increase capacity without increasing overhead. Increased capacity is a
key element of the XDM data services solution suite.
ECI solutions increase network capacity through the following cost-effective
mechanisms:
Native Ethernet service at the card level: Packets do not have to be
transmitted through the TDM matrix.
MPLS over Ethernet (MoE): Ethernet ports can be incorporated into an
MPLS domain. MoE links can be used to link different ECI network
domains or to connect to third-party networks using 1G and/or 10G ports
available on the data cards.
Intercard connectivity: Supported for adjacent MCS30/MCS50/MCSM50
cards. Direct 10 GbE Ethernet connectivity through the backplane bypasses
the matrix.
High-capacity MCS30/MCS50 cards support the extra bandwidth required for
NG networks. For example, MCS50-X10G cards used in platforms of the
XDM-1000 product line support four ports of 10-GbE and four ports of 1-GbE
onboard LAN ports, with a total card switching capacity of 50 Gbps (with TM)
for packets ranging in size from 64 bytes to 9K bytes. The 20 GbE cross-card
connection capacity enables termination of up to three 10 GbE Ethernet rings on
a single card, with additional 10 Gbps WAN capacity with up to 96 EoS/MoT
WAN on 10G slots. When working in Hybrid
+
configurations, the
MCS50-X10G card provides dual mode connectivity through simultaneous 10G
connectivity to the SDH matrix and 10G/20G connectivity to the packet
switching system.

Figure 5-3: 10G MoE integrated Ethernet
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Ethernet Overlay
MCS30/MCS50/MCSM50 cards support an efficient Ethernet overlay approach
for SDH ring networks, enabling 1 GbE or 10 GbE connectivity for Layer 2
services in parallel to the SDH transport. The Ethernet overlay ring is closed
using two ports on the MCS30/MCS50 cards. On the MCS30 cards one port is a
10 GbE MoE port on the card panel and the second port is an intercard MoE port.
Ethernet overlay capabilities effectively increase BW capacity for SDH network
operators. The following figure illustrates a typical application. The Ethernet
ring (10G MoE) operates in parallel to the SDH ring (2.5G MoT). In this
configuration, MCS30/MCS50/MCSM50 cards are used to aggregate 1G/10G
MoE rings, enhancing packet efficiency and overall network capacity. High
capacity 10 GbE or STM-64 overlay rings are configured using redundant MoE
links between pairs of MCS cards, thanks to local switching capabilities build
into the cards. This solution provides increased BW capacity together with
efficient MPLS-TP protection.

Figure 5-4: Ethernet overlay application
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-9

Protection Enhancements
Network protection and resiliency are critical to telecom network functionality.
The XDM provides a comprehensive set of E2E protection and restoration
mechanisms for every aspect of your network configuration, based on the
complete range of technologies.
MPLS Protection Mechanisms
FRR, for sub-50 msec protection against tunnel, link, and transit node
failures, with sophisticated dual protection options.
MC-LAG, for link and equipment protection towards routers and RNC
between ports on the same or different cards. The LAG partner is unaware of
being connected to two devices; from the partner's perspective, the MC-LAG
protection is invisible.
PW Redundancy, a mechanism that provides protection at the service layer
for service ports, PWs, and PEs. PW Redundancy eliminates single points of
failure while ensuring that only one path is active between pairs of PE or CE
nodes.
Dual-homed protection for H-VPLS networks enables dual homing for
multiple access rings connected to a core ring. Typical configurations
include full mesh within each access ring combined with spokes reaching
from each ring towards gateway nodes in the core ring. The access rings may
be either open or closed.
Ethernet Protection
RSTP protection, defined by IEEE 802.1w, prevents Ethernet loops in the
network while allowing connection backup in the event of failure.
ERP is an enhanced protection mechanism defined by ITU-T G.8032 that
supports improved resiliency, manageability, and reliability of metro
Ethernet networks. ERP offers protection switching in less than 50 msec for
both link and equipment faults.
Dual homing protection to two different gateway PEs or to two different
ports of a single gateway PE avoids the single point of failure (SPoF)
dilemma at the network edge. Dual homing can be combined with LAG
when the access network is connected to a single gateway PE. Protection
against access network failures, as well as gateway PE failures, is provided
by running RSTP or ERP in the access network.
Link Loss Carry Forward (LLCF) is a method for ensuring traffic flow
continuity with minimal disruption even if a link goes down. LLCF assists in
troubleshooting remote connections and provides an early indication of
failing links in router interconnections.
For more information, see XDM Protection and Restoration Mechanisms (page
10-1).
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Quality of Service
XDM platforms support hard QoS with guaranteed E2E SLAs for business,
mobile, and residential users. This level of QoS enables efficient differentiated
services, allowing SPs to tailor the level of service and performance to the
requirements of their customers (real-time, mission-critical, BE, etc.), as well as
assuring the necessary network resources for CIR and EIR. XDM's TM
capabilities support the following QoS mechanisms:
Hierarchical QoS enables fine tuning of traffic flow based on a structured
approach and a finer granularity of traffic categorization.
Eight CoS levels per port used for service differentiation, maximizing SLA
diversity and optimizing packet handling throughout the network. Each CoS
can be assigned a scheduling priority.
Auto Queuing, with 256 K queue traffic manager, for true E2E bandwidth
guarantees per MPLS tunnel.
Auto WRED mechanism for TCP-friendly congestion management.
Optional manual WRED, where user can configure WRED curves and
assign them per CoS on non-MPLS port.
Auto Shaping that provides rate limiting and burst smoothing. Optional
manual shaping, where user can configure committed and excess rate limits
per CoS on non-MPLS ports.
Auto Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) scheduling mechanism, ensuring
that bandwidth is distributed fairly between individual queues. Optional
manual scheduling, where user can configure weight per CoS per switch.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-11

Traffic Management and Performance
Intelligent TM enables reliable provision of different SLA levels. For example,
policer profiles encapsulating the bandwidth parameters defined for Ethernet
services are one of the tools used by TM, allowing greater flexibility when
managing different customer scenarios. Bandwidth allocations and traffic
priority can be configured per ingress or egress UNI ports, as well as per port, per
EVC, and per CoS. This hierarchical approach is illustrated in the following
figure.

Figure 5-5: Traffic management with policer profiles
Some of the TM tools utilized by the XDM platforms include:
Classification: A method for categorizing network traffic CoS upon ingress
and marking packets upon egress. XDM platforms support classification
based on C-VLAN as well as DSCP (implemented on ingress and egress for
both IP and non-IP traffic). DSCP implementation enables TM that skillfully
incorporates DSCP capabilities wherever DSCP is in use.
Policing: TM in the XDM utilizes two-rate three-color policing to achieve a
notable combination of efficiency and flexibility, supporting CIR, EIR,
Committed Burst Size (CBS), and Excess Burst Size (EBS) traffic
categories. Intelligent bandwidth management enables profile enhancement
capabilities that improve handling of 'bursty' traffic as well. Bandwidth
management profiles are extended based on MEF5 standards. Policing is
implemented on both the ingress and egress sides, allowing greater
flexibility when managing different customer scenarios.
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

TE manager that supports traffic QoS on the data plane level. This service
ensures that each traffic queue receives its guaranteed bandwidth and other
resources while simultaneously allocating extra available bandwidth fairly
among the queues. The TE manager implements buffer management
(WRED), scheduling (WFQ), shaping, and counting on a three-level
hierarchy per port, per class, and per tunnel.

Figure 5-6: Network traffic management
Flow control with frame buffering (802.3x) reduces traffic congestion.
When the input buffer memory on an Ethernet port is nearly full, the data
card sends a 'Pause' packet back to the traffic source, requesting a halt in
packet transmission for a specified time period. After the period has passed,
traffic transmission is resumed. This approach gives the overloaded input
buffer a little 'breathing room' while the card clears out the input data and
sends it on its way. The following figure illustrates an NE sending a 'Pause'
packet to the link partner.

Figure 5-7: Pause frame example
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-13

OAM
OAM functions provide mechanisms for monitoring a physical or logical
connection. XDM platforms provide full E2E OAM for efficient fault
localization.
Data network OAM capabilities include:
MPLS tunnel OAM, based on Y.1711, providing continuous E2E tunnel
connectivity verification as well as monitoring of endpoints and PWs
running over the tunnel, through BFD support for MPLS-TP in bidirectional
tunnels.
Ethernet link OAM, based on IEEE 802.3-05 (formerly 802.3ah), featuring
remote failure indication, remote loopback control, and link monitoring that
includes diagnostic information.
Service OAM, based on IEEE 802.1ag, featuring Connectivity Fault
Management (CFM) that enables E2E network OAM for Ethernet networks.
Performance Monitoring tools and other internal card implementations.
The MPLS-TP OAM packets follow the same path as the data flows. Generic
Alert Labels (GAL) are used to differentiate between user and OAM packets.
E2E OAM can be achieved by combining the various OAM techniques, as
illustrated in the following figure. Ethernet link OAM can be used to monitor
and localize failure at the connection point between the customer and the PT.
MPLS tunnel OAM can be used to monitor the connections along the provider's
MPLS network. Service OAM provides E2E service monitoring.

Figure 5-8: E2E OAM
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The following figure illustrates how OAM for the PEs in the previous figure
would be implemented on multiple levels.

Figure 5-9: OAM at the tunnel, link, and service levels
Synchronization
Synchronization is essential for mobile backhauling. Base stations in wireless
networks must be synchronized to a common clock for smooth call handoff
between adjacent cells. Until recently, it has not been possible to work with
Ethernet protocols, which are by nature asynchronous, in wireless networks for
which synchronization is essential.
XDM platforms in 3G backhauling networks are able to support intelligent
combinations of SyncE and 1588v2 synchronization mechanisms, providing the
most efficient solution for synchronizing NodeBs connected via Ethernet
interfaces, depending on the network configuration and infrastructure.

Figure 5-10: Synchronization in mobile backhaul networks
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-15

Synchronous Ethernet
Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) is a powerful physical layer approach to
frequency synchronization that provides an elegant effective solution to the lack
of synchronization in traditional Ethernet. SyncE is based on the
well-established SDH synchronization model extended for Ethernet-based
networks. SyncE uses the physical layer interface to pass timing from node to
node, as done in SDH networks.
The MCS family cards support SyncE synchronization, which is fully
compatible with the asynchronous nature of traditional Ethernet. SyncE is
defined in ITU-T standards G.8261, G.8262, and G.8264.
SyncE makes it possible for mobile operators to incorporate Ethernet in their
network infrastructure. SyncE clocks, as defined in G.8262, are compatible with
the clocks used in current synchronous networks. As a result, forward-looking
network synchronization designs can remain consistent with existing network
synchronization implementations.
In a typical use case, optical ports on the MCS30/MCS50 family of cards support
SyncE on the Tx direction for SDH clock to all service interfaces. The
MCSM50-SX10G card is also hardware-ready to support SyncE on the Rx
direction. These capabilities enable use of an efficient Ethernet infrastructure for
the mobile backhauling network.
IEEE 1588v2 PTP
The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) provides a standard method for
high precision synchronization of network-connected clocks. PTP is a
time-transfer protocol enabling slave clocks to synchronize to a known master
clock, ensuring that multiple devices operate using the same time base. The
protocol operates in master/slave configuration using UDP packets over IP. The
following figure illustrates the associated protocol stack.

Figure 5-11: PTP protocol stack
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

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PTP is an application layer protocol that is implemented over
UDP/IPv4/Ethernet, as illustrated in the previous figure. PTP is based on IP
transmission between a grandmaster and its associated slaves.
MCS50 cards are hardware-ready for IEEE 1588v2 functionality, supporting
both PTP transparent clock and PTP slave modes.

Figure 5-12: IEEE 1588v2 synchronization
Security
Comprehensive security mechanisms protect both the complete transport
network and individual clients within the network. XDM platforms support the
following security mechanisms:
Broadcast Storm Control (BSC): Depending on the network traffic
patterns, extremely heavy levels of broadcast traffic (called a 'broadcast
storm') may consume such a huge amount of network resources that the
network becomes overloaded and unable to transport regular traffic. This is
typically the situation in a DoS attack. MCS cards support BSC in which
broadcast traffic transmission is halted if the incoming broadcast traffic
exceeds a configurable threshold value. While this action does not solve the
problem at the broadcast flooding source, BSC does limit the risk of network
overload, enabling the network to continue to function and giving network
operators an opportunity to pinpoint and resolve the source of the problem.
BSC can be configured separately for each service.
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VPN security is provided for both QinQ and MPLS architectures. Users are
protected from attacks or loss of data privacy to other users through
comprehensive filtering and segregation per client. Protection from other
users may be defined through VLAN segregation per client. Once a packet
has been classified to a specific VPN, the contents of that packet are not
visible to any other VPN. This protects the packet from sniffing or snooping.
Layer 2 Control Protocol (L2CP) flooding protection: XDM platforms
protect against L2CP flooding sent by malicious users. Protection is
implemented by limiting the number of L2CP frames which may be received
from MCS ports through a combination of BPDU blocking, CFM, IGMP
policing, and link and tunnel OAM.
MAC flooding protection: Another typical DoS that may be attempted by
malicious users is MAC flooding. In ECI equipment, MAC addresses are
learned through Forwarding Information Base (FIB) tables which are
optimized for fast lookup of destination addresses. MCS cards work with an
FIB quota system to forestall MAC DoS attacks by limiting the number of
MAC addresses available for each user.
Management tools: MCS cards, through the LightSoft NMS and the
EMS-MPT, support a full range of features to keep your network running
smoothly and protect it from unauthorized and malicious use. Supported
features include:
Cluster solution that provides high availability and load balancing,
essential features for large networks and/or mission-critical
management.
Remote Database Replication (RDR), a field-proven flexible
redundancy mechanism providing full network management backup
capabilities for Disaster Recovery Plans (DRPs).
Customer Network Management (CNM), enabling SPs to lease
exclusive network resources to customers for self-management. This
sophisticated scheme allows both the autonomous end customer and the
SP to concurrently manage alarms and performance, provision services,
and handle maintenance operations on the resources.
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XDM Data Services
MPLS-based data services are the basis for the profitable triple play, enterprise,
wholesale, and mobile customer services that are in such demand today.
Examples of these services, with simple explanations of the XDM
implementation features, are provided in the following sections.
MPLS-based VPWS for Ethernet P2P
EPL/EVPL
VPWS forms a P2P Ethernet service between two sites belonging to the same
customer. P2P services can be dedicated per customer or shared through
statistical multiplexing between customers.
VPWS uses P2P tunnels originating at the source PE devices, traveling through
Transit Ps, and terminating at the destination PE. The term pseudowire (PW)
encapsulation is used to refer to transporting P2P Ethernet traffic over an MPLS
tunnel.
As illustrated in the following figure, the Source PE pushes two MPLS labels
into each customer's Ethernet packet as it enters the tunnel. The inner MPLS
label is the VC label, and represents the VPN to which the packet belongs. The
VC label serves as a demultiplexer field, allowing aggregation of multiple VPNs
into a single tunnel and thereby providing a scalable tunneling solution rather
than a dedicated tunnel per VPN. The outer MPLS label is the Tunnel label, and
represents the tunnel to which the packet is mapped.
The Transit P provider devices simply swap the MPLS labels from the
incoming port to the outgoing port. The Destination PE terminates the tunnel
and identifies the packet VPN based on the VC label. The Destination PE then
removes (pops) the two MPLS labels and forwards the packet to the customer
equipment (CE) port(s).

Figure 5-13: P2P MPLS tunnel example
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P2P MPLS Tunnel Example
VPLSs and TLSs provide connectivity between geographically dispersed
customer Ethernet sites across the SP network, creating a virtual LAN network.
The interconnected customer sites form a Layer 2 VPN.
VPLS service can be configured for MP2MP services (VPLS full mesh), hub and
spoke services (VPLS partial mesh), and statistical multiplexing between
various virtual LAN customer VPNs.
VPLS uses the same tunnels and PWs used in VPWS service, using MP2MP
connectivity. In the following figure, the three customer sites are connected via
the provider's VPLS network, and can communicate among themselves using
standard Ethernet bridging and MAC learning as if they were all on a single
LAN.

Figure 5-14: VPLS service example
Sites that belong to the same MPLS VPN expect their packets to be forwarded to
the correct destinations. This is accomplished through the following means:
Establishing a full mesh of MPLS LSPs or tunnels between the PE sites.
MAC address learning on a per-site basis at the PE devices.
MPLS tunneling of customer Ethernet traffic over PWs while it is forwarded
across the provider network.
Packet replication onto MPLS tunnels at the PE devices, for
multicast-/broadcast-type traffic and for flooding unknown unicast traffic.
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Hierarchical VPLS for Scalability
Classic VPLS service creates a full mesh of LSPs and PWs between all PEs in
the network. Under certain circumstances, this may not be the most efficient use
of network resources.

Figure 5-15: VPLS network configuration
With H-VPLS, the network is split into hierarchical VPLS domains. Leaf nodes
are connected only to their roots, and full mesh is only created between root
nodes within each domain. Traffic may be routed between tunnels of different
VPLS domains. This efficient approach improves MP2MP service scaling and
allows less powerful devices such as access switches to be used as leaf nodes,
since it removes the burden of unnecessary connections.

Figure 5-16: Typical H-VPLS topology
H-VPLS enables connections between VPLS domains. H-VPLS defines a
hierarchy of VPLS domains and allows MPLS-level connectivity between them,
providing VPLS network scalability, hierarchical partitioning, and
interoperability.
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XDM platforms support static H-VPLS over MoT and MoE interfaces, based on
IETF standard RFC 4762. XDM platforms also support an enhanced H-VPLS
feature enabling definitions of multiple SHGs with traffic switching between
these groups.
The XDM H-VPLS implementation supports both two-tier H-VPLS (root and
leaf) and multidomain H-VPLS. The following figure illustrates an example of a
network where the MCS gateway supports multiple H-VPLS domains. Within
each domain, member nodes are connected in a full mesh VPLS. Each domain is
connected to other NEs using H-VPLS. Multiple domains are connected through
each MCS gateway card.

Figure 5-17: Multiple H-VPLS domains
H-VPLS also enables dual homing for multiple access/metro rings connected to
a core ring, as described in Dual-Homed Device Protection in H-VPLS
Networks (page 10-9).
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MPLS-based P2MP Multicast Tunnels for
Triple Play IPTV/BTV and E-Learning
Services
ECI platforms provide EP-Tree services with maximum efficiency at minimum
cost. Metro network optimization is achieved by an efficient MPLS P2MP
multicast tree carrying IPTV services concurrently with hub and spoke ("Star
VPLS") connectivity for other triple play services such as VoD, VoIP, and HSI.
The triple play service delivery network architecture includes the following
components:
E2E MPLS carrier class capabilities. MPLS capabilities assure the QoS of
IPTV service delivery over dedicated P2MP tunnels (MPLS multicast tree),
as well as reliable sub-50 msec FRR protection.
Multiple distributed MCS PE service edges (leaf PE). Leaf PEs terminate
the IPTV downstream traffic arriving over P2MP tunnels and apply IGMP
snooping and policing on upstream traffic.
Efficient IPTV multicast distribution. IPTV distribution utilizes an
efficient drop-and-continue methodology, using MPLS P2MP tunnels to
deliver IPTV content across the metro aggregation network. This allows SPs
to optimize bandwidth usage over the metro aggregation network. It also
enables simple scaling capabilities as IPTV service demands increase.
IGMP snooping at the PE leaf service edges enables the transmission of the
IPTV channels requested by the user, further improving bandwidth
consumption over the Ethernet access ports and enabling easy scalability as
the number of IPTV channels grows.
Star VPLS topology to carry the VoIP, VoD, and HSI P2P services. The
star VPLS is built over the aggregation network from the root PE
(aggregator) device that connects the edge router/BRAS to the leaf PE that
connects the IPDSLAM. This star VPLS also carries the bidirectional IPTV
control traffic that is either sent by the router downstream (IGMP query), or
sent by the subscriber STB upstream (IGMP join/leave requests).
E2E interoperability with the DSLAM and MSER, through either the
Ethernet or the MPLS layer. The P2MP multicast tree continues from the
PIM-SM multicast tree over the core network.
A P2MP tunnel originates at the source PE and terminates at multiple
destination PEs. This tunnel has a tree-and-branch structure, where packet
replication occurs only at branching points along the tree. This scheme achieves
high multicast efficiency since only one copy of each packet ever traverses an
MPLS P2MP tunnel. An MCS can act as both a transit P and as a destination PE
within the same P2MP tunnel, in which case it can be referred to as a Transit PE
rather than a Transit P.
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The following figure illustrates a P2MP multicast tree with PE1 as the source PE
(root), P1 as a transit P, PE2 as a transit PE (leaf PE), and PE3, PE4, and PE5 as
the destination or leaf PEs. The link from PE1 to P1 is shared by all transit and
destination leaf PEs; therefore the data plane sends only one packet copy on that
link.

Figure 5-18: P2MP multicast tunnel example
The following figure illustrates a second example of a P2MP multicast tree
arranged over a multi-ring topology network. The multicast tunnel paths are
illustrated in both a physical layout and a logical presentation. In this example,
PE1 is the source PE (root); P1 and P2 are transit Ps; PE2, PE3, PE5, and PE6 are
transit leaf PEs; and PE4 and PE7 are destination leaf PEs.

Figure 5-19: P2MP multicast tunnel example - physical and logical networks
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The P2MP tunnels carry multicast content such as IPTV in a triple play network,
but P2MP tunnels are not enough on their own. Two other functionalities
complete the triple play solution:
Star VPLS
IGMP snooping
The full triple play solution, incorporating P2MP multicast tunnels, star VPLS,
and IGMP snooping, is illustrated in the following figure. The P2MP multicast
tunnels carry IPTV content in an efficient drop-and-continue manner from the
TV channel source, headend router, and MSER, through the root PE (PE1) to all
endpoint leaf PEs. The VPLS star carries all other P2P triple play services, such
as VoIP, VoD, and HSI. The VPLS star also carries the IGMP messages both
upstream (request/leave messages from the customer) and downstream (query
messages from the router). IGMP snooping is performed at the endpoint leaf PEs
to deliver only the IPTV channels requested by the user. This allows scalability
in the number of channels, as well as freeing up bandwidth for other triple play
services.

Figure 5-20: Triple play network solution for IPTV, VoD, VoIP, and HSI services
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Ethernet-based P2P EPL
EPL service ensures a seamless migration path from voice- to data-oriented
networks by offering scalable data capabilities. As such, data networks can be
created within SDH networks, integrating the added value of a typical Ethernet
network while maintaining the original SDH network reliability, robustness, and
QoS that carriers demand.
An EPL's P2P service is similar to a traditional TDM service in that it allows
Ethernet to be used as a simple plug-in to an existing network delivering
TDM-based services. EPL service over SDH guarantees full connectivity and
flexibility:
Each Ethernet signal can be configured independently, providing full
network connectivity
Traffic is transmitted P2P, in ring, mesh, or any other topology
Each Ethernet signal is transmitted over a separate trail, guaranteeing
SDH/WDM network security levels
The XDM enables SPs to build a scalable infrastructure that ensures consistent
IP service throughput, facilitating capacity increases without disrupting existing
services.
XDM's data card set provides the following functional features and benefits:
Adaptive rate control for each connection - from 2 Mbps to the full GbE in
appropriate increments (VC-12/3/4).
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) - for variable bandwidth piping down to 2
Mbps, with the capability of capacity distribution across multiple fibers and
optical carriers, guaranteeing data transfer over any SDH infrastructure and
meeting the ITU-T G.707 standard.
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) mechanism - for in-service
variation of pipe bandwidth and optional reuse of protection bandwidth. The
capacity of the Ethernet link automatically decreases if one or more VCs fail,
and automatically increases when the network fault is repaired, meeting the
ITU-T G.7042 standard.
Generic Framing Protocol (GFP) - for industry-standard mappings
meeting the ITU-T G.7041 standard.
Multitasking card sets - the same cards can be used for multiple levels of
service:
GbE and FE are supported within the same card.
VC-12/3/4 rates are supported within the same card.
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Network protection - SDH and/or WDM protection mechanisms, including
SNCP and MS-SPRing, are applied to each connection.
Easy connectivity - point-and-click, E2E, real time, P2P, as in any SDH
trail.
Full interoperability between all Ethernet cards - including the MCS
cards and the BroadGate platforms, as well as seamless interfacing with
external third-party hardware.
Seamless integration and complete backward compatibility with the entire
product line.

Figure 5-21: EPL service
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Ethernet-based MP2MP
XDM platforms provide E-LAN services over SDH at minimum cost and
maximum efficiency. By integrating SDH and Ethernet layers, the XDM
achieves enhanced reliability and protection. This solution provides an ideal
multiservice platform, enabling ISP connectivity with a mixture of full-mesh
connectivity and dedicated services by using the same cards and ports.
XDM data cards provide the following features and benefits:
High performance, wire speed Layer 2 switching for metro-core and
access networks in ring, multi-ring, star, and mesh topologies.
PB capabilities (802.1ad), with double tagging, QinQ-based switching for
P2P, P2MP, and MP2MP connections - fully transparent and secure Ethernet
service over the provider's EoS network.
Up to eight QoS levels assigned per port, VLAN, or client CoS, maximizing
SLA diversity and optimizing packet handling throughout the network.
High granularity policing and priority marking (802.1p) per SLA,
enabling the provider to control the amount of bandwidth for each individual
user and service. Two-rate three-color policing enhances the service
offering, combining high priority service with BE traffic for the same user.
Congestion avoidance mechanism based on user-configurable WRED.
Drops low priority packets first, preventing the network from reaching the
point where congestion increases the higher priority packet loss rate.
Remote Network Monitoring RMON-based PM.
Security capability per customer VPN.
Low cost per port, achieved with statistical service multiplexing, offering
up to 24 interfaces of 10/100/1000BaseT electrical per slot and Small Form
Factor Pluggable-based (SFP) optical FE/GbE ports.
Software upgrade to full MPLS support with the MCS cards for network
scalability and traffic engineering (TE) in VPLS core networks.
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The data cards use multiple EoS ports to connect the cards over SDH interfaces.
EoS capabilities include:
Standard-based GFP and VCAT, meeting the ITU-T G.707 standard, for
interoperability with the DIO card set, XDM-100 product line data cards,
ECI's BroadGate components, and third-party equipment. This results in an
E2E solution that integrates Layer 1 services at the access layer with Layer 2
services at the metro-core.
Adaptive rate control for each connection (from 2 Mbps up to 2.5 Gbps in
VC-12/3/4 increments).
LCAS protection - automatic adjustment of the Ethernet link capacity,
decreasing in case of VC failure and increasing when the network fault is
repaired, meeting the ITU-T G.7042 standard.
Network protection - including SNCP and MS-SPRing on each connection.
RSTP for loop resolution and restoration in ring and multi-ring
configuration.
Equipment protection - carrier class, with no SPoF.

Figure 5-22: E-LAN service
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E2E MPLS Service over IP/MPLS Core
Full E2E network deployments require smooth interoperability between all the
different network regions, technologies, and implementations. For example,
communications networks must be able to smoothly integrate IP/MPLS in the
core with MPLS-TP in the metro regions and access rings. ECI platforms are all
managed through the powerful LightSoft NMS, providing smooth E2E network
management for every element in your network configuration.

Figure 5-23: E2E network management from access to core
Smooth Integration with Third-Party
Elements
Telecommunications networks today are complex entities, usually incorporating
elements from a wide range of sources including third-party equipment. ECI
MCS data cards support smooth integration and interworking with networks
based on third-party equipment.
MCS cards support E-LSP tunnels for both MoE and MoT, the MPLS
infrastructure currently most popular with SPs. MCS cards integrate smoothly
with third-party PB access networks, providing fully compliant support for
RSTP (IEEE 802.1D) on all ETY and EoS port types (UNI, E-NNI, I-NNI) as
well as ERP (ITU-T G.8032) on EoS I-NNI ports.
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Full support for MoE, as well as standardized tunnel and PW labeling, enables
smooth data plane interworking with third-party MPLS switches in all network
regions, access to core. Optional S-VLAN encapsulation of MPLS traffic
enables transparent transport of MCS tunnels over PB networks.

Figure 5-24: Smooth E2E network interoperability
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary
The XDM utilizes a wide range of flexible interchangeable I/O components.
With this range of modular options, the XDM can build a network tailored to
your requirements, providing maximum efficiency and optimal functionality.
The various I/O components are designed for modularity and ease of use. For
example, I/O cards are interchangeable within a product line and optical
components are built on a single universal base card. These features simplify the
design, maintenance, and upgradeability of your network.
This section describes the following XDM MPLS/Ethernet components and
service cards:
MCS cardset: MPLS carrier class switch card that supports an advanced
Ethernet-based metro-core layer.
EISMB: Ethernet over SDH service cards providing cost-effective PB-based
(QinQ) EVPL and EVPLAN services. These field-proven Layer 2 cards for
the XDM family offer QinQ-based switching for ring and multi-ring
configurations in the metro-edge and metro-core. Offering VC-3 and VC-4
granularity on their WAN ports, EIS cards are suitable for EVPL and
EVPLAN services and interoperable with the more advanced XDM data
cards. For example, the EISMB supports Ethernet applications in the access
and edge layers, offering high fan-out and multiple WAN interfaces, with a
bandwidth ranging from 2 Mbps up to full capacity GbE and a choice of
granularity options down to 2 Mb steps, together with interoperability with
other Ethernet systems.
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DIOB/DIOM: EPL Ethernet over SDH service cards that map multiple GbE
and FE ports (electrical or optical) into virtually concatenated trails, with a
bandwidth ranging from 2 Mbps up to full capacity GbE and a choice of
granularity options down to 2 Mbps steps.
MCS Cards - MPLS/Ethernet Carrier Class
Service Cards
MCS cards are the MPLS carrier class switch cards for the XDM. They enable
SPs to build a cost-effective carrier class Ethernet network over new and existing
SDH networks, supporting any Ethernet-based application and service,
including business connectivity (VPLS), triple play (IPTV drop-and-continue
multicast), 3G/4G mobile services, and CoC Ethernet leased line and bandwidth
services, all with carrier grade capability.
Through the use of transport MPLS, the MCS product series allows SPs to build
a converged optical transmission network that enables them to exploit the
benefits and robustness of SDH and optical DWDM together with the benefits of
carrier class Ethernet. The cost-effective E2E network assures QoS service
delivery for access, edge, metro, and core network applications. This single
MPLS network solution is achieved using MPLS from access aggregation to
IP/MPLS core router, integrating MCS cards with an existing IP/MPLS core
router network, and enabling SPs to support any Layer 2 and Layer 3 services.
MCS cards are carrier class Ethernet service devices that incorporate all carrier
class capabilities, such as scalability, reliability, sub-50 msec protection, E2E
H-QoS, security, and service management for E2E assured service delivery.
MCS cards support MPLS-TE, including classifying, policing, marking,
queuing, performing congestion avoidance mechanism (WRED), scheduling,
and traffic shaping.
XDM-1000 product line platforms work with the following MCS cards.
MCS50-X10G cards support 4 x 10-GbE and 4 x 1-GbE onboard LAN
ports, with a total card switching capacity of 50 Gbps (with TM). The
20 GbE cross-card connection capacity enables termination of up to three
10-GbE Ethernet rings on a single card, with additional 10 Gbps WAN
capacity with up to 96 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 10G slots. The
MCS50-X10G card provides dual mode connectivity through simultaneous
10G connectivity to the SDH matrix and 10G/20G connectivity to the packet
switching system.
MCS30-X10G cards support 1 x 10-GbE and 10 x 1-GbE LAN ports, with a
total card switching capacity of 20 Gbps (with TM). The 10 GbE cross-card
connection capacity and 10 GbE panel port enable termination of one
10-GbE Ethernet ring on a single card, with additional 10 Gbps WAN
capacity with up to 32 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 10G slots.
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MCS10 cards support 8 x 1-GbE and 8 x FE LAN ports, with a total card
switching capacity of 20 Gbps (with TM). The card offers 10 Gbps WAN
capacity with up to 32 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 10G slots.
MCS5 cards support 4 x 1-GbE and 4 x FE LAN ports, with a total card
switching capacity of 20 Gbps (with TM). The card offers 5 Gbps WAN
capacity with up to 32 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 5G slots.
XDM-100 product line platforms work with the following MCS cards.
MCSM50-SX10G cards support 4 x 10-GbE and 8 x 1-GbE LAN ports,
with a total card switching capacity of 50 Gbps (with TM). The 10 GbE
cross-card connection capacity and 10 GbE panel ports enable termination of
up to two 10-GbE Ethernet rings on a single card, with additional 10 Gbps
WAN capacity with up to 96 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 5G/10G slots.
The MCSM50-SX10G card provides dual mode connectivity through
simultaneous 10G connectivity to the SDH matrix and 10G connectivity to
the packet switching system, or a dedicated 20G packet connectivity.
MCSM cards support 8 x 1-GbE and 8 x FE LAN ports, with a total card
switching capacity of 10 Gbps (with TM). The card offers 5 Gbps WAN
capacity with up to 16 EoS/MoT WAN interfaces on 5G slots.
All MCS cards are able to transport packets ranging in size from 64 bytes to 9K
bytes. MCS cards incorporate the following functionality:
Ethernet PB (QinQ) switch, based on 802.1d/q/ad.
MPLS/MPLS-TP Layer 2 switch supporting Ethernet PW, VPLS, H-VPLS,
E-Tree, and P2MP multicast trees.
Up to 2K remote PEs, providing the capacity required for cross-metro
services.
LAG mechanisms can be configured for either link protection or load
balancing purposes, based on either IP or MAC address hashing (depending
on the packet header data).
MC-LAG provides link protection between ports on the same or different
cards.
Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) supported on optical ports for all service
interfaces in the transmission direction on MCS30/MCS50 cards.
Future ready for IEEE 1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP)
synchronization.
SDH mapper, supporting standard Ethernet, PPP, and MPLS mapping to
GFP/VCAT/LCAS with n x VC-12/3/4 (VCAT Group (VCG)) granularity.
Supports a combination of 10GbE/GbE/FX/FE and FX/FE ports, using
either electrical or optical interfaces.
Environmentally friendly green design disables unused components,
minimizing energy consumption.
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The following figure describes the functional block diagram of the MCS.

Figure 5-25: MCS functional block diagram
The MCS functional block diagram illustrates an SDH mapper with an
Ethernet/MPLS switch, based on a powerful Network Processor Unit (NPU).
The foundation for the Ethernet traffic flow is as follows:
VCG trail: LightSoft-based preprovisioned VCG (with LCAS) to carry the
Ethernet/MPLS traffic.
MPLS tunnel and PW: LightSoft-based preprovisioned MPLS PW and
tunnel (LSP), based on MPLS as a connection-oriented technology. Tunnels
and PW are used to carry the Ethernet service traffic.
MCS-based networks work with LightSoft, providing point-and-click service
provisioning based on a sophisticated CAC algorithm that guarantees network
services. LightSoft supports Ethernet-based, MPLS-based, and combination
Ethernet/MPLS-based network topologies.
MPLS capabilities in the MCS cards are enabled through a licensing system
operated at the EMS level. Standard L2 licensing enables all standard Provider
Bridge Layer 2 features. L2 licensing is the default level. Standard MPLS
licensing expands the default L2 license, enabling creation and editing of MPLS
tunnels and MoT trails in addition to the Layer 2 capabilities. Advanced MPLS
licensing provides the highest level of features, enabling MoE links, H-VPLS,
and rooted multicast services.
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EISMB Cards - Ethernet Layer 2 Service Card
The XDM provides Ethernet Layer 2 (E-LAN) service through the EISMB card
sets. These cards provide Ethernet Layer 2 services in mixed SDH and Ethernet
networks at minimum cost with maximum efficiency. Each card has multiple
Ethernet ports for direct connection to customer sites (either directly or through a
CLE), and functions as an embedded Ethernet switch, eliminating the need for an
external Ethernet switch. These cards are especially useful for business and ISP
applications, providing the reliable capacity and powerful speed essential for the
success of these applications.

Figure 5-26: Metro network illustration
Customers can provision multiple services on any single port, for example:
EVPL services
E-LAN with various QoS options
ISP connectivity services
Business connectivity services
The Layer 2 cards in each XDM in the network are connected to each other via
Network to Network Interface (NNI) EoS ports that can serve either for
dedicated traffic for specific customers or as a shared core for multiple
customers.
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417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-35

The cards support two interface categories:
Ethernet (LAN) ports - physical Ethernet interfaces residing on the card or in
the modules cage. These ports may be configured as UNI ports or as NNI
ports to client equipment.
EoS (WAN) ports - Ethernet over SDH ports which provide connections to
the SDH matrix. EoS ports may be configured as NNI ports to provide
connectivity between EISMB and MCS cards, or as UNI ports to provide a
connection to remote LAN ports.

Figure 5-27: Ethernet packet path
The granularity of the EoS trails is VC-12/3/4, and the link capacity for each EoS
connection may range from 2 Mbps up to 2.5 Gbps. SDH trails can be modified
as required via LightSoft.
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-36 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

DIOB/DIOM Cards - Ethernet Layer 1 Service
Cards
The XDM implements E-Line services by offering transparent Ethernet data
transmission over SDH. This is accomplished through a sophisticated and
intelligent set of DIO cards. Installable in all XDM shelves, the DIO card set
enables EPL P2P services to be provisioned and managed in the same manner as
traditional SDH lines. The service provided by the DIO card set P2P private line
is agnostic to the higher layers above Ethernet. This means that VLANs, jumbo
frames, and unicast, multicast, and broadcast Ethernet packets are all handled
transparently at any given rate.
DIO cards provide control and bandwidth management allocation for each
Ethernet connection in VC-12/3/4 increments up to the full rate. Each GbE/FE
interface is configured separately without interfering with other connections.
This flexibility enables SPs to adapt service rates to customer needs and tailor
prices accordingly. The card also provides all the benefits of SFP technology for
optical interfaces as well as electrical SFPs for DIOM in mixed optical/electrical
configurations offering GbE services.
DIO cards provide multiple EPL Layer 1 (P2P) Ethernet over SDH services. The
DIOB maps up to 8 GbE + 16 FE ports (electrical or optical) onto virtually
concatenated trails, with a total capacity of up to 5 Gbps using the SDH
switching fabric in the XIO/HLXC and SDH line cards to reach other network
sites. SFP-based optical interfaces are placed on the DIOB card and electrical
interfaces are on the ME16 module located in the CCP part of the XDM-1000
product line platforms.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-37

Similarly, the DIOM offers either 4 x 10/100/1000BaseT, 4 x GbE/FE optical
interfaces, or 8 x 10/100BaseT interfaces on a single XDM-100 product line slot
with a maximum capacity of 2.5 Gbps, using the SDH infrastructure within the
shelf for connectivity. With DIOM cards, all ports are placed on the card itself.

Figure 5-28: DIOB block diagram
Using standard VCAT, GFP-F, and LCAS, DIO cards ensure interoperability
with third-party equipment as well as with other XDM cards and ECI products.
EPL services on the DIO cards are user configurable. The bandwidth for each
EPL service ranges from 2 Mbps up to full capacity (100 Mbps or Gbps) with
VC-12/3/4 granularity for any service. Client failures, as well as failures in the
SDH transport layer, are forwarded from one end to the other using CSF/TSF
signaling, thus shortening the fault detection period for the higher layers and
enabling full restoration of customer services much more quickly.
The DIO cards use LCAS protection to dynamically decrease and increase the
size of a VCG in cases of failure and repair of VCG members. This capability
enables a variety of new protection schemes, such as split bandwidth between
multiple routes and SDH protection for part of a VCG.
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-38 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Interface Specifications
XDM data cards support various combinations of the following Ethernet
interfaces:
Optical XFP 10 GbE, dual fiber:
10GBase-SR, 850 nm, multimode
10GBase-LR, 1310 nm, single mode
10GBase-ER, 1550 nm, single mode
10GBase-ZR, 1550 nm, single mode
CWDM (8 channel), fixed
DWDM C band (40 channel), fixed
DWDM C band (80 channel), tunable
Optical SFP+ 10 GbE, dual fiber (MCSM50-SX10G):
10GBase-SR, 850 nm, multimode
10GBase-LR, 1310 nm, single/multimode
10GBase-ER, 1550 nm, single mode
CWDM (8 channel), fixed
DWDM C band (40 channel), fixed
Optical SFP GbE, dual fiber:
1000Base-LX/EX/ZX, single mode
1000Base-SX, multimode
Optical SFP GbE, single fiber:
1000Base-SX/LX/EX, single mode (1310/1490 nm)
Optical SFP 100Base-FX, interface for 100 Mbps FE, both single mode and
multimode
Electrical SFP:
10/100/1000Base-T (copper)
Electrical (RJ45) interfaces:
10/100Base-T, electrical interface for 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet with auto
negotiation
10/100/1000Base-T, electrical interface for 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps
Ethernet with auto negotiation


NOTE: See the XDM Reference Manuals for detailed card and
interface specifications.

XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-39

MPLS/Ethernet Data Card Specifications
The following table identifies the MPLS/Ethernet components and the platforms
within which specific modules are used. Specific details may vary from module
to module. Information describing the capacity, ports, and interfaces for each
module is provided in the following table. For more information, see the XDM
System Specifications.

XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution


5-40 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06
Table 5-2: MPLS/Ethernet card specifications
Card
Max cards per
platform
1

Data handling
Single/
Double slot
Service interfaces
2

Intercard
interfaces
EoS
3
/MoT
4

bandwidth
Network
interfaces
Bandwidth per
EoS/MoT interface
5

(per port)
Hybrid
+
interfaces
(hardware-ready)
XDM-100 product line
DIOM_04 XDM-100: 8
XDM-300: 16
XDM-900: 16
Layer 1 (Ethernet
over SDH)
Single 4 x 10/100/1000BaseT --- 1.25/2.5G 4 x EoS (1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 252) x VC-12
---
DIOM_40 XDM-100: 8
XDM-300: 16
XDM-900: 16
Layer 1 (Ethernet
over SDH)
Single 4 x optical FX/GbE
with SFP
--- 1.25/2.5G 4 x EoS (1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 252) x VC-12
---
DIOM_08 XDM-100: 8
XDM-300: 16
XDM-900: 16
Layer 1 (Ethernet
over SDH)
Single 8 x 10/100BaseT --- 1.25G 8 x EoS (1 to 8) x VC-4
(1 to 24) x VC-3
(1 to 252) x VC-12
---
EISMB_804 XDM-100: 4
XDM-300: 8
XDM-900: 8
Layer 1 and Layer 2
(Ethernet over SDH)
Single 2 x 10/100/1000BaseT and
2 x 10/100BaseT
--- 2.5G 8 x EoS (1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 252) x VC-12
---
EISMB_840 XDM-100: 4
XDM-300: 8
XDM-900: 8
Layer 1 and Layer 2
(Ethernet over SDH)
Single 2 x optical FX/GbE
and
2 x optical FX with SFP
--- 2.5G 8 x EoS (1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 252) x VC-12
---
MCSM XDM-100: 2
XDM-300: 8
XDM-900: 8
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Double 8 x 10/100BaseT
and
8 x optical FX/GbE with SFP
--- 5G 16 x
EoS/MoT
(1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 63) x VC-12
---

1
The maximum number of cards per platform depends, in part, on the type of matrix card and type of xMCP card used. See the XDM Product Line Reference Manuals for more information.
2
The ETY service interface in MCS cards can also be configured as MoE.
3
EoS Ethernet over SDH.
4
MoT MPLS over Transport.
5
Maximum bandwidth may depend on slot and port assignment.


MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description
417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-41
Card
Max cards per
platform
1

Data handling
Single/
Double slot
Service interfaces
2

Intercard
interfaces
EoS
3
/MoT
4

bandwidth
Network
interfaces
Bandwidth per
EoS/MoT interface
5

(per port)
Hybrid
+
interfaces
(hardware-ready)
MCSM50-
SX10G
XDM-100: 2
XDM-300: 8
XDM-900: 8
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Double
Up to 4 x 10GbE optical SFP+
with the remaining slots used
for 1GbE optical/electrical
SFP
1 x 10GbE 5/10G 96 x
EoS/MoT
With 5G slots:
(1 to 32) x VC-4
(1 to 96) x VC-3
(1 to 46) x
VC-12
With 10G slots:
(1 to 64) x VC-4
(1 to 192) x
VC-3
(1 to 46) x
VC-12
Supporting any of the
following
configurations:
5G SDH only
10G SDH only
10G SDH and
10G Packet
20G Packet only
XDM-1000 product line
DIOB XDM-500: 6
XDM-1000: 12
XDM-2000: 12
XDM-3000: 24
Layer 1 (Ethernet
over SDH)
Single
8 x FX/GbE (optical)
6

and
[8 x 10/100BaseT and
8 x 10/100/1000BaseT]
7

--- 2.5/5G 24 x EoS (1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
(1 to 63) x VC-12
---
MCS5 XDM-500: 2
XDM-1000: 8
XDM-2000: 8
XDM-3000: 10
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Single
4 x FX/GbE (optical)
6

and
4 x FX (optical)
and
[12 x 10/100BaseT and
4 x 10/100/1000BaseT]
7

--- 5G 32 x
EoS/MoT
(1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
8

(1 to 63) x VC-12
9

---

6
Optical ports on base cards, SFP for GbE or FX.
7
Electrical ports located on ME_16 module in the CCP.
8
Maximum EoS/MoT capacity per card: 5 Gbps (32xVC-4 or 96xVC-3) and per EoS port when using LAG.
9
Maximum n x VC-12 per card: 512 x VC-12.
XDM General Description MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution


5-42 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06
Card
Max cards per
platform
1

Data handling
Single/
Double slot
Service interfaces
2

Intercard
interfaces
EoS
3
/MoT
4

bandwidth
Network
interfaces
Bandwidth per
EoS/MoT interface
5

(per port)
Hybrid
+
interfaces
(hardware-ready)
MCS10 XDM-500: 2
XDM-1000: 8
XDM-2000: 8
XDM-3000: 10
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Single
8 x FX/GbE (optical)
10

and
[8 x 10/100BaseT and
8 x 10/100/1000BaseT]
11

--- 10G 32 x
EoS/MoT
(1 to 16) x VC-4
(1 to 48) x VC-3
12

(1 to 63) x VC-12
13

---
MCS30-
X10G
XDM-500: 2
XDM-1000: 8
XDM-2000: 8
XDM-3000: 10
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Single 1 x 10GbE (optical) XFP
and
10 x 1GbE (optical) SFP
1 x 10GbE 10G 32 x
EoS/MoT
(1 to 64) x VC-4
(1 to 192) x VC-3
12

(1 to 64) x VC-12
14

---
MCS50-
X10G
XDM-1000: 8
XDM-2000: 8
XDM-3000: 10
Layer 2
(Ethernet/MPLS)
Single 4 x 10GbE (optical) XFP
and
4 x 1GbE (optical) SFP
2 x 10GbE 10G 96 x
EoS/MoT
(1 to 64) x VC-4
(1 to 192) x VC-3
12

(1 to 46) x VC-12
14

Supporting any of the
following
configurations:
5G SDH only
10G SDH only
10G SDH and
10G Packet
20G Packet only



10
Optical ports on base cards, SFP for GbE or FX.
11
Electrical ports located on ME_16 module in the CCP.
12
Maximum EoS/MoT capacity per card: 10 Gbps (64xVC-4 or 192xVC-3) and per EoS port when using LAG.
13
Maximum n x VC-12 per card: 512 x VC-12.
14
Maximum n x VC-12 per card: 504 x VC-12.

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-1

In this chapter:
Overview ......................................................................................................... 6-1
Multidegree ROADM ...................................................................................... 6-3
Mux/DeMux Cards .......................................................................................... 6-9
OADMs ......................................................................................................... 6-11
Transponders ................................................................................................. 6-13
ADM on a Card ............................................................................................. 6-18
Combiners ...................................................................................................... 6-28
CMTR25 Multirate Combiner/Transponder .................................................. 6-33
Pluggable Transceiver Modules .................................................................... 6-36
Optical Amplifiers ......................................................................................... 6-38
OPM Card ...................................................................................................... 6-45
OMSP Card ................................................................................................... 6-47
Optical Topology Management ..................................................................... 6-48
Optical Modules Designed for the XDM-100 Family ................................... 6-54
Overview
XDM shelves house a variety of C/DWDM multirate transponders and
combiners, directionless/colorless/contentionless multidegree ROADMs,
OADMs, AoC, Muxes/DeMuxes, Multiplexers, Optical Fiber Amplifiers
(OFAs), Optical Performance Monitors (OPMs), and other optical cards and
modules used to process, amplify, and monitor multichannel signals. XDM's
comprehensive suite of optical components combine extensive capacity and a
powerful range with cost-effective flexibility and modular design.
6
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ECI's innovative AoC supports 10 Gbps ADM service on a double card for GbE,
1GFC, 2GFC, and STM-16 services. AoC combines the cost-efficiency of an
optical platform with the granularity and flexibility previously available only in
SDH networks.
Powerful 40G transponders and combiners provide NG 40G service that can
handle the exponential growth of today's transport networks. ECI's 40G modules
use Adaptable Differential Phase Shift Keying (ADPSK) modulation, a
sophisticated scheme that provides excellent optical signal-to-noise ratio
(OSNR) for maximum reach. The transponders and combiners are configurable
to be optimized for 50 GHz or 100 GHz networks. XDM 40G modules are a
smooth addition to most 10G networks. They provide a good solution for PMD,
working over old fibers using a PMD compensator card. The XDM 40G solution
is a proven concept with a strong foundation, since ECI was the first to
demonstrate 1000 km transmission of 43 Gbps through multidegree ROADM
with 50 GHz channel spacing.
ECI's multirate transponders and combiners offer the flexibility to choose the
optimal combination of service rates tailored to specific network requirements.
XDM transponders and combiners utilize tunable lasers at the line side and
pluggable optics at the client side, providing an ideal cost-effective solution for
managing transponder and combiner components.
For example, transponder spare parts procurement costs can be reduced by as
much as 90% when using tunable lasers. In addition, they enable new services to
be delivered more quickly, as the same type of card can be used for any
wavelength. Tunable laser components can be set to any one of the
40/80 channels in the C band via the management system and have
high-dispersion tolerance transmitters, ensuring successful transponder card
replacement for all types of transmitters.
Modularity is a cornerstone of XDM architecture. For example, use of modular
pluggable SFP/XFP transceivers for diverse applications provides simple
cost-effective wavelength flexibility. In addition, many of the transponder and
combiner components are based on a single universal CHTR_B base card. This
modular approach increases flexibility, simplifies operation, and reduces the
costs of spare parts.
XDM platforms can be deployed together with Artemis passive optical
platforms, offering a low cost, high modularity, and very high density solution.
A wide range of passive cards, including C/DWDM Mux/DeMuxes, OADMs,
splitters/couplers, filters, and Dispersion Compensating Fibers (DCFs) can be
installed in the Artemis. This leaves the photonic slots in the XDM platform
available for active cards such as optical amplifiers, ROADMs, service cards,
and fabric. For detailed descriptions of all Artemis modules and cages see the
Artemis General Description.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-3

The XDM offers a rich set of optical cards and modules, enabling operators to
design a network tailored to their specific requirements. The following sections
describe the highlights of the various optical components, focusing on the most
popular of the XDM cards and modules. For a detailed description of the
complete set of XDM optical components, see the XDM System Specifications.
The optical modules described in the first part of the chapter are used mostly in
platforms from the XDM-1000 product line. Optical Modules Designed for the
XDM-100 Family (page 6-54) focuses on the optical components designed
specifically for use in platforms from the XDM-100 product line.
Multidegree ROADM
Operators' increasing need for capacity and flexibility in DWDM networks is the
driving force behind the development and deployment of a comprehensive set of
ROADM solutions. These systems provide full management of wavelength
services and reduce OPEX.
ECI offers a comprehensive suite of third-generation WSS ROADM solutions
tailored to operator needs. WSS advanced technology is available on the add or
drop sides, providing full inter-ring connectivity between access rings and the
metro backbone with advanced protection and restoration capabilities. A
complete set of WSS modules is available:
10-degree 40-channel modules with WSS on the drop side for colorless
operation
10-degree 40/80-channel modules with WSS on the add side for restoration
and superior alien lambda support
2-degree 40/80-channel modules with WSS on the add side for cost-effective
2-degree ROADM operation in linear or ring configurations
The 40-channel modules utilize 100 GHz spacing, and the 80-channel modules
utilize 50 GHz spacing. The 10-degree modules offer efficient support for any
configuration up to full mesh connectivity.
ECI's cutting-edge directionless and colorless ROADM architecture enhances
WSS ROADM technology to meet operator demands for greater flexibility and
enhanced optical protection options. Directionless switching enables the
ROADM to automatically select the wavelength direction at the add/drop
locations without visiting the site. Colorless switching enables remote retuning
of add/drop wavelengths, again with no need for a site visit. With this
architecture, an add/drop port can be assigned to any wavelength and coupled to
any direction(s) in a fully flexible fashion. Add additional cards to the NE to
enable contentionless switching, and you have the most flexible, completely
non-blocking solution possible.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

These capabilities are key to supporting agile network applications. Per-channel
route assignment capabilities eliminate the need for accurate WDM traffic
prediction and enable flexible wavelength route assignment.

Figure 6-1: Typical directionless and colorless ROADM architecture
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-5

Typical applications include:
Restoration and protection: Directionless ROADMs enable dedicated
protection based on photonic layer switching triggered by fiber cuts,
wavelength failures, and equipment failures with no need to double the
add/drop service cards or involve the underlying TDM or packet switches.
Automatic maintenance switching: This architecture simplifies periodic
fiber and node maintenance and upgrade tasks. Automatic
maintenance-switching minimizes service disruptions and reduces
associated OPEX.
Automatic regenerator switching: With colorless switching, regenerators
can be predeployed and switched into the route as required, with no site visit
required. With directionless switching, a shared pool of regenerators is
accessible to all paths through the node.
Port-to-port wavelength-on-demand switching: With colorless and
directionless switching, a preconnected transceiver can be routed on any
route or wavelength from the node with no need to manually connect the
endpoint transceiver to the Mux/DeMux port. This enables true port-to-port
automated switching for faster new service and capacity provisioning and
activation, time-of-day bandwidth allocation, and network load balancing.
Automatic equalization of the channels is provided via the ROADMs. Integrated
in the XDM and fully managed by LightSoft, the ROADM provides operators
with the most cost-effective flexible multiservice optical platform available
today for metro, regional, and long-haul networks. The following sections
describe some of the highlights of ECI's ROADM card suite.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

WSS ROADM on Drop Side
The XDM offers an advanced third-generation 10-degree WSS ROADM. The
ROADM8D cards with WSS on the drop side connect all wavelengths to the
output (line) port. The operator can remotely switch any wavelength to any other
port. Consequently, one or more wavelengths may be dropped at any given port
and at any time. On the add side, wavelengths from all add ports and the line-in
port are switched and multiplexed into the line-out port.
WSS drop configuration enables any service to be dropped at any port - hence
the term 'colorless' ports. Furthermore, as multiple wavelengths can be dropped
via each port, WSS can connect access rings to the core ring and drop multiple
wavelengths at remote sites, including star or full mesh topologies.

Figure 6-2: ROADM technology: WSS on the drop side
WSS ROADM8D cards provide:
WSS functionality on the drop side.
Colorless operation - remote management configuration enabling routing
any channel to any port.
Full built-in OCH monitoring of all wavelengths on all ports.
Full n-degree (1 < n < 10) operation for multiple ring, subtended ring, star,
and full mesh topologies.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-7

Low insertion loss for through channels.
Built-in power monitoring and equalization.
Optional expansion modules, increasing capacity from 40 channels to 80
channels (ROADM8I).
The WSS ROADM card is installed in modules cage slots. The card is
configured for multidegree operation with one line port and nine add/drop ports.
Each port can be configured to add/drop any of the 80 channels in the C band in
any combination.
WSS ROADM on Add Side
The WSS ROADM8A, ROADM8A50, ROADM2A, and ROADM2A50 cards
provide WSS functionality on the add side, connecting all wavelengths from the
input ports to the output (line) port. The operator can remotely switch any
wavelength from any input port to the output port. Consequently, one or more
wavelengths may be added from any given port and at any time. On the drop
side, all wavelengths from the input port are broadcast to all the drop ports,
optimized for broadcast video applications.
The WSS add configuration can also connect access rings to the core ring and
drop multiple wavelengths at remote sites, including star or full mesh topologies.

Figure 6-3: ROADM technology: WSS on the add side
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

These cards support:
WSS functionality on the add side.
Broadcast functionality.
Full n-degree operation for multiple ring, subtended ring, star, and full mesh
topologies. (Up to 10-degree for the MO_ROADM8A/MO_ROADM8A50
cards, and up to 2-degree for the MO_ROADM2A/MO_ROADM2A50
cards.)
More cost-effective solutions for higher channel counts.
A superior solution for alien wavelengths that are fed to the XDM DWDM
network from third-party equipment that supports the ITU-T DWDM grid.
Low insertion loss for through channels.
Advanced protection and restoration options.
The MO_ROADM8A/MO_ROADM2A cards provide 40 channels with
100 GHz spacing. The MO_ROADM8A50/MO_ROADM2A50 cards provide
80 channels with 50 GHz spacing, 'native' to a single card. Native 80-channel
support means that there are no additional 'Day 2' expenses. A single card per
degree provides better slot utilization, less energy consumption, simpler
installation, and enhanced channel-use flexibility for all 80 channels.
The ROADM configuration facilitates implementation of advanced protection
schemes such as N+1 Path dynamic restoration and protection, 1+1 Forever
protection and restoration in under-50 msec, and optical Dual Node
Interface/Dual Ring Interface (DNI/DRI). This unique all-optical protection can
handle and overcome multiple fiber cuts - ideal for mesh-based networks and
topologies, as described in WSS ROADM Restoration (page 10-36).
The ROADM8A/8A50 and ROADM2A/2A50 cards are installed in modules
cage slots. The cards are configured for multidegree operation and provide both
local and add/drop ports. Each port can be configured to add/drop all 40
(ROADM8A/2A) or 80 (ROADM8A50/2A50) channels in the C band in any
combination.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-9

ROADM Card Summary
Table 6-1: WSS ROADM modules
Module Slots XDM-450 XDM-500 XDM-1000 Description
MO_ROADM8D 2 CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM with optical add/drop of
any combination of channels to nine ports,
40 channels per port, WSS on the drop side.
MO_ROADM8A 2 CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM supporting eight
add/drop ports with per-channel
drop-and-continue capability and
wrong-wavelength blocking, 40 channels per port,
WSS on the add side.
MO_ROADM8A50 2 CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM supporting eight
add/drop ports with per-channel
drop-and-continue capability and
wrong-wavelength blocking, native support for
80 channels per port, WSS on the add side.
MO_ROADM2A 1 CCP

2-degree WSS ROADM supporting 1 add/drop
port with per-channel drop-and-continue
capability and wrong-wavelength blocking,
40 channels per port, WSS on the add side.
MO_ROADM2A50 1 CCP

2-degree WSS ROADM supporting 1 add/drop
port with per-channel drop-and-continue
capability and wrong-wavelength blocking, native
support for 80 channels per port, WSS on the add
side.
Mux/DeMux Cards
The XDM offers a wide range of Mux and DeMux cards, enabling network
operators to select cards optimized for their specific network requirements.
Mux/DeMux cards support up to 40/80 DWDM channels (with a spectral
spacing of 100/50 GHz between channels), and up to 8/16 channels CWDM
(with 20 nm channel spacing). Rack-mounted Mux/DeMux cards are also
available. Several upgrade and expansion paths are offered, such as from 16 to
32 channels DWDM, from 40 to 80 channels DWDM, and from 4 to 8 channels
CWDM.
Three different types of Mux/DeMux filters are available:
Star couplers for low cost Mux/DeMux functionality.
Gaussian filters for low insertion loss Mux and DeMux functionality; can be
used in short links without amplifiers.
Flat top filters, with full Mux and DeMux functionality plus the ability to be
used in tandem for cascading applications, supporting manual ROADM
operation at a lower cost than standard ROADM cards. This configuration is
optimal, for example, for basic metro DWDM networks.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

XDM platforms can be deployed together with Artemis passive optical
platforms. Passive Mux/DeMux cards can be installed in the Artemis, leaving
the photonic slots in the XDM platform available for active service or optical
cards. For detailed descriptions of all Artemis modules and cages see the Artemis
General Description.
The following table lists some of the commonly used XDM C/DWDM Mux and
DeMux modules. For the full list see the XDM System Specifications.
Table 6-2: Mux/DeMux modules - selected subset in the XDM-1000 family
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-450 XDM-500 XDM-1000 Description
MO_CW2 +
OM_CWM8C +
OM_CWD8C
1 CCP

8-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux.
MO_ROADM2A/2A50
with Artemis
Mux/DeMux cards for
VMUX operation
1 CCP

40/80-channel DWDM variable
Mux/DeMux for long-haul
applications.
MO_DW40MC 2 CCP

40-channel C band Mux for
metro/regional applications.
MO_DW40DC 2 CCP

40-channel C band DeMux for
metro/regional applications.
The Variable Mux (VMUX) card is a key component in cost-effective
high-performance regional and long-haul networks. This controllable Mux can
attenuate each individual input wavelength to any desired value, eliminating
spectral tilt, improving OSNR, and facilitating pre-emphasis of weaker channels.
These capabilities extend the overall reach significantly. They also simplify the
initial installation and calibration of the network and the addition of additional
wavelengths as the network grows.
The VMUX functionality is critical in supporting alien wavelengths that are fed
to the XDM DWDM network from third-party equipment that supports the
ITU-T DWDM grid. The VMUX attenuates the alien wavelength to match the
desired level applied to neighboring wavelengths, thereby eliminating power tilt
and increasing overall reach. The CWDM Mux/DeMux modules handle up to
eight different CWDM wavelengths and feature a built-in OSC filter.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-11

OADMs
In both metropolitan and long-haul networks some of the traffic is transported
over short site-to-site distances. In many instances it is not necessary to access
all the channels at every node along the path, and in these cases, XDM OADM
cards provide a cost-effective solution.
OADMs add and drop single or multiple channels at specific nodes without
interfering with the remaining passthrough channels. They therefore allow
network resources to be shared among several traffic hubs, nodes, or
subnetworks. OADM cards can be installed either in I/O card slots or in modules
cage slots. Automatic equalization is supported in the I/O slot OADMs,
attenuating the add channels to match the passthrough channels.
The XDM OADM solutions are provided in East/West and A/B configurations,
in which each OADM interfaces with the two fibers that arrive from the adjacent
site. Configuration options include:
East/West OADMs (4 skip 0) with equalization in I/O slots, pluggable and
non-pluggable
Dense passive pluggable OADMs in CCP slots:
A/B OADMs for CWDM networks
East/West OADMs (4 skip 0) for DWDM networks
A single flexible MO_CW2 base module is used for installing a wide range of
optical C/DWDM plug-in modules, including Mux/DeMuxes and OADMs with
or without OSC filters, in XDM shelves. The MO_CW2 base occupies only one
modules cage slot and supports two C/DWDM plug-in modules. The MO_CW2
module provides an interface to the shelf management, and therefore the module
itself and the plug-ins installed on it are automatically identified by the
management station.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The modular design of OADM and Mux/DeMux components offers a flexible
range of options, including CWDM OADMs for one or two channels, CWDM
Mux/DeMuxes for four or eight channels, and DWDM OADMs for groups of
four channels, with no channel skipping between groups (4 skip 0), for minimal
insertion loss. This modular flexibility enables you to continue to meet your
network requirements as they evolve.

Figure 6-4: MO_CW2 with two modules
The following table lists some of the commonly used XDM OADM modules.
For the full list see the XDM System Specifications.
Table 6-3: OADM cards and modules - selected subset of XDM-1000 family
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-450 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
I/O modules
OADM4EW +
OM_ADGQ4E
Wxx
1 I/O

4-channel grouped (4 skip 0)
OADM for amplified links,
EW configuration
CCP modules
MO_CW2 +
OM_OADMC1
AB_xx
1 CCP

1-channel CWDM OADM,
AB configuration
MO_CW2 +
OM_OADM4G
EWxx
1 CCP

4-channel grouped (4 skip 0)
DWDM OADM, EW
configuration
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-13

Transponders
The XDM offers various transponder cards for 10 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps, and
continuous bitrates up to 2.7 Gbps. These transponders support all commonly
required services, such as SDH (STM-1 to STM-64), Ethernet (FE, GbE, and 10
GbE LAN), ATM, IP, SAN (1GFC, 2GFC, 10GFC), video, and proprietary
bitrates. The CMTR25 multirate combiner/transponder (page 6-33) can be used
as a transponder and/or a combiner and support any combination of a range of
client interfaces, including STM-16 or OTU1 regeneration.
XDM platforms also provide second generation 40G multiservice solutions,
providing OTU3e ultra long haul 40 Gbps multiservice transponders with
STM-256 client interfaces. These transponders support 40 GbE WAN services
and are ideal for transport service.
XDM transponders comply with the ITU-T standards for 50 GHz and 100 GHz
multichannel spacing (DWDM) or 20 nm spacing (CWDM). Many transponders
are based on the universal CHTR_B base card for increased simplicity and
reduction of spare parts costs.
The 40 Gbps, 10 Gbps, and 2.5 Gbps transponders use ITU-T G.709 mapping
and framing, including FEC, PM, in-band management (GCC), and G.709-based
protection. PM of all client side signals is done in their native layer (SDH and
Ethernet).
The following table lists some of the commonly used XDM transponder cards
and modules. For the full list see the XDM System Specifications. Transponder
features are described in greater detail in the following sections.
Table 6-4: Transponder cards - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description Protection type
40 Gbps Transponders
TRP40_2B 2 I/O

OTU3e multiservice add/drop
transponder
OCH 1+1
10 Gbps Transponders
TRP10_4M 1 I/O

Double density
STM-64/10GFC/10 GbE LAN
transponder with pluggable line and
client interfaces, for metro
OCH 1+1 and/or line
protection options
TRP10_4R 1 I/O

Double density
STM-64/10GFC/10 GbE LAN
transponder with pluggable and
tunable line and client interfaces, for
regional
OCH 1+1 and/or line
protection options
2.5 Gbps Transponders
TRP25_2C 1 I/O

Continuous bitrate DWDM add/drop
transponder/regenerator
(50 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps) with FEC
OCH 1+1
OMTR27_2 1 I/O

High-density 2.5 Gbps SFP-based
transponder with FEC
OCH 1+1 and/or line
protection options

WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06


NOTE: The OMTR27_2 transponder module is used in the
CMTR25 multirate combiner/transponder (page 6-33).
TRP40_2B
The TRP40_2B transponder is a multiservice transponder that supports
RZ-DQPSK functionality. The TRP40_2B enjoys good noise tolerance with
improved chromatic dispersion tolerance, and offers good bandwidth efficiency.
This module is suitable for use in both metro/core and long-haul regional
networks. The TRP40_2B can be configured either light, optimized for 50 GHz
and 80-channel service, or strong, optimized for 100 GHz and 40-channel
service. The TRP40_2B can also be used as a regenerator when installed either
adjacent to another TRP40_2B card or in add/drop mode with an IOP protection
option.

Figure 6-5: TRP40_2 40G transponder
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-15

TRP40_2B double-slot cards support the following features:
Client interface:
Fixed SFF transceiver
Transponder service supports STM-256 VSR2000 3R2/3R3/3R5
FEC
Line interface:
Fully C band tunable, 100 GHz or 50 GHz channel spacing RZ-DQPSK
transceiver
OTU3e compliant
TDC dispersion tuning range: -360 ps/nm to 1200 ps/nm
PMD tolerance 8 ps for DQPSK
EFEC
The following figure illustrates a typical use of the TRP40_2B.

Figure 6-6: ECI's 40G transponder
TRP10_4M/R Cards
The TRP10_4 transponders are multiservice 10G double density pluggable
transponders. There are two types of cards: one optimized for the metro
(TRP10_4M) and one optimized for the regional/long-haul (TRP10_4R). Both
cards share the same basic design and functionality set. Each card has two
transponders (client and line) providing full functionality in a space-saving form
factor and operating in an East/West configuration. The cards support the
following features:
20 Gbps total capacity
Two pairs of independent 10 Gbps transponders (client + line)
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OTU2 line interface:
T-XFP: C band 80 channel tunable 80 km, pluggable (TRP10_4M)
XFP: CWDM or DWDM C band, 40/80 km, pluggable (TRP10_4M)
XFP-EL: C band 80 channel tunable 80 km, pluggable (TRP10_4R)
Configurable FEC/EFEC
Client interface:
Multiservice, software-configurable, supporting:
OTN (standard OTU2/2e regeneration)
SDH STM-64
10GBaseW
10GBaseR
10GFC
10 GbE service supporting two mapping modes:
-- ITU-T G.sup43 clause 7.1 (overclocking)
-- ITU-T G.sup43 clause 7.3 (GFP-F)
Support pluggable client XFP 10GBaseR, STM-64/10GBaseW, for both
colored and black and white service:
T-XFP: C band 80 channel tunable 80 km, pluggable
XFP: CWDM or DWDM C band, 40/80 km, pluggable
G.709 OTN ODU2/OTU2 mapping and framing including:
Configurable for FEC/EFEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Unique mapping of 10 GbE LAN to a fully standard OTU2, including
full transparency of the Ethernet preamble and SFD bytes
Optional transparent overclocking (OTU2e/OTU2f)
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Client side: native SDH PM for STM-64 and 10 GbE WAN clients
Ethernet PM for 10 GbE LAN clients
Protection modes include:
Y protection
Built-in OCH protection based on PM parameters
Optical LOS detected in under 250 microsec, triggering ultrafast CSF/TSF
ALS
800 ps/nm and 1600 ps/nm (40 km and 80 km, 25 and 50 mile) operation
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-17

On these transponders, any client port can be configured to any of these
supported services with no impact on the configuration of the other port. An
even bigger advantage is that an XFP module already inserted into the
transponder can be reconfigured as needed through the management software
alone; nothing has to be reset through the hardware.
The following figure shows a block diagram illustrating the operation of the
TRP10_4 transponders.

Figure 6-7: TRP10_4M block diagram
TRP25_2C
The XDM TRP25_2C consists of a single base card with two separate 2.5 Gbps
transponders. The TRP25_2C features include:
Client side and line side continuous bitrate, from 50 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps
Two-wavelength fixed and tunable line side transmitters
OCH protection in less than 10 msec, based on LOS or LOD
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OMTR27_2
The 2.5 Gbps OMTR27_2 transponder card supports the following key features:
Universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side SFPs, STM-16/OTU1, noncolored and CWDM
Configurable for G.709 OTN OTU1 line rates
Line side transmitters:
Fixed DWDM SFP transmitters
CWDM SFP transmitters
G.709 OTN ODU1/OTU1 mapping and framing, including:
7% FEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
PM for SDH clients
Built-in OCH protection in less than 50 msec, based on PM parameters
Optional line protection
ALS
ADM on a Card
ECI supports 10 Gbps ADM service on a double card for GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC,
OTU1, and STM-16 services. This convenient AoC module replaces larger,
more cumbersome and complex ADM units. The multiprotocol, multi-use, and
SDH-like flexibility allow SPs to increase revenues by easily and quickly
responding to any new service requirement, irrespective of the bit rate or service
protocol.
The multiprotocol AoC enables network operators to build an SDH-like optical
network without any need to install SDH matrixes on the platforms. AoC
supports the flexibility and benefits of SDH in the optical network (including
protection, drop-and-continue capabilities critical to multicast video
applications, and add/drop capabilities). With the AoC, all these SDH features
can be enjoyed without any CAPEX expenditures on SDH matrixes.
AoC benefits include the ability to route client signals to different locations
along the optical ring, as well as per-service selectable protection and
drop-and-continue features, useful for E-Line service and multiservice
applications. The AoC can also be used as a multirate combiner up to OTU2.
With all these capabilities built in, the AoC combines the cost efficiency of an
optical platform with the granularity and flexibility previously available only in
SDH networks.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-19

The AoC supports flexible aggregation of different services, enabling
multiplexing of up to 16 Ethernet, FC, or TDM client interfaces onto a 10 Gbps
optical ring (10.7G OTN), or eight per chain, without any need for traditional
SDH or ODU matrixes. Redundancy and service availability are provided by
pairing two AoC cards together. The physical interfaces are
GbE/1GFC/2GFC/STM-16, yet the AoC supports granularity down to the VC-4
level. The AoC can take OTU1 traffic from the OMCM25_4 (see "CMTR25
Multirate Combiner/Transponder" page 6-33) and break down the separate
traffic streams, transmitting the internal services (STM-1, STM-4, and GbE)
along the ring at the appropriate bandwidth. Electrical GbE interfaces can be
supported using ancillary equipment.
The AoC offers the flexibility of tunability for long haul DWDM chains as well
as cost-effective fixed DWDM transmitters for metro ring configurations.

Figure 6-8: AoC typical configuration
The AoC supports efficient GbE multicast capabilities with unidirectional
drop-and-continue service. These capabilities make the AoC particularly
suitable for video applications such as VoD that are part of full triple play
service.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Table 6-5: AoC functionality options
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
AoC:
ADM
configuration
2 I/O

10 Gbps ADM service on a double card
for up to 16 client interfaces, for GbE,
1GFC/2GFC, OTU1, and STM-16
services
AoC:
terminal
configuration
1 I/O

Multirate combiner up to OTU2 for up to
eight client interfaces, for GbE,
1GFC/2GFC, OTU1, and STM-16
services
AoC multiservice ADM supports wire speed GbE with node passthrough,
add/drop, or drop-and-continue service per GbE. AoC offers low latency and
high QoS with no packet loss and a high data transport capacity with low
operational costs. It provides SDH-like simplicity and minimal operational
complexity, with no need for optical link engineering, optical amplifiers, or
power balancing. Additional advantages include fast automatic optical-layer
protection and efficient backhauling of multiple DSLAMs per node through the
use of TDM to a 10 Gbps wavelength.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-21

Comprehensive E2E Wavelength Services
The AoC enables NG transport WDM, providing connectivity, interoperability,
and complete in-band management capabilities between the 4 x any multirate
network components, while simultaneously providing ring-based services for
GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC, and STM-16. Highlights of AoC capabilities include:
Support of all ring-based services for GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC, and STM-16
interfaces, taking and dropping 1GFC/2GFC/GbE/STM-16 traffic through
the AoC.

Figure 6-9: AoC: ring-based services for GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC, OTU1, and STM-16
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Routing traffic from a 2.5 Gbps access point to the 10 Gbps ring, for
example, from the OMCM25_4 module (see "CMTR25 Multirate
Combiner/Transponder" page 6-33) to the AoC.

Figure 6-10: AoC: routing traffic from access to ring
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-23

Connection of the OMCM25_4 to the AoC for remote AoC management via
GCC. The AoC supports GCC in-band management, enabling remote
management from the OTU1 aggregate line interface (OMCM25_4) through
the OTU1 client interface (AoC).

Figure 6-11: AoC: GCC in-band remote management capabilities
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Protected services, for example, dual homing from access and ring.

Figure 6-12: AoC: dual homing protection
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-25

Cross connection at the VC-4 level to conserve bandwidth in the AoC ring.
XDM networks can transport STM-1 and STM-4 traffic through the AoC
even though it does not include direct STM-1/STM-4 interface support.

Figure 6-13: AoC: VC-4 cross connect capabilities
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Put it all together and you can see that the AoC enables the most comprehensive
set of E2E wavelength services for your network requirements.

Figure 6-14: AoC: next-generation transport WDM
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-27

AoC Protection Options
The AoC offers a variety of protection options, enabling network operators to
choose the protection scheme most useful for their network configuration.
Protection options include:
Full equipment protection: The AoC as a multirate combiner for standard
P2P service supports OCH 1+1 with full equipment protection.
Network protection: The AoC as a multirate combiner for standard P2P
service supports standard line protection.
Optical DRI protection: The AoC when used in ring applications supports
optical DRI protection. (Note that inter-ring traffic is through client ports.)
Ring protection schemes: The AoC when used in ring applications supports
a mixture of protection schemes. Choose the optimal combination of
protection configurations based on your network needs. A typical example is
illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 6-15: AoC protection mixture
With the AoC, you may choose any combination of protected network traffic,
unprotected traffic, fully protected traffic including client port protection, and so
on. Dual homing from access to ring is also supported.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Combiners
The XDM offers a variety of combiner card options for 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps.
These cards multiplex several client signals onto a single C/DWDM wavelength
using a built-in TDM matrix. The CMTR25 multirate combiner/transponder
(page 6-33) can be used as either transponders or combiners and support any
combination of a range of client interfaces (including STM-1, STM-4, GbE,
1GFC, and 2GFC) for configurations tailored to your precise requirements.
XDM platforms also provide second generation 40G multiservice solutions,
offering OTU3e ultra long haul 40 Gbps multiservice combiners with four
10 GbE/STM-64/10GFC/OTU2 clients that utilize the same line side module as
the TRP40_2B (page 6-14) and are well-suited for transport service.
XDM combiners are ideal for reducing network cost, saving wavelengths, and
improving network reliability. For example, many combiners are based on the
universal CHTR_B base card for increased simplicity and reduction of spare
parts costs. They support line side tunable lasers and hot-swappable client side
SFPs, as well as a variety of GbE and SAN applications.
The following figure shows a block diagram illustrating the operation of the
XDM combiner.

Figure 6-16: CMBR10_T combiner block diagram
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-29

One of the XDMs unique features is the ability to combine different services
over the same wavelength, including mixing CWDM clients onto DWDM lines.
Highly cost-effective C/DWDM networks can therefore be designed from access
to core, with no back-to-back connections of multiple transponders and
combiners.
The following figure illustrates a blending of multiple GbE and FC services from
access to core through the interworking of three different combiner types.

Figure 6-17: Seamless GbE/FC transport from access to core
The interworking approach can also be applied to mixtures of different services
over the same wavelength, such as multiple GbEs, FCs, and STM-16s over a
single 10 Gbps wavelength.
The following table lists some of the more commonly used XDM combiner
cards. For the full list see the XDM System Specifications. Combiner features are
described in greater detail in the following sections.
Table 6-6: Combiner cards - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description Protection type
40 Gbps Combiners
CMBR40B 2 I/O

4 x 10 GbE/
STM-64/10GFC/
OTU2 to OTU3e multiservice combiner
OCH 1+1
10 Gbps Combiners
CMBR10_T 1 I/O

4 x STM-16/OTU1 OTN combiner with
timing transparency with FEC/EFEC
OCH 1+1
2.5 Gbps Combiners
OMCM25_4 1 I/O

4 x any multirate combiner, up to four
separate wavelengths per card, choice of
service options (STM-1, STM-4, GbE,
and 1GFC/2GFC into STM-16/OTU1)
with FEC
OCH 1+1 and/or
line protection
options

WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06


NOTE: The OMCM25_4 combiner module is used in the
CMTR25 multirate combiner/transponder (page 6-33).
CMBR40B
The CMBR40B combiner is an RZ-DQPSK multiservice combiner for
4 x 10G LAN/STM-64/OTU2 aggregation. This 40G combiner enjoys enhanced
noise tolerance with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance, and offers good
bandwidth efficiency. It reduces the number of wavelengths, increases capacity,
and simplifies management, and can be used in both metro/core and long haul
regional networks. The CMBR40B can be configured either light, optimized for
50 GHz and 80-channel service, or strong, optimized for 100 GHz and
40-channel service.

