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2D - 1

Motion in 2D

Velocity and acceleration are vectors. They can have any direction.

motion in the xy plane, these vectors can point anywhere in the plane. A common example of motion in 2D is

When we are considering

Projectile motion

Consider a projectile fired from a cannon, with an initial velocity the horizontal. v

0

with a direction of above

v y y
v o
v x

x

v

v

0x

0y

v

v

0

0

cos

sin

Acceleration is a vector, and can have any direction. But in the special case of acceleration due solely to gravity, the acceleration is always straight down.

y a

a x = 0

a y = g

x

Review of 1D motion:

 d v d x a  d t , v  d t ,

From these two equations, we can derive, for the special case a = constant,

(a) v
a t
o

v

(b)

(c)

x

v 2 x
v
2
o
o

2a t (x

(1/ x 2)a ) t v
2
o
o v
v
o
2

(d)

x o , v o = initial position, initial velocity

v

x, v = position, velocity at time t

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2D - 2

Suppose that a = 0 . In this case v = constant, and

v 0

x

x

0

t

,

v

0

t

 

x

x

0

,

x

x

0

v

v

0

If a ≠ 0 then

x x
v
t
0
0

position if a = 0

End of 1D motion review.

1

a t

2 2

or how less much (a 0 < more 0) distance (a > 0) you

go if a

t

Now, 2D Motion d v
a 

a

d t

x

and d r
v

d t

d v

x

v

d t

x

Special case: a constant

,

a

d x

d t

y

,

v

d v

y

d t

y

d y

d t

a

x

constant,

a

y

v

x

t

v

0

constant

constant

This is exactly like the 1D motion case, except now we have separate equations for x-motion and y-motion. We can treat the x-motion and y-motion separately, because the x-eqns do not involve the y-coordinate, and the y-eqns do not involve the x-coordinate. 2
x
x
v
t
1
2 a
t
o
ox
x
v
v
a
t
x
ox
x
2
y
y
v
t
t
o
oy
1 2 a
y
v
v
a
t
y
oy
y

X

Y

These are the x- and y-components of the vector equations r r
v
t
1 2 a t
2
v
v
o
a t
o
o

Comment about 1D vectors: When we were restricting ourselves to 1D motion, there were only 2 possible directions, so we could represent direction with (+) or () sign. We said that, in 1D, the velocity v could be represented by a signed number. For example, v = 2 m/s means a velocity with a speed of 2 m/s, in the negative direction. But technically, we should not represent a vector with a number (even a signed number). Suppose we are describing 1D motion, and we choose to call our 1D line the x-axis. Then what we were calling “the velocity v” in 1D, is really x-component of the velocity vector, v x . The velocity vector in this case is

. Vectors are not numbers, but in 1D there is a one-to-one correspondence between the vectors v and the components v x , so we can use the terms interchangeably, although this is technically incorrect. v
v
ˆi
x 9/28/2013

2D - 3

Example: Horizontal Rifle. A rifle bullet is fired horizontally with v o = 100 m/s from an initial height of y 0 = 2.0 m above the ground level (y = 0). Assume no air resistance. How long is the bullet in flight? How far does the bullet go before it hits the ground? y
v
ox = 100 m/s
x

2 m

Key idea in all projectile motion problems: treat x- and y-motions separately!

The motion along the y-direction (vertical motion) is completely independent of the motion along the x-direction (horizontal motion).

X:

x

0

ox

x

v

a

0

100m / s

0

Y:

y

0

v

a

oy

y

2m

0

g



 

9.8 m / s

2

The time to hit the ground is entirely controlled by the y-motion. Why is this? Because “hitting the ground” means y = 0, so it is the y-motion that controls when the ground is hit.

y

0

2 y 2
2
2
1
1
1
y
v
t
2 g t
0
y
2 g t
,
y
2 g t
o
oy
0
0

0

0 2 y
2(2)
0
g
9.8 2 y
2
2
0
g t
,
t
,
t
0.64s

g

Now we look at the x-equations to see how far along the x-direction the bullet traveled in 0.64 s.

a

x

x 0
v
constant
=
v
100 m / s
x
ox x
v
t
a
2 v
t
100(0.64)
64m
o
ox
1 2 t
x
ox

0

0

Why v x = constant ? The force of gravity is straight down. So there is no sideways force to change v x (assuming no air resistance). No sideways force to speed up or slow down the bullet, so, in the x-direction, the bullet just “coasts”, like a glider on an airtrack.

v

v

x

y

  Another question: What is the speed of the bullet as it falls?  constant  v ox  v o  v oy  a y t   g t 0  g

As the bullet travels, its v x remains constant, while |v y | grows larger and larger.

