Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

HELLENIC AGE

PHILOSOPHY
Greeks used observation and reason to find causes for what happened
Ethics and morality
In Athens, Sophism- success is more important than moral truth
o Rhetoric- art of skillful speaking
o Socrates- Sophist, Athenian philosopher
Socratic ethod- pose series of !uestions to students and challenge them to e"amine the implications
of their answers
o #lato- student of Socrates
Emphasi$ed the importance of reason %#eople could discover unchanging ethical values, recogni$e
perfect beauty, and learn how best to organi$e society&
Academy
'he Republic- vision of an ideal state (Ideal Society) *orkers, Soldiers and #hilosophers+, talented
women should be should be educated to serve the state
o Aristotle- ideas of government- %,ow people ought to live-&
.yceum- politics, ethics, biology, literature
ARCHITECTURE AND ART
Plato Every object on earth ha an !eal "or#$- balance, order, and beauty
AR/,I'E/'0RE
o #erfect balance, harmony and order of the universe
o #arthenon, dedicated to Athena
S/0.#'0RE A12 #AI1'I1G
o Emphasi$ed natural poses, lifelike and idealistic
o /arved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men which shows their most perfect, graceful form
LITERATURE% classical style- elegant, balance
o Epics of ,omer, Sapho (love and beauty+, #indar (athletic contest+
o 2RAA- most important contribution
3ased on popular myths and legends
2iscussed moral and social issues, relationship of people and gods
o 'RAGE24
Aeschylus ('he 5rosteia+, Sophocles (Antigone+, Euripides ('he 'ro6an *omen+
,uman suffering ended in disaster- stir emotions of pity and fear
o /5E2IES
,umorous plays that mocked people and customs
Aristophanes (.ysistrata+
HISTORY
o Heroot&'% 7ather of ,istory- %'he #ersian *ars&
o I#(ortance o" re'earch an avo! b!a'
ALE)ANDER THE GREAT AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE
Ph!l!( II% *!n+ o" ,aceon!a
/on!uering prosperous city states to the south
'hrough threats, bribery, diplomacy, he formed an alliance with many Greek city states
3attle of /haeronea- Athens and 'hebes vs8 acedonia (#hilip II won the battle+
'o con!uer the #ersian empire
,e was assassinated for political reasons
Ale-aner the Great
Son of #hilip II
E"panded the territories- con!uered the #ersian Empire (Asia inor, #alestine, South Egypt, 3abylon, 1orth India+
2eath of Ale"ander the Great led to years of disorder
o Three General' !v!e the e#(!re. ,aceon!a an Greece/ E+y(t an Per'!a
Le+acy. spread of Greek culture
o 3lending of cultures- Egypt and India) temples, married with a #ersian women- adapted #ersian customs
,ellenistic Age- new culture that emerged which blended Greek, #ersian, Egyptian and Indian influences
o *omen learned to read and write
o Ne0 School' o" Tho&+ht. Stoicism by 9eno- avoid desires and disappointments by means of acceptance,
high moral standards) protect the rights of fellowmen
o Avance' !n Learn!n+.
,athe#at!c'. #ythagorean theorem- calculate relationships of the sides of a right triangle, 'he
Elements (modern geometry by Euclid+
A'trono#y. Aristarchus (,eliocentric theory+, Erastosthenes (circumference of the Earth+
Sc!ence. Archimedes (#hysics, use of lever and pulley+
,e!c!ne. ,ippocrates (causes of illnesses and looked for cures+, ,ippocratic 5ath
ANCIENT RO,AN CI1ILI2ATION
HISTORY
LATINS- 'iber River
#ut up Rome city when population grew and economy developed
Shared other parts of Italy to Greeks and Etruscans
.earned alphabet from Etruscans (who learned it from Greeks+
/on!uered by Etruscans
:;<) Romans defeated the Etruscans
THE RO,AN REPU3LIC AND E,PIRE
REPU3LIC
Set up Republic %'hing of the people&
'o prevent any individual from gaining too much power, officials were elected
Senate- most powerful governing body
o embers) =;; patricians (landholding upper class+- Senators, made the laws
o > consuls were elected yearly from among the senators (business of the government, run the armies+ ? year
term
o In times of war, dictator may be chosen (@ months term+
o #lebeians- farmers, merchants, artisans, traders- made up the bulk of the population
.aws of 'welve 'ables- first breakthrough in A:; 3/
Elected 'ribunes- own officials to 6oin the Senate, could veto- block laws harmful to plebeians,
eventually handled positions like consuls, dictator
E"pansion of Italy- e"panded Roman power across Italy, Etruscans then Greeks
o RomeBs success was due to skillful diplomacy and well-trained army
o Soldiers- loyalty, courage and respect for authority
o i"ed rewards with harsh punishments
o Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with 6ustice- acknowledge Roman leadership, pay ta"es and
supply soldiers- allowed to keep customs, money and local government
o #rotection and 0nification) posted soldiers throughout the land, military roads
E,PIRE
45 PUNIC 6ARS C Rome vs8 /arthage ('unisia, owned by #hoenicians and 1orth Africans+, own colonies in Sicily, /orsica and
Sardinia
/ause) e"pansion of territories
7!r't P&n!c 6ar. Rome defeated /arthage and won Sicily, /orsica, Sardinia
Secon P&n!c 6ar. ,annibal (/arthage attack Europe by passing through Spain, 7rance, Italy- ruled for ?: years, 7ailed to
capture Rome, Romans outflanked ,annibal by sending an army to /arthage
(Romans won, /arthage gave up all his lands e"cept those in Africa
Th!r P&n!c 6ar. Romans saw /arthage as a rival and wanted revenge for terrible destruction to Italy8 Rome completely
destroyed /arthage- masters of editerranean world
>8 Romans defeated Ale"ander the Great (got Greece, acedonia, #arts of Asia inor (#ersian Empire+, Egypt, Syria
#R5GRAS I#.EE1'E2 '5 /5.51IES
Acknowledge Roman leadership
#ay ta"
Supply soldiers
7ull citi$enship
Allowed to keep customs
#osted soldiers in provinces and colonies
'rade in the empire
.atin as official language
Some men were made slaves in latifundia (estates of rich families+
SOCIAL AND ECONO,IC E77ECTS
'RA2E- rich, gap between rich and poor
7ARI1G- small farmers didnBt get to compete with latifundia goods
#5DER'4- #oor were forced to look for cheap labor
*EA.', led to corruption (greed and self-interest rather than simplicity, hardwork and devotion to duty+
DECLINE O7 REPU3LIC.
