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Lesson 2

Noun

There are four properties of a

(noun). You need to know


these four properties of a

in order to use a

in a sentence.
So every

has four properties.


1.

case, the role of a noun in the sentence.


2.

gender, masculine and feminine.


3.

number, single, dual and plural.


4.

type, definite and indefinite.



Note: All the terms of grammar when pronounced there
should be a (

) Sukoon on the last letter.


Examples:

ism

fil

harf

iraab

jins (pronounced s not z)


adad

qism



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1.

the case of a noun (declension)



The change of a

(vowel) of the last letter is called


(Iraab) - declension.
All (nouns) has three grammatical cases (

).
1.

(Raf) - the nominative case (the doer or subject case)


There are many grammatical reasons why a noun will be in
case. One reason is the doer (

) of the verb is in case.


2.

(Nasb) - the objective case (the object or detail case)


There are many grammatical reasons why a noun will be in
case. One reason is the object (

) of the verb is in
case.
3.

(Jarr) - the possessive case (the after of case)


There are only two grammatical reasons why a noun will be
in case. One reason is the Mudaf Ilaihi (

after
of ) meaning the possessor (book of Zaid) Zaid is called
Mudaf Ilaihi so its in case.
(We will learn Mudaf Ilaihi in more details later on)
If a has Dammatain (

) it is in case.
If a has Fathatain (

) it is in case.
If a has Kasratain (

) it is in case.

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In other words:
If a is in case Dammatain (

) will be read on it.


If a is in case Fathatain (

) will be read on it.


If a is in case Kasratain (

) will be read on it.


Example 1:
Zaid hit Hamid =


Zaid is the (subject) doer in this sentence. He did the action of
hitting, so in this sentence Zaid is in case. Dammatain (

) will
be read on it.


And Hamid is object in this sentence, so Hamid is in case.
Fathatain (

) will be read on it.


Example 2:
Book of Zaid (Zaids book) =


Here Zaid is after of so Zaid is in case. Kasratain (

) will be
read on it.



Note: The meaning of in all three cases is the same.

Note: The in its default form is case the Dammatain (

)
will be read.



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The Signs of

(Declension of Different Nouns)


About 98% (nouns) are called

(Murab) meaning its

(vowel) of the last letter changes.


Out of 98% , about 85% changes in all three cases. They
are called

(Munsarif)
About 85% nouns () will be in one of the three cases and
they will end in (Tanween).
Examples:
Possessive
Case
Objective
Case
Nominative
Case
Meaning Noun

man

king

Zaid

Muhammad

mosque

house

house

book

pen

brother

sister