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Wojdyo 1

Maja Wojdyo
30 June 2013
Madness as an infinite regress of self-reflexivity in David Foster Wallaces sort stories
Fictional !orlds created "y David Foster Wallace are ty#ically ina"ited "y so$eo!
distur"ed caracters% Fe! of te$& o!ever& see$ to "e exe$#lifying $adness in te sense of
extre$e irrationality% 't a##ears tat te $ost of Wallaces ($ad$en) find te$selves tra##ed
in various for$s of a (vicious& infinite regress) *(+ood ,ld -eon)& 1./0& $ost often fuelled
"y self-reflexivity in te sense of an in!ard-"ound exa$ination% Madness as an (infinite
regress)& a$ong oter te$es #er$eating Wallaces fiction& is "est exe$#lified "y t!o sort
stories found in t!o se#arate collections1 (2e De#ressed 3erson) in Brief Interviews with
Hideous Men& #u"lised 1444 and (+ood ,ld -eon) in Oblivion& #u"lised 200.%
5ot sort stories are "uilt around te $ain caracters a##oint$ents !it teir
doctors% (2e de#ressed #erson) 6 just li7e er tera#ist de#rived of a na$e trougout te
sort story 6 is tra##ed !itin a s#iral of "eaviours and tougt #atterns se is una"le to
esca#e% 5y an initial act of "ending er #erce#tion in!ards& se reali8es se is in (excruciating
#ain%) *(2e De#ressed 3erson& 32)0 5y searcing dee#er& se reali8es tat te initial (agony)
involves (feelings of e$otional isolation)& *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& 3.0 "ut on te !ole is
una"le to ex#ress er affliction (and te i$#ossi"ility of saring or articulating tis #ain *is0
itself te co$#onent of te #ain and a contri"uting factor in its essential orror%) *(2e
De#ressed 3erson)& 310 -aturally& te de#ressed #erson !ants te #ain to cease& so se
reaces out for el# to (te tera#ist)% 2e tera#ist "elieves tat te (very "est $edicine 9for
te de#ressed #ersons: endogenous de#ression) is te cultivation of a (su##ort syste$)&
su##osedly a net!or7 of friends te de#ressed #erson !ould "e a"le to lean on in ti$es of
anguis% *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& 3.0 ;e ends u# calling te$( *%%%0 late in te evening&
long-distance& for saring and su##ort and just a fe! !ell-cosen !ords to el# er get so$e
Wojdyo 2
realistic #ers#ective on te days des#air and get centered and gater togeter te strengt to
figt troug te e$otional agony of te next day%) *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& 330
2e #ro"le$ ere lies in te fact tat te (cultivation of a su##ort syste$) $a7es te
de#ressed #erson feel even $ore #ain% 2e su##ort syste$ consists of er for$er "oarding
ouse roo$$ates se (ad not seen in #erson for years *%%%0 9to !o$& !en calling: te
de#ressed #erson al!ays "egan "y saying tat se a#ologi8ed if se !as dragging te$ do!n
or co$ing off as "oring or self-#itying or re#ellent or ta7ing te$ a!ay fro$ teir active&
vi"rant& largely #ain-free long-distance lives) *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& 320 5y a#ologi8ing&
judging erself& and ex#licitly ex#ressing it troug de$eaning adjectives& te de#ressed
#erson see$s to "e doing t!o tings% ;e is self-inflicting te #ain se !as calling to esca#e
fro$ and does not allo! te su##ort syste$ $e$"ers to for$ any sort of judg$ent a"out er%
;e $ani#ulates te $e$"ers of te su##ort syste$ into so!ing unconditional su##ort&
de$ands co$#assion and e$#aty !itout offering anyting in excange% <nd on to# of it&
"y constructing er utterances te !ay se does& se is e$otionally "lac7$ailing te$ 6 ='f
you don>t give $e tat 9unconditional su##ort:& you !ill "e res#onsi"le for $y "rea7do!n%=
*5audrillard& 1/.0
'n anoter self-reflexive $ove$ent encouraged "y te tera#ist& te de#ressed #erson
reali8es se is co$ing off as (needy& self-#itying 9and: conte$#ti"ly $ani#ulative)% *(2e
