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2

Complex Numbers
LEVEL 2
56. As ABCD is a parallelogram,
mid point of AC = mid point of BD

1
2
1 3
( ) z z + =
1
2
2 4
( ) z z +
z
4
= z
1
+ z
3
z
2
57. |a + bw + cw
2
|
2
= (a + bw + c w ) (a + b w + cw)
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
bc ca ab
=
1
2
2 2 2
b c c a a b - ( ) + - ( ) + - ( )

As a, b, c are integers and at least two of them


are unequal, we get,
(b c)
2
+ (c a)
2
+ (a b) 2.
Thus, |a + bw + cw
2
|
2
1 |a + bw + cw
2
| 1
Least value 1 is attained when a = 2, b = 1, c = 1.
58. We have AP = AB = AQ = 2
Thus, for the shaded region |z + 1| > 2
Also, BAQ = tan
-
- +

1
2
2 1 1
=
p
4
and BAP = p / 4
Hence, for the shaded region
|z + 1| > 2 and |arg (z + 1)| < p / 4
59. As
w wz
z
-
- 1
is purely real,

w wz
z
-
- 1
=
w wz
z
-
- 1
(1 z ) (w wz ) = (1 z) ( w wz )
(w w ) (1 z z ) = 0
As w w , we get z z = 1
Thus, set of values of z is
{z: |z| = 1, z 1}.
60. zw = |z|
2
zw = z z w = z
Thus, |z z | + |w + w | = 4
= |z z | + | z + z| = 4
= |2iy| + |2x| = 4
= |x| + |y| = 2
y
x
-2 2
-2
2
0
Fig. 2.49
This represents a square. See Fig. 2.49.
61. Let z = x + iy, then
x = 1 t, y = t t
2
2 + +
t = 1 x and y
2
= t
2
+ t + 2 = (t + 1/2)
2
+ 7/4
y
2
= (x 3/2)
2
+ 7/4.
2.2 JEE Main MathematicsLevel 2, Hints and Solutions
This represents a hyperbola.
62.
w w
az bz
az bz
az bz
az bz
+ =
-
+
+
-
+
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2

=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) az bz az bz az bz az bz
az bz
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2
2
- + + - +
+
=
a z z b z z
az bz
2
1 1
2
2 2
1 2
2
-
+
= 0 [ a |z
1
| = b |z
2
|]
w lies on the imaginary axis.
63. |z| + |1 z| + |z 2|
max {|z|, |(1 z) + (z 2)|, |z + (1 z)| +
|z 2|, |1 z| + |z (z 2)|} = 2
The value 2 is attained when z = 1
64. See Theory.
65. |z
2
z
3
|
2
+ |z
1
|
2
= |z
2
z
3
|
2
+ | z
2
z
3
|
2
|z
2
z
3
|
2
+ 1 = 2|(|z
2
|
2
+ |z
3
|
2
) = 4
|z
2
z
3
| = 3
Similarly, |z
3
z
1
| = |z
1
z
2
| = 3
Thus, z
1
, z
2
, z
3
are vertices of an equilateral
triangle.
66. 1 + w + w
2
+ + w
n 1
=
1
1
-
-
w
w
n
=
1
1
- +
- ( ) - ( )
cos sin
cos / sin /
p p
p p
i
n i n
=
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
sin ( ) sin ( ) cos p p p n i n n - ( )
=
2
2 2 2 2 - + [ ] i n n i n sin( ) cos ( ) sin ( ) p p p
=
cos ( ) sin ( )
sin ( )
cot
p p
p
p 2 2
2
1
2
n i n
i n
i
n
-
-
= +

67. |z
1
+ z
2
|
2
= |z
1
z
2
|
2
|z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
+ z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
2
= |z
1
|
2
+ |z
2
|
2
z
1
z
2
z
1
z
2
2(z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
2
) = 0
z
z
z
z
1
1
2
2
0 + =
68. z
1
lies on the circle |z| = 2 and z
2
lies on the line
x + y = 4 2
Distance of x + y = 4 2 from (0, 0) is 4
Thus, minimum distance between z
1
and z
2
is 2.
z
1
z
2
Fig. 2.50
Alternative Solution
Distance of z
1
= 2(cosq + isinq) from x + y =
4 2,

is

2 2 4 2
2
cos sin q q + -

= 2 ( 2 2 (cosq + sinq))
Maximum possible value of cosq + sinq is 2 .
69. Let z
1
= r (cosq + isinq).
Equation of tanget to x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
at (rcosq, rsinq)
is
x cosq + y sinq = r

+

+
-

=
z z z z z z
i
z z
i
r
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2
z z z z r
1 1
2
2 + =

z
z
z
z
1 1
2 + = .
70. Using |z
1
| + |z
2
| |z
1
z
2
|, we get
|z 2 + 3i| + |z 1 + i| |1 + 2i| = 5
71. |z a
2
| + |z 2a| = 3 will represent an ellipse if
|a
2
2a| < 3
3 < a
2
2a < 3
2 < (a 1)
2
< 4
(a 1)
2
< 4 1 < a < 3 a(0, 3)
72. As AB = BC = CA, we get
2|z| = |1| = |1 2z|
|z| =
1
2
and |z
1
2
| =
1
2
z is the point of intersection of circles
Complex Numbers 2.3
|z| = 1/2 and |z 1/2| = 1/2
z =
1
4
1 3 +
( )
i
73. |z + 1| + |z 3| 10 represents the ellipse with
focii at (1, 0), and (3, 0) and length of major
axis 10. Its centre is (1, 0), and its equation is

x y - ( )
+
1
25 19
2 2
= 1
Any point on the ellipse is P (1 + 5 cosq,
19 sinq ). Its distance from A (7, 0) is given by
AP
2
= (5cosq 6)
2
+ 19 sin
2
q
= 6(5 cosq)
2
95.
1 AP
2
< 121 1 AP 11.
74. |z 1|
2
+ 12| z w|
2
= 3|z w
2
|
2
|z|
2
+ 1 z z + 2[|z|
2
+ 1 z w z w]
= 3[|z|
2
+ 1 z w
2
z w
2
]
(3w 2w
2
1) z + (3w
2
2w 1) z = 0
which represents a straight line.
75. As R.H.S is real, L.H.S must be real.
Also,
1
1 1
2
+
-

=
-
-

i
i
i i
i
n
= i
n
is real when n is
even.
As x > 0 and
1
2
1
2
1
2
+
= +

x
x
x
x
> 1. For x 1,
we get only possible value of x is 1.
\ RHS = 1, thus, least value of n is 4.