Figure 6-18: CMBR40 40G combiner
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-31

CMBR40B double-slot cards support the following features:
Client interface:
4 x STM-64/OTU2/10GbE LAN/10GbE WAN
Line interface:
Fully C band tunable, 100 GHz or 50 GHz channel spacing RZ-DQPSK
transceiver
OTU3e compliant
TDC dispersion tuning range: -360 ps/nm to 1200 ps/nm
PMD tolerance 8 ps for DQPSK
The following figure illustrates a typical use of the CMBR40B.

Figure 6-19: 40G combiner typical usage
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-32 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

CMBR10_T
Key features of the CMBR10_T are:
Based on the universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side SFPs, noncolored and CWDM
Variety of line side transmitters:
80-channel tunable LiNbO
3
line transmitters for improved performance
and flexibility
Single wavelength LFF transmitters
Single wavelength XFP colored transmitters for reduced cost
G.709 OTN ODU2/OTU2 mapping and framing, including:
Configurable for FEC/EFEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Client side: Native SDH PM for STM-16
Built-in OCH protection in less than 50 msec, based on PM parameters
ALS
800 ps/nm and 1600 ps/nm (40 km/25 mile and 80 km/50 mile) operation
OMCM25_4
The 2.5 Gbps OMCM25_4 combiner card supports the following key features:
Based on the universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side noncolored SFPs (STM-1, STM-4, GbE, 1GFC, 2GFC)
Configurable for STM-16/G.709 OTN OTU1 line rates
Line side transmitters:
Fixed DWDM SFP transmitters
CWDM SFP transmitters
G.709 OTN ODU1/OTU1 mapping and framing, including:
7% FEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Ethernet PM for GbE clients
PM for SDH clients
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-33

Built-in OCH protection in less than 50 msec, based on PM parameters
Optional line protection
ALS
CMTR25 Multirate
Combiner/Transponder
The CMTR25 multirate transponder/combiner card works with either one or two
slide-in modules (OMCM25_4 and/or OMTR27_2).
The OMCM25_4 module is a multirate combiner that provides 4 x ANY service,
supporting two or four client ports with one or two OTU1 aggregate lines. The
OMTR27_2 module is a double-density SFP-based OTU1 transponder and
regenerator. Both modules offer a choice of line protection, regeneration, or
add/drop service, as well as supporting GCC in-band management capabilities.
Each module accepts up to four plug-in SFP modules. Each line interface is
configurable by the user at either STM-16 or OTU1 line rate. Supported client
rate services include STM-1, STM-4, GbE, 1GFC, and 2GFC, using up to four
extractable CWDM or non-colored (850/1310/1550 nm) SFPs.
The CMTR25 can be used in the following configurations:
Each OMTR27_2 module functions as an STM-16/OTU1 transponder that
can carry two separate wavelengths per card. The OMTR27_2 supports a
choice of service options, including either two STM-16 over two OTU1
unprotected service, or 1+1 SNCP line protection on a single module,
depending on the configuration.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-34 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

With two OMTR27_2 modules, the CMTR25 functions as a double-density
multirate transponder, doubling the capacity of a single OMTR27_2 module
to carry four wavelengths per card.

Figure 6-20: OMTR27_2 transponder block diagram
Each OMCM25_4 module functions as a multirate 2.5 Gbps combiner,
with flexible capabilities that enable cost-efficient multiplexing of several
different low-rate signals, such as STM-1, STM-4, 1GFC, 2GFC, and full
rate GbE service, (both uni- and bidirectional), onto an STM-16/OTU1
C/DWDM wavelength.
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With two OMCM25_4 modules, the CMTR25 functions as a
double-density multirate combiner, doubling the capacity of a single
OMCM25_4 module.

Figure 6-21: OMCM25_4 multirate combiner block diagram
With a combination of one OMTR27_2 transponder module and one
OMCM25_4 combiner module, the CMTR25 offers both combiner and
transponder multirate functionality, with the complete set of services and
capabilities described here.
A CMTR25 cards with a mixture of one OMCM25_4 and one OMTR27_2 is
illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 6-22: CMTR25 in mixed module mode
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-36 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The following figure illustrates a typical application for which the CMTR25
provides the optimal combination of service flexibility. This figure portrays a
P2P application that transports up to four different services over two protected
OTU1 line interfaces.

Figure 6-23: CMTR25 typical usage
Pluggable Transceiver Modules
LFFs, SFPs, XFPs, and XFP-ELs are new varieties of modular optical
transceivers with a small footprint and low power consumption. SFP
transceivers operate at rates of up to 2.7 Gbps, with either electrical or optical
ports, including both colored and noncolored interfaces (C/DWDM). LFF and
XFP transceivers operate at rates of up to 10.7 Gbps. LFF transceivers are
available in both tunable and fixed versions. XFP-EL transceivers support long
haul network requirements, with tunable transceiver support for all 10 GbE
metro service cards.
The LFF/SFP/XFP transceiver modules are used for the entire spectrum of
interfaces, including intraoffice, short, and long ranges, and the interchangeable
transceiver components are utilized throughout the product line. The
standardized modular design of the transceiver components facilitates network
maintenance and upgrades. Instead of replacing an entire circuit board, a single
module can be removed or replaced, a considerable cost savings.
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Service Cards

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All transceivers provide power monitoring capabilities. The SFPs for STM-16
have the added capability to use low-cost colored interfaces (C/DWDM), further
reducing maintenance costs. Transceivers provide a significant advantage for the
cards used in XDM platforms.

Figure 6-24: Transceiver examples
The LFF, SFP, and XFP transceivers support a variety of transmission rates for
several wavelengths and distances, as described in the following sections.
XFP-EL transceivers support:
Tunable long-haul DWDM C band (80 channel with 50 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) NRZ transceivers.
XFP transceivers support:
Short-haul 850 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Long-haul 1310 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Extended reach 1550 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Ultra long-haul 1550 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Intraoffice 1310 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
Short-haul 1310 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
Long-haul 1550 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
Short and long-haul CWDM (8 channel) OTU2 (G.709) transceivers.
Short and long-haul DWDM C band (40 channel with 100 GHz spacing)
OTU2 (G.709) transceivers.
Tunable long-haul DWDM C band (80 channel with 50 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) NRZ transceivers.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-38 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

LFF transceivers support:
Tunable long-haul DWDM C band (80 channel with 50 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) configurable FEC/EFEC NRZ transceivers.
Tunable long-haul DWDM C band (80 channel with 50 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) configurable FEC/EFEC RZ transceivers.
SFP transceivers support:
Short-haul and long-haul 1310 nm transceivers, ranging from STM-1 to
STM-16.
Short-haul and long-haul 1550 nm transceivers ranging from STM-1 to
STM-16.
Short reach 850 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Long reach 1310 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Extended reach 1550 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Short and long reach CWDM STM-16/OTU1 SFP transceivers.
Short and long reach DWDM STM-16/OTU1 SFP transceivers.
Optical Amplifiers
As optical signals are attenuated by the fiber through which they travel, they can
reach power levels below the sensitivity of the optical receiver at the other end.
Before this occurs, the signal must be regenerated. In the past, this was
performed exclusively using optical-to-electrical-to-optical (OEO) transceivers
but with the development of the OFA, amplification can be performed more
cost-effectively in the optical domain, without expensive conversion to the
electrical domain.
The XDM platform offers a large variety of EDFA and Raman amplifiers to suit
any need and application, such as:
Amplified metro-core DWDM networks
Regional and long-haul DWDM networks
Repeaterless undersea DWDM links
Single-channel SDH applications that require extra power budget and for
which no optional regeneration sites are available
The XDM houses these amplifiers in the modules cage as well as in the cards
cage, providing maximum flexibility regardless of the XDM shelf used.
The following table lists some of the commonly used XDM OFA cards. Card
features are described in greater detail in the following sections.
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Service Cards

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Table 6-7: OFA cards - selected subset for the XDM-1000 family
Module Slots XDM-40 XDM-450 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 XDM-3000 Description
MO_OFA_HBC 1 CCP


High power dynamic
booster for long-haul
applications.
MO_OFA_FBC 1 CCP


High power fixed-gain
booster for long-haul
applications and
ROADM sites.
MO_OFA_FHBC 1 CCP


High power (20.7 dBm),
fixed gain (23 dB)
EDFA booster with
integrated output OSC
(C/T) filter.
MO_OFA_PC 1 CCP


High power dynamic
preamplifier for
long-haul applications.
MO_OFA_PHBC 1 CCP


High power dynamic
booster and preamplifier
in E/W configuration for
regional/long-haul
applications. Optimized
for OADM nodes.
MO_OFA_M 1 CCP


High power dynamic
variable-gain multistage
amplifier for
regional/long-haul
applications. Optimized
as an in-line amplifier
and as a pre-amp before
ROADM sites.
MO_OFA_MHe 1 CCP


High power dynamic
variable-gain multistage
amplifier for 80 channel
regional/long-haul
applications. Mainly
used as an in-line
amplifier.
OFA2 1 I/O

Family of boosters,
preamplifiers, and
in-line amplifiers for
metro/regional
applications.
OFA_RM 2 I/O

High power 500 mW
RAMAN amplifier for
long-haul multispan and
undersea applications.
OFA_HRM 2 I/O

High power 700 mW
RAMAN amplifier for
long-haul multispan and
undersea applications.
RM_OFA_VHB --- Rack mounted Very high power booster
for long-haul and
undersea applications.
RM_OFA_HBR
RM_OFA_HFR
--- Rack mounted High power RAMAN
amplifiers for long-haul
and undersea
applications.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-40 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OFA2
This family of EDFA-based amplifier cards provides a complete bidirectional
amplification solution for a fiber pair with a very compact form factor on a single
slot card. Its compact size and low cost make it ideal for amplified metro
networks.
Available modules are:
23 dB gain amplifier for inline and/or booster applications
29 dB gain amplifier for inline and/or preamplifier applications
The OFA2 also uses a built-in Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) that
automatically controls the input power and the amplifier gain so that the
amplifier can be controlled using ECI's patent-pending power-control
technology.
The OFA2 cards are typically used in metro-core/regional networks of channels
that typically range up to 600 km (over 370 miles).
Dynamic Variable and Fixed-Gain Amplifiers
The MO_OFA_M, MO_OFA_MHe, MO_OFA_FBC, and MO_OFA_FHBC
families of amplifiers include a set of high power multistage dynamic
variable-gain EDFAs. These amplifiers are typically used in regional and
long-haul networks of up to 2000 km (1240 miles).
Using dynamic EDFA technology, these amplifiers automatically adjust
themselves to the length of the fiber span for which they are compensating,
thereby providing optimized amplification over the entire spectral band. By
maintaining an optimal OSNR at the output of each amplifier, far longer spans
and many more amplifiers can be cascaded, resulting in an OSNR that is
sufficiently high for the receiver at the end of the link. This capability is essential
in real-world regional and long-haul optical networks, where the fiber spans vary
in length and attenuation between amplifier sites. As a result, fewer spare
amplifiers are needed.

Figure 6-25: MO_OFA_M amplifier
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Along with the ability to provide the correct gain at each site while maintaining
flat amplification and optimal OSNR, the MO_OFA_M family has midstage
access optimized for DCF integration (up to 10 dB of insertion loss) that does
not affect the link power budget.
This provides full flexibility to regional/long haul networks, allowing operators
to build multi-ring and full mesh topologies without costly regeneration sites.
DWDM links based on the MO_OFA_M family have a very impressive reach
achieved with few inline amplifiers. These amplifiers are far more flexible than
other solutions: they simplify network design and installation and require fewer
spare parts for maintenance. They can even correct the spectral tilt introduced by
the hundreds of kilometers/miles of optical fiber and other optical components
on the line that have wavelength-dependent loss coefficients.
The MO_OFA_M is a dual stage preamp. As illustrated in the following
diagram, this architecture is specifically designed for use before ROADM nodes,
providing high gain, low noise, and high midstage access to accommodate 2 x
WSS ROADMs. Moreover, the unique East/West architecture ensures that no
single failure causes a node failure.

Figure 6-26: Typical amplifier configuration for a ROADM node
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-42 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The MO_OFA_FBC is a single fixed-gain booster that offers a low-cost
alternative to fit specific configuration requirements. For example, the
MO_OFA_FBC is a good choice as a booster after ROADM nodes (shown in the
preceding figure) or instead of the OFA_M card wherever midstage access is not
required. The MO_OFA_FHBC provides all the functionality of the
MO_OFA_FBC with the added advantage of an integrated output OSC filter, for
even greater cost effectiveness.
The MO_OFA_MHe is a high power (23 dBm) version optimized for either
40- or 80-channel long haul DWDM applications or for long span applications
(single channel or DWDM) where higher output power is required.
Raman Amplifiers
Optical networks are sometimes deployed under conditions where equipment
must transmit over long fiber spans with no intermediate sites for optical
amplification or electrical 3R regeneration. For example, undersea networks,
island hopping, festoons, rough terrains, and towards remote locations, are all
complex long-range deployments. Use of Raman amplifiers reduces the number
of inline amplifiers in an optical span, thus lowering OPEX while improving
service availability.
Distributed Raman amplifiers are the solution whenever the optical power
budget offered by EDFAs is insufficient, making it possible for single channel
and DWDM networks to operate over extended distances. Note that
amplification is highly dependent on fiber quality, splices, and other optical
criteria.

Figure 6-27: OFA-R card
Raman scattering is a nonlinear physical phenomenon whereby injection of high
optical power into the fiber transforms it into an amplifier and reduces optical
attenuation. The transmission fiber itself is used to achieve gain, thereby
improving the optical power budget and increasing the effective signal range.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

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ITU-T Recommendation G.665 classifies distributed Raman amplifiers as
follows:
Forward pumped
Backward pumped
Bidirectional pumped
XDM Raman amplifiers may be configured to operate in any of the distributed
Raman amplification classes. They are designed to operate with various fiber
types, including G.652, G.655, and G.654.
The OFA_RM and OFA_HRM are double-slot I/O cards that offer both
single-span and multispan operation, useful for a full range of 35 dB to 55 dB
spans. The OFA_RM/HRM cards operate in conjunction with an EDFA at either
end of the span, serving as the booster or preamp. The following figure shows
the OFA_RM in a typical multispan configuration.

Figure 6-28: Raman amplifier in multispan configuration
The OFA_RM generates 500 mW (27 dBm) optical power and the OFA_HRM
700 mW (28.5 dBm). These powerful cards are designed to ensure that all
optical power is safely confined to the fiber during normal operation. Special
precautions have been taken to meet the safety requirements, such as physical
protection for the LINE connector and an APR subsystem. OSC filters serve as a
safety mechanism to control Raman operation. Therefore, these high power
cards are defined as Class 1 Laser Products.

Figure 6-29: OSNR improvement with OFA_RM
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-44 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Rack-Mounted Amplifiers
ECI offers a series of compact rack-mounted amplifiers that save on use of slots
within the platforms. The RM_OFA_VHB is a very high power (25 dBm to
30 dBm) EDFA booster. The RM_OFA_HBR/HFR are Raman units that
generate very high power of up to 1 W (30 dBm). The RM_OFA_HFR operates
in a forward mode and the RM_OFA_HBR in a backward mode.
The following figure shows the RM_OFA_HBR in a typical single span
configuration.

Figure 6-30: Single span configuration
The RM_OFA_VHB and RM_OFA_HBR/HFR amplifiers are generally used in
repeaterless undersea DWDM links (typically up to 350 km (215 miles)) and in
very long terrestrial links where high power is required to bridge fiber loss. For
distances over 350 km, a Remote Optical Pumped Amplifier (ROPA)
configuration is required. Several meters of Erbium Doped Fiber (EDF) are
spliced into the transmission fiber, inserting them directly into the system fiber.
This splicing is done 40 km to 120 km from the receiving end or transmitting
terminal site. The length and doping of the EDF are custom designed to match
the specific transmission system parameters, and optimize performance and
operating margin. The amplifiers have built-in ALS based on back-reflection
monitoring and redundant OSC channels to ensure 1M Hazard level operations.

Figure 6-31: Typical ROPA configuration
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
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OPM Card
Active monitoring of the optical layer is critical to properly manage DWDM
networks, especially regional/long-haul amplified networks. The XDM OPM
enables simultaneous monitoring of all 80 wavelengths. Feedback includes three
critical parameters from each active optical channel to LightSoft, and provides
alarms about any changes in the following parameters:
Wavelength (and channel count)
Power level per channel
OSNR per channel
The OPM performs automatic scheduled measurements at 15-minute intervals.
These are compared to a historical database of measurements. Long-term
monitoring provides a performance baseline that enables forecasting and rapid
network restoration in case of failures.
The following figure illustrates possible locations of the OPM and the
connection to LightSoft to enable monitoring of each individual wavelength.

Figure 6-32: OPM cards location and connections to the network manager
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-46 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

A single OPM card monitors optical parameters at four different points in the
same site. The following figure illustrates how a single OPM card in a single
XDM slot monitors parameters in an OADM site. More than one OPM card can
be used in hub sites in mesh topologies.

Figure 6-33: Typical OPM configuration in a ROADM site
The OPM card enables comprehensive intelligent monitoring that is of great
value for:
Routine monitoring of optical transmission and fiber quality.
Preventive maintenance of the optical links, recommended to prevent
problems before they occur.
Quick and effective troubleshooting. Vital information pinpoints the source
of a network problem with minimal disruption or downtime. Use of the OPM
eliminates the need to send technicians with standalone measuring
equipment, such as an optical spectrum analyzer, to the site, thereby enabling
a quick return to full operational functionality with major OPEX savings.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-47

OMSP Card
The OMSP is an optical multiplex section (MS) protection card providing
multiplex section protection at the optical line level. This single-slot card enables
the optical network to operate in a four-fiber infrastructure ensuring enhanced
protection, as a parallel fiber pair protects each fiber pair.
The OMSP card can also be used to add nodes by switching to the appropriate
fiber pair, thus connecting the node to the network.

Figure 6-34: Adding nodes using the OMSP
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-48 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Optical Topology Management
The following features, implemented at the NMS and EMS levels, provide
excellent intuitive management of the optical layer:
Enhanced Automatic Power Control (APC (page 6-48))
Functional Node (FuN) Topology Map (FTM (page 6-49))
Power Equalization for Lightwave Enabled Servers (PELES (page 6-50))
APC
DWDM networks (optical components and their connecting fibers) are subject to
attenuation changes along the fiber links. These can lead to gain tilt changes. If
not corrected, the associated OSNR degradations can disrupt optical network
operation.
Previously, gain and equalization problems could only be corrected through
manual insertion of fixed attenuators. This placed a heavy burden on optical
network operators. To address this situation, ECI developed APC.
APC provides the following important functions for DWDM networks:
Responds to attenuation changes and automatically resets the amplifier gain
and the added channels' power.
Increases optical network resilience by keeping per channel power constant
for both expected and unexpected variations in the number of channels.
Compensates for optical network degradation (aging effects).
Generates warnings and alarms as needed.
Enforces built-in limits to prevent unwanted traffic disturbances.
APC functions at the EMS-MPT level and is localized in each card or power
control element. The actual (measured) optical power at the card input is
compared to the expected (calculated) input power. APC is configured manually
through a set of readable parameters, such as the number of input channels for an
element and the number of amplifiers preceding the element. Only minimal
calculations are necessary.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
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The following diagram illustrates the operational concept of APC. In this optical
chain, power levels are monitored and analyzed, leading to effective power
equalization along the length of the chain.

Figure 6-35: APC chain model
The OADM in the middle of the optical chain, with channels arriving from two
different types of sources, suffers from unequal power levels that result in gain
tilt. Channels from earlier in the chain have lost power due to attenuation.
Channels being added locally are at a higher fixed power level since they are first
entering the chain at this point.
APC adjusts the power of the added channels to the power level of the
passthrough channels. Note that channels coming out of the OADM are all at the
same lower level, reducing OSNR at the end of the trail. Therefore, the amplifier
located after the OADM in this chain increases its gain to compensate for the
lower levels, restoring the channels to peak power and recovering the OSNR.
APC is designed to compensate for changes in fiber attenuation that may cause
unwanted gain tilt. However, APC also reacts to changes in the number of
channels. Automatic APC reactions are limited to prevent traffic disturbances
when inappropriate reactions occur. PELES (page 6-50) was designed to prevent
inappropriate reactions to changes in the number of channels as well as to ease
network setup and configuration, especially in large or complex network
topologies.
FTM
The FuN Topology Map (FTM) utility, accessed through the EMS-MPT, assists
the set up and management of XDM optical sites. An optical site (also called an
Optical Network Element (ONE)) is a loose collection of cards residing on one
or more XDM shelves in one location collectively performing a specific
function. FTM enables users to build optical networks using intuitive graphic
icons and an easy drag-and-drop process. FTM works with an intuitive logical
map similar to the 'As Built' documentation.
Many components can be used to implement an optical site, and the relationships
between the shelves, cards, and modules are not always clear in the NE Shelf
View. FTM enables you to view, manage, and monitor optical sites and
connections from a functional perspective. You see a logical view of the
complete optical site and not a purely equipment-centric view.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-50 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Events and alarms are color-coded for all network components. Network status
is therefore constantly apparent without having to open another window. FTM
also streamlines operations by providing direct access to the card configuration
screens from its main window.

Figure 6-36: FuN topology map
Once the map has been constructed and the links created, the EMS uploads the
links to LightSoft.
PELES
PELES is a network utility that monitors optical chains from end to end,
providing complete APC and equalization in all network topologies, including
chains, rings, and mesh. When triggered by specific types of network events,
PELES measures and analyzes the actual power levels along a path, determines
the nature of the event, and configures the APC in NEs along the optical path
accordingly.
PELES is implemented at the EMS level and utilizes APC (page 6-48) within the
NE embedded software. The APC detects optical power changes and notifies
PELES. PELES analyzes the data and utilizes the APC mechanism to restore
power equalization and channel levels throughout the link. With PELES, you
can distinguish between changes in power level due to link or span attenuation or
due to changes in the number of channels.
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PELES features include:
Monitoring current power levels and channel status:
Measuring actual link attenuation.
Detecting changes in span loss.
Per-span information regarding active channels passing through a power
control element.
Displaying the monitored data in a clear convenient table.
Automatically configuring Power Control Objects (PCOs) in the cards.
Automatically calculating optical link parameters in case of an event,
including:
Actual Number of Channels (NOCs) present at the input of a power
control element.
Actual Number of Amplifiers (NOAs) and the precise Average Gain of
previous amplifiers (AVGpas).
Required gain at each amplifier.
Updating the physical NEs with changes in card configuration through
power control activation.
The XDM uses an intelligent mechanism to provide constant optimized power
per channel (PPC) throughout the link and the system life span. This provides
DWDM networks with the reliability and ready-to-use simplicity they require.
PELES, in combination with FTM (page 6-49), automatically configures and
calibrates the optical chains in a new network, establishing traffic flow in a
single intuitive procedure. FTM and PELES support provisioning operations
(adding and removing channels). You enter the physical topology changes
through the FTM GUI and PELES's 'repair' process updates affected chains
without affecting existing traffic. When completed correctly, the process is
completely transparent to all existing channels, providing perfectly smooth
scalability from the first channel up to the maximum channel count.
PELES offers the following key capabilities:
Detecting span loss change and measuring link attenuation: The real
change in span loss along a single link is detected by comparing changes of
composite power at the input of a controlled element against changes at the
output of the previous element. Power changes can be caused by attenuation
(Span Loss Changes (SLC)), and those caused by changes in the number of
active channels (Channel Changes (ChaCha)).
Measuring active channel change: PELES calculates the actual number of
channels that are present at the input of each Mux/OADM and updates each
controlled element when changes occur. This eliminates the need for a
manual update or readjustment of the various amplifiers, OADMs,
ROADMs, etc. along the link, thereby simplifying adding new channels to
the network.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-52 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Calculating and defining the correct gain values needed at each
amplifier: PELES takes into account the power level goals and optical noise
accumulated along the chain. You can control optimum power levels
through the Power Per Channel out parameter, configurable per span.
Increasing optical network resilience by keeping per-channel power
constant for both expected and unexpected variations in the number of
channels.
Providing comprehensive set of indicators such as a map of all active channels
and a table showing all changes in span loss. These easy-to-read indicators ease
network operation, assisting you in monitoring all network changes closely and
providing early warning of problematic fibers.
When working with simple chain topologies, PELES uses a simple model
running from the Start of Chain (SoC) to the End of Chain (EoC). The SoC is a
Mux that adds channels to the chain from a set of transmitters. The EoC is a
DeMux that drops channels into a set of receivers. This is illustrated in the
following figure.

Figure 6-37: PELES chain model
In addition to simple chain topologies, PELES can equally effectively monitor,
analyze, and equalize power levels in more complex mesh topologies. For
example, while chains have clear start and end points, a typical mesh topology
consists of a complex interwoven set of links with none obvious. Channel
flexibility required in todays sophisticated optical networks may potentially
involve channel reconfigurations that are repeated and affect power levels.
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417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-53

PELES manages complex mesh topologies by breaking them down into
carefully defined independent chains that feed into each other. Channels
traveling through a mesh network may be passed along from one chain to
another as the channels traverse the various NEs. As the channels are passed
from one chain to the next, changes in optical power levels are passed along as
well. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 6-38: PELES for mesh topology
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-54 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Optical Modules Designed for the
XDM-100 Family
While some of the ECI optics cards and modules can be used in all the different
XDM platforms, many were designed specifically for use in the XDM-100
family. For example, the SIM16_x and SAM16_x cardsets support CWDM
service through the use of pluggable SFPs. This section focuses on some of those
optical components.
Mux/DeMux Cards in the XDM-100 Family
Mux/DeMux cards in the XDM-100 product line support up to 8/16 channels
CWDM (with 20 nm channel spacing).
Several upgrade and expansion paths are offered, such as from 4- to 8-channel
CWDM. These options enable operators to optimize day 1 costs with maximum
system capacity.
The following table lists some of the XDM CWDM Mux and DeMux units more
commonly used in the XDM-100 product line. For the full list see the XDM
System Specifications.
Table 6-8: Mux/DeMux cards - selected subset for the XDM-100 family
Module Slots XDM-100 XDM-300 XDM-900 Description
MO_CMD8 1 OCU

8-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux
MO_CMD4C_E 1 OCU

4-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux, expandable
MO_CMD4SL 1 OCU

4-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux, expansion module
OADMs in the XDM-100 Family
XDM OADM cards provide a highly cost-effective way to add and drop single
or multiple channels at specific nodes without interfering with the remaining
passthrough channels. OADMs allow network resources to be shared among
several traffic hubs, nodes, or subnetworks. The XDM OADM solutions in the
XDM-100 family are in A/B configurations, in which each OADM interfaces
with the two fibers that arrive from the adjacent site with low insertion loss,
optimized for nonamplified metro applications.
The following table lists some of the XDM OADM modules more commonly
used in the XDM-100 product line. For the full list see the XDM System
Specifications.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-55

Table 6-9: OADM modules - selected subset for the XDM-100 family
Module Slots XDM-100 XDM-300 XDM-900 Description
MO_COADM1AB_xx
15

1

1-channel CWDM OADM, AB configuration
MO_COADM2AB_Gxx
16

2

2-channel grouped CWDM OADM, AB
configuration
MO_COADM2AB_xxyy
17

2

2-channel random CWDM OADM, AB
configuration
Amplifiers in the XDM-100 Family
ECI offers a choice of amplifiers, booster amplifiers, and preamplifiers that
provide a cost-effective P2P long path based on STM-16 and STM-64 links
within the optical domain. For example, the MO_PAS_DCM80 is a single
channel preamplifier that incorporates a DCM module for link dispersion
compensation.
The following table lists some of the XDM amplifier modules more commonly
used in the XDM-100 product line. For the full list see the XDM System
Specifications.
Table 6-10: Amplifier modules - selected subset for the XDM-100 family
Module Slots XDM-100 XDM-300 XDM-900 Description
MO_DC0_BAS Single TPU/
OCU slot

Mini EDFA booster for single STM-16 and
STM-64 links, for up to 120 km.
MO_PAS_DCM Single TPU/
OCU slot

Mini EDFA preamplifier for single STM-16
and STM-64 links, for up to 180 km.
MO_OFA21 Double TPU/
OCU slot

DWDM EDFA inline amplifier enabling
DWDM upgrades for XDM-100 family
platforms.



15
xx designates the channel dropped by the OADM.
16
Gxx designates the group of two channels dropped by the OADM.
17
xxyy designates the two random channels dropped by the OADM.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-56 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06




417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-1

In this chapter:
Overview ......................................................................................................... 7-1
PDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-4
SDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-5
Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card ........................................................................ 7-7
ATS Service Matrix for 3G Cellular Networks ............................................... 7-8
I/O Protection Modules ................................................................................... 7-9
Simplified SDH Trail Movement .................................................................. 7-11
Overview
The XDM utilizes a wide range of flexible interchangeable I/O components that
are designed for modularity and ease of use. For example, I/O cards are
interchangeable within a product line, and optical components are built on a
single universal base card. These features simplify the design, maintenance, and
upgradability of a network tailored to your specific requirements.
This chapter introduces the following XDM multiservice components and
service cards:
PIM/PIO: PDH I/O service cards, aggregate modules, and tributary modules
that link PDH interface signals to the XDM cross-connect matrix, supporting
E1, E3, and DS-3 interfaces.
SIM/SAM/SIO: SDH I/O service cards, aggregate modules, and tributary
modules that link SDH interface signals to the XDM cross-connect matrix,
supporting all interfaces ranging from STM-1 to STM-64.
Aurora-G: Encryption solution, encrypting Ethernet traffic at GbE rates,
enabling government and defense agencies as well as commercial Utelco
operators to secure their communications.
ATS: An ATM switch designed specifically for 3G cellular networks.
7
TDM Service Cards
TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The following table identifies the multiservice components and the platforms
within which specific modules are used. The different modules are listed by
interface categories, where the modules within a category generally share the
same functionality. Additional information for each module is provided in the
rest of this chapter. For exact detailed specifications of each module, see the
Technical Specifications documentation.
Table 7-1: Multiservice components and service cards per platform
Interface XDM-
100
XDM-
300
XDM-
900
XDM-
40
XDM-
500
XDM-
1000
XDM-
2000
XDM-
3000
2M
PIM2_42

PIM2_63B

PIM2_63S

PIO2_84


34/45M
PIM345_3

PIO345_16


STM-1
SAM1_4oB

SIM1_4oB

SIM1_4e

SIM1_8

SIO1&4M

SIO1&4B

STM-4
SAM4_2

SIM4_2

SIM4_4

SIM4_8

SIO1&4M

SIO1&4B

XDM General Description TDM Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-3

Interface XDM-
100
XDM-
300
XDM-
900
XDM-
40
XDM-
500
XDM-
1000
XDM-
2000
XDM-
3000
STM-16
SAM16_1B

SIM16_1

SIM16_2

SIM16_4

SIM16_8

SIO16M

SIO16_2B

SIO16_4B

SIO16_8

SIO164

STM-64 (TDM 10 Gbps)
SIM64_1

SIM64_2

SIM64_XFP

SIO164

SIO64M

SIO64B

SIO64_2

Encryption service
Aurora-G

ATM service
ATS


TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

PDH Service Cards
The function of the PDH I/O service card is to link PDH interface signals to the
XDM XIO/HLXC matrix. These service cards provide all the functionality
required to deploy a transport network, including PM for PDH interfaces and 2
Mbps retiming (for PABX synchronization). The XDM supports all standards of
PDH service, including hardware Equipment Protection Switching (EPS).
PDH cards consist of line interface circuits, PDH signal processing circuits, and
internal interfaces to the two matrix cards. The physical line interfaces and
traffic protection circuits are located in the electrical connection modules.
PIMs with electrical interfaces fully support direct connection to the module
without other external connection modules. PIOs use CCP modules as
conductors.
The protection scheme for all PDH modules is 1:N, with one card in standby
mode to protect the active n cards. In case of a failure in one of the active cards,
the standby card becomes active and replaces the faulty card without having to
disconnect any cables. For information about module protection, see I/O
Protection Modules (page 7-9).
Table 7-2: PDH service cards
Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double
slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
interface
XDM-100 product line
PIM2_42 E1 120 single 42 1.25G electrical
PIM2_63B E1 120 double 63 1.25G electrical
PIM2_63S E1 120 single 63 1.25G electrical
PIM345_3 E3/DS-3 75 single 3 1.25G electrical
XDM-1000 product line
PIO2_84
[with CCP
M2_84]
E1 75 /
120
single 84 2.5G electrical
PIO345
[with CCP
M345]
E3/DS-3 75 single 16 2.5G electrical
XDM General Description TDM Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-5

SDH Service Cards
The function of the SDH I/O service cards is to provide interfaces that enable
SDH signals to connect to the central XIO/HLXC matrix of the XDM. These
service cards provide comprehensive SDH functionality supporting the complete
range of interface types, including both colored and noncolored optical
(C/DWDM) and electrical (STM-1) interfaces.
To provide this comprehensive functionality, the SDH service card consists of a
common base card and either plug-in OMs or electrical ports. The SIO164 is
software configurable between SDH and OTN interfaces (STM-16/OTU1 or
STM-64/OTU2) for greater convenience and simplicity in your network
administration. For better performance, the XDM supports 7% out-of-band FEC
(G.709 RS (255.239)) and EFEC for even greater correction ability.
The XDM service cards are designed for efficiency on a basis of universality and
commonality, with the same modular components used for both SDH and optical
service. For example, the same optical plug-in modules (SFP/XFP) are used in
both the SIOs and the transponder cards. This leads to further savings in spare
parts.
The utilization of colored interfaces in existing or new SDH networks enables
DWDM and optical networking implementations without having to add
transponders in series to the SDH interfaces. When DWDM functionality is
added to the network, an SIO card with a noncolored laser can be upgraded to a
colored SIO. This simple procedure further increases savings.
Table 7-3: SDH service cards
Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double/
Quad slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
interface
XDM-100 product line
SAM1_4oB STM-1 --- single 4 1.25G optical
SIM1_4e STM-1 75 single 4 1.25G electrical
SIM1_4oB STM-1 --- single 4 1.25G optical
SIM1_8 STM-1 --- single 8 1.25G electrical/
optical
SAM4_2 STM-4 --- single 2 1.25G optical
SIM4_2 STM-4 --- single 2 1.25G optical
SIM4_4 STM-4 --- single 4 2.5G optical
SIM4_8 STM-1/ST
M-4
--- single 8 5G optical
SAM16_1B STM-16 --- single 1 2.5G optical
SIM16_1 STM-16 --- single 1 2.5G optical
TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double/
Quad slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
interface
SIM16_2 STM-16 --- single 2 5G optical
SIM16_4 STM-16 --- quad 4 10G optical
SIM16_8 STM-1/ST
M-4/STM-
16
--- quad 16 20G optical
SIM64_1 STM-64 --- double 1 10G optical
SIM64_2 STM-64 --- quad 2 20G optical
SIM64_XFP STM-64 --- quad 1 10G optical
XDM-1000 product line
SIO1&4M STM-1 75 single 16 2.5G electrical/
optical
SIO1&4M STM-4 --- single 4 2.5G optical
SIO1&4B STM-1 75 single
16/32
18

2.5G/5G/
10G
electrical/
optical
SIO1&4B STM-4 --- single 4/16 2.5G/5G/
10G
optical
SIO16M STM-16 --- single 2 2.5G optical
SIO16_2B STM-16 --- single 2 5G optical
SIO16_4B STM-16 --- single 4 10G optical
SIO16_8 STM-16 --- single 8 10G optical
SIO64M STM-64 --- double 1 5G optical
SIO64B STM-64 --- single 1 10G optical
SIO64_2 STM-64 --- single 2 10G optical
SIO164 STM-16 --- single 4 10G optical
SIO164 STM-64 --- single 1 10G optical

18
Via CCP module and SFP.
XDM General Description TDM Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-7

Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card
Military, government, Utelco, finance organizations, and other enterprises invest
major efforts to increase their network security. Encrypting information running
over fiber is considered the highest level of security a network operator can
apply to protect against hostile threats.
The Aurora-G Ethernet Security card protects every frame sent over a Layer 2
Ethernet network. Any frame not encrypted with the correct key or modified in
any way is rejected.
The Aurora-G is designed for the XDM-1000 product line, utilizing a single
platform slot to encrypt Ethernet traffic at a GbE rate for a single encrypted port,
thereby replacing expensive standalone encryption units. Each card has two GbE
SFPs, one for plain text and one for secure text. Integrating encryption
functionality into the XDM reduces network complexity, lowers OPEX through
integrated management tools, and reduces CAPEX by lowering the TCO since it
requires less power and less space.
In a typical deployment, Aurora-G cards are installed in pairs. Once a card pair is
deployed, a secure tunnel is created over the open (unsecured) network. This
secure tunnel prevents unauthorized viewing of the data, prevents unauthorized
modification of the data in transit, and prevents data transmission by
unauthorized sources.

Figure 7-1: Aurora-G in P2P Ethernet over DWDM configuration
The Aurora-G card supports P2P Ethernet over DWDM, interfacing smoothly,
for example, with the CMBR25_2, the CMBR10_D, and transponder cards.
The card employs hardware encryption for the entire Ethernet frame as well as
Layer 3 protocol protection, including IPv4, IPv6, IPX, and others. It uses the
strongest encryption method available, AES-256, rendering cryptanalysis
virtually impossible. Keys are managed remotely through the IKE protocol.
The Aurora-G card is FIPS 140-2 Level 2 compliant.
TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ATS Service Matrix for 3G
Cellular Networks
The XDM ATS card is an ATM switch designed specifically to address the
requirements of 3G cellular networks. It is a single-slot card that can be inserted
into any platform in the XDM-1000 product line.
In a typical ATS card application, VC-12s arriving from Node Bs are
concentrated into VC-4s, which are then transported to the RNC or to the next
concentration level. The ATS can also terminate and rebuild traffic into larger
inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) groups to optimally use the transmission
infrastructure. This regrouping capability, illustrated in the following figure, is
useful, for example, in cases of limited capacity at the RAN, such as limited
leased-line services or radio SDH service.

Figure 7-2: XDM ATM approach
The ATS card does not have any physical ports. All ports are logical, and derive
from the matrix core. The ATS supports up to two ATM STM-1s/VC-4s and up
to 125 ATM E1s. Any XDM I/O interface can serve as a physical port for the
ATS.
The connection between the physical ports and the ATS logical ports is
established dynamically by configuring a XC (HLXC and XIO), as shown in the
following figure.

Figure 7-3: ATS ports
XDM General Description TDM Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-9

Connectivity to Any Physical Port, E1/IMA or
STM-1/VC-4
Because the connection between physical and logical ports is established by
configuring the SDH XCs, it is possible to assign any E1 or E1 mapped to a
VC-12 port to any logical E1 port, or any STM-1/VC-4 to any logical
STM-1/VC-4 port, while maintaining full ATM service assignment flexibility
for ATM UNI or IMA. ATM processing can also be bypassed when not required.
The following examples illustrate some of the possible configuration options for
ATS ports:
Each individual E1 port in the PIO2_84 cards can be assigned to any ATM
service, including IMA. This means that the ATS can combine any set of E1
ports, including those residing on different PIOs, into one IMA group,
eliminating any need for port reservations.
Any E1 mapped to VC-12 from any PIO or SIO card can be assigned to any
ATM service. All SDH interfaces can also be accessed as channeled
interfaces.
Each individual STM-1 port (of the maximum 16 available on each STM-1
card) can be assigned to any ATM service.
Any VC-4 from any SDH card can be assigned to any ATM service. For
example, VC-4 ATM can be accessed from STM-4, STM-16, and STM-64
SDH payloads.
There is no difference between the access side and the network side. All
physical ports can be assigned the same capabilities.
UNI/NNI can be configured separately for each port.
VC-4 streams that do not require further ATM processing may bypass the
ATS, thereby realizing tremendous cost savings.
I/O Protection Modules
In a protected service, availability is essentially determined by the two endpoints
of the service at the tributary cards. Since each endpoint inevitably consists of a
single card, this introduces a SPOF to the service. No matter how much
redundancy and protection is built into the system design, the individual
endpoint remains the single most vulnerable point in the network.
Providing hardware protection at the two endpoints dramatically increases the
service availability and enhances the quality of service provided. For electrical
tributaries, the XDM features a 1:N protection scheme with one standby card
protecting several working service cards. The 1:N design is an efficient approach
through which you choose the amount of resources held in reserve, providing
added value by enabling you to select a level of protection tailored to your
network requirements.
TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

In the XDM-100 product line, hardware protection is provided through the TPU,
which holds up to four TPMs. Depending on the module configuration, each
TPM protects one or more PIM and SIM modules. Immediately upon detection
of a faulty PIM or SIM component, the MXC automatically activates the
appropriate switching relay, providing immediate protection.
For example, the TPM2_42_2 provides 1:2 protection for up to two PIM2_42
modules. It is activated by the MXC via the TC or TCF module, enabling a single
I/O backup module to protect any of the two other I/O modules when a failure is
detected.
The following table lists the most common TPM options.
Table 7-4: TPM options
Module type Protected
I/O module pairs
Protection
scheme
Single-slot modules
TPMH_1 PIM345_3, SIM1_4e 1:1
Double-slot modules
TPM2_42_2
PIM2_42
1:2
TPM2_63_3 PIM2_63S 1:3
Triple-slot modules
TPM2_63_2 PIM2_63B 1:2
The following figure illustrates a typical 1:4 protection scheme.

