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Describe the sentence structure by considering the following:

1. Examine the sentence length. Are the sentences telegraphic (shorter than 5 words in length), short
(approximately 5 words in length), medium (approximately 1 words in length), or long and involved (!" words
or more in length)# Does the sentence length fit the s$b%ect matter# &hat 'ariety of lengths is present# &hy is
the sentence length effecti'e#
(. Examine sentence beginnings. )s there a good 'ariety or does a pattern emerge#
!. Examine the arrangement of ideas in a sentence. Are they set o$t in a special way for a p$rpose#
*. Examine the arrangement of ideas in a paragraph. )s there e'idence of any pattern or str$ct$re#
5. Examine sentence patterns. +ome elements to consider are listed below:
A declarative (assertive) sentence ma,es a statement: e.g.. -he ,ing is sic,.
An imperative sentence gi'es a command: e.g.. +tand $p.
An interrogative sentence as,s a .$estion: e.g., )s the ,ing sic,#
An exclamatory sentence ma,es an exclamation: e.g.. -he ,ing is dead/
A simple sentence contains one s$b%ect and one 'erb: e.g., -he singer bowed to her adoring a$dience.
A compound sentence contains two independent cla$ses %oined by a coordinate con%$nction (and, b$t, or) or by
a semicolon: e.g., -he singer bowed to the a$dience, b$t she sang no encores.
A complex sentence contains an independent cla$se and one or more s$bordinate cla$ses: e.g.. 0o$ said that yo$
wo$ld tell the tr$th.
A compound-complex sentence contains two or more principal cla$ses and one or more s$bordinate cla$ses:
e.g.. -he singer bowed while the a$dience appla$ded, b$t she sang no encores.
A loose sentence ma,es complete sense if bro$ght to a close before the act$al ending: e.g.. &e reached
Edmonton1that morning1after a t$rb$lent flight1and some exciting experiences,
A periodic sentence ma,es sense only when the end of the sentence is reached: e.g.. -hat morning, after a
t$rb$lent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.
)n a balanced sentence, the phrases or cla$ses balance each other by 'irt$e of their li,eness of str$ct$re,
meaning, or length: e.g.. 2e ma,eth me to lie down in green past$res3 he leadeth me beside the still waters.
Natural order of a sentence in'ol'es constr$cting a sentence so the s$b%ect comes before the predicate: e.g.,
4ranges grow in 5alifornia.
Inverted order of a sentence (sentence inversion) in'ol'es constr$cting a sentence so the predicate comes before
the s$b%ect: e.g.. )n 5alifornia grow oranges. -his is a de'ice in which normal sentence patterns are re'ersed to
create an emphatic or rhythmic effect.
Split order of a sentence di'ides the predicate into two parts with the s$b%ect coming in the middle: e.g., )n
5alifornia oranges grow.
Juxtaposition is a poetic and rhetorical de'ice in which normally $nassociated ideas, words, or phrases are
placed next to one another, creating an effect of s$rprise and wit: e.g.,
6-he apparition of these faces in the crowd317etals on a wet, blac, bo$gh6
(6)n a +tation of the 8etro6 by E9ra 7o$nd)
Parallel structure (parallelism) refers to a grammatical or str$ct$ral similarity between sentences or parts of a
sentence. )t in'ol'es an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of e.$al
importance are e.$ally de'eloped and similarly phrased: e.g.. 2e was wal,ing, r$nning, and %$mping for %oy.
epetition is a de'ice in which words, so$nds, and ideas are $sed more than once to enhance rhythm and create
emphasis: e.g., 6...go'ernment of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth6
(6Address at :ettysb$rg6 by Abraham ;incoln)
A rhetorical !uestion is a .$estion that expects no answer. )t is $sed to draw attention to a point and is generally
stronger than a direct statement: e.g.. )f 8r. <erchoff is always fair, as yo$ ha'e said, why did he ref$se to listen
to 8rs. =aldwin>s arg$ments#