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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS

TOPIC 1 NATURE AND FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE


1.0 SYNOPSIS
Topic 1 highlights the nature and function of language. It seeks to develop your
knowledge in English language, by defining the meaning of a language, the
purpose and properties of language. It also aims to help you understand the
difference between human language and animal communication, verbal and non-
verbal communication, speech and writing and the notion of correctness.
1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this Topic, you will be able to
identify the purpose and use of a language
list the properties of language
compare and contrast human language and animal communication
give e!amples of non-verbal communication
differentiate between speech and writing
identify grammatically and non-grammatically correct sentences
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
CONTENT
SESSION ONE (3 Hours)
1.1.1 Definition of ln!"!e
There are various definitions of language.
"anguage is-
a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of
conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood
meanings
#$ebster%s Third &ew International 'ictionary of the English "anguage 1()1*
2
Nt"#e n$
F"n%tion of
Ln!"!e
Nt"#e n$
F"n%tion of
Ln!"!e
Definition of
ln!"!e
Definition of
ln!"!e
P"#&o'e n$ "'e
of ln!"!e
P"#&o'e n$ "'e
of ln!"!e
P#o&e#tie' of
ln!"!e
P#o&e#tie' of
ln!"!e
(")n ln!"!e
*' ni)l
%o))"ni%tion
%o))on
%o))"ni
%tion
(")n ln!"!e
*' ni)l
%o))"ni%tion
%o))on
%o))"ni
%tion
S&ee%+ n$
,#itin!
S&ee%+ n$
,#itin!
Notion' of
%o##e%tne''
Notion' of
%o##e%tne''
Fo#)' of
%o))"ni%tion
-.C / Non .C0
Fo#)' of
%o))"ni%tion
-.C / Non .C0
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a given
culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture, to
communicate or to interact
#+inocchiaro 1(),*
any set or system of linguistic symbols as used in a more or less uniform
fashion by a number of people who are thus enabled to communicate
intelligibly with one another
#-andom .ouse 'ictionary of the English "anguage 1())*
a system of communication by sound, operating through the organs of
speech and hearing, among members of a given community, and using
vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanings
#/ei 1(()*
In composite, language
is systematic and generative.
is a set of arbitrary symbols.
those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual.
the symbols have conventionali0ed meanings to which they refer.
is used for communication.
operates in a speech community or culture
is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans.
is ac1uired by all people in much the same way.
1.1.2 P"#&o'e n$ "'e of ln!"!e
There are two main functions of a language Interactional functions and
Transactional functions
Interactional Functions
.umans use language to interact with each other, socially and emotionally2 how
they indicate friendliness, co-operation or hostility, or annoyance, pain or
pleasure. E!amples of interactional functions are given below
Emotional expression
Emotive or e!pressive function of language can be used whether or not
we are alone.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
E!pressive - insult, compliment, e!pressing anger, happiness, sadness,
disappointment.
- angry or frustrated state2 swear words and obscenities
E!pressing appreciation to poetry, literature, paintings e.g. involuntary
verbal reaction to a breathtaking scenery, and the emotional outpourings
of certain kinds of poetry.
Social interaction
"anguage is used to maintain a comfortable relationship between people.
Its function is to provide a means of avoiding situation which both parties
might otherwise find embarrassing.
34ood morning2 and 3/leased to meet you%
3"ovely day2 .ow are you5
&o factual content is involved maintain rapport between people
The anthropologist Bronislow 6alinoswki refers to it as 3phatic communion% - the
basic need to signal friendship -social function.
Directive - language of social control - persuasion - advertising,
sermons, preaching, order.
E!amples2
a* 7it up straight b* /ass the milk please
c* 8ren%t you feeling hot5 9meaning take off the coat.
d* :ou make a good door 9 meaning get out of the way
Informative ; most people think this is language primary function
E.g. It is si! o%clock.
7he%s almost five years old
6y favourite colour is red.
Transactional unctions
.umans use their language to communicate knowledge, skills and information.
It must have developed for the transfer of knowledge from one generation to
another. The transfer remains fairly restricted in time and space as long as it can
only be realised in speech.
8ll forms of supernatural belief involve the use of language as a means of
controlling the forces which the believers feel affect their lives. +or e!ample, the
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
various prayers and formulae which are directed at 4od, gods, devils, spirits,
ob<ects and other physical forces, are always in highly distinctive forms of
language.
Recording the facts

$hen language is used for the purpose of recording facts, it displays a much
greater degree of organisation, impersonality, and e!plicitness. This function of
language is represented by all kinds of record keeping such as historical records,
geographical surveys, business accounts, scientific reports, parliamentary acts
and public data bank.
he instrument of thought
/eople often feel the need to speak their thoughts aloud. It helps their
concentration. The common use of language as an instrument of thought is found
when people perform mathematical calculations in their head. 7ometimes
people move their lips but no sound comes out of them ; sub-vocal form.
he expression of identity
6any social situations display language which unites rather than informs. =ur
use of language can tell our listener or reader a great deal about ourselves. 8
ma<or function of language is the e!pression of personal identity.
6ultifunctional utterances are normal and fre1uent
E.g. :our son is a bully #informative, e!pressive, directive*
I%ll see you at ten in my office #informative, directive*
1.1.1 P#o&e#tie' of ln!"!e
In any communication system, a code is used to transmit messages. 8 code is a
comple! pattern of association of the units of a communication system. .umans
have a highly elaborated code called ln!"!e, made up of words and the rules
that combine them. #In language those units could be sound units2 meaningful
units, such as words, or meaningful units that are larger than words, such as
phrases, clauses and sentences*.
The study of language has identified several features of properties of language
that differentiate human and animal codes.
1. 8rbitrariness means that human languages use neutral symbols. There is no
connection between the linguistic form and its corresponding linguistic meaning>
the thing being referred to > concept.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Fo# e2)&le 7omething as large as a 3whale% can be referred to by a very short
word. 7imilarly, there is no natural connection between the word 3dog% and the
four-legged animal it symbolises. It can be called by other names in other
languages.
=nomatopoeic words such as ?meow? or ?bark@, @cuckooA, @popA, @bangA, @slurpA,
and @s1uishAare often cited as counter-e!amples, based on the argument that
they are pronounced like the sound they refer. .owever, the similarity is very
loose. 4ive one e!ample.
B. Cultural transmission and tradition indicates that human beings hand their
languages down from one generation to another. .uman language is not
something inborn. .owever, the potential to ac1uire a language is innate.
.umans have the genetic potential to learn to encode their messages by
ac1uiring the rules or grammar of their language
D. 'iscreteness. It means that the basic units of speech sound can be
categori0ed as belonging to distinct categories or treated as discrete. The sounds
used in language are meaningfully distinct. > >, >>. There is no gradual,
continuous shading from one sound to another in the linguistics system, although
there may be a continuum in the real physical world.
,. 'uality of patterning >#double articulation*. "anguage is organised in B
layers, the basic sound units of speech or discrete sounds e.g. >p>,> e >,>n>, - only
meaningful when combined. The discrete parts of a language can be recombined
in a systematic way to create new forms. 'uality of patterning refers to the ability
to recombine small units in different orders.
E. 'isplacement the ability to refer to things far removed in time and place.
The speaker can talk about things which are not present, either spatially or
temporally. +or e!ample, human language allows speakers to talk about the
present, the past and the future.
They can also talk about things that are physically distant #such as other
countries, the moon, etc.*. They can even refer to things and events that do not
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actually e!ist #not present in reality* like 7anta Claus or the destruction of Tara in
!one with the "ind.
8nimal communication is almost e!clusively designed for this moment, here and
now
). 7tructure dependence. .umans recognise the patterned nature of language
and manipulate 3structured chunks% e.g. they understand that a group of words
can sometimes be the structural e1uivalent of one. #productivity*
Fo# e2)&le3
- The old lady > who was wearing a white bonnet > gave the donkey a carrot.
- 8 carrot > was given to the donkey > by the old lady who was wearing a white
bonnet.
F. /roductivity is the ability to produce and understand virtually unlimited
number of utterances #novel sentences* from a limited number of words. 8
person can talk about anything he likes because of the ability to generate novel
meanings
G. =penness is the ability to add new words, phrases or other meaningful units
to a language. .umans can coin new words at will, hence adding new le!ical
items.
Both properties are part of the creativity aspect of human language.
P#e*#i%tion refers to the ability to communicate about things that are not
verifiable, things for which there is no empirical proof ; saying about false or
fictional things.
4enerally absent in other animal communication system e!cept perhaps some
animals may fake conditions like death to confuse a predator, some animals
mimic the sounds of other species. This playing dead and mimicking other
species is similar to lying ; but genetically pre-programmed whereas humans
learn to lie.
(. 7emanticity - the use of symbols to 3mean or refer to ob<ects and actions e.g.
chair means a ,-legged contraption one sits on2 <ump means the act of leaping in
the air. #specific signals matched with specific meanings*. 7ome writers claimed
that semanticity is e!clusively human. 8nimals produce signal codes to denote a
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
condition rather than referring to a specific ob<ect and action- threat, fear, danger,
hunger, anger.
1H. Iocal auditory channel - 7ounds are made with the vocal organs and a
hearing mechanism receives them
11.-eciprocity> Interchangeability - 8ny speaker or sender of a linguistic signal
can also be a listener or receiver. The speaker can both receive and broadcast
the same signal.
Tutorial Task
1. The following are additional properties of human language. Elaborate each
property.
#i* Broadcast transmission and directional reception.
#ii* Total feedback
B. 'iscuss how the properties of language distinguish human and animal
codes.
D. $hat does it mean to know a language5 -elate it to linguistic competence
and linguistic performance.
SESSION T!O (3 Hours)
1.1.4 (")n ln!"!e *' ni)l %o))"ni%tion
"ook at the pictures.
$hat do you think these animals are doing5
'o you think they are communicating5
$hat might they be saying5
8re language and communication e1uivalent5
'o they use language to communicate with
each other5
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
"ist down the things that human use to communicate with each other.
Then compare your answers with a partner.
!"at is Co##unication$
Communication is the ability to share information with people, and to understand
what information and feelings are being conveyed by others. It can take on many
forms including gestures, facial e!pressions, signs, vocali0ations #including pitch
and tone*, in addition to speech and written communication.
Teachers and students fre1uently use nonverbal methods to communicate.
7tudents often show disinterest in school by avoiding eye contact or sitting back
in their chairs with their arms folded across their chests during instruction. 7taff
members may indicate that they have time to talk but they may show disinterest
by grading papers or busying themselves while you are trying to talk.
Conversely, a smiling, nodding face indicates that the listener is interested in
what we are saying and encourages us to continue.
Communication includes a broad range of actions which help the teachers work
more effectively with students and other teachers. Teachers interact with many
different people during the day, including administrators, other teachers, parents,
students and others. The ability of teachers to contribute to the education
program will depend on his or her communication skills.
1.1.5 Non6.e#7l Co))"ni%tion
There are two forms of communication Ierbal and &on-Ierbal Communication.
Ierbal communication re1uires a language. "anguage is defined in terms of
semantics, that is, a group of labels used to represent appro!imations of space-
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
time events and abstractions. The labels can be conveyed from one entity to
another by a variety of means vocali0ation, writing, etc.
&on-verbal communication #&IC* is any communication that takes place using
non-linguistic signs, or @non-word signsA #.arrison, 1(F,*. &IC is independent of
a formal language, whereby ideas and concepts can be e!pressed without the
use of coherent labels. It refers to the processes without the use of language
proper, e.g. body movements, gesture, smells but also such e!tra-linguistic
features of speech as intonation, speed or pause. &on-verbal messages often
convey more meaning than the spoken words. )EJ of a message%s meaning is
communicated through non-verbal clues. #Birdwhistell, 1(FH*. (HJ of the
meaning of a message is transmitted non-verbally. #+romkin K -odman, 1(GD*.
Refle%tion
In your opinion, which of the items in the list below contribute most to
communication5 &umber the five most important. Then compare your answers
with a partner.
Things which human use to communicate with each other.
7tyle of dress, .air style
4estures, Body posture
"istening, +luency, 8ccent
+acial e!pressions, Behaviour
8ccurate use of language structures, Iocabulary
Eye movements
T%&es o Non'(er)al Co##unication
There are three types on non-verbal communication kinesics, pro!emics and
paralanguage. The types and e!amples are given below.
#I$ESI%S
1. GESTURES
They are used to convey meanings. +or e!amples
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
a. E!tremities of our bodies e.g. .itchhiker%s outstretched thumb, thumb-
inde! finger circle for @=LA, use of middle finger.
b. 'irectly tied to speech - mother in the window moving her hand to her
mouth, pretending to eat, to indicate to her child outside that he>she has to
come in for dinner.
B. FACIAL E8PRESSIONS
These are similar across all cultures. +acial e!pressions readily reflect
different feelings happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust and
interest. +or e!amples
a. 8 child opening a present. :ou can observe the <oy and delight in his>her
eyes and facial e!pression.
b. 8dults receiving news that they owe -evenue 6alaysia a large sum of
money. +acial muscles would become tight and rigid indicating anger and
disbelief.
c. 8 smile and <oyful eyes when receiving e!pression of gratitude from some.
d. &otification of ne!t of kin of a death. +acial e!pression should show
sympathy and genuine concern.
1. EYE GA9E OR EYE CONTACT
This is an important means of giving social recognition. In some cultures,
people of lower status tend not to look into the eyes of people of higher status
or authority. $hen an individual of lower status does directly look at someone
of authority, that directness may indicate hostility or confrontation. 8voiding eye
contact may accompany emotions such as an!iety, shame and embarrassment.
+or e!amples
a. -omeo lovingly ga0ing into the eyes of Muliet. .is eyes will e!press
warmth, passion and affection.
b. 8 teenager having purchased his first car. .is eyes will e!press pride and
satisfaction.
c. 'uring a suspect interview, an accused may avoid direct eye contact with
the police officers in the denial of his>her actions
,. :ODY POSTURE OR :ODY MO.EMENT
This kinetic factor can communicate attitude, self-image and relationship.
+or e!amples
a. The body movements of a potential employee in a <ob-related interview.
/alms may be sweaty, maybe biting his nails.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
b. 8 father confronting his child about his wrongdoing.
The child will fidget on the edge of the chair as he looks for a way out of
the situation.
&R'(E)I%S
INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE o# ;SPACE :U::LEA that surrounds each
person.
Interpersonal distances
a. Intimate 'istance ; up to 1G inches
b. /ersonal 'istance ; 1 N feet to , feet
c. 7ocial 'istance ; 1 foot to about 1B feet
d. /ublic 'istance ; 1B feet or over
e. Canadians communicate at an arm%s distance from each other. &arrowing
the gap and actually touching the person being spoken to identifies the
communication and establishes power. -estricting and invading another%s
personal space creates tension for him or her.