/ivil *ars- Slave 0prisings and Revolts
LEADERS.
RISE LEADER8 ACHIE1E,ENTS DO6N7ALL
Electe Tr!b&ne' 'iberius C use of public funds to buy
grain to feed the poor
Gaius Gracchus- attempted reforms,
elected tribune, called on state to
distribute the lands to poor farmers
An+ere the 'enate/ threat to !t'
(o0er/ 0ere 9!lle by 'enator' an
th&+'
Revolt 4
't
Tr!&#v!rate.
Cra''&'
Ga!&' Po#(ey v'5
:&l!&' Cae'ar% set out new
con!uests- Gaul (7rance+, crushed
#ompey and his supporters, absolute
ruler of Rome, Eulian calendar,
organi$ed the government
Ene#!e' 'tabbe Cae'ar to eath
Inher!te :&l!&' Cae'ar;' throne <
n
Tr!&#v!rate.
,ar9 Anthony% ch!e" +eneral
Le(!&'
Octav!an or A&+&'t&' Cae'ar%
+ranne(he0
,ar9 Anthony v'5 Octav!an%
'tr&++le "or (o0er
Octav!a% A&+&'t&' E-alte One$/
princeps or first citi$en, marked the
end of Republic- Age of Roman
Empire
2isbanded Senate
/reated efficient well
trained civil service to
enforce laws, high level 6obs
offered to men of talent
'o make ta" system fair, he
ordered census or
population count
#ostal service and issued
new coins
3uilt roads and temples
Start of #a" Romana
Nat&ral Death% %*ho would rule
after an emperor died-& C led to
intrigue and violence
Related to Augustus :ULIO% CLAUDIAN DYNASTY
'iberius- continued policies of
Augustus
/aligula- cruel and insane
5ld Age
Filled
/laudius- scholar, military e"pedition
1ero- persecuted /hristians burned
Rome
5ld Age
/ommitted Suicide
/hosen by the Army Despasian- discipline of Army
administrations, put down uprisings
End of 'erm
/hosen by Senate 1erva- defined succession of power 1atural death
S&cce''!on GOOD E,PERORS
'ra6an- more land 1orth of Italy and
2anube River
,adrian- codified Roman law,
making it the same for all provinces
S&cce''!on ,arc&' A&rel!&'% #!l!tary
ca#(a!+n'
9!lle
PA) RO,ANA- >;; years- Augustus to Aurelius %Roman #eace& (brought peace, unity, and prosperity+
?8 #olitical Stability- senators and governors were closely monitored, armies became loyal to emperor
>8 Economic sufficiency- surplus of goods, ta" collection, and trade flourished
=8 /ultural development- Eastern and *estern culture met
RO,AN ACHIE1E,ENTS. =GRECO% RO,AN CI1ILI2ATION>
LITERATURE/ PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY
Imitated Greek styles in prose and poetry
#oetry) Dirgil wrote 'he Aeneid- goal was to arouse patriotism and unite Rome after years of civil wars, linked to the
epics of ,omer
o Satires- make fun of Roman society
,istory) Rise and 7all of Rome, .ivy- patriotic feeling and restore Roman virtues
#hilosophy) Stoicism- importance of duty and acceptance of oneBs fate, concern to the well-being of people
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
3ased on Greeks and Etruscan models
Realism, revealing an individualBs character
Roman beautified their homes with works of art
AR/,I'E/'0RE) Improved the arch and columnsG #antheon
TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
Engineering- structures and machines, built roads, harbors, bridges, a!ueducts
Science) #tolemy) Earth was the center of the earth
o Galen- medical science, encyclopedia
o Geography- maps
o #liny the Elder) compiled books) geography, $oology, botany
RO,AN LA6
7ostered unity and stability
.egal basis of Europe and .atin America
o /ivil .aw- applied to its citi$ens
o .aw of 1ations- applied to all people under Roman rule
RELIGION
#olytheistic, gods and goddesses ) 9eus and Eupiter- god of sky, 1eptune and #oseidon) god of sea, Euno and ,era-
marriage
Chr!'t!an!ty% contact with Eudea, #ersecution of Early /hristians
7ALL O7 RO,E
Government ) .eaders) struggle for power, disruptive political patterns, revolts and killings, corruption, government
became more oppressive and authoritarian
Economic #roblems) ,igh ta"es- support army, farmlands lost productivity, reliance on slave labor
2ivision of empire
Epidemic diseases
Invasions) Germanic Invasion- hired mercenaries-foreigners as soldiers
Social /auses) 0pper /lass devoted itself to lu"ury and self- interest, Dalues of Simplicity, 2iscipline, #atriotism and
2evotion to duty replaced by Greed and Self-Interest
Army 2eteriorates