De#ressed 3erson)& 3/0 't see$s tat at tis #oint te de#ressed #erson faces an o##ortunity
to "rea7 free fro$ te tra# se is caugt in !ic #revents er fro$ $a7ing any real
connection !it oter u$ans and er (feelings of e$otional isolation)% 'ronically& at te
sa$e $o$ent& se is not afraid of "eing (conte$#ti"ly $ani#ulative)& only a##earing as suc%
<t tis #oint of te story& te tera#ist unex#ectedly dies )*%%%0 as te result of !at !as
deter$ined "y autorities to "e an (accidentally) toxic co$"ination of caffeine and
o$eo#atic a##etite su##ressant%) *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& .30 2is sends te de#ressed
Wojdyo 3
#erson into anoter "end of te self-reflexivity s#iral& $a7ing er even $ore conte$#ti"le and
$ore $isera"le% 't $igt "e !itnessed& for instance& !en se #ones
9t:e singularly valua"le and su##ortive long-distance friend *%%%0 a sur#assingly
generous and nurturing divorced $oter of t!o in 5loo$field ?ills& Micigan& !o
ad recently undergone er second course of ce$otera#y for a virulent
neuro"lasto$a !ic ad greatly reduced te nu$"er of res#onsi"ilities and activities
in er full& functional& vi"rantly oter-directed adult life& and !o tus !as no! not
only al$ost al!ays at o$e "ut also enjoyed nearly unli$ited conflict-free availa"ility
and ti$e to sare on te tele#one& for !ic te de#ressed #erson !as al!ays careful
to enter a daily #rayer of gratitude in er Feelings Journal% *(2e De#ressed 3erson)&
@@0
2e de#ressed #erson& again not ta7ing into account te fact tat er interlocutor is a u$an
"eing !it er o!n load to deal !it& "urdens er (gravely ill& freAuently retcing "ut still
caring and inti$ate friend) *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& @/0 !it te story of er (satteringly
frigtening reali8ations) *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& @/0 follo!ing te tera#ists cons#icuous
deat% <t te very end of te sort story in Auestion& te de#ressed #erson as7s te gravely ill
friend&
!at 7ind of #erson could see$ to feel noting 6 )nothing)& se e$#asi8ed 6 for
anyone "ut erselfB May"e not everB *%%%09<nd urges: er ter$inally ill friend to go on&
to not old "ac7& to let er ave it1 !at !ords and ter$s $igt "e a##lied to descri"e
and assess suc a soli#sistic self-consu$ed& endless e$otional vacuu$ and s#onge as
se no! a##eared to erself to "eB *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& @/-@C0
<nd in tis !ay& te de#ressed #erson again sends erself furter te (vicious infinite
regress)% ;e as7s for judg$ent& "ut at te sa$e ti$e& judging erself in arser ter$s tan
any acAuaintance could #ut it& se does not allo! any genuine judg$ent to "e for$ed on #art
Wojdyo 4
of er interlocutor% ,ne of te #aradoxes of er situation lies in te fact& tat te "eaviours
su##osedly arising as a result of te de#ressed #ersons (e$otional agony) are also its cause%
<lso& te de#ressed #erson see$s so in!ard-"ent se is inca#a"le of noticing anyting else
a#art fro$ erself& !ic trusts er into an alienating cycle& !ic $a7es er even $ore
self-conscious and in!ard-"ound% Mean!ile& te tera#y& !ic is su##osed to alleviate te
#ain& is "ased on self-reflexivity !ic !as ulti$ately te "eginning of te de#ressed #ersons
anguis% 2us se ends u# in an i$#ossi"le situation& !ere te roots of er #ro"le$s offer
te$selves as solutions sending er do!n te (infinite regress of self-reflexivity%) *5os!ell&
1C@0
Di7e!ise $ost of te oter sort stories !ritten "y te autor& (2e De#ressed 3erson)
and (+ood ,ld -eon) contain very little descri#tion of te setting% ;till& it $igt "e noticed
tat "ot of te caracters are nearly al!ays found !itin enclosed s#aces and contact oter
#eo#le "y tele#one or !riting% 2e only $o$ent !en a caracter gets close to "eing