Figure 7-4: TPM protection - four groups of 1:1
For a detailed list of TPM configuration options, refer to the XDM-100 Technical
Specifications.
In the XDM-1000 product line, hardware protection is provided through an
internal mechanism via the backplane. The same 1:N protection scheme is used,
offering a choice of up to 1:10 I/O protection. Hardware protection for the
electrical modules is implemented automatically in the XDM-1000 product line
through the CCP modules. One extra I/O module is held in reserve to protect up
to 10 working I/O modules.
XDM General Description TDM Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-11

Simplified SDH Trail Movement
The SDH advanced service cards support a convenient trail shift capability that
enables operators to transfer SDH links (STMx) from one slot to another within
the same platform. All SDH link configurations and XCs are preserved. SDH
links are moved to a new service card by an onsite ECI technical team, with no
interruption in service, leaving the original service card free for other use or for
upgrading.
The ability to easily move SDH links to a different service card allows operators
to allocate their platform slots more efficiently. More important, the 'move trails'
feature allows operators to replace their current cards with higher-capacity cards
and increase bandwidth as needed with no interruption to service and no need to
add extra platforms for more slots. For example, the move trails feature allows
operators to increase the line rate from STM-16 (2.5 Gbps) to STM-64 (10 Gbps)
simply by switching the STM-16 trails in a single movement to one STM-64
link. Note that link trails must be moved simultaneously on both sides of the link.
The 'move trails' feature is a valuable maintenance tool for deployed XDM
networks to expand and deliver more services. This tool simplifies management
activity, eliminating the high risk usually intrinsic to trail reconfiguration.

TDM Service Cards XDM General Description

7-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06



417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-1

In this chapter:
Introducing ASON in the XDM ...................................................................... 8-1
ASON Network Advantages ........................................................................... 8-3
Standardizing the Control Plane:
ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and UNI/E-NNI Standards ....................................... 8-5
ASON Architecture ......................................................................................... 8-8
Control Plane Functionalities ........................................................................ 8-10
ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family ............................................................. 8-14
Introducing ASON in the XDM
Ethernet-based services are increasingly becoming the preferred choice for
transmission network traffic. Traffic patterns and protection requirements are
shifting to shared schemes relying on efficient mesh protection methods to make
better use of bandwidth resources.
ECIs XDM family supports this evolution with an innovative networking
framework that minimizes operating costs while maximizing revenues. The
XDMs Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) architecture and
Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) protocols enable efficient
optical network planning and operation.
The XDM platform facilitates revenue-generating service features, such as 1G,
10G, and 40G Ethernet interfaces, optical VPNs (O-VPNs), bandwidth on
demand (BoD), and differentiated Class of Service (CoS). For example, as a
BoD application, UNI for SDH and DWDM enables client equipment to request
creation, teardown, and modification of trails. The XDM networking tools are
based on emerging standards from ITU, IETF, and OIF, as well as advanced
distributed control plane architectures.
8
ASON in the XDM
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Key components of the XDM management and control suite include:
Automatic topology discovery
Resource dissemination
Point-and-click connection provisioning
Automatic user-initiated setup
Network-wide E2E PM, path protection, and traffic restoration
The XDM provides a variety of bandwidth-efficient protection and restoration
schemes for a full range of ring, mesh, and P2P network topologies. In addition
to the standard linear Multiplex Section Protection (MSP), fast mesh restoration,
MPLS FRR, SNCP, and Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring
(MS-SPRing) protection, ASON offers a choice of 1++, 1+R, and 1+1+R
restoration. All network services are supported through ASON. Network
operators decide which services should also enjoy additional ASON restoration.
SPs know that OPEX is dramatically improved through simplified service
provisioning and network maintenance. XDMs automatic discovery
capabilities, including plug-and-play neighbors and resource introduction as
well as status and topology identification, help carriers reduce OPEX
significantly. The XDMs distributed dynamic routing capability allows for
rapid cost-effective addition of new nodes and additional bandwidth, without the
extensive offline operations required today.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-3

With ASON, the network is the database.
ASON Network Advantages
ECIs innovative networking framework enables carriers to reduce CAPEX and
OPEX by efficiently planning and operating intelligent optical networks using
ASON architecture and GMPLS protocols.
ASON provides dynamic signaling-based policy-driven control over OTN and
SDH networks via a distributed (or partially distributed) control plane, which
provides auto-discovery and dynamic connection setup.
An ASON network provides:
Improved support for current E2E provisioning, rerouting, and restoration.
New transport services, such as bandwidth on demand, rapid service
restoration for disaster recovery, and switched connections, within a private
network.
Support for a wide range of narrowband and broadband clients signals, such
as:
SDH
IP
Ethernet
ATM
Frame Relay
ESCON, FICON, FC
Audio/Video
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

A typical ASON implementation scenario is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 8-1: ASON example implementation scenario (Source ITU-T)
Through the power of ASON/GMPLS, the XDM provides automatic discovery
capabilities that help carriers reduce OPEX significantly. The XDMs
distributed dynamic routing capability allows for rapid cost-effective addition of
new nodes and additional bandwidth without the extensive offline operations
required today. The XDMs variety of bandwidth-efficient protection and
restoration schemes work with the complete set of ring, mesh, and P2P network
topologies. Protection modes include linear MSP, fast mesh restoration, SNCP,
and MS-SPRing.
The XDM ASON/GMPLS implementation is based on emerging standards from
ITU, IETF, and OIF, as well as advanced distributed control plane architectures,
as explained in this section.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-5

Standardizing the Control Plane:
ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and
UNI/E-NNI Standards
The need for intelligent optical networking in carrier networks triggered an
ongoing effort by leading standardization bodies, including the ITU-T, IETF,
and OIF, towards a unified control plane architecture. By adopting proven
protocols and approaches, a unified architecture standard would lead to
development of a new generation of transmission networks that enable fast
provisioning and restoration along multiple carrier domains using infrastructure
from multiple vendors.
Understanding the Standards
The ITU-T focuses on the switched transport control plane, developing the
ASTN umbrella of specifications. The set of ASTN standards includes the
ASON architecture, as well as multiple generic and specific standards
addressing issues such as call connection management (signaling), discovery
and link management, routing, and others.

Figure 8-2: ASON interfaces
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The IETF has defined the well-known GMPLS architecture and protocols,
extending MPLS for circuit-switching and other non-IP-based systems. GMPLS
protocols include signaling protocols (RSVP-TE), routing protocols (OSPF-TE),
and others. The GMPLS protocols enable advanced switching platforms such as
the XDM to add intelligence by integrating a control plane.
The OIF focuses on integration and interoperability issues by defining the UNI
and the external NNI (E-NNI). These standards cover the gaps between ASON
and GMPLS architectures, enabling a smoother integration of carrier networks.
Understanding the Interfaces
Networks work with the following interfaces:
I-NNI: The internal NNI (I-NNI) is a bidirectional signaling interface
between control plane instances within the same routing domain. Complete
topology and routing information is exchanged using the OSPF-TE routing
protocol over I-NNI, and connection requests are propagated across the
control plane using RSVP-TE signaling protocol. Routing and signaling
traffic is carried over the Signaling Communication Network (SCN). The
signaling design complies with ITU-T G.7713 and ITU-T G.7713.2, and
routing with ITU-T G.7715 and ITU-T G.7715.1. Current versions of the
ASON cards fully support I-NNI interfaces.
E-NNI: A bidirectional signaling interface between different routing and
administrative domains. E-NNI is a key enabler for rapid delivery of services
spanning across multiple domains. The E-NNI interface passes reachability
and domain level routing information only (not complete routing
information as does I-NNI). It is a UNI-like interface with some NNI
functions for exchanging address and topology summaries. The RSVP-TE
protocol is used for E-NNI protocol.
UNI: Allows a client to signal for an optical connection to be set up or torn
down. The UNI is used by client systems like routers. It is also used by
elements of a higher layer transport network to request an optical connection
or modify the service attributes. No topology or routing information is
exchanged over UNI. OIF-UNI 1.0 R2 is used for this interface.
NMI: The network-to-management interface (NMI) handles the interactions
between the management layer and the control plane.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-7


Figure 8-3: Control plane interfaces
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

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ASON Architecture
Each optical network includes two planes; a transport plane and a
management plane. ASON architecture adds a third plane, a control plane.
ASON also adds greater functionality to both the management plane and the
transport plane. The following figure illustrates a high-level view of XDM's
ASON architecture:

Figure 8-4: Management, control, and transport plane layers
The XDM architecture is fully ASON-compliant (ITU-T G.8080) and
completely interoperative with other vendor equipment, including systems that
do not have optical control plane technology.
Transport Plane
The transport plane is the physical equipment that carries the client payload
between endpoints of a connection (trail) over any number of NEs. It includes
the intelligent components and subsystems that make up the network's switching
elements and line systems. It also includes gateways for service adaptation,
where necessary.
Within the ECI ASON network, the transport plane is made up primarily of
components from the ASON-XDM family of products.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-9

Management Plane
The management plane is the management interface for the following control
plane-related functionalities:
Performance management
Fault management
Configuration management
Security management
Within the ASON network, the components of the control plane are modeled as
managed entities within the management plane.
Control Plane
The control plane consists of individual processors or control plane instances
which run the control plane software and use a communication channel to create
an overlay plane to control the switching elements.
The control plane performs both connection control and connection control
functions on an ASON network. These are:
Signaling: to support the capability to create, delete, and maintain E2E
connections. Through signaling, the control plane sets up and releases
connections, and restores a connection in case of failure.
Routing: to select the most appropriate path.
The purpose of the ASON network control plane is to:
Facilitate fast and efficient configuration of connections within a transport
layer network to support both switched and soft permanent connections.
Reconfigure or modify connections that support calls that have previously
been set up.
Restore connections in the event of a failure.
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Control Plane Functionalities
Topology Auto-discovery
ASON-XDM auto-discovery supports resource and link management. The
auto-discovery design complies with ITU-T G.7714 and ITU-T G.7714.1. The
following levels of auto-discovery are supported:
Self-discovery: NE self-discovery is handled by XDM shelves at the
transport layer, as in any XDM-based SDH network. Upon NE
commissioning, the NE automatically detects installed circuit packs and
software configuration, and initializes the circuit packs to default settings. It
continuously monitors the state and attributes of local facilities, learns the
local facility characteristics and port attributes, and reports them to the
ASON control plane (ACP) card, which, in turn, updates the local XDM
topology database.
Adjacency discovery: An individual NE automatically detects logical and
physical connectivity to neighboring NEs (link adjacency) on a per-port
basis, through the simple exchange of unique interface identifiers
(auto-discovery tags). This exchange is done in-fiber over the J0 byte. The
use of J1 is also allowed when it is not possible to use J0.
Adjacency discovery involves the following steps:
An auto-discovery identifier is exchanged on each optical interface.
Once validated and accepted by the network operator, the adjacency
information is sent to the control plane for analysis. It is possible to
configure the system for auto-discovery and auto-acceptance.
The information obtained by the control plane analysis is sent to the
management plane.
The XDM continuously monitors link adjacency as long as the interface
is configured. Mismatches and topology changes are reported to the
control plane and the management system.
Adjacency discovery complies with ITU-T G.7714 standards.
Network topology discovery: The control plane uses OSPF for the
discovery of the control plane and network architecture. To ensure that each
control plane instance holds a complete and identical view of the network
topology and resources, each ACP learns the network topology and builds its
own topology database. The routing mechanisms use this information in
automated route computation.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-11

Link bundling: The XDM control plane bundles ports and other facilities
with the same link attributes into a single link bundle. Link bundling
provides an efficient way to distribute link information for multiple links
simultaneously. Link bundling is one of the features that enable the ACP
cards' scalable architecture capabilities.
As implemented, the topology database is updated when the following
events occur:
Connection setup (or connection setup failure) and connection tear
down. If the connection setup fails because a remote NE does not have
the bandwidth available, the source NE learns this information and
updates its network topology database accordingly.
Bundle capacity modification. The topology database is updated when
new resources are added or removed from a bundle or when a new
bundle is created.
Regular link bundle LSA broadcasting is performed periodically.
Significant changes in the availability of resources, for example, when a
link bundle gains or loses the ability to support a connection type, are
advertised promptly (within seconds).
E2E Trail Configuration
ASON supports both SDH static trails and E2E ASON trails. To configure an
ASON trail, specify the trail's source node, sink node, bandwidth requirements,
and protection level. This information is used to define an algorithm for
configuring the trail. Trail routing and cross connecting at intermediate nodes are
all automatically completed by the ASON NEs.
Mesh Networking Protection and Restoration
ASON provides mesh networking protection. ASON also enables existing
protection mechanisms, such as MS-SPRing to continue to co-exist on the
ASON network. This combination provides greatly enhanced trail survivability
and network security.
In contrast to SDH networking modes, mesh networking does not require 50%
bandwidth held in reserve. This leaves additional bandwidth free and available
for use by mission-critical trails in the network. In order to best utilize network
resources with higher security, mesh networking provides dynamic routing for
each trail.
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Routing
XDM routing is responsible for network topology and resource discovery, and
for automatic route computation. XDM routing complies with ITU-T G.7715
and ITU-T G.7715.1.
The XDM uses a distributed link state routing protocol, OSPF-TE, for automatic
discovery of network topology and resources and to maintain a local topology
database on each control plane instance. Each ACP is responsible for
discovering its neighboring NEs and the links that connect them. The ACP then
advertises the identities of its adjacent neighbors and the cost/weight of each
link. This link information is advertised among control plane instances through
periodic exchange of link state packets. Thus, each ACP is armed with a
dynamic map of the network topology and resources and is able to compute
routes to any destination.
Both implicit and explicit path determination are supported at call creation.
Implicit calls are calls for which only the connection(s) source and destination
points are specified, along with other service attributes (rate, granularity, CoS,
and so on).
Explicit calls are calls for which the route is specified by the LightSoft NMS.
The route specification is passed on to the control plane, which does not do any
route calculation. Note that an explicit call may benefit from the dynamic
connection management capabilities of the control plane by using precalculated
mesh restoration.
Signaling
Optical signaling provides the underlying mechanism for dynamic call and
connection management. The signaling mechanisms handle connection requests,
such as connection creation or restoration. The signaling design complies with
ITU-T G.7713.2 and GMPLS RSVP-TE.
Once a route is determined by the ACP of the source node, signaling is used to
set the connection. Label request messages are sent from source node to the
destination node. Notification message receipts sent from the destination node to
the source node are used by each ACP along the way to set the local cross
connect that services the entire connection E2E.
Two connection types may be supported:
Soft permanent connection (SPC): Optical connection requested by
LightSoft on behalf of client devices.
Switched connection (SC): Optical connection requested directly by the
client at the network edge.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

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Management and Operation
LightSoft is today's NMS for all XDM families, interoperating with EMS-MPT
as well as other ECI and third-party EMS systems. With northbound and
southbound Corba interfaces, LightSoft implements MTNM architecture. It
works in conjunction with EMS-MPT to deliver a full Fault, Configuration,
Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) suite. LightSoft ensures
consistency between network resources and the carrier's internal database, in
addition to other features related to fault reporting, accounting, PM, and security.
LightSoft in conjunction with EMS-MPT acts as the management system of the
control plane. The role of LightSoft is to prepare configuration data that enables
the control plane, acting as a real-time tool, to set up and tear down services, and
preserve them in the event of network failures. Traffic engineering tools are one
such application; they provide the right configuration parameters for optimal
distributed routing decisions. Once correctly configured, the control plane is able
to operate even if LightSoft is unavailable. On the other hand, LightSoft is
capable of overriding the control plane if necessary. For example, faulty
resources may be hidden from the control plane, enabling the operator to repair
them.
Signaling Communication between Nodes
The SCN is a data communication channel that enables communication between
ACP cards. In an ASON-based network with a distributed control plane where
each NE has its own ASON card, signaling communication between NEs is a
critical issue. Moreover, when a failure occurs, no restoration is performed. High
reliability is therefore required to always maintain live management
connections between the NEs. Operators may implement the DCN both in-band
and out-of-band, as follows:
SDH IP-DCC in the XDM
Clear Channel (DCC encapsulated into a VC-12)
External DCN through ACP Ethernet port when connected to external router
only (not via internal data cards)
The SC channel, whether in- or out-of-band, can be implemented with existing
SDH links between the ASON domain NEs.
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ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family
The XDM family's ASON control plane architecture offers intelligent services in
new and existing XDM transport networks. Restoration is implemented with
sub-50 msec protection schemes and automated service provisioning, and other
capabilities reduce CAPEX and OPEX.
The ASON-XDM family solution is based on the "Add-On" concept, adding
unique capabilities to existing and new networks. Expandable and scalable, the
inter-compatible product line supports seamless integration of NEs with
dynamic E2E ASON-based applications.
The LightSoft NMS enables smooth migration to ASON for existing network
trails without service disruption. The current trail parameter values are
maintained and any underlying MSP or MS-SPRing protection mechanisms are
preserved. The network operator defines the protection level wanted, designs the
new network, installs the ASON hardware, and migrates to the new ASON
network configuration. The new service trail can enjoy ASON protection and
restoration even if portions of the service trail continue to run over non-ASON
links, since those links are configured as Logical Data Links (LDLs), as
described in ASON Service in the XDM (page 8-15).

Figure 8-5: ASON-XDM family portfolio
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-15

ASON Service in the XDM
XDM ASON networks support all types of services at all SDH service rates,
with E2E service provisioning. Centralized service provisioning via LightSoft
over the SDH and DWDM layers is simple to plan and implement.
Combination of LO services over HO links
XDM platforms offer a unique combination of high capacity (up to 240 Gbps)
with fine LO granularity through non-blocking connectivity that greatly
increases network efficiency and profitability. Adding ASON restoration
capabilities to the mixture greatly increases the robustness and reliability of the
XDM network.
XDM data cards support EoS services at N x VC-12/3/4 rates. SDH service is
supported at all service rates, from STM-1 to STM-64. PDH cards provide LO
(VC-12) services over HO Terminated Server Trails (TSTs). TSTs are used to
create HO service trails which include LO services, enabling add and drop of LO
services directly over ASON HO links. These TST trails can be protected by
SNCP 1+1. ASON networks based on XDM platforms offer significantly
improved efficiency through the powerful combination of high capacity and full
LO connectivity with TST functionality and ASON add/drop flexibility and
protection.

Figure 8-6: TST server trails
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ASON protection Across Non-ASON Domains
Modern networks often include both ASON and non-ASON domains. For
example, a typical network topology may include regions that run through third
party SDH networks. Nevertheless, network operators would like to enjoy
ASON protection as much as possible, even in these hybrid networks.
The XDM's ASON implementation supports establishment of ASON links
between two ASON nodes even if the links run through non-ASON network
regions. The ASON domain can function and maintain service even if portions
of the service trails run through non-ASON links. This is implemented using
Logical Data Links (LDLs) to represent virtual topology links.
LightSoft portrays the LDLs as topology links in the SDH layer. The LDL is
viewed in the control plane as any other regular data link and can be used at all
STM rates (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, STM-64). No special operator trail
management is required.
With LDL, an ASON domain can be defined between two ASON nodes even
with no direct ASON link. The predefined link and restoration capabilities are
implemented at the ASON hubs. ASON service is suspended within the
non-ASON region of the network and then restored at the ASON network edges.


NOTE: LDLs can only be implemented if the non-ASON
region within the ASON domain complies with all SDH
standards and works with the standard set of SDH alarms and
alerts.

XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-17

ASON protection across non-ASON domains is illustrated in the following two
figures. This first figure portrays the physical layer view.

Figure 8-7: Physical layer view
This second figure portrays the virtual SDH layer view that corresponds to the
physical view.

Figure 8-8: SDH layer view
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Advantages of the XDM ASON
Implementation
ASON offers significant advantages over the accepted network standards in the
telecommunication industry, especially in overcoming SDH limitations. The
XDM's ASON implementation provides an integrated solution of HO and LO
VC-12/3/4 switching capabilities. With multiple line cards per shelf and bit rates
ranging from E1 up to STM-64, as well as Layer 1 and Layer 2 MPLS/Ethernet
over SDH, XDM is an ideal platform for metro-edge, metro-core, and regional
networks, capable of implementing both ring-based and extremely efficient
meshed networks. For networks based on an optical physical infrastructure, with
fibers carrying MoT trails, ASON protection of the SDH transport traffic
includes restoration of the MPLS traffic being carried as well. An added benefit
is that ASON protection can be combined, for example, with FRR protection, for
an additional layer of protection against multiple failures.
The following figure illustrates a network architecture after integrating the
ASON control plane.

Figure 8-9: XDM network architecture with ASON
ECI's ASON-XDM control plane architecture provides intelligent services to
new and existing XDM transport networks. ECI implements ASON through the
use of GMPLS, a multiprotocol control plane that is added to the control plane.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

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The enhanced XDM network adds new capabilities that can bring significant
economies to carriers (CAPEX and OPEX). For example:
Distributed dynamic routing capability facilitates the rapid and
cost-effective deployment of new nodes and additional bandwidth, without
the extensive offline operations otherwise required, for a significant CAPEX
advantage.
Sophisticated management includes automatic topology discovery,
resource dissemination, point-and-click connection provisioning, automatic
user initiated setup, and E2E PM across an SDH circuit. The addition of
ASON provides network-wide E2E path protection and restoration, further
enhancing existing service provisioning and reducing OPEX.
Revenue-generating services, such as GbE, O-VPNs, BoD, and
differentiated CoS.
Improved bandwidth utilization: SDH optical transmission networks must
maintain a large portion of available network resources in reserve. These
networks also lack advanced trail protection, restore, and routing functions.
ASON provides comparable protection with fewer resources held in reserve,
leading to greater efficiency and improved utilization of network resources.
ASON also supports traffic engineering and dynamic adjustment of the
network topology logic in real time, thereby optimizing the configuration
and allocation of network resources.
Hierarchy of multiple protection schemes that are able to increase
network survivability, including the 1++ (SNCP-based) protection for very
high CoS services, and 1+R (unprotected based) protection for low CoS
services. ASON protection and restoration schemes coexist with standard
transport and data plane protection such as linear APS MSP 1+1,
MS-SPRing, and SNCP 1+1 path protection. Network operators select the
combination of protection and restoration schemes to be applied to each
service.
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The following figure illustrates a typical blend of protection mechanisms.
Top priority services, such as government and military applications, enjoy
the strongest protection plans. Services that must meet a high QoS standard,
such as telephony and cellular service, are assigned strong, robust protection
plans. Fewer resources are reserved for protection of the lower priority
services, such as HSI. Basic BE services are implemented without any
additional protection mechanisms. ASON-based protection mechanisms are
described in greater detail in ASON Protection and Restoration Capabilities
(page 10-18).

Figure 8-10: Blend of protection mechanisms
Two levels of priority ratings: In addition to the multiple protection
scheme settings available, services can also be configured as either
high-priority or low-priority. Within the same level of protection,
high-priority services are always positioned earlier than low-priority
services in the recovery queue. This adds an additional level of fine tuning to
the restoration configuration. For example, assume a network operator is
configuring a group of services, all of equivalent importance. Some of those
services are already protected through some other mechanism, while the rest
of those services have no other recovery mechanism available. In this
situation, the operator could configure all the services with the same
protection scheme, and then configure the services with no other recovery
mechanism as high-priority, so they are the first to be restored through
ASON. The other services would be configured as low-priority, since they
might easily be recovered through another mechanism without requiring
ASON restoration. This approach optimizes use of the available BW
resources for the services that need them the most.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-21

Preemption for best effort services, to maximize BW usage and increase
data service availability. BW that has been allocated for ASON protection
purposes is technically available for use until needed in case of failure.
While that bandwidth is not being used by ASON, XDM's preemptive
approach lets the network use that bandwidth for best effort services. An
intelligent system of preemption enables efficient balancing of various
service levels. Users can define what percentage of the available bandwidth
can be used for preemptive best effort service, so that even the lowest
priority best effort services are never shut down completely. Best effort
service availability is actually increased, providing a significant benefit for
data operators.
Enhanced dynamic protection and restoration: ASON enables dynamic
restoration in complex mesh topologies, in addition to the standard MSP and
SNCP protection for SDH trails. XDM's ASON implementation is also ideal
for networks running over an underlying optical (DWDM) physical layer.
While typical TDM links may carry up to STM-64 trails simultaneously,
optical networks scale to a much higher capacity; bundles of four channels of
STM-64 traffic are typical. This is not a problem - XDM's ASON
implementation is optimized to restore up to 256 trails simultaneously. If
there are multiple large-scale failures in the network, the trails are restored
progressively, with restoration performance depending on the available
bandwidth.
Enhanced TE link capacity: In an ASON network, physical
STM-16/STM-64 links between two adjacent NEs are known as Data Links
(DLs). As of V8.4, each DL and LDL is configured as a separate TE Link.
Each TE link contains a single DL, and up to five LDLs. Each port can
support a single TE link. The number of TE links supported per platform is
limited only by the number of ports available on that platform. When
working with an optical DWDM upper layer, DLs utilize 2.5G/10G
wavelengths. The DWDM aggregate line is represented by a TE link.
SRLG: Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLGs) are defined per TE link. The
SRLG number on each TE link is usually defined as the duct number,
thereby ensuring that multiple TE links on the same duct all have same
SRLG. You can configure more than one TE link between the same NEs to
ensure that more than one route is available in the event of a fiber cut. You
can then configure the main and protection links with different SRLGs, to
avoid having a single point of failure (SPoF).
In the event of a fiber cut, ASON considers the SRLGs associated with a
particular ASON trail when calculating the optimal restoration path. When
the trail is switched, the SRLG information associated with the trail is also
updated, so that if a further fiber cut occurs, ASON can find an alternative
route using the most up-to-date SRLG information.
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WTR: The Wait To Restore (WTR) time defines the time that ASON waits
following a fiber cut, before attempting restoration. Defining a longer WTR
enables the operator to test a fiber following its restoration, to ensure that it is
working correctly before traffic is reverted back to that fiber. WTR is set to
the minimum amount of time required to test that the fiber is working
correctly.
WTR can be defined per trail during trail creation. WTR can be set to any
amount of minutes between 1 and 1440, with a default WTR of 6 min. Note
that if ASON discovers a failure event on the provisioned fiber during the
WTR period, service is not restored on that fiber when the WTR period ends
until the fiber is fixed.
Holdoff Time: If your network, or part of your network, utilizes two
protection schemes, it is important to define which scheme should be the first
to attempt restoration, to prevent a conflict if both schemes attempt
restoration simultaneously in the event of a fiber cut. The Holdoff Time
parameter specifies which scheme has priority. The Holdoff Time is a time
period during which the second protection scheme waits to determine
whether the first protection scheme can find a solution and reroute the
affected traffic. In the case of ASON protection, the Holdoff Time defines
the time during which an NE waits to inform the ASON head-end that a fiber
cut has occurred. If the first protection mechanism succeeds in restoring
traffic during the Holdoff Time period, the second protection scheme takes
no further action. If rerouting is not successful, at the end of the Holdoff
Time period the second protection scheme will start restoration. Holdoff
Time is defined per NE, with a default of 0 sec. If a second protection
scheme is not available, the Holdoff Time should be defined as 0 sec.
Trail route association and exclusion makes it possible for network
operators to provide sub-50 msec restoration for multiple fiber cuts in SNCP
trails that run over two TSTs through an ASON domain, even though the
ASON segments of the trails originate in two different headends. The
protection provided is equivalent to a set of two 1+R restorations. By
associating these two trails, ASON can guarantee total trail separation with
no shared trail segments, thereby ensuring that enough BW is always
available for traffic on both trails.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

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This is accomplished through a combination of association and exclusion
techniques, described in this example. The following figure illustrates a
simple network configuration with LO traffic, transmitted over main and
protection routes that originate and terminate outside an ASON domain.
Sections of the traffic routes run across an ASON domain, where the traffic
is carried by two independent ASON TSTs. One TST, represented by dashed
blue lines, carries the main VC-12 traffic across the ASON domain. The
second TST, represented by dotted red lines, carries the protection VC-12
traffic across the ASON domain. While these two traffic trails are logically
linked since they are carrying the main and protection traffic, from ASON's
perspective these are simply two independent TST trails originating in two
separate headends. Trail route exclusion effectively implements SRLG
functionality for the two associated routes since each route will not use links
'belonging' to the other route for restoration purposes.

Figure 8-11: ASON associated trails (initial trail configuration)
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As you can see in the preceding figure, the LO traffic's main and protection
routes running through the ASON domain are composed of two separate,
independent sets of links. Once these two separate trail routes have been
defined, you can associate the two trail routes with each other. This means
that if there is a fiber cut on the first trail route, ASON configures a
restoration route that excludes any links that are part of the associated second
trail route and you still have two independently functioning routes
configured for this traffic, as illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 8-12: ASON associated trails (after 1 fiber cut)
If there is a second fiber cut along the first trail's restoration route, ASON
again configures a restoration route that excludes any links that are part of
the associated second trail route.

Figure 8-13: ASON associated trails (after 2 fiber cuts)
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

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As illustrated in the following figure, only a third fiber cut, this time in a
segment of the second TST, triggers a situation where segments of the
restoration paths for the two TSTs overlap. Any fiber repair is enough to
restore the network to the point where the two TSTs are again independent.

Figure 8-14: ASON associated trails (after 3 fiber cuts)
Intelligent traffic localization: In the XDM's ASON implementation, users
can define a set of independent restoration regions. Regions are identified by
color; links belonging to a region are assigned the color associated with that
region. (Note that an NE can participate in multiple regions since the NE can
be connected to multiple links of various colors.)
In case of failure, ASON configures a restoration path using resources within
the same region (links of the same color). The ASON controller will not by
default reroute traffic using links from different virtual regions. This feature
is useful when operators wish to keep different network layers or EMS
regions separate, or if they wish to prevent a failure in one area from
affecting traffic in a totally separate area.
Nevertheless, an intelligent override mechanism is provided. Network
operators can define which services are important enough that restoration of
these services is allowed to incorporate resources from other regions,
(utilizing links of other colors), if necessary.
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ACP Modules
The control plane in the XDM is implemented through ACP cards available in
the following versions:
ACP3000: Designed for XDM-3000 platforms; installed in dedicated ASON
slots.
xMACP: Designed for XDM-1000 and XDM-2000 platforms; provides
ACP functionality integrated into the xMCP cards located in the controller
card slots C1 and C2 (rather than utilizing one of the platform's CCP slots).
ACP1000: Designed for XDM-500 and XDM-1000 platforms; installed in
any CCP slot.
ACP900: Designed for XDM-900 platforms; installed as an optional module
within the MXC900 card in a dedicated MXC slot (rather than utilizing one
of the platform's I/O slots).
ACP100: Designed for XDM-100 and XDM-300 platforms; installed in any
I/O slot.
Each XDM shelf may be equipped with redundant ACP modules for 1:1
protection, preventing a SPOF.
ECI's ACP cards support the following standards: I-NNI and MNI as defined by
ITU-T ASON standards and OIF based on the GMPLS standard.

Figure 8-15: xMACP card


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-1

In this chapter:
Routing and Forwarding Functionality ............................................................ 9-1
Digital Communications Channel ................................................................... 9-2
Optical Supervisory Channel ........................................................................... 9-9
General Communications Channel ................................................................ 9-10
Communications Module .............................................................................. 9-11
Routing and Forwarding
Functionality
The routing and forwarding capabilities of the XDM platforms have grown to
match the requirements of the deployed networks. Initially, a LAN emulation
scheme was implemented, suitable for small and midsize networks. This was
later extended with static routing, which permitted an increase in the size and
complexity of the managed networks. The current version incorporates standard
OSPF dynamic routing, suitable for larger networks and including a richer set of
features for network communications management.
In the XDM platforms, the main control processor subsystem is responsible for
communications with external NEs and management stations. Communications
with other SDH NEs is via the DCC in each SDH link - an Ethernet interface is
used to communicate with the EMS-MPT. The controller subsystem can also
communicate with a desktop or laptop PC-based LCT via a serial interface or
Ethernet. It also provides alarm outputs and OW support. Some of these network
communication components and their functionality are described in this chapter.
9
Network Communications
Control
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Digital Communications Channel
DCC with LAN Emulation and Static Routing
When working with LAN emulation and static routing, all DCCs terminated at
the XDM are associated into a single IP interface. An IP address and mask are
assigned to the DCC IP interface. This IP address also serves as the host IP
address. From an IP point of view this is a network interface, making all IP
addresses in the masked subnetwork direct neighbors.
The gateway interface, when it exists, serves as a second IP interface with an
additional IP address. The XDM management entity is the host, situated at the
router. The router operates with a straightforward routing table. The DCC IP
interface is the default route. Packet encapsulation and IP forwarding over the
gateway are both standard, based on the routing table. Standard Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) is also supported over this interface. A special
encapsulation of the IP packets, including the fields required for operating the
flooding mechanism, is used over the DCCs.
In this approach, the networks are structured in ring configurations. Management
traffic travels to the NE through these rings, arriving from both directions. One
of the packets is automatically discarded. The advantage is that in case of link or
node failure, traffic still reaches the NE, providing resiliency for management
communications. Nevertheless, transmission of all packets over all links is
inefficient from the perspective of link utilization.
When networks are more complex than single rings, flooding of all packets over
all DCC interfaces becomes unacceptably inefficient. For this reason, the basic
LAN emulation scheme was extended with static routing, where multiple IP
interfaces (up to 128) can be defined for the DCC channels. Each DCC channel
must be assigned to only one of these IP interfaces. A packet initially forwarded
over one such IP interface is transmitted over all the DCC channels connected to
that interface. On reception, a packet whose destination does not appear in the
routing table is forwarded over the other channels in the interface.
Static routing is suited to multiple interworking rings, with the routing defined at
the interworking points of these rings. Nevertheless, static routing does not
support gateway protection when the Carrier Access Data Communication
Network (DCN) consists of routers.
XDM General Description Network Communications Control

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-3

DCC with PPP
When LAN emulation is not used, a standard encapsulation method is preferred
to promote interoperability with other vendor equipment. The XDM implements
the prevalent encapsulation scheme for IP on P2P links (PPP), as required by the
ITU standard G.7712.
This protocol has a component which negotiates some of the encapsulation
parameters before the link endpoints. The XDM implementation fully supports
PPP with the basic encapsulation format. The PPP overhead is 6 bytes per frame,
whereas the LAN emulation overhead is 14 bytes per frame.
DCC with Dynamic OSPF
A DCC enables operators to integrate several platforms with their own
workstations and to pass this management traffic through the XDM. In addition,
the controller subsystem provides 64 kbps and (N x 64) kbps trail capability for
transporting management data, transporting the DCC channels of external
devices or for other external DCN purposes. The operator sets up an IPbased
DCN to carry IP packets between the management stations and the NEs. The
DCN is composed of Embedded Communication Channels (ECCs) supported by
the equipment itself and an external DCN supported by standard data equipment.
The ECCs supported by the XDM are described in Embedded Communication
Channels (page 9-6).
The XDM performs IP forwarding between all network interfaces, including
DCC and Ethernet gateway management interfaces. It implements dynamic
OSPF routing over these network interfaces to automatically determine the
routing table. OSPF can be configured for any subset of network interfaces and
supports:
P2P and broadcast interfaces
Up to four OSPF areas
Address summarization
Support for ABR functionality
Support for ASBR functionality, including redistribution of static routes
Support of a loopback address as a router ID
Configuration of HELLO protocol parameters
Support of "passive" interfaces to allow distribution of routes to attached
devices
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OSPF support includes PPP encapsulation of IP packets with HDLC framing
over RS-DCC, MS-DCC, and "Clear Channel" communication channels as
defined in ITU G.7712. OSPF functionality enables a wide range of DCN
configurations, adds resiliency to management communications between NEs
and the management stations, and reduces the DCC load, for a significant
improvement in management performance and NE capacity.
Under dynamic DCC routing, NEs ping each other through the available DCC
interfaces and build their own routing tables. Working with dynamic routing
tables that respond to real-time circumstances simplifies DCC planning and
maintenance, and reduces the DCC load by making it unnecessary to reserve
DCC protection paths in advance. There is also no need to plan DCC rings, since
dynamic DCC routing enables NEs to set up new routes automatically if existing
ones fail.
Support is provided for legacy LAN emulation encapsulation and static routing
for packet routing and forwarding in the embedded component of the DCN. The
XDM enables interworking between NEs working in OSPF/PPP mode and NEs
working in the legacy LAN emulation mode, with full software configurability
between all communication modes. The XDM supports unnumbered IP
interfaces on DCCs with PPP encapsulation to avoid any need for assigning and
configuring IP addresses for each interface.
The encapsulation type is configurable on a DCC-by-DCC basis. In networks
composed entirely of XDM elements, migration of all NEs and links to
OSPF/PPP is a natural step, leading to a natural improvement in the DCN's
resilience and capacity. In mixed networks, a migration path must be planned
that takes into account the capabilities of the current network equipment. For
example, a network may consist of an XDM core that can be migrated directly to
OSPF/PPP. This core may work with subtending rings that continue to operate
using LAN emulation.
DCN Network Illustration
Several different DCN methods exist, including:
DCC with LAN emulation
DCC with OSPF
Ethernet mode OSPF
DCN OSPF (towards the XDM gateways)
The XDM smoothly integrates multiple DCN modes with a single XDM able to
function in different DCN modes with different network components. For
example, the XDM icon highlighted and outlined in red in the following figure
maintains a direct link to and communicates with three different network
components working in three different modes: DCC with LAN emulation, DCC
with OSPF, and DCN OSPF.
XDM General Description Network Communications Control

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-5


Figure 9-1: Integrating a variety of DCN schemes
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Embedded Communication Channels
The XDM supports a full range of routing and forwarding functionalities
through one of the following communication channels:
DCC Routing
Clear Channel
External DCCs
OSC
DCC Routing Features
The XDM SDH links between NEs support two standard ECCs:
RS-DCC at 192,000 Bps, generally used for communicating with other
RS-DCC terminating equipment
MS-DCC at 576,000 Bps, generally used for communicating with other NEs
The XDM is fully compliant with applicable industry standards, enabling it to
operate with any combination of non-ECI NEs. Its DCC transparency feature
enables the transfer of any vendors management traffic. As a result, you can
deploy XDM in any vendor's fiber transport network at both the SDH and optical
layers while continuing to manage other equipment. Depending on the
equipment used, up to 84 external DCC channels are currently supported, with
future capabilities of up to 128 channels.


NOTE: The number of external DCC (transparent) channels
and the number of regular DCC channels are independent of
each other.

