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Causes of the deficiency of world class

home-grown Jamaica footballers





Name: Romain Jones
Centre Number: 100016
Candidate Number: 1000160804
Subject: Caribbean Studies


Acknowledgments
This project was the culmination of efforts of many persons and not only myself.
Without the contributions of them, the completion of this research project would not
have come to fruition to whom I must extend ultimate gratitude.
The researcher is thankful for the guidance of his Caribbean Studies teacher, Ms.
Gordon, whose input was important in completing the research properly so that the
research was of standards required of CXC.
The researcher is very thankful of efforts made my friends and family in completing this
project. Special thanks must be made to those who assisted in the distribution and
recovery of questionnaires. Warm thanks are also made to friends who proofread this
project and offered suggestions. Finally, the researcher is also thankful to his parents
for the motivation to complete this project to the best of his ability.


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Background to the Research ..................................................................................................................... 4
Purpose of the Research ........................................................................................................................... 4
Value of the Research ............................................................................................................................... 4
Statement of the Research ....................................................................................................................... 5
Objectives of the Research ....................................................................................................................... 5
Technical Terms used in the Study ........................................................................................................... 5
Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................... 7
Data Collection Sources .............................................................................................................................. 10
Presentation of Data ................................................................................................................................... 11
Analysis of Data ........................................................................................................................................... 17
Discussion of Findings ................................................................................................................................. 18
Conclusions, Limitations, and Recommendations ...................................................................................... 20
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 20
Limitations .............................................................................................................................................. 20
Recommendations .................................................................................................................................. 21
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 22
Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
Questionnaire A ...................................................................................................................................... 23
Questionnaire B ...................................................................................................................................... 24
Questionnaire C ...................................................................................................................................... 25


Introduction
Background to the Research
Football is the world's most popular sport. This is no different in Jamaica.
Consequently, the Jamaica Football Federation sends teams to participate in the FIFA
World Cup qualification process. Jamaica's qualification in for the 1998 FIFA World Cup
caused mass euphoria in Jamaicans (both at home and in the diaspora). Even though
they were knocked out at the group stages with four points (one win, one draw and one
loss), Jamaica was proud of the performance of the Reggae Boyz. Since, Jamaica has
failed to qualify for the World Cup Finals yet Japan, over whom the Reggae Boyz
claimed their sole victory, has consistently made it to knockout rounds in subsequent
World Cups, Trinidad has made it to the Finals since and numerous other countries
smaller than us in population, size, and economy have made it to World Cup Finals.
Faced with this reality, many have lambasted the poor performances of foreign-based
players and questioned if our local-bred players are really worse than them.
Purpose of the Research
The researcher hopes to ascertain the state of the youth football infrastructure in
Jamaica. The researcher also aims to determine the difference between the footballing
education of home-grown Jamaicans and naturalized Jamaicans who were educated in
football in first world countries.
Value of the Research
The research will benefit the researcher by exposing the researcher to football
coaching which is a field that interests the researcher. The results of this research
would benefit the Jamaican Football Federation as they could utilise them to improve

the footballing landscape as to assist Jamaicas attempt in being a big player in major
international football tournaments which (if successful) would boost morale of the
population.
Statement of the Research
What are the causes of the Jamaica's inability to produce international calibre
footballers?
Objectives of the Research
Why are there not enough home-grown players in the national team?
What is the state of the youth football infrastructure in Jamaica?
Do many youth footballers make the transition to professional football?
Do many youth footballers believe they can make professional football their sole
income earner?
Technical Terms used in the Study
FIFA (International Federation of Association Football) - This is the International
Governing Body of Football.
CONCACAF (Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association
Football) - One of six continental member governing bodies of FIFA.
Jamaica Football Federation (JFF) - Jamaica's Governing Body of Football. The JFF is
a member of CONCACAF.
Home-grown Player- A football player that spent an extensive period of time
(approximately 6 years of the 14-21 years of age) as youth footballer in a country
[Jamaica].

Youth Football - Football played non-professionally by persons under 21 in specified
age groups. This includes: under-21, under-19, under-17, under-15 and more.
International Tournaments- Football tournaments sanctioned by FIFA which are played
by national senior teams.