+or e!amples
a. In the observation of an argument, you will notice one of the parties involved
moving in close to the other one while trying to make the point.
b. $hen you meet someone for the first time, you leave them a polite distance
and if the person moves within this distance, you become uncomfortable
and uneasy #perhaps move away*.
c. /olice officer places hand on someone5
d. /olice officer putting hands on somebody ; confrontation. @The strong hand
of the lawA.
&*R*+*$!,*!E
Tone of voice indicating attitude, authority, empathy.
/itch of voice indicating emotions and tensions and stress.
Iolume indicating the importance of certain words or phrases as well as
emotions.
+or E!amples
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
a. 8rriving at the scene of a motor vehicle accident, the police officer has to take
charge of the situation. The voice will be strong and firm e!pressing authority.
b. $hen a police officer is giving evidence in court, the voice will be steady and
confident, showing impartiality.
8. Barbour, author of +ouder han "ords- $onverbal %ommunication said that
the total impact of a message breaks down is FJ verbal #words*2 DGJ vocal
#volume, pitch, rhythm, etc.*2 and EEJ body movements #mostly facial
e!pressions. This breakdown indicates that effective nonverbal communication
skills are essential.
Non'(er)al Co##unication* Cues+ Si,nals an- S%#)ols
8 cue is a type of communication used by an adult to let a child know what is
e!pected of him>her in a given situation. Cues are a type of receptive
communication.
Signals are movements the child used to communicate needs, desires and
feelings to adults. 7ignals are a form of e!pressive communication.

Symbols are representations of an event, ob<ect, person, or place that can be
used to communicate about the event, action, person, or place. They can be
used for both receptive and e!pressive communication. They may start as cues
and signals.
=ne thing is certain is that whatever the means of non-verbal communication
may be, it will have to be related to the senses of the communicators because,
obviously, it is the senses which receive information. $e, as humans, are aware
of five senses suitable to be used in communicating. Communication for us can
be related to any of these senses.

T'<3 Non6.e#7l Co))"ni%tion A%ti*it=

In this e!ercise you will be asked to e!hibit some non-verbal communications.
8sk a friend to help you with this e!ercise. Try to communicate the following
using non-verbal communications.
a* &o b* 7it down c* Come in d* Be 1uiet
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
e* I donOt know f* 7tand up g* IOm mad h* IOm happy
i* 7top <* 4o away or get away
8fter you have practiced with a colleague or friend member, try to use non-verbal
communication with your other friends.

Refle%tion
$hat is your reaction to the activity5
'id you feel you could communicate without speaking5
'o you think we sometimes convey one message verbally and a different
message nonverbally5 If so, which message is taken as most important5
T"to#il T'<
Communication /rofile
$hat are your own communication behaviors5
Identify your non-verbal and verbal behaviors.
-eflect on how you would react and answer the following 1uestions.
.ow do you stand #arms, legs and posture* in the following situations5
8ngry
7ad
-ela!ed
.appy
$hat is your voice like in the situations above5
$hat facial e!pressions do you use for the following5
8ngry
7ad
-ela!ed
.appy
$hat gestures do you use in the situations above5
$hat is your eye contact like5
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'o you have good eye contact when you are angry or happy5
'o you consider yourself to be a verbal or nonverbal person5

Remember that students are unaware of many of the behaviors that they exhibit
when communicating. /y perfecting your own communication skills you can
become a positive role model for children and adolescents, helping them
become more effective communicators as they practice good communication
skills.
T"to#il T'<
+ind out why non-verbal communication is important5 Be prepared to discuss
your answers during the face-to-face interaction with your tutor.
-ela! your mind for a while before you move on to the ne!t session.
SESSION THREE (3 Hours)
1.1.> S&ee%+ n$ ,#itin!
$hen we talk about language, sometimes we mean speech #spoken language*,
sometimes writing #written language*.
Refle%tion
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
$hat is speech #spoken language*5
$hat is writing #written language*5
.ow are they similar5
.ow are they different5
7peech is an interpersonal communication where sound is the medium. $e use
speech organs #mouth, throat* and ears in speaking and listening. /ara-
linguistics features, e.g. pause, loudness, stress, intonation etc. and e!tra-
linguistics features, e.g. gestures, facial e!pressions, eye contact, nods, body
posture, etc. used to aid communication. 7peech is where thinking, speaking
and listening go on at almost the same time. If the listener fails to understand
what the speaker says it at the time, he will not get another chance to listen to it
again.
$riting is a system for interpersonal communication using visible signs or graphic
symbols on a flat surface such as paper, cloth or even stone slabs. Every
language has its own graphic symbols. $ritten English uses a system consisting
B) letters #a, b, c, 9..0*. $riting is thinking put on paper and is a very comple!
skill. The writer needs to know the sub<ect matter, purpose, interaction and a
sense of audience, language, conventions, thinking skills, organi0ational skills,
value systems, mechanics and the writing process.
1.? S"))#= of Diffe#en%e' 7et,een S&o<en n$ W#itten Ln!"!e
No. Diffe#en%e' S&o<en Ln!"!e W#itten Ln!"!e
1. 6edium 7ound is the medium. $e use
speech organs #mouth, throat*
and ears in speaking and
listening.
$ords on a page or screen
is the medium. $e use our
hands to write and our eyes
to read.
2. -esources /ara-linguistics features and
e!tra- linguistics features are
used to aid communication.
only words on the page and
punctuation marks available.
1. /rocessing
time
thinking, speaking and listening
go on at almost the same time.
7peech is ephemeral.
the writer can take his time in
composing and the reader
can take his time reading and
re-reading what is written.
$riting is permanent.
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4. +eedback the speaker can find out the
listeners% response to what he
said almost instantly.
delayed feedback. The writer
has to wait until he gets a
reply to his letter or review of
his ideas.
5. "anguage usually simple sentences and
vocabulary used.
more sophisticated and
comple! structures and
vocabulary used.
>. =rgani0ation more meandering and fewer
organi0ational markers,
especially in spontaneous
speech, e.g. conversation.
Psually well-organi0ed
because more time for
planning.
@. /erformance many false starts, fillers,
pauses, etc found.
editing. Therefore, no
mistakes visible.