The DCC routing feature provides full connectivity of management traffic
between any vendor's elements. Routing/cross connecting of a DCC stream from
any STM-1 to any other STM-1 is allowed while utilizing effective IP routing
schemes. This provides intelligent nonflooding routing of ECI's DCC.
XDM General Description Network Communications Control

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-7

Clear Channel
When an XDM network is interconnected with equipment from other vendors,
the XDM management may not be able to use the embedded communication
channels provided by the other vendor. For example, the other equipment may
not support IP packet forwarding. Nevertheless, the XDM supports a complete
range of alternate communication methods, enabling full interoperability with
external vendor equipment, despite the limitations that may be imposed.
Management traffic may be carried on a regular VC-12 crossing the external
network, using external equipment. The clear channel feature is implemented
when DCC management information must pass through an external subnetwork
that does not support the transport of transparent DCC channels. To manage
remote ECI equipment through other vendor subnetworks, DCC channels are
transported over 2 Mbps (VC-12) trails.

Figure 9-2: DCC to VC-12 Clear Channel conversion
An alternative to the built-in clear channel feature is to convert the management
data to E1 and back again using an external converter. The management
information of the DCC channels is converted to VC-12 format by the CPU and
is connected to spare channels of E1/PDH cards. After the VC-12 trail crosses
the external subnetwork and reaches the ECI subnetwork, the CPU of the far
XDM retrieves the information from the payload of the VC-12 trail.
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

External DCCs
In some cases, the XDM network must interconnect with NEs that cannot
support interworking at the DCC network level. In this situation the XDM
equipment may have to carry the foreign management communication in a
virtual 'Transparent DCC' over embedded communications without mixing it
with its own management communications. This may occur, for example, when
one provider must transparently transport the management communications of
another provider over its network, or with NEs that are managed using OSI
protocols over the DCCs rather than IP-based protocols. This transparency is
valuable, for example, in CoC multivendor networks where the XDM platforms
enable connectivity between the different vendor islands.
The external DCC channel and external DCC XC features of the XDM support
this requirement. RS and MS objects in SDH data cards contain external DCC
bytes used to implement the transparent DCC feature. This feature enables you
to use the XDM network to transparently route the management channel of an
external vendor, independent of the payload routing. Using the EMS-MPT XC
subsystem, you can create XCs on external DCC objects that specify how the
management channel is routed via the NE.

Figure 9-3: P2P DCC transparency
XDM General Description Network Communications Control

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-9

Optical Supervisory Channel
The XDM supports a range of OSCs for WDM link management when the data
channels themselves do not include embedded communication channels or if
there are no channel drops, as at an in-line amplifier site. The OSC is used as a
communication channel to enable the EMS-MPT (page 11-22) to communicate
with and control the XDM. It operates at 1510 nm at a rate of 155 Mbps or
2 Mbps, thus integrating high capacity without interfering with the optical
channels that operate in the 1550 nm range (C band). The OSC is integrated into
the MECP. As the XDM fully integrates the smart optical layer with the SDH
and OTN layers, the DCC/GCC management channels can be used when
available.
The MECP options include:
STM-1:
Long span (1510 nm) with optional OW
Extended span (1510 nm) with optional OW
2 Mbps:
Extended span or Raman amplifier applications as part of the eye-safety
mechanism
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

General Communications
Channel
The XDM supports in-band management utilizing the GCC incorporated in
CHTR_B-based OTN transponders and combiners. The GCC enables remote
management of equipment at any site where optical channels are dropped. This
can increase margins and extend distances of optical links as OSC filters are
eliminated. The GCC provides the same basic features as the DCC detailed in the
preceding sections.
Three types of GCC are supported: GCC1 and GCC2, used for ODU mapping,
and GCC0, used for OTU mapping. One type of GCC is configured per port.
The XDM fully integrates the GCC with the DCC and OSC channels, thus
providing the operator with the flexibility to choose the most appropriate
management channel. Operators can even mix the different channels in a
network or in the same platform. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 9-4: Integrating communication channels
XDM General Description Network Communications Control

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-11

Communications Module
All XDM platform configurations work with a communications module,
featuring:
Electrical interface connectors that are integrated into the I/O modules,
saving the need for separate electrical interface modules
Easy routing of external management interfaces
A monitoring system for acceptance test purposes
Hot insertion of cards and modules to support quick maintenance and repair
activities, without affecting traffic
In the XDM-1000 product line, the platforms work with the MECP. In the
XDM-100 product line, the platforms work with the ECU900.


NOTE: For detailed information about card and module
variants and system specifications see the XDM System
Specification.
MECP
The MECP connects the management, OHA, and OW interfaces to the active
xMCP card. The physical management connections are provided by the External
Connection Board (ECB) located above the MECP.
The MECP supports standard OW as well as a special voice channel over the
DCC when using VoIP and a special router. This feature enables external calls
from outside the network to a particular site. In addition, the MECP generates
system alarms and activates indicators, for example software downloads,
restarts, configurations, and so on.
In pure optical networks and inline amplifier sites, various MECP versions are
available to support OSC operation at 1510 nm or 1310 nm, with maximum
reach ranging from 85 km to over 200 km.
Network Communications Control XDM General Description

9-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ECU900
In the XDM-100 product line, a set of ECU cards provide the physical interface
between the XDM and external management and clock devices. ECU cards
connect management, alarms, and OHA interfaces to the active MXC. They also
provides the physical connections for these interfaces.
Two types of ECU cards are available for the XDM: ECU (regular) and ECU-F
(enhanced). XDM platforms often have particular ECU cardsets designed
specifically for them. For example, the XDM-300 utilizes the ECU300 and
ECU300-F cardset.
ECU-F cards support the following management and alarm interfaces and
functions:
Ethernet interface to LightSoft and EMS-MPT
Ethernet hub for multiple NE connections
Serial (RS-232) interface for LCT-XDM
Synchronization inputs and outputs (T3/T4)
Alarm severity outputs (Critical, Major, Minor, Warning)
External alarm outputs and inputs (SCSI D-connector)
Alarm Cut Off (ACO)
Operation and alarm LEDs
Selection and display of traffic interfaces for monitoring purposes
Monitor interface for STM-1 ports
Laser activation during ALS, for maintenance purposes
Multiplexer reset
Hold-up capacitors
Lamp test activation
OW functionality
ECU cards support all functions provided by the ECU-F except for Ethernet
expansion to hub, monitoring points, holdup capacitors, and alarms in/out.


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-1

In this chapter:
Overview ....................................................................................................... 10-1
MPLS Protection Schemes ............................................................................ 10-2
Ethernet PB Features ................................................................................... 10-11
ASON Protection and Restoration Capabilities ........................................... 10-18
SDH Protection Schemes ............................................................................. 10-23
Optical Layer Protection .............................................................................. 10-31
Equipment Protection .................................................................................. 10-40
Integrated Protection for I/O Cards with Electrical Interfaces .................... 10-43
Overview
The XDM provides a comprehensive set of protection and restoration
mechanisms that supply complete overall protection for every aspect of your
network configuration. The XDM supports protection for all types of networks
based on the complete range of technologies. Protection mechanisms are
provided through the XDM's ASON capabilities, as well as a complete set of
MPLS and Ethernet traffic protection schemes and fast IOP (1:1 card
protection). The XDM supports full SDH path and line protection, optical layer
protection, equipment protection, and integrated protection for I/O cards with
electrical interfaces. These various protection capabilities are introduced in this
chapter.
10
XDM Protection and
Restoration Mechanisms
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

MPLS Protection Schemes
The following figure illustrates an XDM MPLS network that incorporates an
E2E combination of protection schemes to provide optimal protection at every
point. These include sub-50 msec FRR link and node protection, Dual-Homing,
and LAG, described in the following sections, as well as Fast IOP: 1:1 Card
Protection (page 10-41), described in Equipment Protection (page 10-40).

Figure 10-1: Comprehensive MPLS protection
Facility Backup FRR
Robust networks must protect tunnels against failure of a link or node along the
tunnel path. MPLS supports a protection mechanism called Facility Backup
FRR. FRR protects against link or node failure along a tunnel path through the
use of bypass tunnels.
With FRR, a backup LSP called bypass tunnel is pre-established by the NMS to
bypass a network link or node failure to a downstream node where the alternative
path merges with the path of the protected tunnel. Switching to a bypass tunnel
requires pushing a third MPLS tag called an FRR label into the packet. The FRR
label remains in the packet until the bypass tunnel merges with the path of the
protected tunnel, where it is removed (label pop) off the packet. The primary
advantage of FRR over other protection schemes is the speed of repair. Due to
the pre-establishment of the bypass tunnels and the fast physical layer-based
failure detection, FRR can provide sub-50 msec switching time for both link and
node protection, comparable to SDH protection mechanisms.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-3

FRR for P2P Tunnels
The following figure illustrates a tunnel flowing from MCS1 through MCS2 to
MCS3. The tunnel is configured with node protection at MCS1 via bypass 1 and
with link protection at MCS2 via bypass 2.
If MCS1 detects that the node MCS2 has failed, MCS1 switches the tunnel
traffic to the node-protecting bypass tunnel 1 while pushing an FRR label.
Bypass tunnel 1 then merges with the protected tunnel path at next next hop
(NNH) MCS3, where the FRR label is removed (pop).
If MCS2 detects that the link between MCS2 and MCS3 has failed, MCS2
switches the tunnel traffic to the link-protecting bypass tunnel 2 while
pushing an FRR label. When the packet traveling via bypass tunnel 2 arrives
at the next hop (NH) MCS3, the FRR label is removed.

Figure 10-2: P2P FRR example
FRR for P2MP Tunnels
With facility backup FRR link protection for a P2MP tunnel, the node upstream
from the failed link redirects the traffic through a bypass tunnel whose
destination is the NH. The bypass tunnel is an ordinary P2P bypass tunnel that
may be shared by both P2P and P2MP tunnels. As with FRR for a P2P tunnel, an
FRR label is pushed to the packets before they are directed to the bypass tunnel.
The FRR label remains until the bypass tunnel path merges with the protected
tunnel, where the label is removed.
When multiple subtunnels share a bypass tunnel, the data plane forwards only
one copy of the packet to that tunnel.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The following figure illustrates a P2MP tunnel that flows from P1 to P2, where it
branches towards destination PEs (PE3 and PE4). If P1 detects that the link to P2
has failed, it switches the traffic to the bypass tunnel. When the rerouted traffic
merges at P2, the FRR label is removed.

Figure 10-3: P2MP link protection example
With facility backup FRR node protection for a P2MP tunnel, the node
upstream from the failure redirects the traffic through a bypass tunnel that
merges with the original P2MP tree at the NNH node. If the NH is a P2MP
branching point to N links, N bypass tunnels are required for complete
protection.
The following figure illustrates a P2MP tunnel that flows from P1 to P2, where
the tunnel branches towards destinations PE3 and PE4. If the P2 branching point
fails, P1 switches all traffic meant for PE3 to go through bypass tunnel 1 to PE3.
P1 also switches all traffic meant for PE4 to go through bypass tunnel 2 to PE4.

Figure 10-4: P2MP node protection example
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-5

Dual FRR Protection
FRR link and node protection is usually defined in terms of FRR link or node
protection (as illustrated in FRR for P2MP Tunnels (page 10-3)). When either
FRR link or FRR node protection has been triggered by a link failure, ECI's
proprietary solution provides concurrent FRR link and FRR node protection,
thereby enabling fully protected P2MP tunnels.
Traditionally, an FRR-guaranteed or fully protected P2P tunnel is a tunnel
with full FRR protection for all hops. However, in the case of P2MP tunnels,
traditional FRR-guaranteed protection leaves open a problematic loophole. This
scenario and ECI's innovative solution are described here.
FRR protection provides alternative traffic routes. These routes are activated if a
connection link or a connecting node fails. The following figure illustrates a
portion of a P2MP tunnel. Node PE2 connects to both transit and tail subtunnels.
The transit subtunnel leads to node PE3, and the tail subtunnel terminates at the
access port of PE2. To fully protect the tunnels leading from PE2, the preceding
node PE1 has been designated the PLR. Protection bypass tunnel B1 runs from
PE1 to PE2, providing link protection in case the link from PE1 to PE2 fails.
Protection bypass tunnel B2 runs from PE1 to PE3, providing node protection in
case node PE2 fails. Note that both link and node protection is required for this
network configuration, since node protection alone does not provide a backup
for the subtunnel that terminates at PE2.

Figure 10-5: FRR protection: typical scenario
This scenario is a classic illustration of the traffic duplication problem which,
when it occurs, invalidates all the traffic of the P2MP tunnel. If link PE1-PE2
fails and triggers both link and node protection, protective traffic may be sent via
bypass tunnel B1 (to reach node PE2) as well as via bypass tunnel B2 (to reach
nodes PE3 and continue to node PE4). Because node PE2 is also a tail endpoint
for B1, node PE2 forwards traffic that has been received onto PE3 along the
P2MP tunnel. Therefore, PE3 receives two duplicate copies of the packet (one
from PE2 and one over B2), and traffic is thus rendered useless.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

To resolve this problem, MCS cards implement a method called Dual FRR. A
single bypass tunnel is defined that provides both link and node protection
simultaneously. A corresponding rule is defined to avoid traffic duplication. The
Dual FRR bypass tunnel originates at PE1, the point of local repair, then drops
node-protected traffic at PE3, the node protection merge point, and continues on
to drop link-protected traffic at PE2, the link protection merge point. The
protective behavior at node PE3 may be referred to as drop-and-continue. The
traffic packets dropped at PE2 as part of Dual FRR protection are identified as
such and therefore are not transmitted back to PE3, thus avoiding the problem of
traffic duplication. Dual FRR protection enables concurrent link and node
protection. In this example, Dual FRR protection works in the event of a failure
of the link between PE1 and PE2 and/or failure of the node PE2. This is
illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 10-6: Dual FRR protection
Additional FRR Capabilities
With Facility Backup FRR, multiple protected tunnels share a bypass tunnel
through the addition of an FRR label. Facility Backup FRR is scalable in terms
of the number of bypass tunnels.
MCS supports Shared Protection BW (multiple bypass tunnels sharing
bandwidth), thereby enabling support of SRLGs.
SRLGs refer to situations where links or nodes in a network share a common
physical attribute, such as fiber duct. If a link or node fails, other links and nodes
in the group may fail too. Links and nodes in the group are said to have a shared
risk or shared fate.
By default, bypass tunnel path selections must avoid links/nodes in the same
SRLG as the link/node they are protecting. Otherwise, if that link or node fails,
the other SRLG members may fail too.
MCS further supports BE Protection and BW Protection per CoS. With BE
protection, a bypass tunnel can protect an unlimited number of tunnels, while in
BW protection, the bandwidth sum of the tunnels protected by a bypass tunnel
cannot exceed its bandwidth.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-7

MCS also provides a set of FRR timers. To avoid switching to protection while
the underlying physical layer protection is also switching (for example, with
SDH MS-SPRing or SNCP), FRR switching may optionally be delayed through
Hold-Off time (configurable per port). Similarly, to prevent FRR switching too
frequently, the switch back from the bypass tunnel to the protected tunnel after a
failure is repaired may be delayed through a per-port configurable
Wait-to-Restore (WTR) time.
FRR switching from protected to bypass tunnels can be applied automatically
upon failure or forced. Similarly, FRR reversion from bypass to protected
tunnels can be applied automatically when the failure is resolved or forced.
MC-LAG and PW Redundancy
MPLS tunnels in the transport layer provide connectivity between the PEs or
CEs, including protection against failure of a transport entity, (either link or
intermediate node).
The transport layer cannot provide protection against failure of an edge node,
where the service end point is located. A redundant service end point is required,
forming a dual (or multi) homing topology. PW Redundancy is the standard
mechanism for such a topology. PW protection is implemented through the use
of pairs of PWs, with one PW active and the second PW kept on standby in case
of need. PW status messages are signaled between PW endpoints, with the
standby PW activated as needed.
P2MP services, consisting of a hub with multiple spokes, require a high level of
resiliency. When dual hubs are used, PW redundancy enables hot-standby
connectivity between each spoke and the currently active hub. This dual homing
assures traffic flow by preventing SPoFs. PW redundancy is coordinated with
MC-LAG to connect the two hubs with customer edge (CE) devices, where each
hub is based on an MCS card located on a different device. PW protection
interworks with MC-LAG for complete E2E protection, providing protection
from access nodes to core termination nodes
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

In the following redundant configuration example, Ethernet links from the CE to
MCS cards on two different hubs are aggregated using MC-LAG. The MC-LAG
selects the active link to the CE, and the active PW is then selected accordingly.
Traffic is transmitted over the active router through the active MC-LAG link to
the active hub, onward onto the active PW, and out toward the service endpoints.

Figure 10-7: PW redundancy and MC-LAG
Note that both IP and MAC address hashing is supported on LAG as well as
MC-LAG on MCS cards. In addition, the standby link can be disabled to force
the LAG partner to forward traffic on the alternate link. The XDM's MC-LAG
and PW protection mechanisms utilize standardized implementation based on
recent IETF RFCs and drafts.
PW Redundancy Highlights
PW redundancy highlights include:
Dual parenting of access nodes to core termination nodes
One active PW, one standby PW
Signaling of PW status messages between PW endpoints
Coordination of PW switchover
PW is activated if the traffic can reach the attached CE
Interworking between MC-LAG and PW redundancy
MC-LAG link failure or node failure
Switchover to the redundant PW
A standard solution, based on recent IETF drafts
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-9

Dual-Homed Device Protection in H-VPLS
Networks
MCS data cards support dual-homed device protection for H-VPLS networks.
Dual-homed protection for H-VPLS networks enables dual homing for multiple
MPLS access rings connected to a core ring. Typical configurations include full
mesh within each access ring and spokes reaching from each ring towards
gateway nodes in the core ring. The access rings may be either open or closed.
Redundant connectivity is enabled through use of ERP (see Ethernet Ring
Protection (page 10-13)) in the access gateway nodes. Configuring ERP between
the two local MCS gateways prevents creation of loops in the network.

Figure 10-8: H-VPLS with dual homing for access rings
PE to H-VPLS Dual-Homing Topology
The dual-homed PE is configured with spoke PWs to both PE1 and PE2. One of
the PEs is chosen by the management system to be the active PW (by default)
and forward traffic to the far end of the service.
MPLS-TP OAM tools continuously monitor the statuses of the PWs (PW1 and
PW2) and PEs (PE1 and PE2). For scalability, MPLS-TP tunnel OAM (BFD
protocol) runs in the bidirectional tunnel in the MPLS layer in parallel to the
PWs.
FRR or linear protection protects against failures at the MPLS tunnel level, with
no effect on PW redundancy. FDB flushing is not necessary for P2P services,
since there is no MAC learning in the service.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Customer Change Notification
Communication networks are dynamic entities. On a macro long-term level,
networks are constantly growing and evolving over time. On a micro immediate
level, networks are constantly reconfiguring their path and tunnel configurations
in response to changing network traffic conditions and equipment status.
Dynamic networks must be agile, able to react in real time to changes in network
status.
A common approach is to handle dynamic network status changes using an LDP
MAC Withdraw mechanism. MCS data cards offer a more effective approach by
providing CCN capabilities. Topology changes, such as a temporary link down
triggering an RSTP recovery action, automatically trigger messages notifying
remote MCS-PEs of changes in the network topology. Change notification
messages are distributed to all VPLS peers.
Intelligent configuration rules ensure that data is transmitted responsibly,
without confusion from unnecessary multiple notification messages and without
affecting uninvolved traffic. MCS cards support selective FDB flush, whereby
CCN messages trigger a selective flush of only specific FDB entries whose
source was the PE that originally triggered the topology change, rather than the
complete FDB table, for more efficient FDB table management.
Intelligent use of CCN enhances network resiliency and enables more effective
use of dual-homed device protection in H-VPLS networks (page 10-9). Operator
demand for dual-homing protection with faster intelligent response is growing
due to the increasing use of sensitive applications. CCN provides a solution for
dynamic networks that include MPLS/PB interconnections in a dual homing
scenario.

Figure 10-9: CCN functionality
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

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Ethernet PB Features
The following figure shows a typical mixture of RSTP and SNCP protection
schemes in a typical metro network, which mixes EPL services at the access
layer with shared PB network at the core. The use of DIO cards enables operators
to offer the most cost-effective access technology, while the shared PB networks
at the edge and metro-core offer the benefits of shared infrastructure and
MP2MP services. PB protection mechanisms supported by the XDM are
introduced in this section.

Figure 10-10: Protection schemes in a typical metro network
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

RSTP Protection
Ethernet traffic protection is usually implemented as a combination of SDH
protection schemes and RSTP-based restoration. SDH protection schemes are
used to protect each individual EoS trail, connecting every two EoS (WAN)
ports on any data card.
RSTP, initially used for loop resolution purposes on PB networks, may also
provide a means of protection in case of link failure (such as fiber cut) and NE
failure (such as data card failure). Although RSTP convergence time is much
shorter than STP, it is still slower than FRR protection. For that reason, RSTP
may be used as a second line of defense, restoring services in case of card
failure while relying on the SDH sub-50 msec protection as the first line of
defense, providing much faster protection in the more likely event of fiber
failures. MCS RSTP can also be used in case of pure Ethernet PB access
networks interconnected by XDM platforms.
XDM platforms offer complete RSTP 802.1D-2004 compliance and
interoperability, supporting RSTP on UNI, I-NNI, and E-NNI ports. XDM
platforms also provide the ability to close access RSTP rings over MPLS
networks. This is accomplished through the MCS cards, which are able to
participate in the access RSTP ring and also forward the BPDUs over the
relevant MPLS networks.
XDM platforms provide intelligent efficient responses to RSTP ring topology
changes through the use of CCN messages (page 10-10), which enable flushing
of remote PEs on the core MPLS network as a result of topology changes in the
remote access RSTP rings.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

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Ethernet Ring Protection
Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (ERPS) is an enhanced protection
mechanism for Ethernet networks, defined by ITU-T G.8032 standard. It
supports improved resiliency, manageability, and reliability of metro Ethernet
networks, offering switching to protection time in less than 50 msec. The
standard has the ability to protect against both link and equipment faults.
Each node in the ring protection network has two ring ports (East and West) and
a number of local ports. One link in the ring is designated as the Ring Protection
Link (RPL) and used only for redundancy. One node, connected to the RPL, is
selected as the RPL owner, and is responsible to block traffic on the RPL in
normal operation (idle state) and unblock it when a failure is detected (protection
state).
When a failure is detected, the nodes adjacent to the failure block the failed link
and report this failure to the ring, using a R-APS Signal Failure (SF) message.
The message triggers the RPL owner to unblock the RPL and all nodes to
perform FDB flushing. The ring is now in protection state.

Figure 10-11: Ethernet ring protection
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

When the failed link recovers, the nodes adjacent to the recovered link transmit a
R-APS No Request (NR) message, indicating they have no local request. When
the RPL owner receives the R-APS message it starts a Wait to Restore (WTR)
timer. Once the WTR expires, the RPL owner blocks the RPL and transmits a
R-APS (NR, RB) No Request, Root Blocked message. The nodes receiving the
message perform a selective FDB flush for the relevant port and unblock their
previously blocked port. The ring returns to normal operation (idle state).
MCS data cards support G.8032 ERP in addition to RSTP protection, providing
a valuable service for customer applications by enabling sub-50 msec protection
for Ethernet rings, adding an important level of protection for customer
applications.
While MPLS networks provide carrier class sub-50 msec protection, PB
networks have not yet reached that level of protection. Current xSTP technology
cannot provide sub-50 msec protection. Yet most data network configurations
include PB rings, typically in the access level. With G.8032 support, network
operators are able to benefit from carrier class sub-50 msec protection over their
entire data network configuration, including both the MPLS and the PB rings.
The XDM's Ethernet ring protection provides standard compliant protection for
I-NNI ports. Protection is implemented per port for multiple rings. Up to 16
instances can be defined per card. Protection is provided across ECI product
lines, implemented through data cards in the NPT, XDM, BG, and 9000
platforms.
Link Aggregation
Ethernet link aggregation protection is based on standard Ethernet link
aggregation schemes (IEEE 802.3ad). Link aggregation is available for both
Ethernet and EoS WAN ports. In LAG protection schemes, a single logical link
is composed of up to eight physical links. When one (or more) physical link fails,
it is simply removed until recovered. The network continues to function
correctly without the failed link, since the links for the LAG as a whole are still
functioning.
Network operators can configure a LAG Link Down threshold, defining up to
how many links can go down and the whole LAG still considered operational,
and at what point a LAG is considered to have failed even if still a few links are
functional.
MCS cards support link aggregation based on either IP or MAC address hashing,
depending on the packet header data. This capability enables superior load
balancing and enhanced IP TM efficiency.
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The following figure illustrates the link aggregation approach. Two variations
are displayed, one for Ethernet ports and one for EoS WAN ports.

Figure 10-12: Link aggregation group examples
Link members are added and removed through the NMS.
LLCF
Link Loss Carry Forward (LLCF) is a method for ensuring traffic flow
continuity with minimal disruption even if a link goes down. LLCF assists in
troubleshooting remote connections and provides an early indication of failing
links in router interconnections. The basic approach is similar to that of Client
Signal Fail (CSF)/Trail Signal Fail (TSF) solutions in pure SDH networks,
where the port status is transferred E2E through Layer 1 network connections.
With wireline emulation, connectivity losses are detected within 300 msec.
LLCF, implemented in MCS data cards, enables efficient protection and
troubleshooting functionality for P2P and P2MP services. Bidirectional LLCF is
supported by configuring two independent LLCF connections between the same
endpoints, one in each direction. In this case, port failures on one side of the
service are always reflected at the other end of the service. This is particularly
useful for router interconnection, which requires fast detection of Loss of
Connectivity between the routers. LLCF is usually enabled or disabled during
CFM configuration.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

With LLCF in P2P configurations, the status of the trigger port on one PE (LoS,
Link Down, or other loss of connectivity condition) is transparently reflected by
the client port on the second PE. For example, a LoS on the trigger port on PE1
causes a LoS condition on the client port on PE2, as illustrated in the following
figure.

Figure 10-13: LLCF in P2P configuration
MCS cards implement LLCF using standard CFM to transport the port status
from the LLCF trigger to the LLCF client. Continuity check messages are used
to send the port status E2E. The client port status is changed within 50 msec of a
change in the trigger port.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

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LLCF in P2MP hub and spoke configurations may reflect links down at two
different levels: on the link coming in to the hub node, or on any of the links
between the hub node and the spokes. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 10-14: LLCF in hub and spoke configuration
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ASON Protection and Restoration
Capabilities
The unique value proposition of ASON for carriers is the ability to improve
existing network resiliency by introducing the well-known restoration approach
of IP networks. With restoration, the network itself monitors services and
restores them in the event of failure. Service re-establishment in case of failure
has been a key feature of SDH-based transmission networks, which offer service
protection in less than 50 msec. SDH technology defines various shared and
dedicated protection schemes. Over the years, these protection schemes have
proven to be highly reliable. They have achieved multivendor interoperability
and have paved the way to SDH technology becoming the most reliable
transmission technology available.
The high reliability of SDH is achieved through the allocation of networking
assets for protection. Linear protection schemes, such as MSP 1+1, use a
dedicated standby line. MS-SPRing uses 50% of the ring capacity for protection.
Path protection, which is suitable for mesh topologies, uses 50% of the overall
network bandwidth by duplicating all traffic at its origin.
Adding ASON to SDH-based networks brings added benefits without affecting
the already superior performance of SDH today. With ASON, the control plane
is capable of restoring services in case of multiple failures in the network.
Furthermore, network capacity is utilized more efficiently by sharing protection
resources.
XDM architecture supports differentiated CoS. Supporting a range of protection
schemes allows network planners to balance protection switching time and
dedicated resources. For mission-critical services, the XDM provides distributed
restoration mechanisms with 50 msec service recovery and dedicated protection.
For less critical services, distributed shared mesh restoration schemes can be
implemented. For efficient use of installed resources, pre-emptible services can
be established using the protecting resources.
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Mechanisms

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Multiple Protection Schemes
The XDM control plane supports the coexistence of multiple protection and
restoration schemes. New restoration schemes and combined
protection/restoration solutions are offered, as follows:
1++ (Gold): Similar to path protection with SNCP, where a failed path is
restored by the control plane to prepare for the next possible failure. A
sub-50 msec restoration time is kept for any number of failures, as long as a
restoration path is found for the failed connection. This is an extension of the
traditional 1+1 path protection, where failure in the main or protection path
results in the restoration of the failed path. Restoration is in addition to
protection at the SDH layer, which continues to be performed in less than
50 msec. Note that this protection scheme consumes the most bandwidth as
traffic is duplicated at all times.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06


Figure 10-15: 1++ protection
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Mechanisms

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1+R (Bronze): Reroute restoration (1+R). Dynamic restoration enables
shared protection with prioritization. This protection scheme is an extension
of unprotected trails, where failure in the path results in restoration of the
trail in a new path. The unused traffic may be used for low priority traffic at
all times.
In a variation of 1+R, preplanned shared protection enables shared
protection with prioritization. Preplanned priority reacts faster than dynamic
restoration as the processing time is performed in advance.

Figure 10-16: 1+R protection
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

1+1+R (Silver): This hybrid protection scheme offers an efficient
combination of 1+1 protection for a first failure, followed by 1+R protection
for a subsequent failure.
Preemptive (Iron): Preemption of bandwidth requirements enables more
efficient use of ASON reserved bandwidth by adding best effort services to
available resources. Best effort services can use ASON-reserved shared
resources when they are not required for use by ASON. With preemption,
ASON can discard the best effort services dynamically, releasing the
ASON-reserved shared resources for use in restoration in the event of a
failure.
1+1 path protection: Standard SNCP protection. If a protection trail fails,
the service ends.
Unprotected: No protection.
Path Computation
The XDM's ASON implementation supports intelligent path computation
mechanisms, both at provisioning and at restoration.
When main and protection paths are initially provisioned, LightSoft ensures
that the links selected for the main trail and the links selected for the
protection trail are not members of the same SRLG, thereby improving
system robustness.
When defining restoration paths, ASON utilizes a Constrained Shortest Path
First (CSPF) path computation algorithm that selects disjoint paths based on
considerations such as number of hops, fiber distance, and link cost (TE
metric). The relative importance of each of these factors can be tailored to
specific network requirements. Different routing constraint weights may
lead to different service path calculations, depending on the context.
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SDH Protection Schemes
SDH path protection schemes are used to protect each individual EoS trail,
connecting every two EoS (WAN) ports on any data card. These schemes range
from unprotected trails, which use the minimum amount of traffic, through
SNCP for 1+1 protection, and up to MS-SPRing, the most effective means of
ring protection. The XDM features proven redundancy mechanisms to ensure
the complete integrity of all traffic transfers. System protection schemes offer
highly reliable trail protection arrangements and equipment duplication on all
units. The platform supports protection schemes at the line and service levels.
The XDM provides complete protection for internal traffic paths. All traffic is
fully redundant within the platform and is routed via separate traffic paths and
hardware units. In case of equipment or line failure, traffic protection switching
takes place within 8-12 msec.
The XDM supports mesh and ring traffic protection and restoration. The
restoration mechanism ensures traffic rerouting in the event of a major
contingency. Telecom operators may define their own major contingencies
based on individual operating parameters. Traffic restoration time is generally
dependent on network complexity and traffic load.
For more information about the traffic restoration feature, see the LightSoft User
Manual and the EMS-MPT User Manual.
SNCP
The XDM features path protection over mesh and SubNetwork Connection
Protection (SNCP). SNCP provides independent trail protection for individual
subnetworks connected to the XDM, thus enhancing reliability against multiple
failures. When implemented in dual-node interconnections, SNCP, combined
with the drop-and-continue capability of the XDM, is even more powerful
against multifailure conditions in mesh topologies. By integrating SNCP into the
XDM, operators achieve superior traffic availability figures. SNCP is therefore
extremely important for leased lines or other traffic requiring superior SLA
availability.
SNCP switching functions automatically in the XDM without operator
intervention or path redefinition. The result is an exceptionally fast protection
switching time of less than 30 msec, with typical switching time taking only a
few milliseconds. Protection switching is performed in a distributed way in the
service cards.
A major SNCP advantage is its flexibility. SNCP is topology-independent and
can be implemented in ring, chain, star, mesh, and hybrid topologies. It can be
implemented with platforms from other vendors, enabling the creation of a ring
where traffic originating from other ADMs is fully protected.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Leased lines are provided through single-link connections. In the event of
failure, leased-line traffic is protected by SNCP switching at the service
termination point.
In typical multi-ring or mesh networks, the SNCP drop-and-continue
functionality provides better traffic reliability and link redundancy in the event
of a site failure. In these networks, four ADMs are typically required to enable
this functionality (see the following figure showing only one direction).

Figure 10-17: Typical SNCP-protected network sites
Having the XDM function as a multi-ADM enables the number of elements to be
reduced to just two (one per site). This results in better service availability and
reliability as well as a reduction in floor space and equipment costs (see the
following figure).

Figure 10-18: SNCP-protected XDM sites
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The XDM supports SNCP at all STM-n levels (STM-1 to STM-64) and for all
VC objects, as follows:
Any VC-4 in any STM-n
Any VC-4nc in any STM-n
Any VC-3 in any VC-4 in any STM-n
Any VC-12 in any VC-4 in any STM-n
The XDM supports the following SNCP types:
SNCP/I: SNC protection switching due to TU-AIS, AU-AIS, TU-LOP, or
AU-LOP events
SNCP/N: SNC protection switching due to TU-AIS, AU-AIS, TU-LOP, or
AU-LOP events, and any other path overhead alarms (signal label mismatch,
path trace error, EBER)
The XDM enables users to set EBER thresholds for BER and Signal
Degradation (SD) conditions. The SNCP function is complemented by the user
option to set the hold-off time for switching (0-10 sec in 100 msec intervals) and
the WTR time (1-30 minutes), in accordance with applicable standards.
The EMS-MPT enables both automatic and manual switch-to-protection and
protection-lockout commands. When an automatic switch occurs, notification is
sent to the subnetwork management station. The status of the selectors and the
subnetwork connections is displayed in the EMS-MPT window.
Revertive SNCP
XDM platforms support revertive SNCP starting from V6.2 of the system.
When the system is protected by regular SNCP, it uses the protection path in the
event a failure is detected in the main path, and does not revert to the main path
even after it recovers. The protected path may incorporate links that are more
expensive and less reliable (for instance, leased lines).
Revertive SNCP is useful when the user has a preferred path for traffic and can
switch back to the main path after recovery. The user can now define the
operating mode as revertive or nonrevertive SNCP, giving him a higher degree
of flexibility.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The system provides several parameters to ensure that the failed (main) path is
stable and reliable before reverting to it after a fault condition. Most of these are
user-configured, including:
Wait to Restore (WTR): The period of time after which a failed unit is
fault-free and can again be considered as available by the protection
processes.
Wait to Switch (WTS): Factory-defined timer issued to prevent excessive
switching events in a nonstable condition. This timer disables switching to
protection path for X minutes if Y or more switches occurred in a period of
time of Z seconds.
Hold-off time: Useful for interworking of protection schemes and
provisioned on an individual equipment basis. The failure condition is
monitored at the end of the hold-off time before switching to the protection
path.
Switch time: Traffic switch operating as quickly as possible. The target time
is 50 msec.
VCG with LCAS Protection
In diversely routed VCG with LCAS protection, each VC in the VCG is routed
via a different SDH path. If some of the VCs fail to reach their destination due to
a failure in the SDH network, the LCAS mechanism reestablishes the EoS with
the remaining VCs, enabling service to continue at a capacity which is less
effective. This scheme provides protection for part of the capacity without using
any of the capacity for protection. By offering LCAS-based service, the operator
provides a guaranteed and BE service without allocating any extra bandwidth or
resources for protection, thereby enabling a more flexible and efficient cost
structure.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
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SDH Line Protection
The XDM incorporates two independent MS protection mechanisms:
Linear Linear Multiplex Section Protection (MSP):
MSP 1+1 unidirectional
MSP 1+1 bidirectional
Ring MS-SPRing
MSP
MSP is designed to protect single optical links. This protection is most suitable
for appendage TM/star links or for 4-fiber links in chain topologies.
The XDM supports MSP in all optical line cards (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, and
STM-64). MSP 1+1 unidirectional and bidirectional modes are supported. MSP
1+1 is implemented between two SDH interfaces (working and protection) of the
same bitrate that communicate with two interfaces on another platform. As with
SNCP and path protection, in MSP mode the XDM provides protection for both
fiber and hardware faults.
The following figure shows a 4-fiber star XDM with all links protected. This
ensures uninterrupted service even in the case of a double fault. The XDM
automatically performs MSP switching within 50 msec.

Figure 10-19: MSP protection modes
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

MS-SPRing
In addition to SNCP protection that may also be implemented in mesh
topologies, the XDM supports MS-SPRing that provides bandwidth advantages
for selected ring-based traffic patterns.
Two-fiber MS-SPRing supports any 2.5 Gbps and/or 10 Gbps rings closed by
the XDM via SIO16/SIO64 cards, in compliance with applicable ITU-T
standards. This is fully automatic and performed in less than 50 msec.


NOTES:
In the XDM-100 product line, MS-SPRing is supported on all STM-16
and STM-64 ports through the SAM16, SIM16, and SIM64 card sets.
In the XDM-1000 product line, MS-SPRing is supported by the
following card sets:
SIO16M
SIO16_2B, SIO16_4B
SIO64M, SIO64B
SIO164
XIO192
XIO384F
HLXC384
HLXC768
HLXC1536
As explained in this section, MS-SPRing is a network protocol that runs
on the ring aggregate cards. The PDH, STM-1, STM-4, and data cards
(electrical and optical) that serve as drop cards connected to the client
are not part of the MS-SPRing ring protocol. However, all client
services can be delivered via MS-SPRing on XDM networks through
the drop cards and the SDH aggregate cards that create the MS-SPRing
protection ring.
When using MS-SPRing with the HLXC768 matrix card, the NE
aggregate cards participating in the MS-SPRing ring as east and west
sides of the ring must be of the same card type and using the same port
number.
Thus, for example, MS-SPRing can be established on Port1 on an
SIO16_2 card in the east side and on Port1 on an SIO16_2 card on the
west side within the same NE.
Other NEs on the MS-SPRing ring can use different types of aggregate
cards as long as the card type and port choice are consistent within the
same NE.
When using MS-SPRing with the XIO384F card, the ports on the card
should also be assigned consistently. For example, Port1 on the
XIO384F in slot X1 should be used with Port1 on the XIO384F in slot
X2.
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I/O card slots in the XDM-3000 are organized into upper and lower
spooling regions. (Cards in the upper region utilize cables running
through the upper spooler, and cards in the lower region utilize cables
running through the lower spooler. For more information, refer to the
XDM-3000 Installation and Maintenance Manual.) When working with
the XDM-3000, MS-SPRing sessions must involve cards located within
the same spooling region, either upper or lower. You cannot define an
MS-SPRing ring utilizing a mixture of cards from both regions within
the platform.

MS-SPRing can support LO traffic arriving at the nodes in the same way it does
HO traffic. LO traffic support on MS-SPRing is unique to XDM as it is a genuine
multiservice platform.
In MS-SPRing modes, the STM-n signal is divided into working and protection
capacity per MS. In case of a failure in one MS of the ring, the protection
capacity loops back the affected traffic at both ends of the faulty MS. The XDM
supports the full squelching protocol to prevent traffic misconnections in cases
of failure at isolated nodes. Trails to be dropped at such nodes are muted to
prevent their being delivered to the wrong destination.
MS-SPRing is particularly beneficial in ring applications with uniform or
adjacent traffic patterns, as it offers significant capacity advantages compared to
other protection schemes.
The following figure shows an XDM in a 2-fiber MS-SPRing. In this
configuration, two fibers are connected between each site. Each fiber delivers
50% of the active and 50% of the shared protection traffic. For example, in an
STM-16 ring, 8 VC-4s are active and 8 VC-4s are reserved for shared protection.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

In the event of a fiber cut between sites A and D, traffic is transported through
sites B and C on the black portion of the counterclockwise fiber. The switch in
traffic is triggered by the APS protocol that transmits control signals over the K1
and K2 bytes in the fiber from site D to site A.