Literature Review

Football is a sport played by two teams of eleven players each. According to a
Gleaner Article by Robert Bailey, (Bailey, 2012), it is the belief of one of our best
coaches, Neville Bell, that Jamaica needs football academies in order to increase the
quality of players across the island. This is because at academies, more time is spent
with the players to learn how to play the sport which will increase their understanding of
the game hence, make them better players. Implementing such a system would lead to
the beginning of Jamaica adopting the European model of academies where players
board at an institution (usually run by a parent club team, to serve as a feeder to the
senior team) whose footballing, educational, nutritional and other important needs are
taken care of. These institutions have been very successful and have formed footballing
philosophies and cores of the F.C. Barcelona team of 2008-2011 and the Ajax teams of
the 1980s and 1990s.
Jamaicas senior national football team has not qualified for a World Cup since
1998. According to the article penned by Tony Becca, (Becca, 2013), this is due to the
inability to produce quality players in Jamaica.
In the article posted by ESPN FC, (Hesse, 2013), Uli Hesse uses the article to
entail the process the German national football federation underwent to bring the
German National Football Team back to the top of the Football landscape which is
where they are today. Two German club teams (Bayern Munich and Borussia
Dortmund) contested the 2013 UEFA Champions League Final and the German
National Team has made it to the semi-finals of the last four international tournaments

they have been in (World Cup 2006, Euro 2008, World Cup 2010, Euro 2012) in
addition to winning numerous titles at the youth level (Under 21, Under 19, Under 17).
The German football infrastructure underwent a massive overhaul (especially at the
grassroots level) after the two disappointing performances at World Cup 1998 and Euro
2000. Hesse wrote this article during the English call for improvement in their football
structure. Even though this article is of a large European country, Football is a sport
played by eleven players so the size of a squad is often irrelevant and this article can be
used to serve as a benchmark against which all other countries can be compared
including Jamaica.
An article published by The Guardian written in 2012 after the successful exploits
of Caribbean athletes gives reason for the athletes' outstanding performance at the
Olympics past the traditional argument that "Black" athletes are simply physically
superior. The article stated that if the emergence of Caribbean was simply down to the
West African genes then countries such as: United States of America, Brazil, Nigeria,
Ghana and other West African countries would be doing as well as Jamaica and other
Caribbean countries today. Rather, the author suggests that the success of the
Caribbean nations is down to economic policies in the 1960s and 1970s which enabled
easier access to healthcare and education which are coming to fruition today. Although
this article is specifically referencing Athletics and not Football, the sports are similar in
the physical nature which they require. This article can be used as some comparison
between the success of Football and Athletics in the Caribbean in the 2000s.
Over the last 20 years, the footballing landscape has changed beyond
recognition. There is a greater use of technology, athletes have a greater sense of

professionalism and there is a greater use of the scientific method to enhance the
performance of athletes. It seems Jamaica has been left behind in the "Dark Ages" yet
the JFF has been seemingly shell-shocked in the absence of success.

Data Collection Sources

In order for this research project to be feasible, primary sources and secondary
sources were of importance to the researcher.
Many online articles were used as secondary sources to get an understanding of
the research problem which served as the basis of the Literature Review. These were
The German Revolution, Genes May Help but Caribbean Athletes were nurtured to
success, Look At Jamaicas Football, St. Georges College to Launch Football Academy
in April. The latter two helped to identify what to look for in the research. The former two
articles were used to get an idea of the potential benefits of good infrastructure on
sports.
The primary method of data collection was survey. The surveys were
administered using questionnaires. Three different questionnaires were given to
different groups: one to youth footballers (Appendix A), one to school football coaches
(Appendix C) and the final to club football coaches (Appendix B). 15 players from
varying schools in the Kingston Metropolitan Area were chosen for the sample for
questionnaire A. 5 head coaches of prominent club football and school programs in the
urban area. Players and coaches of successful and prominent teams were chosen as to
give insight into how our best and brightest talents are trained and how they consider
the sport. Online repositories of information of: teams and matches at international
tournaments, school boy tournaments, schoolboy football winners, ranking history and
international squad lists were useful to the research. The combination of these were all
of great use to the research.

Presentation of Data

Duration of school football training
Start End
July October
June November
July November
June October
June November
Figure 1: Average duration is July to November
Duration of club football training
Start End
April June
April June
April June
April June
March June
Figure 2: Average duration is April to June


Figure 3 School football is more important to the players
Completion of club football training
Completed Non-completed
8 4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Club Football School Football
More important competition

Figure 4: Most players completed their club football season.

Figure 5: Most players have not been scouted

Figure 6: Most players want to be scouted.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Scouted Not scouted
Have been scouted
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Want to be scouted Does not want to be scouted
Seeking scouting


Figure 7: Average time spent training in school is 21 hours a week

Figure 8: Average time spent training in club is 16 hours a week
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5
School Football Hours per week
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5
Club Football Hours per week


Figure 9: Most clubs are without access to gym facilities.

