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Mathematical Modeling

A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to


describe the behaviour of a system.
Mathematical models are used particularly in the natural sciences and engineering
disciplines (such as physics, biology, and electrical engineering) but also in the
social sciences (such as economics, sociology and political science); physicists,
engineers, computer scientists, and economists use mathematical models most
extensively.
Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as 'a representation of the essential
aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) which presents
knowledge of that system in usable form'.
Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical
systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.
These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a
variety of abstract structures.
There are six basic groups of variables: decision variables, input variables, state
variables, exogenous variables, random variables, and output variables.
Since there can be many variables of each type, the variables are generally
represented by vectors.
Mathematical modelling problems are often classified into black box or white box
models, according to how much a priori information is available of the system.
A black-box model is a system of which there is no a priori information available.
A white-box model (also called glass box or clear box) is a system where all
necessary information is available.
Practically all systems are somewhere between the black-box and white-box
models, so this concept only works as an intuitive guide for approach.
Usually it is preferable to use as much a priori information as possible to make the
model more accurate.











Sequences & Series


A sequence is a special kind of function whose domain is the positive integers. The
range of a sequence is the collection of terms that make up the sequence. Just as
the word sequence implies, the order of the terms in a sequence is important. The
first term of a sequence, for example, is found by taking the value of the function
at 1 ; the second term is the value of the function at 2 , and so on. Consider the
sequence f (x) = x . The terms of the sequence, denoted a
1
, a
2
, a
3
,,a
n
are 1, 2,
3,, n . When working with sequences, instead of using function notation to
express the formula of the function, a formula is the following form is
used: a
n
= n . This is the same sequence as above, but the conventional n is used to
denote an integer, since only integers are in the domain of sequences. Two
important categories of sequences are arithmetic sequences, and geometric
sequences. Both are examples of a recursive sequence--a sequence in which each
term (besides the first) depends on the previous term. Both of these types of
sequences will be discussed.
When the terms of a sequence are summed, the result is called a series. Some series
increase without bound as n increases, but others approach a limit. Both types of
series will be studied in the following sections. There are also certain formulas for
calculating the limits of series that we'll learn. The study of series is an important
part of calculus, and it all starts with sequences.














Summary

Quinine was the first effective Western treatment for malaria caused
by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th
century. It is pre-dated as a malarial treatment by the Chinese herbalist's
use of Artemisia Annua, described in a 4th-century text, a plant from
which the antimalarial drug Artemisinin was derived. It remained the
antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s. When a person is given a
dosage of quinine, the body metabolizes most of the quinine. With the
application of mathematics or to put it more precisely the methods of
sequences and series, it is possible to calculate the amount of quinine in
the body right after every dosage is given to a malaria patient. The
concentration of quinine plays a crucial part contributing to the
effectiveness of the treatment. Not only that when the concentration of a
dosage quinine is too high, it is claimed hazardous to the patient. Thus,
with the help of mathematics, all these problems above can be solved by
applying the right methods and formula.