T"to#il T'<3
There are some other differences between speech and writing #e.g. age,
universality, ac1uisition, level of structure, interdependence, retrievability,
prestige, standardi0ation, formality, literacy and change*.
Briefly e!plain what these differences are.
Take a break and move on to the notions of correctness when
you are readyQ
1.1.@ Notion' of %o##e%tne''
"hat is grammar0
4rammar is what we know. It represents our linguistic competence -
linguistic knowledge. "inguistic knowledge is learned subconsciously, with
no awareness that rules are being learned RS represents a comple!
cognitive system. "inguistic performance is applying #using* this knowledge
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
in actual speech production and comprehension #e.g. slips of tongue,
hesitations, repetitions etc.* The grammar of a language consist of the
sounds and sound patterns, the basic units of meaning such as words, and
the rules to combine all of these to form sentences with the desired meaning.
!rammatical versus ungrammatical
In all languages, every sentence is a se1uence of words but not every
se1uence of words is a sentence. 8 se1uence of words that conform to the
rules of synta! are said to be well-formed or grammatical. Iiolation to the
syntactic rules are ill-formed or ungrammatical. 8 sentence is said to be
grammatical when it conforms to the rule of grammar ; mental grammar and
description of the internalised grammar. &ot all strings of words constitute
sentences in a language - our knowledge of a language determines which
are and which are not @rules for forming sentencesA.
4rammaticality is based on rules ac1uired or constructed unconsciously as
children. The ability to make grammatical <udgments depends on syntactic
knowledge. +or e!amples Enormous crickets in pink socks danced at the
prom2 and 8 verb crumpled the milk. 4rammatical <udgments do not depend
on whether the sentence is meaningful or not. 4rammaticality does not
depend on the truth of sentences.
The notion of ungrammatical is used to characteri0e utterances that cannot
be said by native speakers of a language. +or e!ample, any violation of a
relatively small set of prescriptive @rulesA like these
1. &ever split the infinitive.
2. &ever begin a sentence with and or but
3. It4s me is ungrammatical2 it is I is grammatical.
E2e#%i'e 1
Check the grammaticality of the following sentences
1. -obin forced the sheriff leave.
B. The devil made +aust leave.
D. That birds can fly ama0es.
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,. 6yself bit Mohn
E. It is easy to frighten Emily.

That%s all you have to do.


Take a break and move on to topic D when you are readyQ
TOPIC 2 P(ONOLOGY3 T(E SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE
2.0 SYNOPSIS
Topic B provides you with some basic information on the English sounds system.
It gives you some practice in saying the words correctly with the right stress and
intonation. It encourages you to tell your e!perience and your views on how you
learn to speak English and the strategies that you use to encourage your pupils
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
to speak. This will prepare you to speak with more confident and e!press your
views fluently.
2.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this 7ession, you will be able to
label the articulators in the speech organs used in producing different
English sounds
know the phonetic symbol of the alphabets2
transcribe and pronounce words according to their phonetic symbols
identify and analyse vowel> diphthong sounds and consonant sounds
speak with correct pronunciation, enunciation, stress and intonation
2.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
CONTENT
SESSION FOUR (3 Hours)
2.2.1 W+t i' P+onolo!=A
'o you often wonder why some words are not pronounced the way they are
spelt5 Isn%t it frustrating when you can spell words correctly but don%t know how
they are pronounced5 &ow, that%s the beauty of the English language.
20
P+onolo!=3
T+e So"n$'
of Ln!"!e
P+onolo!=3
T+e So"n$'
of Ln!"!e
S&ee%+
O#!n' n$
A#ti%"ltion
S&ee%+
O#!n' n$
A#ti%"ltion
So"n$' of
En!li'+
So"n$' of
En!li'+
P+one)e'
n$
P+one)i%
T#n'%#i&tion
'
P+one)e'
n$
P+one)i%
T#n'%#i&tion
'
Int#o$"%tion
to S"&#6
'e!)entl
Fet"#e'
Int#o$"%tion
to S"&#6
'e!)entl
Fet"#e'
.o,el'
.o,el'
Di&t+on!'
Di&t+on!'
Con'onnt'
Con'onnt'
St#e''
St#e''
R+=t+)
R+=t+)
Intontion
Intontion
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
To start off, let%s be clear of what phonology is and then look at the seven main
articulators in our speech organs that are used in the production of speech.
/honology is the study of the sound systems of languages, and of the general
properties displayed by these systems #the contrast in sound TphonemesU which
make the difference within the
language.
2.2.2 S&ee%+ o#!n' n$
#ti%"ltion
There are seven main
articulators.
&harynx ; a tube which begins
<ust above the laryn!. It is divided into two at its top, one part being the back of
the mouth and the other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity.
If you look in the mirror with your mouth open, you can see the back of the
pharyn!.
5elum 6 Soft &alate ; often in speech,
the velum is raised so that air cannot
escape through the nose. It is also
one of the articulators that can be
touched by the tongue. $hen we
make the sounds > k > and > g > the
tongue is in contact with the lower
side of the velum. .ence, these
sounds are called velar consonants.
7ard &alate ; it is often called 3roof of
the mouth%. :ou can feel its smooth
curved surface with your tongue.
*lveolar Ridge ; it is between the top
front teeth and the hard palate. Its
surface is covered with little ridges.
:ou can feel its shape with your
tongue. 7ounds made with the
tongue touching hers such as > t > and > d > are called alveolar.
ongue ; it is a very important articulator and can be moved into many different
places and different shapes. The tongue is divided into different parts such as
tip, blade, front, back and root. #see +igure B.*
21
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
eeth 8upper and lower9 ; most speakers have teeth to the sides of their mouth.
The back is almost to the soft palate. The tongue is in contact with the upper
side for many speech sounds. 7ounds made with the tongue touching the front
teeth are called dental.
+ips ; they are important in speech. The lips can be pressed together #to
produce the sounds > p >, brought into contact with teeth #as in > f >, > v >*, or
rounded to produce the lip-shape for vowels like > u >. 7ounds in which lips are
in contact with each other are called bilabial, while those with lip-to-teeth contact
are called labiodental.
The seven articulators described above are the main ones but there are three
other things to remember
+arynx ; it could also be described as an articulator2 a very comple! and an
independent one. :ou can feel the vibration in your laryn! #8dam%s apple* when
you produce voiced sounds such as > 0 >.
:aws ; they are sometimes called articulators because the movement of the <aws
#especially the lower one* helps a lot in speaking. .owever, the <aws are not
articulators in the same way as the others because they themselves cannot
make contact with other articulators.
$ose and nasal cavity ; they are a very important part of our vocal apparatus of
making sounds, particularly nasal consonants such as > m >, > n >. .owever, the
nose and nasal cavity cannot really be described as articulators in the same way
as the seven main articulators described above.
Refle%tion
.ow do you think speech sounds are produced5
7ow *re Speech Sounds &roduced0
+irst, air coming from the lungs passes through the vocal tract, which shapes it
into different speech sounds. The air then e!its the vocal tract through the mouth
or nose or both. The process by which air is made to more out of the lungs is
called an agressive pulmonic airstream.
The processes that the vocal tract uses in creating a multitude of sounds are
similar to those of wind instruments and organ pipes, which produce different
musical sounds by varying the shape, si0e and acoustic character of the cavities
through which air passes.
22
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
"ikewise, every speech sound sounds different because of some uni1ue
combination of features in the way you shape your mouth and tongue and move
parts of the vocal apparatus when you speak. 8ll English sounds are produced
in this manner.
Take a break for a while before you move on to the sounds of EnglishQ
2.2.1 So"n$' of En!li'+
There are B) letters in the English language, E vowels and B1 consonants.
.owever, what we are more concerned with is the spoken sounds of the
alphabets. The spoken English has ,, phonic sounds, BH spoken vowels and B,
spoken consonants. $e will look at the phonic structure of English in detail.
(o.el Soun-s
Iowels #BH vowels sounds* ; are articulated without any obstruction as the air
passes from the laryn! to the lips. The vocal cords always vibrate. In contrast,
the air flow has to be obstructed at different points when articulating consonants.
ct s"n rose, bot, toe gi#l, c"rl, fe#n poor, l"re
cr cpe, sil,
hy
moon, bl"e,
screw
ho"se, cow letter
sw, v"lt, bll bee, lef book coin, boy
kid hen rose, bot, toe hre, fir
dog kite, tie, light fork, core er, deer, he#e
List o &"onetic s%#)ols an- /e%.or-s
S+o#t *o,el' Lon! .o,el'
I as in bIt i: as in sheep
e as in bed V as in fther
W as in ct ' as in door
' as in dog X as in fo"r
23
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Y as in b"t u as in boot
P as in p"t Z as in bird
[ as in bout
i as in happ=
u as in act"ality
0i&"t"on,s
'iphthongs #G dipthongs* ; a sound which consists of a glide from one vowel to
another. 8 vowel which does not glide is a pure vowel. 7ome vowels end in a
glide > i< >, > uw >.
'iphthongs glide between two vowels. The ending vowel in a diphthong is one of
> a >, > I >, or > u >, e.g. > ia > beer, > ea > bare, > eI > make, > eu > home, > ai > five,
>au > how, etc. #see diagram*
eI as in mke XI as in boy aP as in now e[ as in hir u[ as in act"l
aI as in lie [P as in note I[ as in rel P[ as in s"#e i[ as in peculir
7ome e!amples of dipthongs can be seen in the table above.
Consonants
24
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Consonants have the following characteristics
24 %on'onnt 'o"n$'
7ed +en &up ,ig %+imp
%at, <id, so%< Bet #od =ak t+en
$og log 'un Cip t+umb
fan )op tub rin!, sin< televi'ion
!um net *an '+op
Con'onnt'
p as in &en g as in !et s as in 'oon ! as in lo%+ \ as in sun!
b as in 7ack f as in fat 0 as in Cero t] as in %+eer w as in ,et
t as in ten v as in *iew ] as in 'hip d^ as in Bump 1 as in let
d as in $ay _ as in t+ing ^ as in plea'ure m as in su) r as in #ed
k as in <ey ` as in t+en h as in +our n as in sun < as in =et
25
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
&ow that you have gone through the phonetic sounds and symbols, let%s look at
some e!ercises.

E2e#%i'e 1
In this e!ercise you are to rewrite the following words into phonetic symbols. #you
can refer to the dictionary to help you*.
Wo#$' P+oneti% '=)7ol'
8pologi0e
Bewilder
Comprehend
Confess
Confide
'emolish
'evour
'iscuss
E!pose
E2e#%i'e 2
In this e!ercise, you are to rewrite the following phonetic symbols into words.