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2D - 4

y v ox = v o
v x
v y
v

speed = magnitude of velocity =

v

x v x
v
|v y |
v
2
 v
2
v
2
g t
2
x
y
ox

The speed is a minimum at t = 0 when v y = 0 (the moment when the bullet leaves the gun). The speed is maximum when v y is maximum, just before the bullet reaches the ground. Don’t forget that we are assuming no air resistance. For a real rifle fired in real air, the bullet’s speed is usually maximum when leaving the barrel, and then air resistance slows the bullet down as it travels.

Example: A projectile is fired on an airless world with initial speed v o at an angle above the horizontal. What is the minimum speed of the projectile? Answer: v ox = v o cos . a 
x v
0
constant = v
v
cos
x
ox
o
Proof:
a  
y v
g
v
g t
y
oy
y
( v y = 0 )
v y
v ox
v ox
v oy

x
v ox

Here, the speed is minimum at the top of the trajectory, where v y = 0.

Review of acceleration:

 1D: a  dv 2D: dt v v v

2

1 means d v
 v
v
 v
a 
2
1

v

d t

t t
v 1 v 2
v
 v
1 1

to get v

2

.

v is the vector you add to

v 2  The direction of a is the same as the direction of v

v

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2D - 5 (since a  v  positive number (1/ t )
V 1
V
2

x

V 1 V
2

V

The direction of the acceleration of gravity is the direction of V: straight down!

"Shoot the Monkey" Experiment:

A hunter aims a rifle at a monkey hanging in a tree. The rifle fires at the same instant that the monkey lets go and drops. Does the bullet hit the poor monkey? Answer: Yes! First, consider the situation with no gravity :
y
x Now, turn on gravity. The height of the bullet is now:
y
x

If there is no gravity, then the bullet goes in a straight line, and the monkey does not fall. So the monkey is hit.

The height of the bullet (with a y = 0) is

y

y

y

0

v

0y

 0 y 0  v 0y t

(1/2)g t 2

t

1

2

v

0

g t

2

.

sin t

With gravity on, the bullet falls below the straight-line path by a distance (1/2)g t 2 , which is exactly the same distance that the monkey falls. So the monkey falls into the path of the bullet. Poor monkey!

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2D - 6

Circular Motion and Acceleration

Circular motion: consider an object moving in a circle of radius r, with constant speed v.

T = period = time for 1 complete revolution, 1 cycle

speed v v

distance

time

2

r

T r

v

An object moving in a circle is accelerating, because its velocity is changing -- changing direction. Recall the definition of acceleration: d v
v
v
v
a
2
1

d t

t

t

Magnitude can change or direction can change:

, velocity v can change is two ways: v 1
v v 2 v
v
2
v 1

For circular motion with constant speed, we will show that

1) the magnitude of the acceleration is

a v
2
a

r

2) the direction of the acceleration is always towards the center of motion. This is centripetal acceleration. "centripetal" = "toward center" Notice that the direction of acceleration vector is always changing, therefore this is not a case of constant acceleration (so we cannot use the "constant acceleration formulas")

Is claim (1) sensible?

Check units: m

s

2

a

Yep. r
a
a
v

v

Think: to get a big a, we must have a rapidly changing velocity. Here, we need to rapidly change the direction of vector v need to get around circle quickly need either large speed v or a small radius r. a = v 2 / r makes sense. (Proof is given below.) v 1
v 2
v
1
v
v 2
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Is claim (2) sensible?

v is toward center of circle.

Observe that vector

2D - 7

Direction of a = direction toward which velocity is changing

Example: acceleration on a merry-go-round. Radius r = 5 m , period T = 3 s r
a

v

v

a

2

r

T

=

v

2

r

2

( )

5

3

10 5

.

2

5

10 5 m/s

.

22 m/s

2

1g

9 8m

.

/

s

2

2 3 g's !

.

A human can withstand an acceleration of about 5 g's for a few minutes or ~10 g's for a few seconds without losing consciousness.

Proof of a = v 2 / r for circular motion with constant speed

The proof involves geometry (similar triangles). It is mathematically simple, but subtle.

Consider the motion of a particle on a circle of radius r with constant speed v. And consider the position of the particle at two times separately by a short time interval t. (In the end we will take the limit as t 0.) We can draw a vector diagrams r r
 r
representing
1
2
and
r
2
r = v t
r
1 v
v  v
1
2
:
v
v 2
v 1 v
r
2
r
1
v
1

2

Notice that these are similar triangles (same angles, same length ratios). Also, note that r 1
r 2
 r

and v
v
 v
1
2
.

Because the triangles are similar, we can write

v

v

r

r

v

t

r

v

t

v

v

r

.

Finally, we take the limit t 0 and get acceleration

.

a

A little algebra gives

v

2

r

.

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