Figure 10-20: Two-fiber protection
Extra traffic capability is also supported, enabling users to use the protecting
VC-4s to carry extra traffic that is dropped in case of a failure in the protected
VC-4s. Thus, provided there are no network failures, the total capacity of the
ring is used. The extra traffic itself is, of course, not protected.
Nonpreemptive Unprotected Traffic (NUT) is also supported. NUT refers to
unprotected traffic carried on channels with MS-SPRing MSP protection
switching mechanism that is disabled for certain working channels and their
corresponding protection. It allows the users to implement the MS-SPRing in a
smaller group of AU-4s enabling better BW efficiency. Traffic carried on these
channels is unprotected MS-SPRing and nonpreemptive, but can be protected
using other protection schemes.
Dual-Node Interconnection with MS-SPRing
When the working and protection fiber pairs travel in separate ducts, two rings
can be connected via a dual link over two different nodes. This enables the
network to overcome multiple failures like fiber cuts or node failures, so
improving traffic availability in the network.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

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Integration of LO SNCP and MS-SPRing
The XDM can simultaneously close MS-SPRing-protected metro core rings and
SNCP-protected edge-access rings within the same NE. LO traffic can be
transported directly from multiple edge-access rings to the metro core ring
transparently, without external XCs or mediation equipment. This reduces floor
space and costs, and improves site reliability.
Optical Layer Protection
Protection is of the utmost importance in the high-capacity traffic transmitted
through WDM systems. The XDM features a variety of optical protection
schemes: OCH protection, OMSP, WSS ROADM restoration, and a suite of
AoC protection options.
OCH Protection
The XDM provides OCH protection very similar to its path protection
mechanism. By using double transponder/combiner cards with built-in OCH
units, a dual-traffic path goes around the ring and is received by both the main
and the protection transponder/combiner. Both perform continuous PM to ensure
channel integrity.
If PM on the main transponder/combiner does not indicate a problem, a message
is sent through the backplane to the protection transponder/combiner for it to
shut down its laser to the client, thereby ensuring transmission to the client from
only one transponder/combiner (the main). Protection switching to the
protection transponder/combiner occurs automatically when a failure is detected
by the main transponder/combiner.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-32 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

The protected channels in the following figure are user selected.

Figure 10-21: OCH protection
OCH protection is currently the most popular optical protection method for the
optical layer. The mechanism transports each optical channel in two directions,
clockwise and counterclockwise. The shortest path is defined as the main or
working channel; the longer path as the protection channel.
The main benefit of OCH protection is its ability to separately choose the
shortest path as the working path for each channel. There are no dedicated
working and protection fibers. Each fiber carries traffic with both working and
protection signals in a single direction.
The OCH 1+1 protection scheme provides separate protection for each channel.
For SDH, GbE, 10G, and 40G, protection switching is based on PM parameters.
Switching criteria can be Loss of Signal (LOS), Loss of Frame (LOF), or
Degraded Signal (SD). The switch-to-protection mode is automatic when a
malfunction is detected in a single channel. This is very convenient as users can
choose the channels for protection and the main or protection paths.
Switch-to-protection time in the OCH 1+1 protection scheme is less than
50 msec.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-33

AoC Protection Capabilities
The AoC offers a variety of protection options, enabling network operators to
choose the protection scheme most useful for their network configuration.
Protection options include:
Full equipment protection: The AoC as a multirate combiner for standard
P2P service supports OCH 1+1 with full equipment protection.
The AoC offers the option of arranging double line aggregates on separate
cards with two clients connected to a single client interface. This
configuration requires card installation in adjacent slots and a
splitter/coupler or Y-fiber to connect the client interfaces.
Network protection: The AoC as a multirate combiner for standard P2P
service supports standard line protection.
The AoC offers the option of arranging double line aggregates on separate
cards with a single client on either of the cards connected directly to the
client interface. This configuration requires card installation in adjacent
slots.
With this configuration, SPs can even push up to 9 GbE or 10 FC
unprotected clients, supporting up to the full OTU2 bandwidth capacity.

Figure 10-22: AoC: network protection
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-34 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Optical DRI protection: When used in ring applications, the AoC supports
optical DRI protection. (Note that inter-ring traffic is through client ports.)
The AoC supports network topologies requiring drop-and-continue or
multicast services. Drop-and-continue service offers a key benefit by
enabling network operators to build robust resilient network architectures
that are able to survive multiple fiber and node failures through the use of
optical DRI. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 10-23: AoC: optical DRI protection
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-35

Mixed protection schemes: When used in ring applications, the AoC
supports a mixture of protection schemes.
Choose the optimal combination of protection configurations for your
network needs. A typical example is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 10-24: AoC protection mixture
With the AoC, you may choose any combination of protected network traffic,
unprotected traffic, fully protected traffic including client port protection, and so
on. Dual homing from access to ring is also supported.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-36 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

WSS ROADM Restoration
ROADM configurations facilitate implementation of advanced protection
schemes such as N+1 Path dynamic restoration and protection, 1+1 Forever
protection and restoration in under-50 msec, and optical Dual Node
Interface/Dual Ring Interface (DNI/DRI). This unique all-optical protection can
handle and overcome multiple fiber cuts - ideal for mesh-based networks and
topologies.
XDM provides preplanned fixed protection against multiple fiber cuts or an NE
failure along the main and protection routes by using WSS switching capabilities
with a single transponder/combiner card. Additional protection against
transponder/combiner failure requires a combination of both OCH 1+1 and WSS
restoration.
When configuring WSS ROADM restoration, the client transponder/combiner
connects via optical splitter to a ROADM WSS array with up to nine routing
possibilities in the WSS add/drop node. Protection route(s) can be active at all
times, so reducing the total restoration time as switching to protection only
requires an update of the relevant ROADM port in the drop site.
N+1 Protection
The following illustrates a typical example of N+1 optical protection based on
the WSS ROADM. This configuration includes one main route and two
protection routes, segments of which can be used for restoration. For each
working primary route, up to 15 secondary routes can be configured. All the
routes are set automatically through the management system. If the primary
working route fails, the system switches automatically to the Secondary 1 route.
If the Secondary 1 route also fails, the Secondary 2 route is automatically
activated. Protection routes can be kept active and dedicated to shorten
restoration time.

Figure 10-25: WSS ROADM N+1 protection
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-37

1+1 Forever Protection
Optical 1+1 Forever protection is similar to OCH 1+1 protection with the added
advantage of providing protection for more than one fiber cut. Optical 1+1
Forever protection is an extension of the traditional OCH 1+1 protection, where
failure in the main or protection path results in sub-50 msec switching by the
transponders. After this switching the failed path(s) are restored, returning the
network to full OCH 1+1 protection. This enables continuing OCH 1+1
protection against multiple fiber cuts.

Figure 10-26: WSS ROADM 1+1 Forever
Optical DRI
Optical DRI protection uses a single NE to bridge two rings. The following
figure illustrates a typical example of optical DRI protection, where a single
connection point is used to close two rings in a scenario that includes two fiber
cuts. Optical DRI trails are created automatically by LightSoft.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-38 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Optical DRI Classic Protection Model
Traditional protection schemes rely upon configuration of two paths, main and
protection. Traffic is simply switched from the main path to the protection path if
there are any (one or more) fiber cuts in the main path. Optical DRI topologies
improve upon the traditional model by protecting against fiber cuts in both the
main and protection paths.
Optical DRI configures additional links between the main and protection paths
to provide multiple alternate route possibilities between the main and protection
paths. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 10-27: Optical DRI classic protection model
The preceding figure portrays two endpoints linked by main and protection
paths. Two links are configured between the two paths, represented by the
X-shape link topology in the center of the figure. The first fiber cut on the main
path (labeled A), triggers a switch at both endpoints from the main path to the
protection path. A second fiber cut on the protection path (labeled B), triggers a
switch at the appropriate points from the protection path back to the main path.
After each fiber cut, the optical equipment used at the DRI-configured nodes at
either end of the DRI links must also switch their internal Rx/Tx settings
accordingly.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-39

Optical DNI Enhanced Protection Model
Classic optical DNI configurations require two fiber links between the main and
protection paths. Under certain circumstances, such as complex or distant
topologies, it may be difficult to ensure two fiber connections between the paths.
Therefore, ECI has designed an enhanced optical DNI configuration that can be
implemented with a single fiber link between the two paths. This is illustrated in
the following figure.

Figure 10-28: Optical DNI enhanced protection model
With enhanced optical DNI, a single BD link is configured between the two
paths. The OCH trail is defined as asymmetrical, using a different channel in
each direction. This prevents signal overlapping over the link connecting the two
paths.
Using WSS for restoration is exceptionally cost effective for 40G wavelengths
as no matrix cross connection is necessary. Routing is completed optically
automatically by the WSS ROADM according to the lambda provisioning via
LightSoft.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-40 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Optical Line Protection
The XDM features an OMSP card that provides line protection for P2P optical
links. In the event of a fiber cut, the optical switch automatically switches traffic
to the protection fiber. OMSP cards offer 1:1 protection that includes monitoring
of the protection fiber.
This low-cost approach protects all DWDM channels simultaneously without
hardware redundancy. The optical switch operates independently of data rates,
protocols, or number of channels, and provides protection for future upgrades
when additional DWDM channels are added to the network.

Figure 10-29: Line protection
Equipment Protection
The XDM's high-level reliability is achieved through comprehensive equipment
redundancy on all units (common units, traffic units, I/O cards, and network
connections). Automatic protection switching is initiated by a robust internal
BIT diagnostic system.
Common Unit
The XDM provides 1+1 and 1:1 protection of the power supply and xFCU.
Traffic Unit (I/O Card) Hardware Protection
The XDM provides 1:N (N = 1-10) protection to all PDH and SDH electrical
interfaces, and hardware protection to all SDH optical interfaces via a simulation
of two times MSP 1+1.
The XDM's robust architecture permits full 1:N protection for all bitrates in a
flexible manner and simultaneously for E1, E3, DS-3, and STM-1. There is a
range of protection slot and ratio options. For example, up to 1:10 protection is
available for the E1 tributaries, with the protection card in any available slot. For
E3, DS-3, and STM-1 bitrates, the protection card can be inserted into slots 6
and/or 7. For more information, see the XDM Reference Manual.
Data cards also offer 1:1 hardware protection. Optical interfaces are duplicated
using splitter/coupler devices (Y-fibers or dedicated splitter modules) and
electrical interfaces are protected using an external switch.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-41

Fast IOP: 1:1 Card Protection
Fast IOP offers the reliability of 1:1 card protection. The protection card is kept
on hot standby, ready to step in immediately, with no delay required for card
synchronization. All tables, including FIB, RSTP, etc., are kept updated between
the active and standby cards. Fast IOP can be used in both revertive and
non-revertive mode. Card protection is based on BIT, card plug-out, and manual
switching through the management system. In Fast IOP for optical links, the
links are connected with Y-fiber splitters and couplers. In Fast IOP for electrical
links, the links are connected through switches.
The following figure illustrates a simple IOP example for optical links.

Figure 10-30: Fast IOP protection
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-42 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Network Connectivity Fault Management
Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) is used to monitor connectivity in
Ethernet networks that encompass multiple administrative domains. CFM is a
joint effort of IEEE, ITU-T, and MEF, designed to help SPs achieve E2E
network OAM for multidomain networks. CFM facilitates detection of
continuity loss or incorrect network connections, connectivity verification, and
fault isolation.
Ethernet OAM defines proactive and diagnostic fault localization procedures for
P2P and MP services that span one or more links. CFM is usually implemented
through a combination of loopback, link traces, and continuity checks. The
following figure illustrates these mechanisms.

Figure 10-31: CFM mechanisms
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-43

Integrated Protection for I/O
Cards with Electrical Interfaces
ECI offers electrical protection modules. Two steps are required for using this
feature:
1. Define one redundant I/O card of the same type as the card to be protected in
one of the free I/O slots.
2. Insert an electrical protection module in the corresponding M slot. This
module does not have any external ports.
The purpose of the protection module is to replace a malfunctioning I/O card
automatically with the redundant I/O card. When the protection is activated, the
protection module disconnects the external ports connected to the electrical
protection module of the malfunctioning I/O card and connects them to the
redundant card. In parallel, the matrix card switches the traffic from the
malfunctioning card slot to the protection slot (the slot of the redundant I/O
card).
XDM platforms offer the following protection capabilities:
Protection for E1 I/O cards: The M2_84P protection module for E1
interfaces can serve both balanced and unbalanced interfaces.
The M2_84P module can be installed in any one of the M1 to M11 slots, and
the associated PIO2_84 card protects all the other PIO2_84 cards.
For an XDM fully equipped with PIO2_84 cards, the resulting protection
ratio is 1:10. Higher protection ratios are achieved when the number of
PIO2_84 cards installed in the platform is less than 11.
Protection for E3 and DS-3 I/O cards: The M345_16P protection module
for E3 and DS-3 interfaces is installed in slot M6. The PIO345_16 card
installed in slot IO6 protects all the other PIO345_16 cards which can be
installed in slots I1 to I5 and I7 to I11.
For an XDM fully equipped with PIO345_16 cards, the resulting protection
ratio is 1:10. Higher protection ratios are achieved when the number of
PIO345_16 cards installed in the platform is less than 11.
An additional M345_16P module can optionally be installed in slot M7.
With this option, the PIO345_16 card in slot I7 protects the PIO345_16 cards
installed in slots I8 to I11. This results in a 1:4 protection ratio.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-44 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Protection for electrical STM-1 I/O card ports: The M1_16P protection
module for electrical STM-1 interfaces is installed in slot M6. For example,
an SIO1&4 card installed in slot I6 protects the ports configured as electrical
STM-1 ports on all the other SIO1&4 cards installed in slots I1 to I5 and I7 to
I11.
For an XDM fully equipped with SIO1&4 cards, the resulting protection
ratio is 1:10. Higher protection ratios are achieved when the number of
SIO1&4 cards installed in the platform is less than 11.
An additional M1_16P module can optionally be installed in slot M7. With
this option, an SIO16 card in slot I7 protects the SIO1&4 cards installed in
slots I8 to I11. This results in a 1:4 protection ratio.


NOTES:
When using the 1:4 protection option based on slot M7, you
can also install the 1:5 protection based on slot M6. As a
result, starting from XDM V4, two HO protection groups
can be defined on the XDM.
The XDM-500 shelf supports a protection ratio of at least
1:3. When a protection module (M2_84P, M345_16P, or
M1_16P) is installed in any one of the slots MC1 to MC4, it
protects all I/O cards with the same type of electrical
interface installed in the shelf (in any of slots IC1, IC2, IC5,
IC6).




417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-1

In this chapter:
Overview ....................................................................................................... 11-1
LightSoft NMS Management ........................................................................ 11-2
EMS-MPT ................................................................................................... 11-22
Local Craft Terminals .................................................................................. 11-27
Overview
The XDM is managed by the LightSoft multidimensional NMS, the EMS-MPT,
and the LCT-XDM, with an intuitive user-friendly GUI that makes new services
easy to deploy and supervise. This section introduces the LightSoft, EMS, and
LCT management systems. For more information about ECI's management
suite, see the 1Net End to End Management Suite General Description.
11
Management
Management XDM General Description

11-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

LightSoft NMS Management
ECI's powerful network management suite, LightSoft, is a unified NMS that
provisions, monitors, and controls all NEs and layers. Multiple transmission
technologies are controlled: each is represented as a layer (optics, SDH, OTN,
Ethernet/MPLS) in addition to the physical layer (fibers, MW radio equipment).
This approach enables you to manage multiple technology layers independently
of the physical layer.
Multidimensional LightSoft manages the complete family of EMSs offered by
ECI and enables you to assume full control of all equipment in your network,
including:
Apollo family of NG transport platforms
Carrier Ethernet 9000 family of switch/routers
NPT family of All-Native transport platforms for the metro
XDM family of multiservice transport platforms for the metro aggregation
and metro core
BroadGate family of multiservice transport for the metro access
Multivendor networks

Figure 11-1: One management system
LightSoft offers on-demand service provisioning, pinpoint bandwidth allocation,
and dramatic reductions in equipment and operating costs that multiple
management systems often require. It does this by providing complete network
management from a single platform, including configuration, fault management,
performance management, administrative procedures, maintenance operations,
and security control. Within one integrated management system, LightSoft's
network manager enables you to fully control all your NEs regardless of their
manufacturer, and view the complete network at a glance. Multiple operators can
simultaneously configure the network without any conflicts.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-3

Layered Architecture for Multiple
Technologies
ECI's management concept is based on a layered architecture in accordance with
the ITU-T M.3010 standard for compliant layer architecture. Separate layers
make up the management structure. The lowest level, the Network Element
Layer (NEL), constitutes the embedded agent software of the NEs. The second
layer, the Element Management Layer (EML), controls many individual NEs,
while the third layer, the Network Management Layer (NML), controls the main
network management functions.

Figure 11-2: ECI's layered architecture management concept
LightSoft functions at the NML while EMS-MPT functions at the EML. A
northbound interface can connect either EMS-MPT or LightSoft to your
Operations Support System (OSS).
At the NEL, the XDM features the LCT system, providing fast easy connectivity
to the NE and enabling access to configuration and management functions
through a user-friendly GUI as well as an efficient CLI.
Management XDM General Description

11-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Graphic User Interface
The LightSoft GUI provides a powerful yet easy-to-use tool for managing your
network. The GUI combines security, configuration, maintenance, and
performance management tools with fault handling, E2E trail definition, and
database backups for uninterrupted and reliable network operation.
Multi-layer topology views enable you to display the topology of each
technology layer independently of the topology of the physical layer.

Figure 11-3: LightSoft main window
GCT to EMS
You can use the GCT to easily access functions performed at the EMS level
without actually launching it, including:
Setting, changing, and propagating NE attributes
Configuring platforms and cards
Changing alarm severities
Setting NE timing sources
Activating performance management functions on NEs
Performing maintenance functions on NEs or their objects
EMS windows are displayed on top of the LightSoft main window. This
seamless transparency creates a truly comprehensive and multi-layered
management system.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-5

The following figure illustrates a GCT from LightSoft to the EMS-MPT (page
11-22).

Figure 11-4: GCT example (LightSoft to EMS)
Topology Management
NEs can be deployed in a wide range of topologies, including single or multiple
rings with appendages and composite mesh topologies. You do not have to
specify the type of topology in advance: simply define and add NEs and
LightSoft creates the appropriate network plan. You move intuitively from an
overall survey of the network to detailed status and control views of any NE,
transmission level, system card, or trail.
LightSoft makes it possible to manage NEs at multiple layers. It distinguishes
between the managed elements (MEs) that make up the network and the logical
elements (LEs) these MEs represent. You can:
Focus on MEs when creating and deleting NEs (physical layer).
Focus separately on the logical topology available at each technology level
(SDH, OTN, optical, or Ethernet/MPLS) when managing traffic (technology
layer).
Whenever an ME is added to the network at the physical layer, an LE is
automatically projected into the relevant technology layer. If an ME contains
ports that belong to multiple technologies (e.g., in XDM platforms), LEs are
created at each technology layer containing only the ports relevant to that layer.
Nested groups are supported and can be defined differently in the various layers.
Management XDM General Description

11-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Trail, Tunnel, and Service Configuration
One of LightSoft's most important functions is creating, deleting, and modifying
LightSoft SDH and ASON trails, MPLS tunnels, and Carrier Ethernet and
DWDM optical services for optimal utilization of available resources. LightSoft
supports E2E MPLS-TP service and tunnel creation and acquisition for
BroadGate, CESR, NPT, and XDM family platforms. Trails, tunnels, and
services can be built automatically based on user-defined endpoints and
segments, or manually, with full resource control down to the tributary unit
level.
LightSoft offers a suite of advanced service configuration tools. The Explicit
Route tool is used to create services manually and the Pathfinder tool to create
them automatically. Via its advanced patent-pending route selection algorithm,
Pathfinder automatically searches for and selects optimal E2E primary and
protection paths across complex topologies. Depending on the context, you can
specify optimization criteria such as cost, number of nodes, link quality,
distance, shared risk (common ducts), and so on.
A powerful synchronization function polls the entire network, keeping the
LightSoft topology model up to date. The system also provides full traffic
restoration via contingency traffic plans. Through LightSoft's powerful
traffic-configuration tools, a detailed definition of trails, tunnels, services, and
XCs gives administrators precise control of the system's structure, guaranteeing
uninterrupted services and maximized use of bandwidth.
The EMSs in the network constantly update LightSoft, keeping its network
resource usage model up to date. LightSoft provides numerous protection and
traffic reconfiguration schemes, ensuring full traffic restoration in case of
service disruption.
SDH Trails Management
LightSoft supports both virtual and contiguous concatenation for the transport
and cross connection of VC-4 signals. This is used for high-bitrate Ethernet
services that require transport of payloads exceeding a single VC-4 capacity.
Concatenation associates multiple VCs together, resulting in a combined
capacity that can be used as a single container across which bit sequence
integrity is maintained.
Highly sensitive data networks can rely on LightSofts link protection
capabilities supporting a variety of schemes, including MSP 1+1, MS-SPRing,
and several advanced bridge protection options.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-7

ASON Network Management
LightSofts ASON implementation enables configuration of
LightSoft-provisioned trails with ASON protection schemes. LightSoft
graphically portrays the ASON domain by displaying all ASON-based entities in
a logical view of the topology map, as illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 11-5: Show ASON Domain
LightSoft supports provisioning of ASON-protected trails, including TSTs that
carry LO traffic. This includes:
VC-4 server trails
VC-4 service, VC-4-4c, VC-4-16c, EoS-VC-4 with diverse routing, and
MoT-VC-4 with diverse routing
LightSoft supports a convenient ASON Admit Capability that simplifies
ASON trail management for network operators. If ASON reroutes a trail,
LightSoft allows the user to accept the new route as the permanent trail route,
replacing the previous path in the LightSoft database.
LightSoft supports ASON protection schemes that increase network
survivability, including the 1++ (SNCP-based) protection for very high CoS
services, and 1+R (unprotected based) protection for low CoS services. ASON
protection and restoration schemes coexist with standard transport and data
plane protection such as linear APS MSP 1+1, MS-SPRing, and SNCP 1+1 path
protection. Network operators select the combination of protection and
restoration schemes to be applied to each service.
Modern networks often include both ASON and non-ASON domains, and the
XDM's ASON implementation supports ASON links between any two ASON
nodes even if the links run through non-ASON network regions. This is
implemented using LDLs to represent virtual topology links.
Management XDM General Description

11-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

LightSoft portrays the LDLs as topology links in the SDH layer. They are
viewed in the control plane as any other regular data link. LDL can be used at
any STM rate. No special operator trail management is required.


NOTE: ASON network management is available for SDH
implementations only.
DWDM Trails
LightSoft simplifies provisioning and day-to-day monitoring of optical services.
Information on light paths, wavelengths, channel availability, rates, is available
from optical links and optical trail lists.
LightSoft provides fully automated optical trail provisioning, eliminating
operator intervention at the EMS level. Automatic trail provisioning is also vital
in networks based on ROADMs and ODU cross-connect that allow creation of
complex mesh and ring network topologies at the lambda and sublambda levels.
The following features are especially valuable:
Point-and-click functionality for optical trail creation and activation of
optical services for all types of trails, including ODU, OCH, LightPath,
protected and unprotected, P2P, and P2MP (drop-and-continue).
Top-down trails provisioning beginning at the NMS level with LightSoft
(creating trails) and automatically continuing down to the EMS
(implementing details).
Rapid trail creation, with a choice of either:
Fully automatic pathfinding, where you specify the endpoints and
LightSoft chooses the optimal path for both main and protection
segments.
Fully manual, where you specify the exact trail path and LightSoft
completes the trail provisioning tasks.
Combination, where you specify the trail endpoints and specific
segments of the path and LightSoft automatically completes the rest of
the path route and provisioning.
GCT split single-card LEs on technology layers (such as the optical layer)
directly opening the internal card view.
Utilization tables showing the state of the channels through a DWDM or
CWDM OMS trail, helping you decide which channel to utilize.
Availability maps and tables and sophisticated maintenance tools enhance
trail provisioning and management.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-9

You can also automatically acquire all OMS, ODU, OCH, LP, and EoS trails in a
single optical trail discovery operation. This is especially useful when the system
is first installed. LightSoft enables you to upload, label, and display existing
optical trails from the optical layer in a form of "bottom-up" provisioning.
Ethernet Services
LightSoft provides you with the E2E and top-down provisioning capabilities of
carrier class Ethernet services. NEs provide various types of MEF certified
Layer 1 and Layer 2 services. All cards use VCG trails with VC-12/3/4
granularity and the appropriate bandwidth allocation as the physical layer for
any Ethernet service type.
Ethernet services are provisioned via a user-friendly procedure that cuts down on
time and effort and reduces human errors. Each interface is configured
separately to provide maximum flexibility. For example, in an MPLS-TP
network, a customers Ethernet traffic is transported over MPLS-TP tunnels that
can either be shared or dedicated. The supported services are P2P (VPWS),
MP2MP (VPLS), hub and spoke (partial VPLS), hierarchical VPLS (H-VPLS),
and rooted MP service (important for IPTV-oriented applications), all of which
utilize advanced QoS and TE mechanisms.
Ethernet services are provided in one of the following configurations:
P2P Ethernet Virtual Circuits (EVCs): Layer 1 EVCs are E-Line services
that run between two Layer 1 Ethernet port endpoints over an SDH trail.
Ethernet is mapped to a virtual concatenation of SDH containers, creating
transparent P2P service. Bandwidth allocation can be full or partial with no
traffic-affecting changes. Layer 1 services are provisioned at the EMS level.
A Layer 2 EVC associates two UNIs. This service is implemented by VPWS
on an MPLS-TP or PB network, with Ethernet service traffic shared among
many customers.
LightSoft allows you to configure P2P services simply by selecting the two
required endpoints and configuring CoS, policer, and VLAN parameters.
LightSoft then automatically provisions the service over all required nodes
in the network.
P2MP EVCs: These E-LAN services are usually hub and spoke, where each
service endpoint is either a hub or a spoke. One to four hubs are included.
Packets are delivered from spoke to hub and vice versa and not directly
between two spokes. Only supported when all endpoints are on a single
MPLS domain or combination MPLS/PB network.
LightSoft allows you to configure P2MP services by selecting one hub and
several spokes (endpoints) and configuring CoS, policer, and VLAN
parameters. LightSoft then automatically provisions the service over all
required nodes in the network.
Management XDM General Description

11-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

MP2MP EVCs: E-LAN services in which all points are connected to each
other. In standard MP2MP service, frames from each service endpoint can be
delivered to any other endpoint or can be multicast to a set of multiple
endpoints. A service implemented by VPLS on an MPLS network is a Layer
2 MP2MP EVC.
LightSoft allows you to select all endpoints to be connected within the
MPLS network and configure CoS, policer, and VLAN parameters.
LightSoft then automatically provisions the service over all required nodes
in the network.
LightSoft also provides a Freeform service option. Freeform services are
MP2MP services that are configured manually and are not subject to
standard LightSoft validation checks. Freeform services may potentially
offer great value, depending on how they are configured, but they can be
risky to configure since no automatic validation checks are completed to
ensure service functionality.
Rooted Multipoint EVCs: A service endpoint is either a root or a leaf.
Packets are delivered from roots to leaves and vice versa. Typically, this
service is used for multicast service between a single root and multiple
leaves. In an MPLS network, this service is used for IPTV or E-Learning
services by configuring a P2MP multicast tunnel between the root and all
leaves.
LightSoft allows you to select one root and several leaf endpoints and
configure CoS, policer, and VLAN parameters. LightSoft then automatically
provisions the service over all required nodes in the network.
Depending on the network context and requirements, Ethernet services are
provisioned across various types of technologies, as described in the following
table.
Table 11-1: Service implementations over various technologies
Service tunnel type PB MPLS Combination
MPLS/PB
P2P
Yes
(for direct EoS links)
Yes Yes
P2MP
--- Yes Yes
Rooted P2MP
--- Yes ---
MP2MP
Yes Yes Yes
XDM General Description Management

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MPLS Tunnels over MoT or MoE
MPLS LSPs are used to tunnel a customers Ethernet traffic through the SP
network. LightSoft provides E2E provisioning of MPLS tunnels, an essential
component of service management. Bandwidth is allocated for MPLS tunnels by
building MoT trails or MoE links whose top down provisioning is done as in
SDH trails.
LightSoft supports both L-LSP and E-LSP tunnels. CoS mapping depends on the
tunnel type.
L-LSP tunnels are each assigned a single CoS and a single color value.
Packets assigned CoS n can only use tunnels of CoS n.
E-LSP tunnels can each work with up to eight CoS values, enabling use of a
single tunnel for multiple types of traffic (VoIP, HSI, etc.). Each CoS is
assigned its own color value (yellow, green, or both).
The following figure illustrates an E-LSP with three CoS values: CoS0/Yellow,
CoS7/Green, and CoS3/Both.

Figure 11-6: E-LSP tunnel example
The flexibility of the frame classification process enables the user to set services
based on the end customer's traffic.


NOTE: Feature implementation depends on support from the
underlying equipment. For example, MPLS tunnels can
include a mixture of MoT trails and MoE links. However, the
actual configuration depends on the equipment in place at each
NE. MoE links are supported across BG, CESR, NPT, and
XDM platforms. MoT trails are supported across BroadGate,
NPT, and XDM platforms.

Creating trails involves several steps: defining parameters, selecting endpoints,
and assigning resources. You can accept default parameter values or select
specific values. LightSoft allows you to create trails for VC-12-X, VC-3-X,
VC-4-X, STS-1-X, and STS-3c-X, where X represents the VCAT size (MoT
only).
Management XDM General Description

11-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Both P2P and multicast-efficient P2MP tunnels are supported by LightSoft. A
complete set of TE and QoS parameters is provided for each tunnel and each
MPLS network. When creating a tunnel, LightSoft allows you to include or
exclude a specific link or NE.
In order to protect a tunnel against failure of a link or node along the tunnel path,
LightSoft uses FRR protection configuration. A backup LSP (bypass tunnel) is
predefined around a failed link or node. The rerouted traffic is sent to a
downstream node, where the bypass path merges with the original path. FRR
protection can be configured for link or node protection or a combination of both
(Dual FRR).

Figure 11-7: Bypass tunnel creation
LightSoft provides several FRR tunnel protection configuration options,
including automatic or manual switching from protected to bypass tunnels or
back from protection to main tunnels, configuration per specific tunnel, the
ability to force switching to protection mode, and to control switching timers.
Automatic user-friendly tools help create a full mesh or hub and spoke
configuration of MPLS tunnels and a complete set of bypass tunnels between all
NEs. FRR link and node protection can be configured rapidly.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-13

Fault Management
LightSoft simplifies real-time status monitoring of the network and its elements.
Color-coded icons show equipment status at a glance. Customizable alarm
listings, alarm counters, and alarm audio and visual indicators, all updated in real
time, are displayed in the main window.
Administrators can acknowledge alarms from the Current Alarms list, post
"sticky note"-type messages (User Notes) to other network personnel, and
customize their own alarm filters. They can click any element in the network to
open status windows listing the alarms for each object, including NEs, cards, and
physical ports.

Figure 11-8: LightSoft drilldown to EMS alarms
LightSoft offers an alarm correlation add-on component for the SDH layer, a
feature that automatically identifies the root cause of a fault, eliminating the need
to sift through the avalanche of alarms often triggered by an initial alarm. Alarm
Correction is a powerful tool for root cause analysis. By correlating primary and
secondary alarms, LightSoft enables the user to quickly pinpoint the fault and fix
or bypass it, ensuring quick resolution with minimal service downtime and
significantly improved QoS.
Management XDM General Description

11-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Inventory and Accounting
LightSoft provides comprehensive support for all Fault, Configuration,
Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) modules. This includes
powerful inventory and accounting features optimizing network management
efficiency.
The Inventory Tree presents information about site and NE components to the
slot and port level in a tree-like hierarchy, and is a concise organized way to
manage NEs. Information includes NE name, alarm status, type, location and
state, and card slot number, type, and version.
The tree displays the MEs/LEs and groups portrayed on the map and the cards
and ports within them. Each object is represented by its own icon. For example,
icons distinguish between different types of networks. The following figure
shows a small tree section portraying part of an ETH/MPLS network topology.

Figure 11-9: Topology Tree
An object selected in the tree is highlighted in the topology view and the
navigator. A search function enables you to find any NE quickly and easily (on
both the inventory tree and the topology map) and center it automatically on the
LightSoft topology map.
Each EMS provides an Inventory window listing information about the NEs
managed by it. You can access the window is accessed via the GCT.
Optical availability tables show the state of channels through a selected DWDM
or CWDM OMS trail. Channels can be occupied (in use), blocked, or free for
adding and dropping at the trail end sites. Tables focus on lambda and
sublambda utilization.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-15

Optical availability tables provide a graphical view of lambda usage within a
single or multiple optical trails.

Figure 11-10: Single availability tables for 32-channel OMS trail
User Management and System Security
LightSoft provides a full range of support features to keep your network running
smoothly and protected from unauthorized and malicious use. A completely
customizable and highly granular security hierarchy for system administrators is
based on what users can do (capabilities) and where they can do it (domains).
Security functions are in two main categories:
User security
System security
LightSoft supports field-proven redundancy applications and backup schemes
based on database replication. Multiple users can access the same LightSoft
system using its advanced client-server architecture. The system is highly
flexible and ECI can tailor the network management scheme to your
organizational and logistical needs.
Management XDM General Description

11-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Geographic Redundancy for Disaster
Recovery Plans
ECI's management portfolio includes Remote Database Replication (RDR), a
field-proven flexible redundancy mechanism providing full network
management backup capabilities for Disaster Recovery Plans (DRPs). RDR can
be configured in a wide variety of topologies. It provides optimal protection
consistent with geographic infrastructure distribution, security needs, and
available budget for standby mirror hardware. RDR can be used for:
Data protection
Disk protection
Host protection (primary and mirror sites connected via LAN)
Site protection (primary and mirror sites connected via long distance link)
LightSoft and other ECI EMS applications use duplicate management hardware
with one station serving as the active site (primary server) and the other as the
standby site (backup server and mirror). One standby site can act as a backup for
multiple stations (1:N).
RDR performs periodic remote data backups (replication) between primary
stations and the backup server. The backup data can subsequently be restored
(synchronized) on a mirror station (remote redundant station replacing failed or
deactivated primary components). To make the backup process efficient, a
system of incremental backups at three different levels (including only changes
since the last replication) are included.
If a failure occurs in the active site, you quickly switch over to the standby site
and resume management of the network. The LightSoft and EMS-MPT
databases' signature feature intelligently updates the standby site with all NE
configuration data that has changed since the last replication. When the primary
server is restored, you can initiate a replication from the standby site in order to
preserve any changes made while the primary server was down.
A client workstation can be connected over the same LAN to both the active and
standby sites, so a client session can always be initiated on the station presently
managing the network.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-17

RDR offers a combination of security, reliability, and simplified monitoring
capabilities, including the following mechanisms:
Secured Shell-based (SSH) authentication and transport for every
remote operation and transaction.
Application versions automatically compared on restore. If the main and
backup application versions differ, the restore operation stops automatically.
Restore operations blocked if the application is running. Before restoring
the database, RDR verifies that the application is not running. If the
application is running, the restore operation is automatically blocked.
Backup and restore activity logs maintained to enable tracing of RDR
activity.
Automatic alarm notifications sent to client screens. For example, if a
backup fails, a warning message automatically appears on the client monitor.
Backup activity monitor window displays backup and transfer status of the
different application instances.

Figure 11-11: System redundancy
Management XDM General Description

11-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

RDR's shadow feature provides automatic backup of protected applications by
the backup server to several other preassigned backup (shadow) servers
(cascade mode). This ensures continued functioning even when multiple servers
fail.

Figure 11-12: RDR Shadow backups
Security Functions
User security controls the persons having access to the system (user groups),
which operations these users can perform (capability profiles), and the elements
of the network on which these operations can be performed (domains). Security
features include user passwords, expiration dates, automatic lockout
mechanisms after predetermined inactivity periods or unsuccessful login
attempts, and control of password reuse. Domain granularity reaches down to the
port level, laying the basis for RDP services.
All LightSoft users are assigned to user groups, each of which is then paired with
a capability profile and a defined number of domains.
RDP enables you to divide a network into many different resource domains or
logical regions, each with its own capability and resources profile. You can
partition networks according to their geographical, organizational, or logistical
needs. Privilege allowances can be controlled with fine granularity down to
specific NEs, cards, ports, and HO CTP granularity, and for specific operations.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-19

This method provides each client with the appropriate level of operational
control without infringing on the security needs of any other client. There is less
operational risk and controlled visibility - each user sees only relevant resources.
RDR helps reduce the top three sources of data loss: human error, policy
violation, and hacker attacks.

Figure 11-13: Resource Domain Partitioning
Management XDM General Description

11-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

System security is provided through a comprehensive mesh of protective
mechanisms. Operating security includes secure system settings combined with
hardening policies for user authentication and login procedures, for example,
intelligent password restrictions, user action logs, and an optional keyboard lock
feature. Network security mechanisms incorporate integrated protection on
multiple levels, including ICMP protocol, IP layer, and TCP layer. In addition,
security measures are applied at the UNIX level to comply with system security
guidelines of major carriers. System services are carefully monitored and
restricted to minimize vulnerability. Depending on customer requirements,
additional optional measures are available, such as more user authentication
restrictions, FTP service hardening, file and mail restrictions, and optional filters
and locks. Integration with special customer security policies and infrastructure
can be provided upon request.
High Availability Clustering Solution
The LightSoft cluster solution provides high availability and load balancing,
essential features for large networks and/or mission-critical management.
The load balancing feature automatically divides the load from NMS processes,
EMS interfaces, and client applications between all cluster nodes. High
availability configuration distributes NE management between cluster nodes.
Software resiliency is provided through software process redundancy. In the
event of a software process failure, service is automatically switched without any
traffic interruption.
Customer Network Management
With CNM, SPs can lease exclusive network resources to customers for
self-management. This sophisticated scheme allows both the autonomous end
customer and the SP to concurrently manage alarms and performance, provision
services, and handle maintenance operations on the resources.
For example, a CoC can lease out portions of the network to other carriers that
can independently provision and monitor services. The network operator
configures the level of control available to each customer.
CNM offers carriers the revenue-generating opportunity of selling CNM as a
value-added service. Additional revenue is available for carriers, Utelcos, and
SPs via enhanced utilization of network resources, e.g., simple and secure
subleasing of unused bandwidth. In addition, since a significant part of the
network management effort can be offloaded from the SP to its customers,
OPEX is significantly reduced.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-21

Management Interfaces
Communications between the user and the management system is through a
choice of interfaces.
The standard CORBA-based interface complies with the MultiTechnology
Network Management (MTNM) information model developed by the
TeleManagement Forum (TMF), a consortium of all major telecom equipment
vendors. LightSoft works with both north- and southbound CORBA-based
interfaces for managing third-party equipment or being managed by upper-level
management systems. The EML level supports the same interface, northbound.
LightSoft supports use of a MultiTechnology Operations System Interface
(MTOSI) gateway for alarms, inventory, and provisioning services. In addition,
an SNMP alarm gateway is available for sending alarms from the NMS/EMS to
an OSS application that can handle SNMP traps.
LightSoft provides additional interfaces, such as export of current alarms via
FTP, email, or SMS, import/export of XCs/NEs and platform configurations,
retrieval of daily performance files, and database access via SQL. In addition,
the EML level supports interfaces such as export of device inventory and alarms
in HTML format, retrieval of performance files, and Java RMI for integration
with third-party OSS/NMS solutions.
Client/Server Architecture
The LightSoft network management suite implements an advanced client/server
software architecture that supports a large number of processes. The NMS server
can be run on either single or multiple workstations. This distributed architecture
enables you to scale easily, as well as provide high availability and load
balancing. LightSoft supports dozens of concurrent clients. The
multiconfigurator feature of LightSoft gives each operator the means to initiate
sessions and manage the network simultaneously, either in whole or in part.
Integration with Other Products
The XDM has been designed to integrate smoothly with networks that are not
based on ECI products. You can build multivendor networks with a free flow of
management information between Ethernet/MPLS, SDH, OTN, and other
complementary access, radio, and switching products.
Management XDM General Description

11-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

EMS-MPT
The EMS-MPT provides full-feature XDM support. It functions at the element
management layer (EML) in ECI's network management scheme and can
operate directly under the LightSoft network management system. EMS-MPT
has been designed as an open system in compliance with the CORBA MTNM
standard. The EMS-MPT may be colocated in the same platform, operate as a
standalone application, or integrated in a non-ECI NMS or TMN umbrella
system. It can control hundreds of different XDM NEs at a time, and supports a
wide range of management functions, including alarms, configuration,
inventory, provisioning, and security management.
The EMS-MPT supports multiple technologies, including:
SDH and PDH
Optics
Data: ATM, Layer 1 and Layer 2 Ethernet, MPLS
The EMS-MPT's user-centric design has produced a clear, intuitive graphic user
interface that simplifies network management. Network elements can be viewed
from three perspectives; a clear graphic representation of the network map; a
hierarchical topology tree that enables easy Any-to-Any navigation to any NE
or network component, including direct access to shelf and card; and a shelf
view that enables simple management per shelf through a single
context-sensitive configuration window.