Figure 10: All schools have gyms and a significant proportion has multiple equipment in gym
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
No gym Singular Equipment in gym Multiple equipment in gym
Number of clubs
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
No gym
Singular Equipment in gym
Multiple equipment in gym
Number of Schools


Figure 11: All schools have fields but most have only one.

Figure 12: Most clubs have multiple fields for training.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1 field 2 fields 3 fields
Number of Schools
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1 field 2 fields 3 fields
Number of clubs


Figure 14: Almost no schools have facilities to treat muscles after training

Figure 15: An almost even proportion of clubs have facilities to treat muscles after training.


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
None
Physiotherapy
Massage
Number of Schools
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
None Physiotherapy Massage
Number of clubs

Analysis of Data

From the data collected available, most footballers participate in both a school
football program and a club football program. Even though many participated in both
programs, performing well for their school is of higher importance to the player than
performing well for their club.
It is seen from the data that approximately 20 hours a week is spent training
during the year in school. The school teams train from July to November. 16 hours a
week is spent training in club football. The club football season lasts from April to June.
It is also seen that there is a limited access to facilities and coaches are mostly
uncertified at club football programs. Clubs have only one or two fields to their disposal
for training. No clubs have access to gyms or massagers. Most schools only have a
gym but not much equipment and no clubs have access to gyms, so players must sort
that out for themselves, probably at a cost.
Most players hope to be scouted but only 4 of the 12 have been scouted by
universities or senior club teams.
Most coaches believe their players will eventually play professional football but
only a few are of the quality to play for Jamaica and almost none are likely to play in a
major European League.


Discussion of Findings

After the analysis of the data collected, many aspects of the research become
more evident to the researcher.
Most youth football education takes place in the school through the extra-
curricular facility and while most respondents participate in club football, it is on the back
burner for them. This is problematic as the school football training lasts from July to
November for most teams and club football lasts from April to June which leaves most
footballers inactive for approximately four months of the year. This is in itself is
especially problematic as that one third of the year when players are supposed to be
solidifying their understanding of the fundamentals of the game. Another problem is that
only 20 hours of each week is spent on practicing football. This is in stark contrast to
European teams, which are at the top of the international game of football, who train
upwards of 40 hours a week in football academies. Clearly, Jamaican footballers are at
a disadvantage to the Europeans in terms of exposure to football education. By the
same stroke of the pen, the thought that Jamaicas underperformance in football and
success in athletics is due to a genetic lottery which results in naturally talented
sprinters across the board, and young males without the mentality or the physical
capabilities to become successful footballers. This is false. As stated in the article by
Drayton Richard, the success of the Jamaicans is mostly down to economic and social
policies which allowed for Jamaican youngsters to participate in athletics. Which raises
the issue of what is the infrastructure in place for football training which segues into my
next point.

Club teams and school teams were seen to not have access to much facilities to
much equipment or highly certified coaches. While the coaches may have gained much
experience while working, without certification and training they may not be keeping with
the training techniques of the time and as such, would not train their players to the best
possible standard. Without access to top level facilities or enough facilities, players are
not able to train cohesively as a team and able to maximise their efforts.
It can also be seen that many of best talents do not believe that they can make
an income playing football professionally or believe they can represent the country. This
can definitely have a negative in training as players may not be as focused or as
determined to make an effort to become better players. Only 2/3 of all players are
actively seeking to be scouted by a club or university. This means that most players do
not think of themselves progressing to an advanced level which may mean that the
players do not think themselves as high quality footballers.
Most coaches believe that their players will not be of the ability to play in a major
European league but most will play in the national local league at some point. Many
players do not think of themselves to be of the standard required for top level.

Conclusions, Limitations, and Recommendations
Conclusion

After analysing the data, the researcher was able to conclude that the number of
home-grown players in the national senior playing squad is determined by a myriad of
factors but most importantly the belief is that, generally, the players are not of
international standard and will be standing as is for at least the short term.
Youth football primarily takes place in school programs where there are many
coaches who are uncertified. Many players participate in club football programs. But
more facilities are available at the school level.
Many footballers are expected to make the transition to professional football but
they do not see it to be their sole income earner.
Limitations

All Jamaicans could not be represented by the study as the sample consisted of
coaches and schoolboys from the Kingston Metropolitan Area. Therefore, this study is
only limitedly representative of the urban area rather than Jamaica as a whole.
The study focused on as investments made recently could only have effects in
the mid-term (6-10 years) so these considerations
3 of the 15 questionnaires that were distributed to schoolboy players were not
completed so the conclusions made from the intended sample may not be necessarily
representative of the intended population.