P+oneti% '=)7ol' Wo#$'
_a\b
cde
26
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
]Pd
`[
'I
gZl0
Take a break for a while.
Stron, an- !ea/ For#s

Certain well-known English words can be pronounced in two different ways
these are called strong forms and weak forms.
$eak forms are those words that are pronounced in an unstressed manner.
They are called function words or grammatical words such as con<unctions,
articles, pronouns, prepositions and some au!iliary and modal verbs.
The pronunciation of a weak form can be so different from the strong form that it
is barely recogni0able as being the same word. If said in isolation, it would be all
but unintelligible. Psually, it is the conte!t that makes it understandable.
It is possible to use only strong forms in English, and some non-native speakers
do e!actly this. .owever, it sounds very unnatural to a native speaker and it will
also mean that a person who only uses the strong form of English will have
trouble understanding native speakers of English who use the weak form all the
time.
E!ample
Wo#$ St#on! fo#) We< fo#) E2)&le
as 0 0
but b t b t
8nd nd n
of v v
than n n
you <u
does d d
from fr m fr m
27
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
at t t
his h 0 0
There is sometimes an important difference in meaning between strong and
weak forms, e.g.
I%m gonna be sick #prediction*
I%m going to school #destination*
$hat have we gotta take5 #necessity*
$hat have we got to eat5 #availability*
T"to#il D"e'tion
/repare your answer to the following 1uestions for your tutorial session.
#a* .ow do you differentiate between long vowels and short vowels5
#b* .ow would you define consonant clusters5
#c* .ow would you define vowel clusters5
#d* $hat are the problems that you faced while completing this topic5
SESSION FI(E (3 Hours)
2.2.4 P+one)e' n$ &+one)i% t#n'%#i&tion'
8 &"one#e can be defined as a minimal sound unit which is capable of
contrasting word meaning. This can be illustrated using minimal pairs.
e.g. tip bit mate pat bet but
dip bid made pad bed bud
The words in each pair have different meanings and this difference is signaled by
the difference between > t > and > d >. Therefore, > t > and > d > are separate
phonemes. 8nother way of saying this is to state that sounds are separate
phonemes if they contrast in identical environments.
28
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
In English, there are ,, phonemes #B, consonants and BH vowels*.
The > p > is aspirated #puff of air* as in 3pill% and 3poker% whereas un-aspirated > p >
occurs after 3s% as in 3sprint% and 3spine%. The different > p > sound is called an
allophone. 8n allo&"one is described as a variant of a phoneme. 8llophones
occur only in certain positions within a word.
$hen two or more sounds do not occur in the same sound environment, they are
said to be in complementary distribution. 8n e!ample of complementary
distribution occurs in the allophones of > l > in English. 'ark > l > always occurs at
the end of a syllable while light > l > always occurs at the beginning of a syllable.
&either allophone may occur in the other%s position.
8nother type of relationship between allophones of a single phoneme is called
free variation. Two allophones are said to be in free variation when a word is
pronounced in two different ways ; using two different phonemes but has no
effect on the meaning. +or e!ample, pronunciation of the word 3tomato%. There is
no difference in meaning between the two ways of pronouncing the word. 8s
such, the sounds > a > and >ei > are in free variation of this word.
2.2.5 Int#o$"%tion to S"&#'e!)entl Fet"#e'
S"&#'e!)entlE also called /rosodic +eature, in phonetics, is a speech feature
such as stress, rhythm, tone #intonation*, or word <uncture that accompanies or is
added over consonants and vowels. These features are not limited to single
sounds but often e!tend over syllables, words, or phrases. 7uprasegmentals are
so called in contrast to consonants and vowels, which are treated as serially
ordered segments of the spoken utterance.
Stress
7tress refers to the degree of prominence a syllable has. 4enerally three stress
syllable are recogni0ed. They are &#i)#=E 'e%on$#= and "n't#e''e$.
"ord Stress
7tudy the stress pattern for each of the words shown below
29
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
3photograph
pho% tographer
photo%graphic
Psing the correct stress patterns, try to pronounce the words.
E2e#%i'e 1
/ractice pronouncing these words with the correct stress patterns.
Tiresome humanitarian ceremony
distinction praiseworthy downstream
e!ception particular e!ceptional
Check your stress patterns with your tutorsQ
E2e#%i'e 2
/lace a primary stress mark over the syllable that has the greatest
prominence.
1. defer fffffffffffffffff
B. differ fffffffffffffffff
D. pervert #verb* fffffffffffffffff
,. pervert #noun* fffffffffffffffff
E. conflict #verb* fffffffffffffffff
). conflict #noun* fffffffffffffffff
30
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
F. superb fffffffffffffffff
G. romance fffffffffffffffff
(. defense fffffffffffffffff
1H. research fffffffffffffffff
11. accent fffffffffffffffff
1B. education fffffffffffffffff
1D. interruption fffffffffffffffff
1,. humanitarian fffffffffffffffff
1E. socialised fffffffffffffffff
4ood workQ E!cellentQ
R"%t"#
-hythm is the occurrence of stressed syllables at regular intervals of time.
English speech is rhythmical.
-hythm is important in English because it can result in miscommunication.
Contrast @talking to themselvesA and @talking to damselsA
$e need to understand rhythm patterns in English in order to understand native
speakers of English and also to try to speak in that rhythm so that we may be
understood by them.
Intonation
Intonation refers to the tune a speaker uses when speaking. There are two basic
patterns of intonation the rising tune and the falling tune. They can be put
together in various combinations rise-fall-rise, fall-rise-fall, etc.
31
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Intonation and sentence stress are very clearly connected in speech. They are
used together to put the precise message across to the listener.
The following two utterances are e!amples .
1. :ou speak English, don%t you5 +alling tune
B. :ou speak English, don%t you5 -ising tune
E2e#%i'e 1
-ead the dialogue and mark the intonation pattern.
7ee Ti .ello, 8h Boo. .ow are you5
8h Boo Must fine, fine. $hat about you5
7ee Ti =h, not bad. 8h Boo, you know -ani, don%t you5
32
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
8h Boo :es, I met her in our "ondon office last month.
7ee Ti In "ondon5
-ela! and move on to the ne!t section when you are ready.
TOPIC 1 MORP(OLOGY3 T(E WORDS OF LANGUAGE
1.0 SYNOPSIS
Topic D introduces you to the word structure and word formation of the English
language. It seeks to develop your knowledge in English language, by
understanding the different types of morphemes and how English words are
structured and formed. It also aims to help you further improve your skills in
listening, speaking, reading and writing and develop your confidence and fluency
in using English in a variety of conte!t.
1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this 7ession, you will be able to
1. discuss word structure and formation2
B. identify the different classification of morphemes
D. give reasons for the classification
,. analy0e word formation processes
1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
33
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
CONTENT
SESSION SI1 (2 Hours)
1.2.1 W+t i' Mo#&+olo!=A
6orphology is the study of word structure and word formation. $ords - though
impossible to define in absolute terms, can be thought of as the units that are
combined to form sentences in a language such as English.
7imple $ords - consisting of a single morpheme2 a word that cannot be analy0ed
into smaller meaningful parts, e.g. 3item%, 3five%, 3chunk%, 3the%. Comple! words
consist of a root, plus one or more affi!es #e.g. 3items%, 3walked%, 3dirty%*.
Compound word is a word that is formed from two or more simple or comple!
words #e.g. landlord, red-hot, window cleaner*
1.2.2 T=&e' of Mo#&+e)e'
Must as sentences can be broken down in smaller units #words*, we can break
words down into smaller, meaningful parts. The smallest meaningful part of a
word is called a morpheme. &ot all words have more than one morpheme.
$ords that have only one morpheme are also called monomorphemic words
#e.g. boy*. $ords with more than one morpheme are called polymorphemic
words, as in foolishness #fool g ish g ness*. 6orphemes can be classified as
either free or bound.
1.2.2.1 F#ee n$ :o"n$ Mo#&+e)e'
34
Mo#&+olo!=3
T+e Wo#$' of
Ln!"!e
Mo#&+olo!=3
T+e Wo#$' of
Ln!"!e
T=&e' of
Mo#&+e)e'
T=&e' of
Mo#&+e)e' Wo#$ Fo#)tion
P#o%e''e'
Wo#$ Fo#)tion
P#o%e''e'
F#ee
Mo#&+e)e
F#ee
Mo#&+e)e
:o"n$
Mo#&+e)e
:o"n$
Mo#&+e)e
De#i*tionl
Mo#&+e)e
De#i*tionl
Mo#&+e)e
Infle%tionl
Mo#&+e)e
Infle%tionl
Mo#&+e)e
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Free #or&"e#es are units of meaning which can stand alone as an
independent word or alongside another free or bound morpheme #e.g. lid, sink,
air, car ; individual words*. They cannot be split into anything smaller #e.g. tree,
gate, pillow, butter, flower, rhinoceros etc.*. .owever, the terms !te, 7"tte# and
flo,e# can also e!ist alongside another free morpheme e.g. !te&o'tE
7"tte#)il<E '"nflo,e# ; consists two free morphemes.
8 )oun- #or&"e#e is a unit of meaning which can only e!ist alongside a free
morpheme. It cannot stand alone as an independent word, but must be attached
to another morpheme>word #affi!es, such as plural 3-s%, prefi!es ; "ngrateful,
insufficient, and suffi!es ; childi'+, goodne'' - are always bound*. It cannot be
split into anything smaller. They must be bound to one or more free morphemes.
8 )ase is an element #free or bound, root morpheme or comple! word* to which
additional morphemes are added. It is also called a stem. It can consist of a
single root morpheme, as with the 3kind% of 3kindness%. It can also be a word that
itself contains more than one morpheme #e.g. kindness as a base to form the
word 3kindnesses%*
8 root is a #usually free* morpheme around which words can be built up through
the addition of affi!es #e.g. the root 3kind% can have affi!es added to it to form
3kindly%, 3kindness%, 3kinder%, 3kindest%. The root is the item you have left when you
strip all other morphemes off of a comple! word.
The meaning of a word can be changed by adding another word or part of a word
to it. E!amples
Root6,o#$ P#efi2 S"ffi2
able unable 8bility
care uncaring Careless>careful>carefully
able ; means %n 7he is 7le to do the <ob.
Pnable ; means %nnot 7he is "n7le to do the <ob.
ability ; means '<ill nee$
to $o 'o)et+in!.
7he has the 7ilit= to take up the challenge of
the <ob.
&ow, take a look at the /refi!es.
$e add prefi!es at the start of a word. 7ome prefi!es are
35
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
P#efi2 Menin! E2)&le
nti6 8gainst something anti-social
counter; Take opposite action counter;attack
dis &ot dislike, disapprove, disagree
ex; +ormer, previous, past ex-wife, ex-student, ex-boyfriend
in;, im;,
il;, ir;
&ot inactive, impossible,
iilogical, irreplaceable
un; &ot, changes a word to the
opposite meaning
unkind, untidy, unable
mis; 'one incorrectly mistake, misadventure, misuse
non; &ot non-violent, non-conformist
re; 'o over again, go back redo, replace, recycle, rewind
inter; Between interfere, international, interchange
-emember, when words are added at the start of a word, they are called
&#efi2e'. &ow, take at a look at E!ercises 1 and B and do the e!ercises to check
your understanding.
E2e#%i'e 1
Psing the dictionary, find out what these words mean.
Wo#$ Menin! Root6,o#$
glorious
eateries
probably
assortments
temptation
surrounded
E2e#%i'e 2
8dd suitable &#efi2e' to the following words.
Wo#$ P#efi2 Wo#$ P#efi2
like behave
proper unite
responsible rational
known pack
'id you get the answers all right5 $ell doneQ &ow look at the '"ffi2e'.
36
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
In the meantime take a break first and move on to suffi!esQ
Sui3es
7uffi!es are added to the end of a word. They not only change the meaning of a
word, they also change the part of speech.
S"ffi2 Menin! Ne, ,o#$ i' 3 E2)&le
-or, -er /erson noun Teenager, actor
-eer /erson noun Engineer, auctioneer
-ster /erson doing an
activity
noun 4angster
-let, -ette 7mall noun Booklet, statuette
-ess +emale noun $aitress
-hood,
-ship, -dom
7tatus, condition noun Childhood, friendship,
freedom
-ful The amount something
has, being full of
noun, ad<ective 7poonful
$asteful
-ite 6ember of a
community
noun /enangnite
-ese, -#i*an 6ember of a
community
noun, ad<ective Chinese, Christian
-ist /erson or party noun, ad<ective Buddhist
-ism Belief, attitude, actions abstract noun 6ar!ism, heroism,
tourism
-ant /erson or instrument noun Combatant
-tion, -sion 7tate, action, group abstract,
collective noun
4eneration,
persuasion
-ment 7tate mainly abstract E!citement
-age -esult of action abstract noun $eightage
-ness, -ity
-ify, -i0e Cause to make or
become
verb huantify, speciali0e,
madden
-less Being empty of ad<ective 7leepless
-ay, -al, -ish,
-ive, -ous,
-able, -ible,
-like
.aving the 1ualities of ad<ective +riendly, nutty, global,
bookish, talkative,
tortuous, readable,
credible, warlike
37
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
-ly In this way adverb Cheaply, tiredly
-emember, for suffi!es, the word is added at the end of the word. &ow, look at
E!ercise 1 and try to add suffi!es to the words.
E2e#%i'e 13
8dd suffi!es to the following words. Pse your dictionary to check your answers
glorious polite
regular unite
proper lawful
possible difficult
safe savour
$ould you like to have more practice in &#efi2e' and '"ffi2e'5 :ou can list
down as many words as you can think of and add &#efi2e' or '"ffi2e' to these
words.
The previous section gives you an idea of how words if added new word or part
of a word to them would mean different things. Therefore, when you come
across words with prefi!es or suffi!es, you need to be e!tra careful with their
meanings.