Figure 11-14: EMS-MPT: Three network perspectives
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-23

Alarm Management
As in LightSoft, current alarms are displayed in the EMS-MPT Current Alarms
window. An alarms log keeps track of past alarms. A network-wide alarm
counter is included in the system. Alarms are color-coded, enabling quick and
easy viewing of the status of any alarm. Alarm management functions include
filtering, sorting, severity assignment, printing, and exporting via FTP.
Using the EMS-MPT, network administrators can assign severity levels to
individual alarm parameters in specific NEs. This means that remote NEs can
screen out low-level alarms, while the network administrator analyzes LightSoft
prefiltered and sorted daily alarm logs.
Performance Monitoring
The EMS-MPT provides default performance parameters and threshold levels in
compliance with accepted ITU-T standards. Parameters and thresholds can be
configured to suit individual applications. They measure current performance
data for each NE (including optical objects) and trail/circuit over 15 minute or 24
hour intervals, detailed per TP, and sorted by logging time. Performance data is
available in both tabular and chart form.
The XDM supports all standard SDH PM counters (for example, BBE, SES, and
UAS) for the different signal levels (e.g., MS, VC-12/3/4); GFP counters (e.g., a
comprehensive set of block counters); data counters (such as Ethernet Rx/Tx
octets, Rx/Tx frames, broadcast and unicast packets, multicast and IGMP
packets); policer counters; MPLS counters, and more. Each counter has a
user-configurable default threshold. PM data is stored by EMS-MPT in a
performance log.
EMS-MPT allows you to:
Define PM collection groups and their characteristics.
Define PM counter thresholds and assign performance profiles to objects.
View historical performance data for XDM transmission objects.
Manually collect PM data for all cross-connect endpoints on a card.
Display and use PM and other types of logs.
Obtain and display PM history reports for optical and Ethernet objects.
Management XDM General Description

11-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Configuration and Provisioning in the
EMS-MPT
The EMS-MPT enables you to configure the XDM down to the shelf level and to
take shelf inventory. You can define the hardware protection configurations and
perform PM and maintenance actions on endpoints. Inventory is displayed via an
easy-to-use tree-like structure that displays the cards and serial numbers.
Activities supported by the EMS-MPT include:
Assigning slots
Setting NE timing sources
Configuring NE IP routing tables
Performing maintenance actions on equipment
Modifying NE or internal object attributes
Modifying alarm severities or PM thresholds
Ethernet Flows, VSIs, and MPLS Tunnels
You can configure MPLS tunnels and Ethernet/VPLS services, as follows:
Provisioning and monitoring MPLS tunnel segments for Ethernet
service, also known as MPLS XCs. A fully functional traffic-engineered
MPLS tunnel can be formed by provisioning the ingress (head), transit, and
egress (tail) MPLS segments along the tunnel path. This includes tunnel QoS
associations, FRR protection, OAM for tunnel connectivity verification, and
more.
Provisioning and monitoring VPLS VSIs. An Ethernet bridge/switch
instance binding an Ethernet service endpoint with all service parameters to
MPLS. A fully functional VPLS can be formed by configuring its
representative VSIs on the PE endpoint cards, where the customer connects
through Ethernet ports. This includes VLAN to VSI associations, 802.1p to
CoS mappings, per-VPN policing, VSI to MPLS tunnel binding, and more.
Provisioning and monitoring Ethernet services. Accomplished through a
mechanism similar to the VPLS implementation, with no binding to MPLS
tunnels.
A graphic display of the XCs makes editing in the EMS-MPT easy. Simply point
and click at cards and endpoints and activate them. For additional ease of use, the
cross-connection window is intuitive. Mass provisioning is possible via batch
files or an activate series.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-25

Optical Topology Management
The following features, implemented at the NMS and EMS levels, provide
excellent intuitive management of the optical layer:
Enhanced Automatic Power Control (APC (page 6-48))
Functional Node (FuN) Topology Map (FTM (page 6-49))
Power Equalization for Lightwave Enabled Servers (PELES (page 6-50))
DCC Cross Connections
The DCC allows you to manage the SDH network through a communications
channel embedded in the SDH overhead bytes. The DCC can be assigned to RS
or MS objects. Using the XC subsystem, you can create DCC XCs that specify
how the management channel is routed via the NE.
External DCC XCs allow you to use RS and MS objects in the SIO cards
containing external DCC bytes to implement the transparent DCC feature. The
XDM network transparently routes the management channel of an external
vendor, independent of the payload routing.
OSPF
EMS applications support DCC functionality with dynamic OSPF routing over
network interfaces to automatically determine the routing table. OSPF support
includes PPP encapsulation of IP packets with HDLC framing over RS-DCC,
MS-DCC, and "Clear Channel" communication channels as defined in ITU
G.7712. Support is also provided for legacy LAN emulation encapsulation, with
full software configurability between all communication modes.
The EMS-MPT can work with combined XDM and legacy equipment
implementing several different DCN methods, including:
DCC with LAN Emulation
DCC with OSPF
Ethernet mode OSPF
DCN OSPF (towards the XDM GWs)
ECI platforms smoothly integrate multiple DCN modes. A single platform can
function in different DCN modes with different network components, as
described in Network Communications Control (page 9-1).
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Security Management
The EMS-MPT provides a fully customizable security hierarchy. Users can
partition NEs by group, and limit user access to specific groups. The individual
NEs may be configured with embedded passwords to protect them from
unauthorized LCT access. Only the administrator can view and change the
passwords. For surveillance purposes, a detailed user action log is included.
Interfaces and Management Transparency
The EMS-MPT supports a CORBA-based northbound interface. Since the
EMS-MPT has been designed as an open system, XDM elements can be
managed through any standard compliant NMS.
Current alarms can be exported via FTP, retrieve daily endpoint performance
files, import/export XCs, assign slots via batch files, and report card inventory.
Auto-discovery
The EMS-MPT supports the following auto-discovery capabilities:
Automatic card assignment
Automatic NE recognition
Automatic topology link discovery
Automatic card assignment can be done manually and automatically. In
automatic mode, cards and modules inserted into managed NEs in the field are
automatically recognized by the EMS-MPT and assigned as a background task
according to user-defined tables. This feature can also be applied manually to
selected NEs. The end result is the same: you no longer need to assign each card
or module as physical insertion automatically triggers this action.
With automatic NE recognition, each NE appears on the screen, eliminating the
need to create it manually. New NEs are automatically transferred to LightSoft
or any other NMS via the CORBA interface.
The automatic topology discovery feature is based on a new implementation of
the J0 byte. When activated, SIO-to-SIO or OSC bidirectional links (in SDH
networks) are automatically identified by the EMS-MPT and uploaded to the
NMS layer via the MTNM interface. LightSoft automatically displays such links
when managing EMS-MPT, eliminating the need to manually define topology
links at the NMS level. In addition, an EMS-level list of links is provided for
viewing and deleting automatically created links.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-27

Local Craft Terminals
ECI offers a powerful suite of Local Craft Terminals (LCTs), PC-based
installation, maintenance, commissioning, and configuration tools for field
technicians. LCTs provide rapid direct connection to deployed NEs using a
standard serial interface. Each type of NE managed by LightSoft utilizes a
specific application (such as LCT-XDM or LCT-ATS).
For smaller networks with fewer platforms, LCTs can be used as an economical
standalone EMS that includes a current alarm window, NE database backup and
restore capabilities, and current PM and TCA configuration.
LCTs support all site functionalities: installation, port and XC provisioning, NE
commissioning (including slot assignment, IP routing, and DCC ports
configuration), and definition of cross connections, flows, and troubleshooting.
LCTs support alarm and event management, inventory, PM, security
management, system administration, and log management.
The system provides you with a clear view and control of NE internals, cards and
objects, status, and configuration. Access from the LCT is password-protected.
The intuitive Java-based interface is simple to use and runs on Windows
platforms.
Each type of NE managed by LightSoft utilizes a specific craft terminal
application. The following figure illustrates a typical shelf view through the
LCT-XDM.

Figure 11-15: LCT shelf view

Management XDM General Description

11-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06



417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 12-1

In this chapter:
Overview ....................................................................................................... 12-1
Short MTTR .................................................................................................. 12-2
Built-In Test ................................................................................................... 12-2
Alarms System ............................................................................................... 12-3
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................. 12-4
Overview
The XDM family is a fully redundant all-in-one system that eliminates and
replaces interconnections and cables with a few ultrareliable optical connections
in a self-contained integrated package. As a result, the XDM inherently provides
high reliability.
Operating features and benefits of the XDM include:
Redundancy of all subsystems and optional switchover to protection,
offering the operator uninterrupted service.
Comprehensive alarms system, detecting and reporting transmission and
equipment malfunctions.
Loopback capabilities on the transmission interfaces and a sophisticated BIT
feature facilitating quick and accurate fault location, so minimizing mean
time to repair (MTTR).
Maintenance configuration functions controlled by the management system.


NOTE: All installation instructions, technical specifications,
restrictions, and safety warnings are provided in the XDM Installation
and Maintenance Manuals. See these manuals for specific instructions
before beginning any XDM platform installation.
12
Maintenance
Maintenance XDM General Description

12-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Short MTTR
XDM features ensure a minimum MTTR, reducing the probability of service
interruptions:
Internal diagnostic capability and automatic switchover to protection
equipment
Automatic PM and BIT mechanism for fast and accurate fault isolation
Efficient fault location at the element, card, and component levels
Replacement of cards and modules when power is on
Remote diagnostics activation and control by the STMS
Remote installation of new software versions through management
interfaces with minimum effect on traffic
Built-In Test
The BIT hardware and its related software assist in the identification of any
faulty card in the system. Outputs provide:
Fault detection
Maintenance alarms
Redundancy switching
System reset
Bypass (when applicable)
Management reports
On-card dedicated test circuits implement the BIT procedure under the control of
an integrated software package.
The xMCP cards perform the BIT procedures on all signal paths and buses. The
xMCPs also monitor the slave processors on the other XDM cards by means of
test messages.
A BIT program is automatically activated after the XDM is switched on. It is
performed for both the initialization and normal operation phases.
BIT testing covers general tests (including card presence tests and periodic
sanity checks of I/O card processors), traffic path tests, xMCP environment tests,
data tests, and more. The BIT detects traffic-affecting failures as well as failures
in other system cards, including invisible failures in nonoperating redundant
cards.
XDM General Description Maintenance

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 12-3

Alarms System
Alarms generated by the XDM are classified as:
Transmission: Alarms associated with a malfunction of any transmission
path. The XDM supports a full set of alarms in compliance with applicable
standards.
Timing: Alarms associated with a malfunction of any XDM timing source.
Equipment: Alarms associated with any hardware malfunction.
The network administrator assigns severity levels to each alarm type:
Critical: Always requires immediate attention.
Major: Gives notice that attention is required, but does not require attention
outside normal working hours.
Minor: Does not require attention after normal hours.
Warning: Malfunction warning or unreleased maintenance action.
In addition to the management interfaces listed previously, additional optional
means can be provided for alarms control and display:
Local displays, including LEDs that indicate malfunctions of specific
plug-in units or transmission paths
Alarm contacts, delivering critical, major, and minor alarm indications to the
station alarm bus
Rack alarm buzzer with station acknowledgment mechanism
Alarm server, delivering network aggregated alarms from LightSoft to the
operator's Central Monitoring Station (CMS)
Alarm inputs from in-station devices (such as security sensors, fire detectors,
external monitoring equipment) and other in-station telecommunications
equipment (like flexible multiplexers and DWDM units)
Maintenance XDM General Description

12-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Troubleshooting
In the event of an alarm, troubleshooting procedures are used to determine the
severity and location of the problem and the appropriate alarm-clearing action.
Alarms are handled first by severity and then by type. In order of priority, alarm
types are:
Equipment
Transmission
Timing
Each card is a standalone unit. By adopting ECI's modular system concept, the
customer's planning and maintenance personnel achieve flexible and efficient
operation. By following a simple procedure, maintenance personnel can quickly
replace faulty cards or other assemblies. Faulty units are then sent for repair to
the assigned ECI Customer Support Center. The easy maintenance concept of
XDM allows the user to perform these repairs and test actions:
Connecting/disconnecting cable fibers to/from the XDM
Removing/inserting any cards in XDM cards cage when power is on
Connecting/disconnecting power cable(s) to/from the system
Performing system test procedures
Removing/inserting I/O modules


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-1

In this appendix:
Overview ........................................................................................................ A-1
Broadband Forum ........................................................................................... A-1
Environmental Standards ................................................................................ A-2
ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute ............................. A-2
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission ........................................... A-3
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ................................... A-4
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force .......................................................... A-5
ISO: International Organization for Standardization ...................................... A-7
ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union ........................................... A-8
MEF: Metro Ethernet Forum ........................................................................ A-12
NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology................................ A-12
North American Standards ........................................................................... A-13
OMG: Object Management Group ............................................................... A-14
TMF: TeleManagement Forum .................................................................... A-14
Web Protocol Standards ............................................................................... A-14
Overview
The following is a list of standards and reference documents that relate to the
XDM platform families. The standards are listed alphabetically by groups.
Broadband Forum
Af-phy-0064.000 ATM Forum E1 Physical Layer Interface.
Af-phy-0086.000 ATM Forum IMA V1.0.
Af-phy-0086.001 ATM Forum IMA V1.1.
Af-phy-00121.00 ATM Forum Traffic Management Specifications V4.1.
A
Standards and References
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Environmental Standards
EuP Directive 2005/32/EC: Ecodesign Requirements for Energy-Using
Products.
OHSAS 18001: Occupational Health and Safety Management
Systems - Requirements.
REACh Directive 2005/32/EC: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and
Restriction of Chemicals.
RoHS Directive 2005/747/EC: Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous
Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment.
WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC: Waste from Electrical and Electronic
Equipment.
ETSI: European
Telecommunications Standards
Institute
EN 300 019-1-1 Class 1.2: Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental
Conditions and Environmental Tests for Telecommunications Equipment;
Part 1-1: Classification of Environmental Conditions; Storage.
EN 300 019-1-2 Class 2.3: Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental
Conditions and Environmental Tests for Telecommunications Equipment;
Part 1-2: Classification of Environmental Conditions; Transportation.
EN 300 019-1-3 Classes 3.2 and 3.3: Environmental Engineering (EE);
Environmental Conditions and Environmental Tests for
Telecommunications Equipment; Part 1-3: Classification of Environmental
Conditions; Stationary use at weather-protected locations.
EN 300 019-2-4 Class 4.1: Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental
Conditions and Environmental Tests for Telecommunications Equipment;
Part 2-4: Specification of Environmental Tests; Stationary use at
non-weather-protected locations.
EN 300 132 -2: Environmental Engineering (EE); Power Supply Interface at
the Input to Telecommunications Equipment.
EN 300-166: Physical and electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital
interfaces for equipment using the 2 048 kbit/s based plesiochronous or
synchronous digital hierarchies.
EN 300 386: Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters
(ERM); Telecommunication network equipment; Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) requirements.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-3

EN 300-417-2-1: Transmission and Multiplexing (TM); Generic
requirements of transport functionality of equipment.
EN 300-417-5-1: Generic requirements of transport functionality of
equipment.
EN 300-462-5-1: Transmission and Multiplexing (TM); Generic
requirements for synchronization networks.
EN 300-689: 34 Mbit/s digital leased lines (D34U and D34S); Terminal
equipment interface.
EN 301-164: SDH leased lines connection characteristics.
EN 301-165: SDH leased lines Network and Terminal interface presentation.
EN 55022: Radio Disturbance Characteristics of Information Technology
Equipment.
ETR 114: Functional Architecture of SDH Transport Networks.
ETR 275: Considerations on Transmission Delay and Transmission Delay
value for components on connections supporting speech communication
over evolving digital networks.
FTZ 1TR9: Deutsche Telekom A.G. EMC Requirements.
FTZ 153 TL 1part 1: Synchronous Multiplexing Equipment (SM) for
Synchronous Multiplex Hierarchy.
IEC: International
Electrotechnical Commission
IEC 68: Environmental Testing.
IEC 917: Modular Order for the Development of Mechanical Structures for
Electronic Equipment Practices.
IEC 3309: Information Technology Telecommunications and Information
Exchange between Systems High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
Procedures Frame Structure.
IEC 9314-3: Information Processing Systems - Fiber Distributed Data
Interface (FDDI) Multiplex.
IEC 9595, Information Technology: Open Systems Interconnection,
Common Management Information Services.
IEC 9596, Information Technology: Open Systems Interconnection,
Common Management Information Protocol.
IEC 13239: Information technology Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems High-level data link control
(HDLC) procedures.
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

IEC 17025: General Requirements for Competence of Testing and
Calibration Laboratories.
IEC 60825-1: Safety of Laser Products Part 1: Equipment Classification
and Requirements.
IEC 60825-2 (AS/NZS 2211.2): Safety of Laser Products Part 2: Safety of
Optical Fiber Communication System (OFCS).
IEC/EN/UL 60950-1: Information Technology Equipment - Safety - General
Requirements.
IS 1249-1: Safety of Laser products: Equipment classification requirements
and users guide.
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers
IEEE 802.1ad: Virtual Bridged Local Area
NetworksRevisionAmendment 4: Provider Bridges.
IEEE 802.1ag: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 5:
Connectivity Fault Management.
IEEE 802.1D: Media access control (MAC) Bridges (Incorporates IEEE
802.1t and IEEE 802.1w).
IEEE 802.1P: Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast Filtering.
IEEE 802.1Q: Virtual Bridged Local Area NetworksRevision.
IEEE 802.1w: Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree.
IEEE 802.3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications.
IEEE 802.3ad: Link Aggregation.
IEEE 802.3ah: Ethernet in the First Mile (Link OAM).
IEEE 802.3x: Full Duplex Operation and Flow Control Protocol.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-5

IETF: Internet Engineering Task
Force
RFC 1493: Definition of Managed Objects for Bridges.
RFC 1643: Ethernet-like Interfaces.
RFC 1662: PPP in HDLC-Life Framing.
RFC 1757: Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base.
RFC 1823: LDAP Application Program Interface (API).
RFC 1901: Introduction to Community-based SNMPv2.
RFC 2108: Definitions of Managed Objects for IEEE 802.3 Repeater
Devices using SMIv2.
RFC 2251: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3) [specification of the
LDAP on-the-wire protocol].
RFC 2252: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): Attribute Syntax
Definitions.
RFC 2253: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): UTF-8 String
Representation of Distinguished Names.
RFC 2254: The String Representation of LDAP Search Filters.
RFC 2255: The LDAP URL Format.
RFC 2256: A Summary of the X.500(96) User Schema for use with
LDAPv3.
RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.
RFC 2409: Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE).
RFC 2474: Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the
IPv4 and IPv6 Headers.
RFC 2597: Assured Forwarding PHB Group.
RFC 2615: PPP over SONET/SDH.
RFC 2665: Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like Interface
Types.
RFC 2674: Bridge MIB with VLAN/Traffic Classes/Multicast Extensions.
RFC 2702: Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS.
RFC 2737: Entity MIB (Version 2).
RFC 2819: Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base.
RFC 2829: Authentication Methods for LDAP.
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

RFC 2830: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): Extension for
Transport Layer Security.
RFC 2863: Interfaces Group MIB.
RFC 3014: Notification Log MIB.
RFC 3031: Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture.
RFC 3032: MPLS Label Stack Encoding.
RFC 3246: An Expedited Forwarding PHB (Per-Hop Behavior).
RFC 3270: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Support of
Differentiated Services.
RFC 3377: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): Technical
Specification.
RFC 3411: SNMP Framework MIB.
RFC 3414: SNMP User-Based SM MIB.
RFC 3415: SNMP Vies-Based ACM MIB.
RFC 3443: Time To Live (TTL) Processing in Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (MPLS) Networks.
RFC 3812: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering
(TE) Management Information Base (MIB).
RFC 3813: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switching Router
(LSR) Management Information Base (MIB).
RFC 3916: Requirements for Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge
(PWE3).
RFC 3985: Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture.
RFC 4090: Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels.
RFC 4125: Maximum Allocation Bandwidth Constraints Model for
Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering.
RFC 4126: Max Allocation with Reservation Bandwidth Constraints Model
for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering & Performance Comparisons.
RFC 4379: Detecting Multi-Protocol Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane
Failures.
RFC 4448: Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over MPLS
Networks.
RFC 5254: Requirements for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation
Edge-to-Edge (PWE3).
RFC 5462: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Stack Entry:
"EXP" Field Renamed to "Traffic Class" Field.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-7

RFC 5659: An Architecture for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation
Edge-to-Edge.
RFC 6073: Segmented Pseudowire.
IETF Drafts:
draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-ldp.
draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast-reqts.
draft-ietf-magma-snoop.
draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-te-p2mp.
draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-framework.
draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-req.
draft-ietf-pwe3-dynamic-ms-pw-14.
draft-ietf-pwe3-ethernet-encap.
draft-ietf-pwe3-ldp-aii-reachability-04.
draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls.
draft-sajassi-l2vpn-vpls-multicast-congruency.
draft-vasseur-mpls-backup-computation.
ISO: International Organization
for Standardization
A2LA: Accredited Laboratory for Electrical and Mechanical Testing.
ISO 9001: Quality Management System Requirements.
ISO 14001: Environmental Management Systems Requirements With
Guidance for Use.
ISO 27001: Information Security Management Systems Requirements.
TL 9000, QuEST Forum: Quality Management System Requirements &
Measurements Handbooks for the Telecom Industry.
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ITU-T: International
Telecommunication Union
G.650: Definition and Test Methods for the Relevant Parameters of
Single-Mode Fibers.
G.651: Characteristics of a 50/125 m Multimode Graded Index Optical
Fiber Cable.
G.652: Characteristics of a Single-Mode Optical Fiber Cable.
G.653: Characteristics of a Dispersion-Shifted Single-Mode Optical Fiber
Cable.
G.654: Characteristics of a Cut-off Shifted Single-Mode Optical Fiber
Cable.
G.655: Characteristics of a Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Single-Mode
Optical Fiber Cable.
G.661: Definition and Test Methods for the Relevant Generic Parameters of
Optical Amplifier Devices and Subsystems.
G.662: Generic Characteristics of Optical Fiber Amplifier Devices and
Subsystems.
G.663: Application Related Aspects of Optical Fiber Amplifier Devices and
Subsystems.
G.664: Optical Safety Procedures and Requirements for Optical Transport
Systems.
G.671: Transmission Characteristics of Passive Optical Components.
G.691: Optical Interfaces for Single Channel SDH Systems with Optical
Amplifiers and STM-64 Systems (Draft).
G.692: Optical Interfaces for Multi-Channel Systems with Optical
Amplifiers.
G.694.1: Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: DWDM Frequency Grid.
G.694.2: Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: CWDM Wavelength Grid.
G.695: Optical Interfaces for Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Applications.
G.703: Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces.
G.704: Synchronous Frame Structures Used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and
44 736 kbps Hierarchical Levels.
G.706: Frame Alignment and CRC Procedures Relating to Basic Frame
Structure Defined in Rec G.704.
G.707: Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-9

G.709: Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN).
G.752: Characteristics of digital multiplex equipments based on a second
order bit rate of 6312 kbit/s and using positive justification.
G.772: Protected Monitoring Points Provided on Digital Transmission
Systems.
G.774 & G774.n: SDH Information Model.
G.775: Loss of Signal (LOS), Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote
Defect Indication (RDI) defect detection and clearance criteria for PDH
signals.
G.781: Synchronization Layer Functions.
G.783: Characteristics of SDH Equipment Functional Blocks.
G.784: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Management.
G.798: Characteristics of OTN Hierarchy Equipment Functional Blocks.
G.803: Architectures of Transport Networks based on the Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy.
G.805: Generic Functional Architecture of Transport Networks.
G.806: Characteristics of Transport Equipment Description Methodology
and Generic Functionality.
G.809: Functional Architecture of Connectionless Layer Networks.
G.811: Timing Characteristics of Primary Reference Clocks.
G.812: Timing Requirements of Slave Clocks Suitable for Use as Node
Clocks in Synchronization Networks.
G.813: Timing Characteristics of SDH Equipment Slave Clocks (SEC).
G.823: The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks Based on
the 2048 kbit/s Hierarchy.
G.825: The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks Based on
the SDH (Draft).
G.8251: The Control of Jitter and Wander within the Optical Transport
Network (OTN).
G.826: Error Performance Parameters and Objectives for International,
Constant Bit Rate Digital Paths at or above the Primary Rate.
G.828: Error Performance Parameters and Objectives for International,
Constant Bit Rate Synchronous Digital Paths.
G.829: Error Performance Events for SDH Multiplex and Regenerator
Sections.
G.831: Management Capabilities of Transport Networks Based on the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

G.841: Types and Characteristics of SDH Network Protection Architectures.
G.842: Inter-Working of SDH Protection Architectures.
G.872: Architecture of Optical Transport Networks.
G.874: Management Aspects of the Optical Transport Network Element.
G.874.1: Optical Transport Network (OTN): Protocol-Neutral Management
Information Model for the Network Element View.
G.957: Optical Interfaces for Equipment and Systems relating to the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
G.959.1: Optical Transport Network Physical Layer Interfaces.
G.975: Forward Error Correction for Submarine Systems.
G.985: 100 Mbit/s point-to-point Ethernet based optical access system.
G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP).
G.7042: Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) for Virtual
Concatenated Signals.
G.7713: Distributed Connection Management.
G.7713.2: RSVP-TE Implementation.
G.7714: Generalized Automatic Discovery Techniques.
G.7714.1: Protocol for Automatic Discovery in SDH & OTN network.
G.7715: ASON Routing.
G.7715.1: Based on PNNI, OSPF or IS_IS.
G.8001/Y.1354: Terms and definitions for Ethernet frames over transport.
G.8010/Y.1306: Architecture of Ethernet Layer Networks.
G.8011/Y.1307: Ethernet Services Framework.
G.8011.1/Y.1307.1: Ethernet Private Line Service.
G.8011.2/Y.1307.2: Ethernet Virtual Private Line Service.
G.8012/Y.1308: Ethernet UNI and Ethernet NNI.
G.8080/Y.1304: Architecture for the automatically switched optical network
(ASON)
G.8201/Y.1354: Error performance parameters and objectives for
multi-operator international paths within the Optical Transport Network
(OTN)
G.8261/Y. 1361: Timing and synchronization aspects in packet network.
G.8262/Y. 1362: Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment
slave clock (EEC).
G.8080: Architecture for ASON.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-11

I.356: ATM Layer Cell Transfer Performance.
I.361: ATM Layer Specification.
I.371: Traffic Control and Congestion Control.
I.610: ATM Operation and Maintenance Principles.
M.2140: Transport Network Event Correlation.
M.3010: Principles for a Telecommunications Management Network.
M.3013: Considerations for a Telecommunications Management Network.
M.3016.x: Security for the management plane.
M.3017: Framework for the integrated management of hybrid circuit/packet
networks.
M.3100: Generic Network Information Model.
M.3180: Catalogue of TMN Management Information.
M.3200: TMN Management Services and Telecommunications Managed
Areas: Overview.
M.3300: TMN F Interface Requirements.
M.3400: TMN Management Functions.
Q.821: Alarm Surveillance.
Q.822: Performance Monitoring.
X.217: Open Systems Interconnection, Service Definition for the
Association Control Service Element.
X.219: Remote Operations - Model, Notation and Service Definition.
X.227: Open Systems Interconnection, Connection-Oriented Protocol for the
Association Control Service Element - Protocol Specification.
X.229: Remote Operations: Protocol Specification.
X.710: Open Systems Interconnection, Common Management Information
Service.
X.720: Open Systems Interconnection, Structure of Management
Information - Management Information Model.
X.721 Information Technology: Open Systems Interconnection, Structure of
Management Information - Definition of Management Information.
X.722: Open Systems Interconnection, Structure of Management
Information - Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects.
X.731: Open Systems Interconnection, Systems Management - State
Management Function.
X.733: Open Systems Interconnection, Systems Management - Alarm
Reporting Function.
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

X.743: Open Systems Interconnection, Systems Management - Time
Management Function.
X.744: Open Systems Interconnection, Systems Management - Software
Management Function.
Y.1311: Network-based VPNs - Generic architecture and service
requirements.
Y.1710: Requirements for Operation & Maintenance functionality for MPLS
networks.
Y.1711: Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks.
Z.351: Data oriented human-machine interface specification technique
introduction.
Z.352: Data oriented human-machine interface specification technique
scope, approach and usage.
Z.361: Design guidelines for Human-Computer Interfaces (HCI) for the
management of telecommunications networks.
MEF: Metro Ethernet Forum
MEF4 Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework Part 1: Generic
Framework.
MEF6 Metro Ethernet Services Definitions.
MEF7 EMS-NMS Information Model.
MEF9 Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI.
MEF10 Ethernet Service Attributes.
MEF11 User Network Interface (UNI) Requirements and Framework.
MEF12 Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework Part 2: Ethernet
Services Layer.
MEF14 Test Suite for Ethernet Traffic Management.
MPLS-TP Network Management requirements (draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-req)
MPLS-TP NM Framework (draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-framework)
NIST: National Institute of
Standards and Technology
FIPS PUB 197: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
FIPS PUB 140-2: Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules.
XDM General Description Standards and References

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-13

North American Standards
ANSI FCF1-2: Fiber Channel Physical Interface REV 10.
ANSI T1.102: Digital hierarchy electrical interface.
ANSI T1.105: Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Basic Description
including Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats.
ANSI X3.296: Single-Byte Command code sets CONnection (SBCON)
architecture.
FCC CFR Title 47 Part 15: Radio Emission.
FCC Part 101.147 Fixed microwave services: (i8, i7, K7, 7)
NEBS GR1089 and GR63 (temperature aspect)
NEBS Level 3 support for N.A. platforms.
Rural Utility Service (RUS) Certification.
Telcordia GR-63-CORE: Network Equipment Building System (NEBS)
Requirements: Physical Protection.
Telcordia GR-253-CORE: Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria.
Telcordia GR-383-CORE: COMMON LANGUAGE

Equipment Codes
(CLEI Codes) Generic Requirements for Bar Code Labels.
Telcordia GR-487-CORE: Generic Requirements for Electronic Equipment
Cabinets.
Telcordia GR-499-CORE: Transport System Generic Requirements
(TSGR): Common Requirements.
Telcordia GR-1089-CORE: Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrical
Safety Generic Criteria for Network Telecommunications Equipment.
Telcordia GR-1209-CORE: Generic Requirements for Passive Optical
Components.
Telcordia GR-1230-CORE: SONET Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
Equipment Generic Criteria.
Telcordia GD-1244-CORE: Clock for the synchronization network:
Common generic criteria.
Telcordia GR-1312-CORE: Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber
Amplifiers and Proprietary Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexed
Systems.
Telcordia GR-1400-CORE: SONET Dual-Fed Unidirectional Path Switched
Ring (UPSR) Equipment Generic Criteria.
Telcordia GD-2979-CORE: Common Generic Requirements for Optical
Add-Drop Multiplexers (OADMs) and Optical Terminal Multiplexers
(OTMs).
Standards and References XDM General Description

A-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OMG: Object Management Group
Notification Service Specification V 1.0.
The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification V 2.6.
TMF: TeleManagement Forum
TMF 513: MTNM Business Agreement Release 3.5.
TMF 518: Framework Document Delivery Package (DDP) Business
Agreement (BA) V1.1.
TMF 518: Resource Provisioning DDP BA V1.0.
TMF 608: Multi Technology Network Management Information Agreement
V 2.1 and V 3.5.
TMF 814: Multi Technology Network Management Solution Set V 2.1 and
V 3.5.
TMF 854: The MTOSI XML Solution Set Package Release 1.1.
Web Protocol Standards
W3C: World Wide Web Consortium
SOAP 1.1: Simple Object Access Protocol.
WSDL 1.1: Web Services Description Language.
WS-I: Web Services Interoperability Organization
WS-I Basic Profile 1.1: Web Services Interoperability.


417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-1

1000BaseCX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over shielded 150 W twinax cables at ranges up to
25 meters
1000BaseLX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode or single mode optical fibers
using long wavelength lasers
1000BaseSX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode optical fibers using short
wavelength lasers
1000BaseT 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over four CAT5 shielded twisted pair cables at
ranges up to 100 meters
(also known as Gigabit Ethernet (GbE))
1000BaseX Generic name for 1000 Mbps Ethernet systems
100BaseT 100 Mbps baseband data transmission over twisted-pair copper wire
or
100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables
(also known as Fast Ethernet (FE))
10BaseT 10 Mbps baseband data transmission over twisted-pair copper wire
or
10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables
10G LAN 10 GbE LAN Physical Layer Device (PHY)
2R Reshaping, Regenerating
3GPP
3
rd
Generation Partnership Program
3R Reshaping, Regenerating, Retiming
ABR Area Border Router
ACO Alarm Cut Off
ADM Add/Drop Multiplexer
ADPSK Adaptable Differential Phase Shift Keying
ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown
AoC ADM on Card
APC Automatic Power Control
APD Avalanche PhotoDiode
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
B
Glossary
Glossary XDM General Description

B-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ASBR Autonomous System Border Router
ASON Automatically Switched Optical Network
ASP Application Service Provider
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATS ATM Traffic Switch
AVC Automatic Value Change Notification
AVGpas Average Gain of previous amplifiers
AWG Array Waveguide Grating
B&S Broadcast & Select
BBE Background Block Error
BE Best Effort
BIT Built-In Test
BLSR Bidirectional Line Switched Ring
BoD Bandwidth on Demand
BPSR Bidirectional Path Switched Ring
BSC Broadcast Storm Control
BTS Base Transceiver System
C4I Command, Control, Communication, Computer, and Intelligence
CAC Connection Admission Control
CAN Controller Area Network
CAPEX CAPital EXpenditure
CBS Committed Burst Size
CCI Connection Control Interface
CCN Customer Change Notification
CCP Computer Control Panel
CE Customer Edge
CESR Carrier Ethernet Switch Router
CFM Connectivity Fault Management
ChaCha Channel Changes
CHTR_B Combiner and Transponder universal base card
CIR Committed Information Rate
CLE Customer Located Equipment
CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
CMN Customer Managed Network
CNM Customer Network Management
CO Central Office
CoC Carrier of Carriers
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CoS Class of Service
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-3

COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf
CP Control Plane
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CPTS Carrier Packet Transport Switch
CSF Client Signal Fail
CAN Standard Frame
CSPF Constrained Shortest Path First
CWDM Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DCC Data Communications Channel
Digital Communications Channel
DCF Dispersion Compensating Fiber
DCM Dispersion Compensation Module
DCN Data Communication Network
DIO Data Input/Output card with FE and GbE interfaces
DMUX Demultiplexer
DNI Dual Node Interface
DoS Denial of Service
DRI Dual Ring Interface
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan
DS-3 Digital Signal Level 3 (44.736 Mbps)
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DTMF Dual Tone MultiFrequency
DTV Digital TV
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DXC Digital Cross Connect
E1 European PDH digital signal level 1 (2.048 Mbps)
E2E End-to-End
E3 European PDH digital signal level 1 (34.368 Mbps)
E-LAN Ethernet LAN
E-Line Ethernet Line
E-NNI External Network to Network Interface
E/W East/West
EAH-VPLS Ethernet Access Hierarchy VPLS
EAPC Enhanced Automatic Power Control
EBS Excess Burst Size
ECB External Connection Board
ECC Embedded Communication Channels
ECM Everyplace Connection Manager
ECU External Connection Unit
Glossary XDM General Description

B-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

EDF Erbium Doped Fiber
EDFA Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
EFEC Enhanced Forward Error Correction
EIR Extended Information Rate
EIS Ethernet Interface and Switching (card)
EML Element Management Layer
EMS Element Management System
EoC End of Chain
EoS Ethernet over SDH
EOW Engineering OrderWire
EP-Tree Ethernet Private Tree
EPL Ethernet Private Line
EPLAN Ethernet Private LAN
EPS Equipment Protection Switching
ERP Ethernet Ring Protection
ERPS Ethernet Ring Protection Switching
ESCON Enterprise Systems Connection
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute
EVC Ethernet Virtual Circuits
EVP-Tree Ethernet Virtual Private Tree
EVPL Ethernet Virtual Private Line
EVPLAN Ethernet Virtual Private LAN
FC Fibre Channel
FCAPS Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security
FCU Fan Control Unit
FDB Forwarding Database
FE Fast Ethernet
100BaseT Ethernet at 100 Mbps
FEC Forward Error Correction
FIB Forwarding Information Base
FICON Fiber Connection
FMS Fixed to Mobile Substitution
FRR Fast ReRoute
FTM FuN Topology Map
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FTS Fault Tolerant Server
FuN Functional Node
GA General Availability
GbE Gigabit Ethernet
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-5

GCC General Communications Channel
GDS Government and Defense Solutions
GFP Generic Framing Protocol
GFP-F Framed Generic Framing Protocol
GFP-T Transparent Generic Framing Protocol
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMPLS Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
GUI Graphic User Interface
H-VPLS Hierarchical Virtual Private LAN Service
HDLC High Level Data Link Control
HLXC High-/Low-order Cross Connect
HO High Order
HSI High Speed Internet
I-NNI Internal Network to Network Interface
I/O Input/Output
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
IMA Inverse Multiplexing over ATM
INF Input Filter Unit
INFOSEC Information Security
IOC Independent Carrier
IOP Input/Output Protection
IP Internet Protocol
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
ISP Internet Service Provider
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication
IXC Interexchange Carriers
LAG Link Aggregation Group
LAN Local Area Network
LCAS Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
LCT Local Craft Terminal
LDL Logical Data Link
LE Logical Element
LED Light Emitting Diode
LLCF Link Loss Carry Forward
LO Low Order
LOF Loss of Frame
LOL Loss of Light
Glossary XDM General Description

