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Air-Conditioning

By
Anshul Abbasi
Atia Khursheed
Nadia Ali
Noaina Hasan Khan
Reema Khan
Tanzeel Ahmad
Case Study : Mall Of INDIA, Noida
Details
Total built up area 2.2 million SQF
No. of AHU's for all floors 685 Nos. (89 Floor mounted + 596 Ceiling suspended)
Total Chilling requirement 5700 Tr.
No. of chiller plants with capacity - 1000 Tr. 05 Nos. + 350 Tr. 02 Nos.
Area given to chiller plant - 1024 SQM.
Area for cooling tower - 400 SQM.
Colour codes for networks - sky blue for chilled water and green for condenser
water.
Sensors, Management System - Building management system ( Johnson Control
System Make).
Different types of AHU - Floor Mounted and Ceiling suspended AHU.
Chilled Water Central Air Conditioning Plants
1. The chilled water types of central air conditioning plants are installed in the place where whole
large buildings, shopping mall, airport, hotel etc., comprising of several floors.
2. While in the direct expansion type of central air conditioning plants, refrigerant is directly used to
cool the room air; in the chilled water plants the refrigerant first chills the water, which in turn
chills the room air.
3. In chilled water plants, the ordinary water or brine solution is chilled to very low temperatures of
about 6 to 8 degree Celsius by the refrigeration plant.
4. This chilled water is pumped to various floors of the building and its different parts.
5. In each of these parts the air handling units are installed, which comprise of the cooling coil,
blower and the ducts. The chilled water flows through the cooling coil.
6. The blower absorbs return air from the air conditioned rooms that are to be cooled via the ducts.
This air passes over the cooling coil and gets cooled and is then passed to the air conditioned space.
Central Air Conditioning
Plant Room
Major Components:
1. Compressor
2. Condenser
3. Control panel
4. Pumping motors.
5. Thermostatic expansion valve
6. Evaporator or the chiller
Condenser
The compressor is of open type and can be
driven by the motor directly or by the belt via
pulley arrangement connected to the motor. It is
cooled by the water just like the automotive
engine.
Compressor
The condenser is cooled by the water, with water
flowing along the shell side and refrigerant along
the tube side. The thermostatic expansion valve
is operated automatically by the solenoid valve.
Expansion Valve
The condenser is cooled by the water, with water
flowing along the shell side and refrigerant along
the tube side. The thermostatic expansion valve
is operated automatically by the solenoid valve.
Evaporator
Fluid out
Fluid in
R in
R out
The evaporator is also called as the chiller, because it chills the water.
If the water flows along the shell side and refrigerant on the tube side, it is called as the dry expansion
type of chiller.
If the water flows along tube side and the refrigerant along the shell side, it is called as the flooded
chiller.
The water chilled in the chiller is pumped to various parts of the building that are to be air conditioned.
It enters the air handling unit, cools the air in cooling coil, absorbs the heat and returns back to the
plant room to get chilled again.
Tube
Sheet
Head
Drop
Out
area
AHU- Air Handling Unit
The air handling units are installed in the various parts of the
building that are to be air conditioned, in the place called air
handling unit rooms.
Could be either Ceiling Mounted or Floor Mounted.
The air handling units comprise of
Cooling coil
Air filter
Blower
Supply and return air ducts.
1. The chilled water flows through the cooling coil.
2. The blower absorbs the return hot air from the air
conditioned space and blows it over the cooling coil thus
cooling the air.
3. This cooled air passes over the air filter and is passed by
the supply air ducts into the space which is to be air
conditioned.
4. The air handling unit and the ducts passing through it are
insulated to reduce the loss of the cooling effect.
Cooling Tower
1. The cooling tower is used to cool the water that
absorbs heat from the compressor and the
condenser.
2. When water flows through these components some
water gets evaporated, to make up this loss some
water is also added in the cooling tower.
3. The cooling tower is of evaporative type.
4. Here the water is cooled by the atmospheric air and
is re-circulated through the compressor and the
condenser.
Materials Used
Steel with Nitrile rubber for insulation of
compressor and evaporator.
Piping- MS pipes + Primer + Thermo Cole + Paint
Coil Copper
Ducts- Aluminium
Power Supply
The plant getting direct supply from LT panel.
Pumps and motors controlled by separate
Electric panel.
Maintenance
Maintenance to be done at the site itself by the company engineer. The entire machine is replaced
only when the life of the machine is over.
Air Quality
10% fresh air mixed to maintain air quality with the help of openings.
Total Load 5700 TR
5000 for Mall
700 TR for Cineplex
Plants of 1000TR and 350 Tr
Total plants installed 5 of 1000Tr , 2 of 350 TR
Return air ducts within the false ceiling
Closed Loop Circuit followed
3 cycles
Loss
Losses in the form of leaks and vapours.
Losses completed by external supply by valves (Water balancing Valve).
Pressure
Pressure maintained by pumps at the ground level and also by reducing the diameter of the pipes.
Noise
Very less noise produced due to vibrating pad.
Remaining noise controlled by steel acoustics.
Drain
Drain provided to drain off leaked water and collected at the time of maintenance.
Choke
In case of any choke, the water balancing valve cuts off the relay and the chiller plant and the
compressor stops working.
Pipe Size
The main pipes are of 300 mm.
The pipe diameter reduces to maintain the pressure.
Ventilating Ducts
Ducts provided in the Air conditioning plant rooms to control air
quality and temperature.
Ducts Controlled with the help of exhaust fans.
Load Distribution
Chiller can work on half load and full load.
Efficiency could be controlled by controlling the plants and pumps.
Thank You