Take a break first before you read on to other categories of morphemes
and allormorphs.
Cate,ories o 4or&"e#es
8 content #or&"e#e is a morpheme that names a concept>idea in our record of
e!perience of the world. It has semantic content ; independent and identifiable
meaning2 and has a full le!ical meaning of its own. They fall into the classes of
noun, verb, ad<ective, adverb.
8 unction #or&"e#e is a morpheme whose primary meaning>function is to
signal relationships between other morphemes. They provide information about
grammatical function by relating certain words in a sentence to each other. +ree
morphemes can also be function morphemes. +unction words have no
independent meaning but <ust contributes to the grammatical meaning of a
38
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
construction #the, by, of*. 4enerally, they fall into classes such as articles #a,
the*, prepositions #of, at*, au!iliary verbs #was eating, have slept*, etc.
Allo#or&"s are the different forms>variations #pronunciations* of a single
morpheme. E!ample the plural morpheme in English is i -0 j. Its allormorphs
are > s >, > 0 >, and the upside-down, backwards e > e0 >. 8lso the morpheme 3leaf%
has two allormorphs 3leaf% in words built from it #e.g. leafy* and 3leav-%, found only
in the plural 3leaves%.
ypes of *llormorphs
Allo#)o#&+' of &l"#l )o#&+e)e-
> s > - shops, nuts, books
> 0 > - cubs, mugs, stands
> i0 > - glasses, <udges, dishes, houses
Allo#)o#&+' of &'t ten'e )o#&+e)e-
> t > - packed, milked, faked, chopped
> d > - played, robbed, cared, died
> id > - shouted, arrested, counted, pointed
Allo#)o#&+' of ne!ti*e )o#&+e)e
Pn ; able, certain, lucky, true
Ir ; responsible, relevant, regular
Im ; possible, proper, polite
In ; ability, correct, e!perienced
'is ; agree, 1ualify, regard
6is ; spell, spend, use, management
&on ; smoker, stop, payment, resident
Il ; logical, legal, legitimate
'e ; frost, camp, classify, throne
6al ; function, nutrition, formation
4.2.2.2 De#i*tionl / Infle%tionl Mo#&+e)e'
0eri5ation is the process by which affi!es combine with roots to create new
words #e.g. in 3modern-i0e%, 3read-er%, 3-i0e% and 3-er% are derivational suffi!es. It is
viewed as using e!isting words to make new words. It is much less regular, #e.g.
39
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
plural form ; add 3s% or 3es% 2 and much less predictable #e.g. nouns derived from
verbs ; refuse ; refusal, pay ; payment*.
0eri5ational #or&"e#es change the part of speech or meaning of a word. E.g.,
;ment added to a verb forms a noun, <udg;ment, re;activate means @activate
againA. They are not re1uired by synta!. They typically indicate semantic
semantic relations within a word, but no syntactic relations outside the word9,
e.g., un;kind relates un-AnotA to kind but has no particular syntactic connections
outside the word ; note that the same word can be used in he is unkind and they
are unkind.
They are usually not very productive and are generally selective about what they
will combine with, e.g., the suffi! =hood occurs with <ust a few nouns such as
brother, neighbour, and knight, but not with most others. E.g., friend, daughter,
or candle.
They typically occur before inflectional suffi!es, e.g. govern;ment;s- ;ment, a
derivational suffi!, precedes =s, an inflectional suffi!. 6ay be prefi!es or suffi!es
#in English*, e.g. pre;arrange, arrange;ment
Inlection is the process by which affi!es combine with roots to indicate basic
grammatical categories such as tense or plurality #e.g. in 3cat-s%, 3talk-ed%, 3-s% and
3-ed% are inflectional suffi!es*. It is viewed as the process of adding very general
meanings to e!isting words, not as the creation of new words.
Inlectional #or&"e#es do not change meaning or part of speech, e.g big,
bigg-er, bigg-est are all ad<ectives. They are re1uired by the synta!. They
typically indicate syntactic or semantic relations between different words in the
sentence, e.g $im love;s banana;s- ;s marks the D
rd
person singular present form
of the verb, relating it to the D
rd
singular sub<ect $im.
They are very productive. They typically occur with all members of some large
class of morphemes, e.g. the plural morpheme =s occurs with almost all nouns.
They occur at the margin of a word, after any derivational morphemes, e.g.,
ration;al;ation;s- ;s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word. They
are suffi!es only #in English*.
1.2.1 Wo#$ Fo#)tion P#o%e''e'
40
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
6any words are formed or created from combinations of other words, or from
combinations of words and prefi!es or suffi!es. There are many possible ways of
forming or creating new words in English.
0eri5ation
The most productive process of word formation in a language is the use of
$e#i*tionl morphemes to form new words from already e!isting forms #.e.g.
from arrange we can derive rearrange, from which we can still derive
rearrangement*. Can you think of other e!amples5
Coina,e
Coin!e is the invention of totally new words. The process usually involves the
e!tension of a product a name from a specific reference to a more general one,
e.g. Lleene!, kero! and Lodak. These started as names of specific products
but now used as the generic names for different brands of types of product. Can
you think of other e!amples5
Con5ersion
Con*e#'ion is the e!tension of the use of one word from its original grammatical
category to another category as well, e.g. the word must is a verb #e.g. @:ou must
attend classes regularlyA*, but it can also used as a noun as in @Class attendance
is a mustA.
6orro.in,
&ew words also enter a language through 7o##o,in! from other languages.
English, for e!ample, borrowed a lot of +rench words as a result of the &orman
invasion in 1H)). #e.g. croissant, chauffeur, dentist, resign*
=ther e!amples of foreign words found their way into English
#a* leak, yacht #from 'utch*
#b* Barbecue, cockroach #from 7panish*
#c* /iano, concerto #from Italian*
#d* 8lgebra, amulet, caramel, carat, coffee, safari, syrup, sheriff, soda #from
8rabic*.
8e9 >am, banana 8from *frican languages9.
41
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
6ac/'or#ation
:%<6fo#)tion is the formation of a new word by removing an affi!2 that base
then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use.
E!amples pronunciate #pronunciation, pronounce*, enthuse #enthusiasm*, burgle
#burglar*, burger #hamburger* televise #television*, edit #editor*.
Co#&oun-in,
Co)&o"n$in! is combining two or more words together to form a new comple!
word. E!amples
#a* post g card R postcard
#b* post g office R post office
#c* book g case R bookcase
#d* mother-in-law,
#e* sergeant-at-arms.
6len-in,
:len$in! is another way of combining words to form a new word. The difference
between blending and compounding, however, is that in blending only parts of
the words, not the whole words, are combined.
E!amples smoke g fog R smog
motor g hotel R motel
breakfast g lunch R brunch
Cli&&in,
Cli&&in! is the shortening of a longer word. E!amples pro #professional*, prof
#professor*, math #mathematics*, sub #substitute or submarine*, fa! #facsimile*,
gym #gymnasium*, lab #laboratory*
Acron%#s
They are words created from the initial letters of several words. E!amples
&8T=, +BI, CI8, P&, P&ICE+, P&E7C=, -EC786, -E"C, 8I'7, radar #radio
detecting and ranging*, laser #light amplification by stimulated emission of
radiation*.
42
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Ono#ato&oeia
8 new word is formed by analogy with the sound made by the thing it names.
E!amples bu00, beep, hiss,
Su&&letion
7uppletion is about irregularity. It is the replacement of a word form by a
completely different word. They are morphologically comple! forms in which the
connection between the base and the newly created form is not obvious at all.
E!amples go #present* R went #past*2 good R better.
Re-u&lication
8 way of building up words by repeating either a part or all of the base word. $e
don%t have this in English. E!amples total reduplication in B.6. #rumah-rumah*2
partial reduplication in Tagalog. $e take the verb ibilij and reduplicate only the
first two sounds to get the future form ibibilij
4or&"e#e'internal c"an,es (a)laut)
8dding morphemes results in changes to a part of the word #stem internal vowel
change*. 7ome cases of this in English, though not @productiveA ones.
E!amples
sing #present* - sang #past*
mouse #singular* - mice #plural*
E2e#%i'e 1
Identify the word formation processes that created the bold-printed words and try
to find their meaningQ