B-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

LOS Loss of Signal
LPC Link Power Control
LS LightSoft Network Management System
LSP Label Switched Path
MAC Media Access Control
MCS MPLS Carrier Class Switch (card)
ME Managed Element
MECP Main Equipment Control Panel
MEF Metro Ethernet Forum
MGW Media Gateway
MIB Management Information Base
MMF MultiMode Fiber
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
MoE MPLS over Ethernet
MoT MPLS over Transport
MP2MP MultiPoint to MultiPoint
MPLS MultiProtocol Label Switching
MPLS-TP MultiProtocol Label Switching Transport Profile
MS Multiplex Section
MS-AIS Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal
MS-DCC Multiplexer Section Digital Communication Channel
MS-SPRing Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSER MultiService Edge Router
MSO MultiService Operator
MSP Multiplex Section Protection
MSP-L Linear Multiplex Section Protection
MSPP MultiService Provisioning Platform
MSSP Managed Security Service Provider
MSTP MultiService Transport Platform
MTNM MultiTechnology Network Management
MTOSI MultiTechnology Operations System Interface
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MTU Multi-Tenant Unit
MXC Main Cross-Connect Control
NCW Network Centric Warfare
NE Network Element
NEL Network Element Layer
NG Next Generation
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-7

NGN Next Generation Network
NH Next Hop
NIM Nonintrusive monitoring
NMI Network to Management Interface
NML Network Management Layer
NMS Network Management System
NNH Next Next Hop
NNI Network to Network Interface
NOA Number of Amplifiers
NOC Number of Channels
NPU Network Processor Unit
NRZ Non Return to Zero
NTA Non Traffic Affecting
NUT Nonpre-emptive Unprotected Traffic
NVM Non-Volatile Memory
O-VPN Optical Virtual Private Network
OADM Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
OA&M, OAM Operations, Administration and Maintenance
OAM&P Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
OC Optical Carrier, SONET transmission speeds
OC-1 SONET Optical Carrier level 1, 51.84 Mbps
OC-3 SONET Optical Carrier level 3, 155.52 Mbps
OC-12 SONET Optical Carrier level 12, 622.08 Mbps
OC-48 SONET Optical Carrier level 48, 2.5 Gbps (2488.32 Mbps)
OC-192 SONET Optical Carrier level 192, 10 Gbps (9953.28 Mbps)
OCH Optical Channel
OCHP Optical Channel Protection
OCU Optical CWDM Unit
OEO Optical-to-Electrical-to-Optical
OFA Optical Fiber Amplifier
OHA OverHead Access
OHU OverHead Unit
OM Optical Module
OMS Optical Multiplexer Section
OMSP Optical Multiplexer Section Protection
ONE Optical Network Element
OOB Out-of-Band
OPEX OPerational EXpenditure
OPM Optical Performance Monitor
Glossary XDM General Description

B-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

OSC Optical Supervisory Channel
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSNR Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSS Operations Support System
OTH Optical Transport Hierarchy
OTN Optical Transport Network
OTU Optical Transport Unit
OW OrderWire channel
Packet-OTS Packet Optical Transport System
P2MP Point to Multi Point
P2P Point to Point
PABX Private Automatic Branch eXchange
PB Provider Bridge
PCO Power Control Object
PD Photodiode
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PE Provider Edge
PELES Power Equalization for Lightwave Enabled Servers
PIM PDH/Async I/O Module
PIN Packet Identification Number
PIO PDH/Async Input/Output
PLC Planar Lightwave Circuit
PM Performance Monitoring
PMDC Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensator
POP Point of Presence
POS Packet Over SDH
PPC Power per Channel
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PSFU Power Supply for the Fan Unit
PTT Postal Telegraph and Telephone
PW PseudoWire
QoS Quality of Service
RAN Radio Access Network or Remote Access Network
RDP Resource Domain Partitioning
RDR Remote Database Replication
RMON Remote Network Monitoring
RNC Remote Network Controller
ROADM Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-9

ROI Return on Investment
ROPA Remote Optically Pumped Amplifier
RPL Ring Protection Link
RS-DCC Regenerator Section Digital Communication Channel
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Rx Receive interface
RZ Return to Zero
SAM SDH Aggregate Module
SAN Storage Area Network
SC Switched Connection
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCN Signaling Communication Network
SD Signal Degradation
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDV Switched Digital Video
SES Severed Error Second
SF Signal Failure
SFD Start of Frame Delimiter
SFP Small Form factor Pluggable (module)
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SHG Split Horizon Group
SIM SDH I/O Module
SIO SDH Input/Output
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLC Span Loss Changes
SMB Small and Medium Businesses
SMF Single Mode Fiber
SNCP SubNetwork Connection Protection
SoC Start of Chain
SOH SDH Section Overhead
SP Service Provider
SPC Soft Permanent Connection
SPoF Single Point of Failure
SQL Structured Query Language
SRLG Shared Risk Link Group
SSM Synchronization Status Marker
STB Set-Top Box
STM Synchronous Transfer Mode
STM-1 Synchronous Transport Module 1, 155.52 Mbps
Glossary XDM General Description

B-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

STM-4 Synchronous Transport Module 4, 622.08 Mbps
STM-4c Concatenated Transport Module 4, 622.08 Mbps.
STM-16 Synchronous Transport Module 16, 2488.32 Mbps
STM-64 Synchronous Transport Module 64, 9953.28 Mbps
STS Synchronous Transport Signal
STS-1 Synchronous Transport Signal 1, 51.84 Mbps
STS-3 Synchronous Transport Signal 3, 155.52 Mbps
STS-12 Synchronous Transport Signal 12, 594.432 Mbps
STS-48 Synchronous Transport Signal 48, 2377.728 Mbps
TC Tributary Control
TCF Tributary Control and Fan
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TE Traffic Engineering
TLS Transparent LAN Services
TM Terminal Multiplexer
Traffic Management
TMF TeleManagement Forum
TMN Telecommunications Management Network
TMU TiMing Unit
TPM Tributary Protection Module
TPU Tributary Protection Unit
TSF Text Services Framework
Trail Signal Fail
Transparent Spanning Frame
TST Terminated Server Trails
TTM Time to Market
TVCXO Temperature Compensated Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator
Tx Transmit interface
UAS Unavailable Seconds
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNI User to Network Interface
UPSR Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
Utelco Utility Telecom Companies
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VC Virtual Container
VC-12 Virtual Container 12, 2.048 Mbps (used on low-order path)
VC-3 Virtual Container 3 (used on low-order path)
VC-4 Virtual Container 4 (used on high-order path)
VCAT Virtual Concatenation
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-11

VCG VCAT Group
VDC Voltage Direct Current
VGA Variable-Gain Amplifier
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VMUX Variable Optical Multiplexer
VOA Variable Optical Attenuator
VoD Video on Demand
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
V2oIP Voice and Video over Internet Protocol
VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service
VSI Virtual Switching Instance
WAN Wide Area Network
WC Wholesale Carrier
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
WRED Weighted Random Early Discard
WSS Wavelength Selective Switch
WTR Wait to Restore
WTS Wait to Switch
XC Cross Connect
XFP 10 Gigabit Small Form-factor Pluggable module
xINF XDM Input Filter Units
XIO Matrix I/O
xMCP XDM Main Control Processor

Glossary XDM General Description

B-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06



417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-1

3
3G networks 1-30, 2-4, 7-8
A
A/B configuration 6-11
ACP Modules 8-26
Additional FRR Capabilities 10-6
ADM 3-16, 4-15, 10-23
ADM on a Card 6-18
Advantages of the XDM ASON
Implementation 8-18
Aggregate modules 3-17, 4-3, 7-4
Alarm management 11-23
display 11-23
severity 11-23
Alarm Management 11-23
Alarms System 12-3
All-Native Capabilities for Optimal
Performance 1-3
All-Native Ethernet Services 2-8
Amplifiers in the XDM-100 Family 6-55
AoC Protection Capabilities 10-33
AoC Protection Options 6-27
APC 6-48
Applications 2-1
backhaul services 2-4, 2-19
Carrier of Carriers 2-19
cellular 2-4
customer network management 2-13
customer types 2-1
data applications 7-4
DSLAM transport 2-3
enterprise Ethernet services 2-8
ILECs 2-3
ISP connectivity 5-27
leased-line services 2-12
metro access 1-30, 4-11
military and government agencies
2-26
multiple service operators 2-17
Next Generation Networks (NGN)
1-1, 1-33, 6-9
utility companies 2-13
wavelength services 6-3
Wholesale Carriers 2-19
APS 3-14
Architecture 1-20, 1-34, 3-1
client/server 11-21
data layer 7-1
optical layer 6-1
square 3-14
ASIC 3-14
ASON Architecture 8-8
ASON in the XDM 8-1
ASON Network Advantages 8-3
ASON Network Management 11-7
ASON Protection and Restoration
Capabilities 10-18
ASON Service in the XDM 8-15
ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family 8-14
ATM 1-33, 2-4, 2-19, 6-13, 7-8
ATS 7-8
ATS Service Matrix for 3G Cellular
Networks 7-8
Aurora-G 7-7
Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card 7-7
Autodiscovery 11-26
Auto-discovery 11-26
B
Backhaul services 2-4, 2-19
Benefits of XDM Family Platforms 5-4
Broadband Forum A-1
BTSs 2-4
Index
Index XDM General Description

I-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Building the Digital Oilfield of the Future
2-16
Built-In Test 12-2
Built-in Test (BIT) 10-40, 12-1, 12-2
Business Services 2-7
C
CAPEX 1-20, 1-32
Cards and modules 3-1, 6-1, 7-1
ATS 7-8
base cards 6-1, 6-13, 6-28, 6-40
colored SIO 7-5
combiner 6-28
data cards 5-36, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5
DIO 5-25, 5-36
ECB 9-11
ECU 4-3, 9-11, 9-12
EIS 5-27, 5-34
HLXC 3-8, 3-14
MCS 5-27, 5-34
MECP 9-9, 9-11
mux/demux, optical 4-10, 6-9
MXC 3-8, 3-17
network power control plane, optical
1-22, 6-48, 6-50
OADM, optical 4-10, 6-11
OFA, optical 6-38
OMSP, optical 6-47, 10-31, 10-40
OPM, optical 6-45
optical cards and modules 4-10, 6-1
OSC, optical 4-10, 9-9, 11-26
PIO 7-4
power feed 3-1, 3-18
ROADM 1-16, 6-3
SFP 3-11, 6-37
SIO 7-5, 11-25, 11-26
transponders, optical 6-1, 6-13,
10-31
XFP 6-37
XIO 3-16
xMCP 3-17, 9-11, 12-2
Carrier Class Ethernet and MPLS 1-4
Carrier of Carriers 2-19
Cellular Service for a Mobile Society 2-4
Cellular services 2-4, 2-13
3G 2-4, 7-8
core 2-4
FMS 2-4
GGSN 2-4
GPRS 2-4
MSC 2-4, 2-19
RAN 2-4, 7-8
RNC 2-4, 7-8
SGSN 2-4
UMTS 2-4
Clear Channel 9-7
CLEC 2-1
Client/Server Architecture 11-21
CMBR10_T 6-32
CMBR40B 6-30
CMTR25 Multirate
Combiner/Transponder 6-33
Coarse Wavelength Division
Multiplexing, see CWDM 1-28, 1-35
CoC 2-4, 2-19
Combiners 6-28, 10-31
Common Unit 10-40
Communication with external equipment
and management 9-1
Communications 3-5
Communications Module 9-11
Comprehensive E2E Wavelength Services
6-21
Comprehensive Set of Services 1-10
Comprehensive Solution for All Your
Applications 1-35
Configuration and inventory management
11-24
Configuration and Provisioning in the
EMS-MPT 11-24
Connectivity to Any Physical Port,
E1/IMA or STM-1/VC-4 7-9
Control 3-3
Control and communication subsystem
3-3
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-3

built-in test (BIT) 12-2
communication with external
equipment and management 3-5,
9-1
HLXC functionality 3-14
internal control and processing 3-3
MXC functionality 3-17
XIO functionality 3-16
Control and Communications Subsystems
3-3
Control Plane 8-9
Control Plane Functionalities 8-10
CORBA 11-22
CPE 2-30, 4-11
Cross-connect 3-3, 3-8
capacity 3-3, 3-8, 3-11, 3-14, 3-16,
3-17
control and communication functions
3-3
external communication 3-5, 9-1
functions 3-3, 3-8
HLXC cards 3-14
internal control 3-3
matrix protection, upgrade, and
migration 1-30
MXC cards 3-17
shelf capacities 3-3, 3-8
unidirectional and bidirectional
10-27
XIO cards 3-16
Customer Change Notification 10-10
Customer Network Management 2-13,
11-20
Customer types 2-1
cellular operators 2-4
CoCs 2-19
government agencies 2-26
ILECs 2-3
ISPs 2-19, 5-27, 5-34
military agencies 2-26
MSOs 2-17
utility companies 2-13
CWDM 1-28, 3-11, 6-1
D
Data applications 7-4
Ethernet capabilities 2-4
QoS 1-33, 2-8, 5-25
SLAs 2-1, 2-8, 5-27
Data services 2-4, 2-11, 7-4
Database Signature feature 11-16
DCC 2-26, 3-3, 3-17, 9-1, 9-2, 9-3, 9-6,
9-8, 11-25
DCC Cross Connections 11-25
DCC Routing Features 9-6
DCC with Dynamic OSPF 9-3
DCC with LAN Emulation and Static
Routing 9-2
DCC with PPP 9-3
DCF 1-16
DCN Network Illustration 9-4
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing,
see DWDM 1-20, 1-33
Description 4-1
control, matrix, and I/O cards 3-14,
3-16, 3-17
MSPP configuration 4-3
redundant MSPP Configuration 4-3
shelf types 4-1
XDM-100 shelf layout 4-2
XDM-1000 shelf layout 4-17
XDM-2000 shelf layout 4-21
XDM-40 shelf layout 4-11
XDM-500 shelf layout 4-15
Digital Communications Channel 9-2
DIO 5-25, 5-36, 6-37, 10-11, 11-9
DIOB 5-36
DIOM 5-25, 5-36
DIOM-04 5-36
DIOM-08 5-36
DIOM-40 5-36
for GbE over SDH 5-25, 5-36
protection 10-11
DIOB/DIOM Cards - Ethernet Layer 1
Service Cards 5-36
DSLAM 2-1, 2-3
Index XDM General Description

I-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Dual FRR Protection 10-5
Dual Route Path Protection and
Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
(UPSR) 10-23
Dual-Homed Device Protection in
H-VPLS Networks 10-9
Dual-Node Interconnection with
MS-SPRing 10-30
DWDM 1-20, 1-33, 2-4, 2-12, 6-1, 6-9,
6-38, 6-45
DWDM Trails 11-8
Dynamic Variable and Fixed-Gain
Amplifiers 6-40
E
E2E MPLS Service over IP/MPLS Core
5-29
E2E Trail Configuration 8-11
Ease of Installation and Operation 1-22
East/West configuration 1-16, 6-3, 6-11
ECB 9-11
ECU card 4-3, 9-11, 9-12
ECU900 9-12
EDFA 1-16, 1-20, 6-38, 6-40, 6-42
Education on the Global Campus 2-29
EFEC 1-20, 3-16, 6-13, 6-28, 7-5
Efficient Triple Play Service Delivery
2-21
EIS 5-27, 5-34, 6-37
EIS 5-27, 5-34
EIS2_14 5-34
EIS2_8 5-34
EIS8_8 5-34
EISMB 5-27, 5-34
EISMB_804 5-34
EISMB_840 5-34
Ethernet flows 11-24
Ethernet interfaces 5-38, 10-11,
11-9, 11-24
Ethernet traffic protection 10-11
Ethernet trails management 11-9
functionality 2-8, 5-34
EISMB Cards - Ethernet Layer 2 Service
Card 5-34
Element Management Layer 11-22
Element Management System, see EMS
11-22
Embedded Communication Channels
9-6
EML 11-22
EMS 3-3, 3-5, 3-19, 6-48, 9-1, 9-8, 9-12,
10-23, 11-16, 11-22, 11-26, 12-1, 12-2
EMS-MPT 11-22
EMS-XDM 3-3, 3-5, 10-23
alarm management 11-23
auto-discovery 11-26
configuration and inventory
management 11-24
interfaces and management
transparency 11-26
performance management 11-23
security management 11-26
Encryption 7-7
Engineering Orderwire 3-19
Enterprise Ethernet services 2-8
Environmental Standards A-2
EPL 2-8, 5-25, 5-36, 10-11
EPLAN 2-8, 5-27
Equipment Protection 10-40
Ethernet 2-8, 5-25, 5-27, 5-34, 5-36, 5-38
cards 5-34, 5-36, 6-1, 7-1
flows 11-24
interfaces 5-38
traffic protection 10-11
trails management 11-9
Ethernet Flows, VSIs, and MPLS Tunnels
11-24
Ethernet Interface and Switching Module,
see EIS 5-34, 7-1
Ethernet Overlay 5-8
Ethernet PB Features 10-11
Ethernet Protection/Rapid Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP) 5-27, 10-11
Ethernet Ring Protection 10-13
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-5

Ethernet Services 11-9
Ethernet-based MP2MP 5-27
Ethernet-based P2P EPL 5-25
ETSI
European Telecommunications
Standards Institute A-2
EVPL 2-8, 5-34, 11-24
EVPLAN 2-8, 11-24
Expansion Shelves for the XDM-100
Product Line 4-9
External DCCs 9-8
F
Facility Backup FRR 10-2
Fast IOP
Card Protection 10-41
Fault management 11-13
Fault Management 11-13
FC 3-11, 6-28
FCU 4-3, 4-11, 4-15, 4-17, 10-40
FE 2-19, 3-11, 4-17, 5-27, 5-34, 5-36,
6-13, 6-37, 11-9
FEC 1-20, 1-21, 2-32, 3-16, 6-13, 6-28,
7-5
FICON 3-11, 6-28
Flying High at the Airport 2-24
FRR for P2MP Tunnels 10-3
FRR for P2P Tunnels 10-3
FTM 6-49
FuN functional node view 6-48
G
GbE 2-19, 3-11, 4-15, 4-17, 5-34, 5-36,
5-38, 6-13, 6-28, 6-37, 10-31, 11-9
traffic protection 10-11
trails management 11-9
GCC 1-21
GCT to EMS 11-4
General Communications Channel 9-10
Geographic Redundancy for Disaster
Recovery Plans 11-16
Glossary B-1
Government and Defense Solutions 2-26
Graphic User Interface 11-4
H
Hierarchical VPLS for Scalability 5-20
High Availability Clustering Solution
11-20
HLXC 3-14, 4-15, 4-17
HLXC192 3-14
HLXC384 3-14
HLXC768 3-14
HLXC Cards 3-14
I
I/O modules 3-11, 5-36, 7-4, 7-5, 7-9
I/O Protection Modules 7-9
I/O Traffic Interface Configuration
Options 3-11
I/O traffic subsystem 3-11
data cards 5-34, 5-36, 7-4, 7-5, 7-9
DIO (Data Input/Output) modules
5-25, 5-36
EIS (Ethernet Interface and
Switching) modules 5-27, 5-34
optical cards and modules 6-1
PIM (PDH Input/Output) modules
7-4
PIO cards 7-4
SAM (SDH Aggregate) modules 7-5
SFPs/XFPs 6-37
SIM (SDH Input/Output) modules
7-5
SIO cards 7-5
IEC
International Electrotechnical
Commission A-3
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers A-4
IEEE 1588v2 PTP 5-15
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force A-5
ILEC 2-3
Index XDM General Description

I-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

ILECs 2-3
Increased Capacity 5-7
INFOSEC 2-26
Input Filter Unit (xINF) 3-17, 3-18, 4-3,
4-11, 4-15, 4-17
Integrated Protection for I/O Cards with
Electrical Interfaces 10-43
Integrated services 1-23, 1-30, 1-34,
1-35, 5-25
Integration of LO SNCP and MS-SPRing
10-31
Integration with Other Products 11-21
Intelligent Networking Solutions for the
Smart Grid 2-15
Interface Specifications 5-38
Interfaces and management transparency
1-20, 2-8, 2-12, 5-36, 6-28, 6-50, 9-6,
9-7, 9-8, 10-31, 11-25, 11-26
Interfaces and Management Transparency
11-26
Internal control and processing 3-3
Introducing ASON in the XDM 8-1
Introducing ECI's Hybrid+ Architecture
5-3
Introduction 1-1
Inventory and Accounting 11-14
IP VPN Services 2-11
ISO
International Organization for
Standardization A-7
ISPs 2-19, 5-27, 5-34
ISP connectivity 5-27
ITU-T
International Telecommunication
Union A-8
ITU-T standards 1-21, 3-3, 3-5, 3-11,
3-17, 5-25, 6-13, 6-42, 9-3, 11-23
K
Keeping the Trains on Track 2-23
Key Packet-Optical Convergence Benefits
1-26
L
Layered architecture 1-20, 1-23, 1-34
Layered Architecture for Multiple
Technologies 11-3
LCAS 2-8, 5-25, 5-36, 10-11
Leased-Line services 2-12
Leased-Line Services 2-12
LightSoft
autodiscovery 11-26
client/server architecture 11-21
fault management 11-13
GbE trails management 11-9
management interfaces 11-21
redundancy 11-15, 11-16
security 11-15, 11-18
topology management 11-5
trail configuration 11-6
user interface 11-4
LightSoft NMS Management 11-2
Linear Multiplex Section Protection
(MSP-L) and Automatic Protection
Switch (APS) 10-27
Link Aggregation 10-14
LLCF 10-15
Local Craft Terminals 11-27
Loss of Signal (LOS) 6-13, 10-31
M
Maintenance 12-1
alarm systems 12-3
BIT 12-2
short MTTR 12-2
troubleshooting 12-4
Managed elements 11-5
Management 11-1
alarms 11-23
auto-discovery 11-26
client/server architecture 11-21
configuration 11-6, 11-24
DCC cross connections 11-25
DWDM trails 11-8
EML 11-22
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-7

EMS-MPT 11-22
Ethernet flows 11-24
Ethernet trails 11-9
fault 11-13
FuN 6-48
interfaces 11-4, 11-26
LCT-XDM 11-27
PELES 6-48
performance 11-23
power control, automatic 6-48
redundancy 11-15
security 11-26
topology 11-5
transparency 11-26
Management and Operation 8-13
Management Interfaces 11-21
Management Plane 8-9
Maximized Capacity and Range 1-20
MC-LAG and PW Redundancy 10-7
MCS card 5-27, 5-34, 5-38, 6-37, 10-11,
11-9, 11-24
MCS Cards - MPLS/Ethernet Carrier
Class Service Cards 5-31
ME 11-5
MECP 3-19, 4-11, 4-17, 9-9, 9-11
MEF
Metro Ethernet Forum A-12
Mesh Networking Protection and
Restoration 8-11
Metro Access applications 1-28, 1-30,
4-11
multi-rings 2-4, 3-14, 5-27, 5-34
point-to-point topologies 2-8, 3-19,
5-25, 5-36, 9-3, 11-9, 11-24
STM aggregation 2-4, 2-30, 7-4, 7-5
Metro WDM/ROADM Networks 2-30
Modular architecture 1-30, 1-33, 3-1
Modules
aggregate 7-4, 7-5
data 5-34, 5-36, 7-4, 7-5
I/O 3-11
matrix cores 3-14, 3-16, 3-17
mux/demux 4-10, 6-9
OADM/ROADM 4-10, 6-3, 6-11
OCU 4-10
optical 4-10, 6-1, 10-31, 10-40
splitter/coupler 4-10, 10-11
Moving into the Fast Lane of Highway
Transportation 2-25
MPLS 2-4, 5-34
MPLS Protection Schemes 10-2
MPLS Tunnels over MoT or MoE 11-11
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary 5-30
MPLS/Ethernet Data Card Specifications
5-39
MPLS/Ethernet Data Solution 5-1
MPLS-based P2MP Multicast Tunnels for
Triple Play IPTV/BTV and
E-Learning Services 5-22
MPLS-based VPWS for Ethernet P2P
EPL/EVPL 5-18
MSOs 2-17
MSP 10-27
MSPP 1-33, 2-1, 4-3, 7-1, 10-28
MS-SPRing 5-27, 10-28
dual-node interconnection 10-30
low-order SNCP integration 10-31
MTNM 11-26
MTTR 12-2
Multi-ADM 4-15, 10-23
Multidegree 40/80-Channel ROADM
Flexibility 1-16
Multidegree ROADM 6-3
Multiple Configuration Options 4-3
Multiple Protection Schemes 10-19
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) and
Line Protection 10-27
MultiService Operators 2-17
Municipalities 2-28
Mux/DeMux Cards 6-9
Mux/DeMux Cards in the XDM-100
Family 6-54
Mux/demux modules 4-10, 6-9
MXC card 3-17, 7-9, 9-12
MXC Cards 3-17
Index XDM General Description

I-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

N
NE 6-50, 11-5, 11-9, 11-13, 11-22
NE software and configuration backup
3-3
Network Communications Control 9-1
Network Connectivity Fault Management
10-42
Next Generation Optics Today 1-13
NIST
National Institute of Standards and
Technology A-12
NMS 11-26
North American Standards A-13
O
OADM 4-10, 4-15, 4-17, 6-9, 6-11, 6-40,
6-45, 6-50
OADMs 6-11
OADMs in the XDM-100 Family 6-54
OAM 5-13
OCH protection 6-17, 10-31
OCH Protection 10-31
OCU Expansion Shelf 4-10
OEO switching fabric 6-38, 6-40
OFA 6-38
OFA_M 6-40
OFA_R 6-42
OFA2 6-40
OFA2 6-40
OHA 4-11, 4-15, 9-11
OMCM25_4 6-32
OMG
Object Management Group A-14
OMSP card 6-47, 10-31, 10-40
OMSP Card 6-47
OMTR27_2 6-18
OPEX 1-1, 1-16, 1-20, 1-32, 2-12, 6-3
OPM 6-1, 6-45
OPM Card 6-45
Optical Amplifiers 6-38
Optical cards and modules 4-10, 6-1
combiners 6-28, 10-31
CWDM unit 4-10
mux/demux 4-10, 6-9
network power control plane 6-50
OADM 4-10, 6-11
OFA 6-38
OMSP 6-47, 10-40
OMTX 6-37
OPM 6-45
OSC 3-5, 4-10, 6-11, 9-1, 9-9, 11-26
ROADM 6-3
SFP 6-37
transponders 6-13, 10-11, 10-31
TRP25_2C 6-17
Optical layer protection 10-31
OCH 10-31
OMSP 10-40
Optical Layer Protection 10-31
Optical Line Protection 10-40
Optical Modules Designed for the
XDM-100 Family 6-54
Optical Supervisory Channel 9-9
Optical Topology Management 6-48,
11-25
Optimal Financial Choice 1-32
OrderWire (OW) 3-19, 9-11
OSC 3-5, 4-10, 6-9, 6-11, 6-42, 9-1, 9-9,
11-26
filter functionality 6-9, 6-11
OSPF 3-3, 3-5, 9-1, 9-3, 11-25
OTN 1-20, 1-21, 6-28
Overview 3-1, 4-1, 5-1, 6-1, 7-1, 10-1,
11-1, 12-1, A-1
P
P2P MPLS Tunnel Example 5-19
Packet-OTS
For Today's Challenges and
Tomorrow's Goals 1-23
Native to the XDM 1-24
Path Computation 10-22
PDH 2-19, 3-1, 6-13, 7-4, 10-40
PDH Service Cards 7-4
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-9

PE to H-VPLS Dual-Homing Topology
10-9
PELES 6-50
PELES automatic power control 6-48
Performance Management (PM) 11-23
combiner feature 6-28
end-to-end 1-20
GbE 6-13
MTTR minimizer 12-2
OCHP operation basis 6-17, 10-31
RMON-based 5-27
SDH 6-13, 7-4, 11-23
Performance Monitoring 11-23
Physical description 4-1
card layouts 4-1
control, matrix, and I/O cards 3-1
expanded MSPP configuration (with
I/O protection) 4-2, 4-9
external connection unit (ECU) card
9-12
I/O and aggregate modules 7-1
main cross-connect and control
(MXC) card 3-1, 3-17
nonredundant MSPP configuration
4-3
optical modules 6-1
pure MSPP configuration 4-3
racks 4-1
redundant MSPP configuration 4-3
shelf configuration 4-1, 4-3
shelf types 1-28, 4-1
TC/TCF 4-9
TPM 7-9
TPU/OCU 4-9, 4-10
PIM (PDH Input/Output modules) 7-4
PIM2_21 7-4
PIM2_63 7-4
PIM345_3 7-4
PIO 7-4
Pluggable Transceiver Modules 6-36
POP 2-19, 4-17
Power feed 3-18
Power Feed Subsystem 3-18
Protection and redundancy 10-1
APS 3-14, 10-27
bandwidth scaling 10-11
DIO 5-36, 10-11
EIS 10-11
equipment 10-40
Ethernet traffic 10-11
LCAS 5-36, 10-11
line 10-27
MS-SPRing 10-28
OMSP 6-47, 10-31, 10-40
optical channel (OCH) 10-31
optical layer 10-31
Path 10-23
PIO cards 7-4
power feed 3-18
SDH line 10-27
SDH path/circuit protection schemes
10-23
SNCP 10-23, 10-30
transponders 6-13, 6-17
Protection Enhancements 5-9
PW Redundancy Highlights 10-8
Q
QoS 1-33, 2-8, 5-27, 5-34, 11-9, 11-23
Quality of Service 5-10
R
Rack-Mounted Amplifiers 6-44
Racks 4-1
Raman 1-20, 6-38, 6-42
Raman Amplifiers 6-42
redundancy 1-16, 3-3, 3-14, 3-18, 4-3,
4-11, 7-9, 10-1, 10-23, 10-40, 11-15,
11-16, 12-1, 12-2
Regional/Long Haul DWDM/ROADM
2-31
Remote Database Replication (RDR)
11-16
Repeaterless Undersea DWDM
Connectivity 2-32
Index XDM General Description

I-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

Revertive SNCP 10-25
RMON 5-27
ROADM 1-16, 6-3, 6-9, 6-40, 6-50
ROADM Card Summary 6-9
Routing 8-12
Routing and Forwarding Functionality
9-1
RSTP 5-27, 10-11
RSTP Protection 10-12
S
SAM (SDH aggregate modules) 7-5
SAM1_4/eo 7-5
SAM16_1o 7-5
SAM4_2o 7-5
SAN 1-30, 2-1, 6-13, 6-28
Scalability 1-30, 3-8, 3-14, 5-27, 6-50
SDH 3-14, 3-16, 4-3, 7-5
converged technologies 5-34, 5-36,
6-13, 6-28, 6-38
integration with other vendors 11-21
migration paths 1-30, 1-33, 2-4, 2-13
network integration 2-26, 3-11,
10-31, 11-21
SDH Line Protection 10-27
SDH Protection Schemes 10-23
SDH Service Cards 7-5
SDH Trails Management 11-6
Seamless Layered Management 1-34
Security 5-16
Security Functions 11-18
Security management 11-26
Security Management 11-26
Service Level Agreement (SLA) 2-8,
5-27, 10-23
Service providers, see customer types
2-1
SFF 6-37
SFP 3-11, 3-16, 5-27, 5-34, 5-36, 6-1,
6-28, 6-37, 7-5
Shelf configuration 4-1
OCU 4-10
shelf types 1-28, 4-1
TPU expansion shelf 4-9
XDM-100
basic MSPP shelf 4-3
XDM-1000 shelf 4-17
XDM-2000 shelf 4-21
XDM-40 shelf 4-11
XDM-500 shelf 4-15
Short MTTR 12-2
Signaling 8-12
Signaling Communication between Nodes
8-13
SIM (SDH Input/Output modules) 7-5
SIM1_4/eo 7-5
SIM4_2o 7-5
Simplified SDH Trail Movement 7-11
SIO 6-37, 7-5, 7-9, 11-25, 11-26
colored cards 7-5
SIO1&4 3-16, 7-5
SIO16 3-16, 7-5
SIO164 3-16, 7-5
SIO64 7-5
Smooth Integration with Third-Party
Elements 5-29
Smooth Risk-Free Transition to the Future
1-33
SNCP 10-23, 10-31
Solutions and Applications 2-1
Standardizing the Control Plane
ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and
UNI/E-NNI Standards 8-5
Standards and References A-1
SubNetwork Connection Protection
(SNCP) 10-23
Synchronization 5-14
Synchronous Ethernet 5-15
System Architecture 3-1
System characteristics 3-1
data services 5-38
MXC functionality 3-1, 3-3, 3-8,
3-17
TDM configuration options 4-3
traffic I/O interface modules 3-11
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-11

System design 1-34, 3-1
control and communication 3-3
data layer 7-1
I/O and data traffic functions 3-11
optical layer 6-1
TDM layer 7-1
traffic/cross-connectivity 3-8
tributary protection unit 4-9
T
TDM Service Cards 7-1
TDM services 2-4, 7-1
The Future's Bright for Transport
Networks 1-1
The Promise of OTN 1-21
Timing and synchronization
alarms 12-3, 12-4
retiming functionality 7-4
transparency 6-28
Timing and Synchronization 3-6
TMF
TeleManagement Forum A-14
TMU 3-3, 3-16, 3-17
Today's Market Opportunities 2-1
Topology Auto-discovery 8-10
Topology management 11-5
Topology Management 11-5
TPU Expansion Shelf 4-9
TPU I/O protection unit 4-9, 7-9
Traffic 3-8
aggregation 2-4, 2-19, 3-11, 4-3, 7-4,
7-5, 11-9
cellular 2-4
cross-connect functions 3-8
I/O subsystem 3-8, 3-11
MXC matrix functions 3-8, 3-17
scalability 1-30, 1-33, 3-8, 5-25, 5-27
topologies 1-23, 5-27, 11-26
transparency 1-20, 2-8, 5-25, 5-36,
9-1, 10-31, 11-25, 11-26
Traffic and Cross-Connect Functionality
3-8
Traffic Management and Performance
5-11
Traffic Unit (I/O Card) Hardware
Protection 10-40
Trail Configuration 11-6, 11-8, 11-9
DWDM trail management 11-8
Ethernet trail management 11-9
Trail, Tunnel, and Service Configuration
11-6
Trails 11-6
DWDM trails 11-8
Ethernet 5-36, 11-9
management and configuration 11-4,
11-5, 11-6, 11-8, 11-9, 11-23
optical 1-16
protection 10-1, 10-23
SDH 5-36
Transparency 1-20, 2-8, 2-12, 5-25, 5-36,
6-28, 6-50, 9-6, 9-7, 9-8, 10-31, 11-9,
11-25, 11-26
Transponders 6-13, 10-11, 10-31
TRP25_2C 6-17
Transport Plane 8-8
Transportation Communications
Networks 2-23
Tributary Control and Fans Module 4-9
Tributary Protection Modules 7-9
Tributary Protection Unit 4-9, 7-9
Troubleshooting 12-4
TRP10_4M/R Cards 6-15
TRP25_2C 6-17
TRP40_2B 6-14
U
Understanding the Interfaces 8-6
Understanding the Standards 8-5
User interface 11-4
User Management and System Security
11-15
Utility Telecom 2-13
V
VCG with LCAS Protection 10-26
Index XDM General Description

I-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06

VMUX 6-9
VPLS/VPWS 2-8, 5-27
VPN 1-1, 1-32, 2-4, 2-8, 2-11, 2-19,
11-18
security 11-18
W
Wavelength services 1-16, 1-21, 1-30,
4-10, 4-21, 6-1
WDM Optical Components and Service
Cards 6-1
Web Protocol Standards A-14
What is MPLS-TP? 1-6
WSS ROADM on Add Side 6-7
WSS ROADM on Drop Side 6-6
WSS ROADM Restoration 10-36
X
XDM
ADM/TM mode 4-15
advantages 1-28, 1-30, 1-32, 1-33,
1-34, 5-27
alarms 11-23
applications 2-1
architecture 3-1, 3-14, 10-40, 11-21
ATM support 6-13, 7-8
build-as-you-grow 1-28, 1-32, 1-33,
3-8
capabilities 2-1, 2-4, 10-23, 11-8
capacities 2-4, 3-11, 4-1, 5-25, 5-27
cellular applications 2-4
communication subsystem 3-3, 3-5,
9-1
connectivity 1-34, 2-4
control subsystem 3-3
convergence 1-34
cross connect 2-4, 3-8, 3-11, 3-14,
3-16, 3-17, 10-11, 11-6, 11-21,
11-23, 11-25, 11-26, 11-27
customer types 2-1
equipment protection 7-9, 10-40
Ethernet services 5-25, 5-27, 5-38,
11-9, 11-24
full interoperability 2-8, 5-25, 5-27,
5-34, 5-36, 9-3, 9-7, 9-8
grooming 4-17, 11-8
I/O traffic subsystem 3-8
integration 2-4, 10-23, 10-31, 11-13,
11-21, 11-22
maintenance 11-4, 11-24, 11-27,
12-1
management 2-4, 6-48, 11-1, 11-4,
11-5, 11-6, 11-13, 11-21, 11-22,
11-23, 11-24, 11-26
matrix cores 3-14, 3-16, 3-17
matrix protection and upgrade 3-14
metro access applications 1-28, 1-30,
4-11
migration path 1-1, 1-30, 1-33, 2-4,
5-25
optical layer 6-1
optical layer protection 10-31
platforms 1-28
power feed subsystem 3-18
power functionality 1-16, 1-22, 3-18,
4-3, 6-45, 6-48, 6-50, 10-40
protection, redundancy, and security
4-3, 10-1, 10-11, 10-23, 10-27,
10-31, 10-40, 11-15, 11-16
ROADM 6-3
savings 1-30, 1-32
scalability 1-28, 1-33
shelf capacities 3-11
system design 3-1
traffic protection and restoration
10-1, 10-11, 10-31, 10-40
XDM Data Services 5-18
XDM Platform Layout 4-1
XDM platforms 1-28, 4-1
basic MSPP configuration 4-3
cards and modules 3-1, 3-17, 4-10,
5-34, 5-36, 6-1, 6-37, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5,
7-8, 7-9, 9-11, 9-12
client/server architecture 11-21
combiners 6-28, 10-31
common components 9-11
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D06 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-13

data cards and modules 3-17, 4-10,
5-34, 5-36, 6-37, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5, 7-8,
7-9, 9-12
DIO 5-25, 5-36
EIS 5-27, 5-34
engineering orderwire 3-19
features and benefits 1-28, 1-30,
1-32, 1-33
HLXC 3-8, 3-14
I/O modules 3-11, 7-9
management 1-34, 11-1, 11-22,
11-27
MCS 5-27, 5-34
mux/demux modules 4-10, 6-9
MXC 3-8, 3-17
non-redundant shelf layout 4-3
OADM modules 4-10, 6-11
OFA 6-38, 6-40, 6-42
OMSP 6-47
OPM 6-45
optical cards and modules 6-1
OSC 3-5, 4-10, 6-9, 6-42, 9-1, 9-9
physical description 4-1
PIO 7-4
rack layout 4-1
SFP/XFP 6-37
shelf layout 4-1, 4-2, 4-11, 4-15,
4-17, 4-21
SIO 7-5
specifications 4-1, 6-1, 7-1
splitter/coupler modules 4-10, 10-11,
10-40
traffic I/O interface modules 3-8,
3-11
transponders 6-13, 6-17, 10-11,
10-31
XDM-100 4-2
XDM-1000 4-17
XDM-2000 4-21
XDM-40 4-11
XDM-500 4-15
XIO 3-8, 3-16
XDM Product Lines
Tailored to Your Needs 1-28
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms 10-1
XDM-100 4-2
XDM-1000 4-17
XDM-2000 4-21
XDM-300 4-5
XDM-3000 4-23
XDM-40 4-11
XDM-450 4-13
XDM-500 4-15
XDM-900 4-6
XDM's Value Proposition 1-30
XFP 6-37, 7-5
xINF 3-18, 4-17
XIO 3-14, 3-16, 4-15
XIO192 3-14, 3-16
XIO384F 3-16
XIO Cards 3-16
xMCP 3-3, 3-5, 4-11, 4-15, 4-17, 4-21,
9-11, 12-2




Index XDM General Description

I-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D06