Recommendations
One recommendation is that the JFF seek investment from either: the private
sector, Ministry of Sport, FIFA, or CONCACAF so that it can invest in high performance
academies. The JFF should seek to invest into infrastructure that houses, teaches, and
trains 17-19 age old males (a footballing finishing school) as it is only through producing
better players here will we have more players in top European leagues which will boost
our performance in international tournaments.
Another recommendation is that the JFF seek greater investment into the local
leagues to attract higher quality players to the league which in turn will lead more
youngsters to take football seriously as they can see it as a viable profession if they do
not make it abroad and not only as a past-time. Also make it the priority of club teams in
the local league to invest in youth infrastructure so that the quality of instruction they
receive is of a high order.
My final recommendation is that the JFF embark on a coaching qualification
campaign as to raise the standards of the youth coaches. This will benefit the players as
they will be exposed to more opportunities locally and abroad.


Bibliography
Bailey, R. (2012, January 14). St George's College To Launch Football Academy In April.
Retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20120114/sports/sports13.html.
Becca, T. (2013, October 20). Look at Jamaica's Football. Retrieved from The Gleaner:
http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20131020/sports/sports3.html
Drayton, R. (2012, August 15). Genes may help, but Caribbean Olympians were nurtured to
success. Retrieved from The Guardian:
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/aug/15/caribbean-olympics-athletics-
genes
Hesse, U. (2013, October 10). The German Revolution. Retrieved from ESPN FC:
http://espnfc.com/columns/story/_/id/1576952/the-german-revolution?cc=3888




Appendix
Questionnaire A

1. What is your age?
2. Have you participated in either the ISSA Under-16 Football competition or the ISSA
Under-14 football competition?
3. Do you think it is more important to play well in schoolboy football or club football?
4. Indicate percentage of games that you played in the last schoolboy football season.
5. What was the duration of training for the 2013 schoolboy football season?
6. Indicate which club competitions you have participated in.
7. Indicate percentage of games that you participated in the last youth football season.
8. What was the duration of training for the 2013 club football season?
9. Did you train for the entirety of the 2013 club football season?
a) If no, why not?
10. Do you practice football outside of club or school football? If yes, answer the next 3
questions.
a) How many hours a week?
b) How many weeks a year?
c) Who do you train with?
11. Why do you play football now?
12. What grade are you in?
13. Do you intend to attend sixth form? If yes, do you hope to play football in there and
why?
14. Do you intend to attend university? If yes, do you hope to play football there and
why?
15. Have you been scouted by university or club?
16. Are you actively seeking to be scouted?
17. Are you pursuing professional football as a career?
18. If yes, how do you intend to do this?
19. Where do you intend to play professionally? If you do not intend to play
professionally, select No.


Questionnaire B

1. How long have you been coaching?
2. What are the certifications of all coaches involved with the under-19 team?
3. How many coaches are involved with the under-19?
4. What training facilities do the youth players here have access to (fields, gyms
(multiple equipment), multiple goals, massage centre, etc)?
5. How many days does the most senior youth team (under-19) train weekly during the
season?
6. How many hours does this team train weekly during the season?
7. How many players are a part of your 2013 under-19 team?
8. How many of these players do you believe could earn a comfortable income from
playing football alone if they were to pursue it in Jamaica or abroad?
9. Do you think players can earn an income to live a comfortable and sustainable life
from playing football in Jamaica?
10. Do you think that Jamaican players in the local leagues are of quality required to
qualify for a World Cup?

Questionnaire C

1. How many coaches are available for all the senior squad?
2. What are the certifications of these coaches?
3. How many players were a part of 2013 the senior (U-19) squad?
4. What facilities do you have available at your school for football training (fields, gyms
(multiple equipment), multiple goals, massage centre, etc)?
5. How many members of your current squad do you think have the potential to play
for Jamaica?
6. How many members of your current squad do you think have the potential to play
for a club team in a major European league (Premier League, La Liga, Bundesliga,
Serie A, Ligue Un)?
7. How many members of your current squad do you think have the potential to play
for a professional European team? (Do not include players you selected in question
9)
8. How many members of your current squad do you think will play play for Jamaica?
9. How many members of your current squad do you think will play play for a club
team in a major European league (Premier League, La Liga, Bundesliga, Serie A,
Ligue Un)?
10. How many members of your current squad do you think will play for a professional
European team? (Do not include players you selected in question 12.)
11. Why do you think there is a discrepancy between answers in questions 8-10 and
questions 11-13 respectively?
12. How many players do you believe will earn a comfortable income from playing
football alone?
13. Do you think players can earn an income to live a comfortable and sustainable life
from playing football in Jamaica?
14. Do you think that Jamaican players in the local leagues are of quality required to
qualify for a World Cup?