1*. Eggers is owner of probably the most Goo!le$ name out there right now.
B*. .ollywood has put Evita through the 7nl='i' machine and found her <ust
another little girl who wants to be a star.
D*. S%"7 divers can protect only small areas.
43
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
,*. (=&e#flie#' can be identified by pale comple!ion, red, watery eyes and a
crease in their stomach from having a laptop crushed into their body by the
reclining seat in front of them.
E*. 7imilar high-pressure 0ones on Earth lunder the 8ntarctic ice, for instance
l are suitable only for specially adapted organisms known as
e2t#e)o&+ile'.
)*. Tornado chasing, one form of ,et+e# to"#i'), has become particularly
popular lately.
F*. Can I talk to my 7#o on the &+one 5
G*. -ock was a #ol=6&ol= detective who looked like a no-hoper but who always
outwitted the opposition with sly brilliance.
(*. MauchOs fund-raising show not only was a telet+on but turned out to be a
7e!t+on.
1H*. If I did 7"#!le 6adgeOs house, like you said, then I wouldnOt come round here
and tell you about it.
11*. .e was taken off the CIA payroll.
E2e#%i'e 2

Can you guess which words have combined to form the following computer
terms5
Emoticon,
neti1uette,
neti0en,
technophobe
-ela! for a while. $hen you are ready, do e!ercise D.
44
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
E2e#%i'e 1
Fill in 7ln<' t#n'fo#)in! t+e ,o#$' in 7#%<et'3
1. The tailor took my fffffff and said my suit would be ready in two weeks.
#measure*
B. The cream cakes looked delicious but .arry resisted the fffffff to have one.
#tempt*
D. The police were pu00led by the fffffff disappearance of the <ewels.
#mystery*
,. Bill always looks smart although his clothes are not very fffffff. #fashion*
E. ThompsonOs new novel is a considerable fffffff on his last one. #improve*
). It is very fffffff whether the plan will go ahead. #doubt*
F. 'espite hours of discussion, the members of the committee could not reach
fffffff. #agree*
G. Laren is a very fffffff person and loves outdoor holidays. #energy*
(. "eslie fffffff broke a plate while doing the washing up. #accident*
1H. Is everything included in the price or are there any fffffff charges5 #add*
45
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
TOPIC 4 SYNTA83 T(E SENTENCE PATTERNS OF
LANGUAGE
4.0 SYNOPSIS
Topic , introduces you to the sentence patterns of English language. It provides
the basic types of sentences that you can use in speaking or writing. By
understanding these sentences, it will make it easier for you to write simple and
grammatical correct sentences. It also aims to help you further improve your
knowledge in phrase structure and transformational rules, your skills in listening,
speaking, reading and writing and develop your confidence and fluency in using
English in a variety of conte!t.
4.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this 7ession, you will be able to
1. identify the different types of sentences in English
B. 8naly0e the sentence patterns in English
D. e!plain the different types of ambiguities in sentences
,. draw a tree diagram on sentences based on /hrase 7tructure -ules
E. apply transformational rules in analy0ing the sentences
4.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
46
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
CONTENT
SESSION SE(EN (3 Hours)
4.2.1 W+t i' S=nt2A
7ynta! is the study of the structure of sentences which attempts to uncover the
underlying principles, or rules, for constructing well- informed sentences of a
particular language. There are two rules in synta! #1* phrase structure rules,
and #B* transformational rules
P+#'e' are any groups of two or more words that together form a thought or
e!press one meaning. 8 phrase has no sub<ect or verb.

Cl"'e' are groups of two or more words that have a sub<ect and a predicate.
Clauses are either principal or subordinate. /rincipal clauses are also called
independent, or main clauses. =nly principal clauses can stand alone as
complete sentences. 7ubordinate clauses are also called dependent clauses.
7ubordinate clauses e!press ideas or information related to principal clauses.
E!ample The dog was sick because he ate grass.
4.2.2 Cl"'e t=&e'
Clause elements combine into a very small number of patterns. 6ost sentences
can be analysed into one of only seven basic clause types, each minimally
consisting of two, three, or four elements as shown in the e!amples below.
47
S=nt2
S=nt2
Cl"'e
T=&e'
Cl"'e
T=&e'
Senten%e
T=&e'
Senten%e
T=&e'
P+#'e
St#"%t"#e
R"le'
P+#'e
St#"%t"#e
R"le'
T#n'fo#6
)tionl
G#))#
T#n'fo#6
)tionl
G#))#
In$e&en6
$ent
Cl"'e
In$e&en6
$ent
Cl"'e
De&en6
$ent
Cl"'e
De&en6
$ent
Cl"'e
Si)&le
Senten%e
Si)&le
Senten%e
Co)&le2
Senten%e
Co)&le2
Senten%e
Co)&o"n$
Senten%e
Co)&o"n$
Senten%e
T#ee
Di!#)
T#ee
Di!#) A)7i!"it=
A)7i!"it=
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
7 g I I > yawned.
7 g I g = I > opened > the door.
7 g I g C I > am > ready.
7 g I g 8 I > went > to "ondon.
7 g I g = g = I > gave > him > a pen.
7 g I g = g C I > got > my shoes > wet.
7 g I g = g 8 I > put> the bo!> on the floor.
.ow would you analyse the sentence below below5
.e saw a cat, a dog, and a cow .
'o you know what is a '"7Be%t5
The sub<ect usually appears before the verb in statements, and after the first verb
in 1uestions. E!amples
The boy yawned.
8re you going5
The sub<ect controls whether the verb is singular or plural in the third person of
the present tense. E!amples
7he looks fine.
They look fine.
The sub<ect controls the form of certain ob<ects and complements. E!amples
I shaved myself. They shaved themselves.
7ub<ects can be noun phrases #including singular nouns*, pronouns, or certain
kinds of subordinate clause. E!amples
The train was late.
Carpets, cupboards and mirrors are for sale.
6ary went home.
$hat he said was funny.
'o you know what is a *e#75
48
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
The verb plays a central role in clause structure. $e can omit other clause
elements e!cept the verb drinks
That farmer drinks beer by the bucketful.
7 I = 8
'o you know what is an o7Be%tA
=b<ect elements usually follow the sub<ect and verb in a clause. There are two
types direct and indirect.
The direct ob<ect is the common one, typically referring to some person or thing
directly affected by the action e!pressed by the verb.
The child lost her ball. I remember the occasion.
The indirect ob<ect typically refers to an animate being which is the recipient of
the action.
7he gave the dog a stroke.
I told them my news.
I gave my paper to the boy.
=b<ects can be noun phrases #including single nouns*, pronouns, or certain kinds
of subordinate clause.
I saw our new house. $e asked Mohn.
E!ercise 1
8nalyse the following sentences into clause types.
1* 7he is a teacher.
B* They asked her.
D* I walked 1uietly.
,* I told them my news.
E* .e bought her a wallet .
)* They kept the books in the cupboard.
F* They laughed.
49
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
'id you manage to analyse the sentences5 4oodQ
Take a break first before you move on to sentence types.
4.2.1 Senten%e t=&e'
'o you know what a 'enten%e is5 It is a !#o"& of ,o#$' ,+i%+ e2&#e''e'
%o)&lete t+o"!+t. 7entences begin with a capital letter and end with a full
stop, e!clamation mark or 1uestion mark. :ou can make a sentence by putting a
noun #sub<ect* and a verb #predicate* together.
&oun Ierb
#sub<ect* #predicate*
I go.
6os1uitoes bite.
7entences are constructed in three main ways simple, compound and comple!.
Si#&le sentences
7imple sentences contain one complete *e#7 and are made up of one )in
%l"'e
The cow te the grass.
'id the boys ##i*e before breakfast5
7tudy the two e!amples given.
Ate is a *e#7 and t+e !#'' is the )in %l"'e.
A##i*e is the *e#7 and 7efo#e 7#e<f't is the )in %l"'e.
It is simple, isn%t it5 &ow, try to do E!ercise B.
E2e#%i'e 2
-earrange the <umbled words to form simple sentences.
e.g. is flat > tyre > the > back
The back tyre is flat.
50
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
1. last night > went > he > the theatre > to
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
B. en<oy > each other > they > arguing with
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
D. her > an e!pensive > bought > he > necklace
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
,. the baby > proud parents > the > with love > shower
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
E. watching birds > 8llen%s > is > hobby
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
&ow, we move on to Co)&o"n$ 'enten%e'.
8 %o)&o"n$ 'enten%e is made up of t,o o# )o#e )in %l"'e'. The main
clauses are <oined by a con<unction, semicolon, or sentence connector. "ook at
the e!amples given below.
The pool was cold, so we only paddled.
$e heard the news2 we couldn%t believe our ears.
I know you want to come with me2 however, I won%t let you.
The pool was cold ; main clause
$e only paddled ; main clause
The pool was cold so we only paddled. In this case the two clauses are <oined by
a con<unction 'o.
&ow, try to do E!ercise D.
E2e#%i'e 1
"ook at the following sentences.
Pnderline the main clauses in them and circle the coordinating con<unction.
1. 7uki was poor but he worked hard to support his family.
51
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
B. 8fter the e!ercise, I felt tired and I also felt sleepy.
D. .e did not give them any money for he did not have any in his pocket.
,. .e must have woken up late or he had forgotten about it.
E. The principal spoke loudly and he reminded the students to be punctual.
-emember, a simple sentence has one main clause or main idea, but a
compound sentence has two main clauses or two main ideas. 8nd these two
main clauses or ideas are <oined by a con<unction, a semicolon or sentence
connectors. If you can remember these points, you will find it easy to write your
sentences.
The ne!t section is on comple! sentences which is slightly difficult. 7o read
carefully and try to understand what is a Co)&le2 sentence.
Co)&le2 'enten%e'
8 comple! sentence is made up of )in %l"'e and one o# )o#e
'"7o#$inte %l"'e'.
$e had to go because the children were tired.
$e had to go ; main clause
Because the children were tired ; subordinate clause
E2e#%i'e 4
Pnderline the main clause in the following sentences and circle the con<unction.
1. .and in your forms as soon as you have completed them.
B. Before you leave this room, please turn off all the lights.
D. .e missed the train because of the flash flood.
,. .e ate so greedily as if he had not eaten for days.
E. The pupils ran out of the classrooms as soon as they heard the bell for recess.
52
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
&ow that you have learnt the different types of sentences, see if you can do
E!ercise E.
E2e#%i'e 5
Combine the clauses below into a comple! sentence using the subordinate
con<unctions 3lt+o"!+%, 37e%"'e%, 37efo#e%, or 3'o t+tF.
1. $e packed all our things into our car the night before. $e could leave early
the ne!t morning.
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
B. Thomas had attended an intensive course in Mapanese. .e went to Mapan to
study.

ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
D. &ina had worked for ten years, she could not afford to buy a house.

fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
,. 6y mother bought five tins of cooking oil. The price of cooking oil went up.
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
E. $e have to work 1uickly. $e can all go home at E.HH pm.
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
Refle%tion'
53
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Based on your learning e!perience, did your teacher#s* e!plain to you the
different types of sentences5
$hen you wrote your essay, could you remember what types of sentences you
always used.
&ow that you have learnt and understood the different types of sentences, can
you suggest an activity that you can use to teach your pupils the types of
sentences5
SESSION EIGHT (2 Hours)
4.2.4 P+#'e St#"%t"#e R"le' -PS #"le'0
/hrase 7tructure -ules govern the structure of sentences in a language. =ne
e!ample is the rule that English sentences must consist of a &oun /hrase #&/*
and a Ierb /hrase #I/*
/hrase 7tructure -ules #rewriting rules*
7 &/ I/
&/ art &
I/ I &/
8rt the, a
& man, horse
I saw
4.2.4.1 T#ee $i!#)'
8 phrase structure tree is a form of representation of sentences in which nodes
or elements are labelled by syntactic category #noun phrase #&/*, verb phrase
#I/*, prepositional phrase #//*, etc.*
E2)&le' of T#ee Di!#)'
S S
NP .P NP .P
N . N . NP
54
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
(e te N
(e ', +e#
S
NP .P
N . NP
NP
N #t N

(e !*e +e# t+e 7oo<
S
NP .P
N . PP
P N
S+e ,ent to 'e
S
NP .P


N . PP PPGAP
$et A$B P N P N P NP
$B $et N
T+e ol$ )n ,ent to 'e in 7ot
'raw tree diagrams for the following sentences
55
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
1. I chopped potatoes on the board.
B. .e gave Mohn the book.
D. 8 black bird flew into the room.
,. $hich book did you read5
E. 8hmad ate the meat pie yesterday.
4.2.4.2 A)7i!"it=
8 word, phrase or sentence is ambiguous if it has more than one meaning.
E!ample
#a* ambiguous word R light # not very heavy or not very dark*
#b* phrase R porcelain egg container
porcelain egg container
#c * sentenceR The police shot the rioters with gun.
The police shot the rioters with gun.
T%&es o a#)i,uit%
+exical ambiguity
e.g. nouns R bank, chip etc.
verbs R call, draw etc.
Structural ambiguity
e.g. Tibetan history teacher
The chicken is ready to eat.
I-enti% an- e3&lain t"e a#)i,uit% in t"e ollo.in, sentences7
E!amples
56
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
#1* $illiam saw a star.
Type le!ical ambiguity
6eaning 8 $illiam saw a celestial ob<ect.
6eaning B $illaim saw a celebrity.
#B* I saw the man with the telescope.
Type structural ambiguity
6eaning 8 I saw the man who had the telescope.
6eaning B I used the telescope to see the man.
#1* .e seemed nice to her.
#B* I want the music bo! on the table.
#D* 7he attacked the man with a knife.
#,* :oung girls and boys are admitted.
#E* The English literature teacher was absent yesterday.
#)* 6y old coin collection has disappeared.
#F* Bruce is a large sheep farmer.
#G* +lying aeroplanes can be dangerous.
#(* The woman cannot bear children.
#1H* Iisiting relatives can be tiring.
=ne other feature of /hrase 7tructure -ules is that they will generate all
sentences with fairly fi!ed word order to the constituents.
E!ample adverbs will always come at the end of their sentences if we follow the
rules
#i* 4eorge helped 6ary yesterday.

This is fine for generating this sentence, but how would we get the second
sentence5
#ii* :esterday 4eorge helped 6ary.
57
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
To do this, we need a set of rules which change or move constituents in the
structures derived from the phrase structure rules. These are called
Transformational -ules.
4.2.5 T#n'fo#)tionl G#))#
=riginally interpreted as string operations, mapping one string onto another by
reordering, inserting #conte!t-sensitive rewrite rule* or deleting #unrestricted
rewrite rules* material. The passive transformation given earlier involves the first
two operations. Essentially what T-s do is to take a 3branch% of the 3tree% away
from one part of the tree diagram, and attach it to a different part.
E2)&le3
S S
NP .P A$* NP .P
. NP A$* . NP
Geor,e "el&e- 4ar% %ester-a% 8ester-a% Geor,e "el&e- 4ar%
This is an e!ample of a movement transformation.
=ne of the best arguments for having transformational rules involves what seems
to be the movement of a very small element in English sentence structure.
E!ample two sentences having a great deal in common.
#i* 'oobie picked up the maga0ine.
58
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
#ii* 'oobie picked the maga0ine up.
These sentences contain a verb-particle construction #verbRpick2 particleR up*
which can be symboli0ed as I Ib part.
The particle can be separated from the verb and moved to the end of the
sentence.
8 constituent structure analysis would have some difficulty accommodating this
type of sentence.
8 phrase structure analysis would have to create two distinct tree diagrams.
Pnder circumstances like these, the optional transformation called @/article
6ovementA which takes that structural description and yields the structural
change to $& 5erb $& &article is proposed.
/hrase 7
7tructure &/ I/
Tree
I &/
Ib part. 8rt &
Doobie picked up the magazine
/article 6ovement Doobie picked the magazine up
By taking this simple transformational rule, we have provided the means for
e!plicitly relating the two structures in sentences #i* and #ii* as 3surface% variations
of a single underlying structure. This type of transformational analysis can solve
a number of tricky problems for syntactic descriptions.
The transformational part of the grammar operates on the deep, abstract
structures as specified by the /7-%s of the grammar. Transformational rules
operate on bits and pieces of the deep structure these rules may delete
constituents, add constituents, or change constituents around.
E!amples
The boy shot the dog.
The boy could shoot the dog.
59
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Transformations that could apply to these sentences #if the correct deep structure
is specified* are the following
huestion transform
'id the boy shoot the dog5
Could the boy shoot the dog5
&egative transform
The boy didn%t shoot the dog.
The boy couldn%t shoot the dog.
/assive transform
The dog was shot by the boy.
The dog could be shot by the boy.
Command #imperative* transform
7hoot the dogQ
Sub<ect;*uxiliary Inversion and "h; )ovement.
Two principal kinds of 1uestions e!ist in English :es>&o 1uestions and
information 1uestions.
>es6$o ?uestions. In the pairs of statements and 1uestions below, the 1uestions
are called @yes>no 1uestionsA because they can be answered with a reply of yes
or no.
1. 7ue will earn a fair wage.
$ill 7ue earn a fair wage5
B. Mohn was winning the race when he stumbled.
$as Mohn winning the race when he stumbled5
If you compare the form of the statement with the form of the 1uestion above,
you will see that a yes>no 1uestion re1uires inverting the sub<ect &/ with the
au!iliary verb. Ierbs such as will in 1 above and was in B ; as well as did and
does in D and , ; are called au!iliary verbs, as distinguished from main verbs like
earn and winning. 8u!iliary verbs are precisely those that can be inverted with
the sub<ect &/ to form 1uestions2 they are also the constituent of the verb phrase
that carried the negative element in contractions such as can%t, shouldn%t, and
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
wasn%t. 8n au!iliary constituent is postulated in the underlying structure of
sentences. It can be generated by a phrase-structure rule. Instead of the earlier
e!pansion of 7 as &/ I/, the following e!pansion is assumed
7 &/ 8Pk I/
$e can represent the structure or this e!pansion in a tree diagram

7
&/ 8Pk I/
The operation that transform the constituent structure of the yes>no 1uestion
does so by inverting &/ and 8u!. Thus, sub<ect-au!iliary inversion does this
7 7
&/ 8Pk I/ 8Pk &/ I/
$rite down important notes on the phrase structure rules and
the transformational rules. 4ive a few e!amples of each.
7erve the net to get more information on these rules.
Construct ten simple>compound>comple! sentences and draw
tree diagrams to show your understanding of phrase structure
rules.
Then take a break and move on to the ne!t topic when you are
readyQ

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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
TOPIC 5 SEMANTICS3 LANGUAGE AND MEANING
5.0 SYNOPSIS
Topic E introduces you to language and its meaning. It seeks to develop your
knowledge in English language, by improving your knowledge in figurative
language as well as phrasal verbs. It also aims to help you further improve your
skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing and develop your confidence and
fluency in using English in a variety of conte!t.
5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this 7ession, you will be able to
1. understand how figurative language is used in communication
B. use figurative and phrasal verbs in spoken and written language
5.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
SESSION NINE (2 Hours)
5.2.1 W+t i' Se)nti%'A
7emantics is the study of the linguistic meanings of words, phrases and
sentences in human language. 8 word%s meaning is determined by the people
who use that word, not by the dictionary. In other words, the meaning is decided
by convention or consensus of the people.
$hy is semantics important in linguistics > language teaching5
#i* To be able to understand each other ; hence facilitating communication.
#ii* To disambiguate ambiguities
5.2.2 Wo#$ )enin!
6eaning is a multifaceted notion. $ord meaning can be content words or
function words
Denotative )eaning
-eferential meaning #'enotation>'enotative meaning* refers to the person,
ob<ect, abstract notion, event or state of affairs described by a word. It is
63
Se)nti%'
Se)nti%'
Wo#$
Menin!
Wo#$
Menin!
Fi!"#ti*e
Ln!"!e
Fi!"#ti*e
Ln!"!e
P+#'l
.e#7'
P+#'l
.e#7'
Le2i%l n$
St#"%t"#l
Menin!
Le2i%l n$
St#"%t"#l
Menin!
P+#'e n$
Senten%e
Menin!
P+#'e n$
Senten%e
Menin!
Denotti*e
Denotti*e
Connotti*e
Connotti*e
I$io)'
I$io)'
Met&+o#'
Met&+o#'
ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
described in terms of a set of semantic properties which serves to identify the
particular concept associated with the word in 1uestion. E!amples of words as
having referential or denotative meaning

#i* I went to the store this morning.
#ii* 8ll dogs are animals
$hat can you comment with regard to the truth of the sentences5
#i* It may not be true. The speaker may be lying.
#ii* Is inherently true.
6eaning is probably also determined in part by the conditions under which a
sentence may be used 1uestions, orders, wishes etc.
Connotati5e 4eanin,
In addition to denotative meaning, a word may convey certain affective or
evaluative associations. +or e!ample house vs home meaning goes beyond
referential meaning i.e. affection, feelings, emotional attachment. It reflects what
the language user feels about the content. This is connotative meaning.
7ome connotations are shared by people of the same status, social or economic
background. Consider violin K fiddle2 and cheap K ine!pensive.
I%m thrifty2 you%re tight2 he%s stingy.
5.2.1 P+#'e n$ 'enten%e )enin!
$hat do you know when you know what a sentence means5
8nyone who knows a sentence meaning knows the conditions under which it
would be true. 7entence meaning depends on the meaning of the individual
words but semantic roles must be taken into consideration. Ptterance meaning
on the other hand, is entirely dependent on circumstances.
5.2.4 Le2i%l n$ 't#"%t"#l )enin! e.!. %ollo%tion'
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
8nother basic distinction in semantics is the contrast between le!ical meaning
and sentence meaning. $e know that sentence structure makes a contribution to
sentence meaning as seen in Learns% e!amples
#i* The rat that bit the dog chased the cat.
#ii* The cat that chased the dog bit the rat.
These sentences are made out of the same words, but put together in different
ways. The differences tell a speaker of English what bit what and what chased
what.
English speakers do not find other word orders to be e1ually unambiguous, e.g.,
Chased the dog the cat.
$e use the combination of word meanings and sentence structure to compose
the meanings of sentences and larger units of discourse. =ne of the goals of
linguistic semantics is to understand how speakers construct the compositional
meanings of sentences.
5.2.5 W+t i' Fi!"#ti*e Ln!"!eA
$henever you describe something by comparing it with something else,
you are using figurative language.
+igurative language is a word or phrase that departs from everyday literal
language for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness. 6etaphor
and simile are the two most commonly used figures of speech, but things like
hyperbole, synecdoche, puns, and personification are also figures of speech.
Psed well, figurative language enhances your fiction and can be an economical
way of getting an image or a point across. .owever, used incorrectly, figurative
language can be confusing or downright silly.
Al'o Kno,n A'3 figure of speech, rhetorical figure, metaphorical language.
E2)&le'3
?Its fleece was white as snow? is an e!ample of a figurative language from a
childrenOs rhyme. In this case, comparing the lambOs fleece to snow helps create
a picture of how white 6aryOs lamb really was.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
Though we might associate figurative language more with poetry than with
fiction, most of us automatically use figurative language all the time in our writing.
'one well, it helps us communicate and makes our prose fresher and more vivid.
!"at Is a 4eta&"or$
7ome people think of metaphors as nothing more than the sweet stuff of songs
and poems--"ove is a <ewel, or a rose, or a butterfly. But in fact all of us speak
and write and think in metaphors every day. They canOt be avoided metaphors
are built right into our language.
8 metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made
between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.
The word metaphor itself is a metaphor, coming from a 4reek word meaning to
?transfer? or ?carry across.? 6etaphors ?carry? meaning from one word, image, or
idea to another.
$hen 'r. 4regory .ouse #in the TI series 7ouse, ).D.* says, ?IOm a night owl,
$ilsonOs an early bird. $eOre different species,? heOs speaking metaphorically.
$hen 'r. Cuddy replies, ?Then move him into his own cage,? sheOs e!tending
.ouseOs bird metaphor--which he caps off with the remark, ?$hoOll clean the
droppings from mine5?
Con5entional 4eta&"ors
7ome metaphors are so common that we may not even notice that they are
metaphors. Take the familiar metaphor of life as a <ourney, for e!ample. $e find it
in advertising slogans
?"ife is a <ourney, travel it well.? #Pnited 8irlines*
?"ife is a <ourney. En<oy the -ide.? #&issan*
?"ife is a <ourney. En<oy the ride with a 46 reward card.? #4eneral 6otors*
!"at is a Si#ile$
8 simile uses the words @likeA or @asA to compare one ob<ect or idea with another
to suggest they are alike.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
E!ample busy as a bee
The metaphor states a fact or draws a verbal picture by the use of comparison.
8 simile would say you are like something2 a metaphor is more positive - it says
you are something. E!ample :ou are what you eat.
!"at is an I-io#$
8ccording to $ebsterOs 'ictionary, an idiom is defined as peculiar to itself
either grammatically #as no, it wasnOt me* or in having a meaning
that cannot be derived from the con<oined meanings of its elements
#as 6onday week for ?the 6onday a week after ne!t 6onday?*
5.2.> P+#'l .e#7'
8 &+#'l *e#7 is a combination of a verb and a preposition, a verb and an
adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition, any of which are part of
the synta! of the sentence, and so are a complete semantic unit. 7entences may
contain direct and indirect ob<ects in addition to the phrasal verb. /hrasal verbs
are particularly fre1uent in the English language. 8 phrasal verb often has a
meaning which is different from the original verb.
/hrasal verbs are usually used informally in everyday speech as opposed to the
more formal "atinate verbs, such as @to get togetherA rather than @to congregateA,
@to put offA rather than @to postponeA, or @to get outA rather than @to e!itA.
Literal usa,e
6any verbs in English can be combined with an adverb or a preposition, and
readers or listeners will easily understand a phrasal verb used in a literal sense
with a preposition
?.e walked across the s1uare.?
Ierb and adverb constructions can also easily be understood when used literally
?7he opened the shutters and looked outside.?
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
?$hen he heard the crash, he looked up.?
8n adverb in a literal phrasal verb modifies the verb it is attached to, and a
preposition links the verb to the ob<ect.
I-io#atic usa,e
It is, however, the figurative or idiomatic application in everyday speech which
makes phrasal verbs so important
?I hope you will get over your operation 1uickly.?
?$ork hard, and get your e!amination over with.?
The literal meaning of @to get overA, in the sense of @to climb over something to
get to the other sideA, no longer applies to e!plain the sub<ectOs enduring an
operation or the stress of an e!amination which they have to overcome. It is
when the combined meaning of verb plus adverb, or verb plus preposition is
totally different from each of its component parts, that the semantic content of the
phrasal verb cannot be predicted by its constituent parts and so becomes much
more difficult for a student learning English to recognise.
=ther idiomatic usages of phrasal verbs show a
verb g direct ob<ect g preposition>adverb g indirect ob<ect construction
Idioms which are formed from phrasal verbs, such as let the cat out of the bag.
These idioms are printed in heavy type. Idioms have a meaning which is different
from the meaning of the single words, and usually have a fi!ed word order.
TDU
Courtney then cites among many other e!amples in the dictionary such phrases
as ?to add insult to in<ury?, ?to add fuel to the flames?, ?to leave someone in the
lurch?, ?to scare someone out of their wits?, etc.
9"rasal 5er) &atterns
8 phrasal verb contains either a preposition or an adverb #or both*, and may also
combine with one or more nouns or pronouns.
9article 5er)s
/hrasal verbs that contain adverbs are sometimes called ?particle verbs?, and
are related to separable verbs in other 4ermanic languages. There are two main
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
patterns intransitive and transitive. 8n intransitive particle verb does not have an
ob<ect
@$hen I entered the room he looked up.A
8 transitive particle verb has a nominal ob<ect in addition to the adverb. If the
ob<ect is an ordinary noun, it can usually appear on either side of the adverb,
although very long noun phrases tend to come after the adverb
Switch off the light.
Switch the light off.
Switch off the lights in the hallway ne!t to the bedroom in which the
president is sleeping.
$ith some transitive particle verbs, however, the noun ob<ect must come after
the adverb. 7uch e!amples are said to involve ?inseparable? phrasal verbs
The gas gave off fumes. #not mThe gas gave fumes off.*
=ther transitive particle verbs re1uire the ob<ect to precede the adverb, even
when the ob<ect is a long noun phrase
I cannot tell the dogs apart. #not mI cannot tell apart the dogs.*
I cannot tell the bulldogs and the pugs who look like them apart.
.owever, some authors say that the particle must be ad<acent to the verb
whenever the noun phrase is lengthy and complicated.
$ith all transitive particle verbs, if the ob<ect is a pronoun, it must, with <ust one
type of e!ception, precede the adverb
Switch it off. #not mSwitch off it.*
The smell put them off. #not mput off them*
They let him through. #not mthey let through him*
The e!ception occurs if the direct ob<ect is contrastively stressed, as in
@igure out T.E7E, not T.=7E.
6ost phrasal verbs consist of two words, but a few consist of t+#ee words, which
always stay together.
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
.e#7 Menin! E2)&le
'< someone
o"t
invite on a date
Brian '<e$ Mudy o"t to dinner
and a movie.
'< #o"n$
ask many people the same
1uestion
I '<e$ #o"n$ but nobody has
seen my wallet.
$$ "& to
something
e1ual
:our purchases $$ "& to
nBHE.DB.
7%<
something "&
reverse
:ouOll have to 7%< "& your car
so that I can get out.
7%< someone
"&
support
6y wife 7%<e$ me "& over my
decision to 1uit my <ob.
7lo, "& e!plode
The racing car 7le, "& after it
crashed into the fence.
7lo,
something "&
add air
$e have to 7lo, EH balloons "&
for the party.
7#e< $o,n
stop functioning #vehicle,
machine*
=ur car 7#o<e $o,n at the side
of the highway in the snowstorm.
7#e< $o,n get upset
The woman 7#o<e $o,n when
the police told her that her son
had died.
7#e<
something
$o,n
divide into smaller parts
=ur teacher 7#o<e the final
pro<ect $o,n into three separate
parts.
7#e< in force entry to a building
7omebody 7#o<e in last night
and stole our stereo.
7#e< into
something
enter forcibly
The firemen had to 7#e< into
the room to rescue the children.
7#e<
something in
wear something a few times
so that it doesnOt look>feel
new
I need to 7#e< these shoes in
before we run ne!t week.
7#e< in interrupt
The TI station 7#o<e in to report
the news of the presidentOs death.
7#e< "& end a relationship 6y boyfriend and I 7#o<e "&
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ELE3103 ENGLISH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
before I moved to 8merica.
7#e< "& start laughing #informal*
The kids <ust 7#o<e "& as soon
as the clown started talking.
7#e< o"t escape
The prisoners 7#o<e o"t of <ail
when the guards werenOt looking.
7#e< o"t in
something
develop a skin condition
I 7#o<e o"t in a rash after our
camping trip.
'raw a table as above and write down as many phrasal verbs as
you can, e!plain the meanings and give e!amples.
Check your answers with your tutorQ
71