outside& is !en te $ain caracter of (+ood ,ld -eon) drives troug te countryside to
co$$it suicide%
Furter si$ilarities lie in te fact tat in all of Wallace>s sort stories including a
#syciatrist& #sycoanalyst& or tera#ist figures 6 (2e De#ressed 3erson) and (+ood ,ld
-eon) in #articular 6 te doctors fail to el# teir #atients%
i
Ensur#risingly& te role and
i$#ortance of tese figures is seriously de#reciated% 'n te case of (+ood ,ld -eon) and
(2e De#ressed 3erson), !ere "ot te #sycoanalyst and te de#ressed #ersons tera#ist
die& te de#reciation see$s to "e $ost vividly visi"le in te rendering of teir deats& as Dr%
+ustafson dies of colon cancer *in contrast -eal& te $ain caracter in (+ood ,ld -eon)&
7ills i$self in an ex#losion follo!ing a car cras0 and& as #reviously $entioned& te
de#ressed #ersons tera#ist co$$its suicide "y co$"ining (caffeine and o$eo#atic
a##etite su##ressant)% *(2e De#ressed 3erson& .2-.30
<noter lin7 "et!een te tera#ist figures in Wallaces fiction is to "e found in teir
stri7ingly si$ilar gestures% 2us& in (Dittle Fx#ressionless <ni$als) fro$ is 14C4 collection
Wojdyo 5
Girl with Curious Hair te #syciatrist *just li7e te de#ressed #ersons tera#ist not given
any na$e0 ($a7es a curc stee#le !it is fingers and conte$#lates te stee#le%) *Dittle
Fx#ressionless <ni$als& 140% Dr% -dia!ar& te Gounty Mental ?ealt director fro$ te sort
story (Gurc not Made !it ?ands) found in Brief Inerviews with Hideous Men (*%%%0 li7es
to $a7e a stee#le !it is ands and to loo7 at it !ile e s#ea7s%) *Gurc -ot Made Wit
?ands& 1H40 ;i$ilarly& te de#ressed #ersons (tera#ists $ost noticea"le unconscious
#ersonal a"it or tic consisted of #lacing te ti#s of all er fingers togeter in er la# as se
listened attentively to te de#ressed #erson and $ani#ulating te fingers idly so tat er
$ated ands for$ed various enclosing sa#es 6 e%g%& cu"e& s#ere& #yra$id& rigt cylinder 6
and ten a##earing to study or conte$#late te$%) *2e De#ressed 3erson& 3H0 ;u##osedly&
(tere are $ore nerve connections "et!een te ands and te "rain tan "et!een any oter
#arts of te "ody& and so te gestures and #ositions !e ta7e !it our ands give #o!erful
insigts into our e$otional state)& *3ease& 1.30 and as "ody language analysts ascertain& te
a"ove-$entioned gestures indicate su#eriority and autority& contrasting& and tus
foregrounding teir ina"ility to el#%
<noter $anifest si$ilarity in te treat$ent of $adness in Wallaces fiction lies in te
$ulti#licity of $edications #rescri"ed "y te tera#ists% 2e de#ressed #ersons catalogue
consists of1
3axil& Ioloft& 3ro8ac& 2ofranil& Wel"utrin& Flavil& Metra8ol in co$"ination !it
unilateral FG2 *during a t!o-!ee7 voluntary in-#atient course of treat$ent at a
regional Mood Disorders clinic& 3arnate "ot !it and !itout litiu$ salts& -ardil
"ot !it and !itout Janax% -one of !ic ave delivered any significant relief *%%%0
*2e De#ressed 3erson& 3.0
-eal refuses to ta7e any anti-de#ressants& dou"ting tat tey !ould el# i$& at te
sa$e ti$e noting tat Dr% +ustafson& is #sycoanalyst& (!as also a "it of a #ill-#user)*+ood
,ld -eon& 1.30% ?ere one of te esca#es routes te #atients try to ta7e to get so$e relief is
Wojdyo 6
so!n to "e a dead-end& none of te #ills el#& adding to te overall i$age of an inesca#a"le
$ental landsca#e consisting of a #ainful& (vicious infinite regress%) *(+ood ,ld -eon)& 1./0
Di7e!ise te de#ressed #erson& -eal is tra##ed in e$otional agony "ecause of is self-
reflexivity and a!areness of is o!n $ental #rocesses% <gain& it all "egins !it te initial act
of self-reflexivity& "y $eans of !ic -eal finds out e is a fraud% 5y furter reflecting e
"eco$es a!are tat e cannot sto# "eing a fraud& and tis causes i$ #ain& !ic in turn
$a7es i$ see7 el# *or esca#e0 in nearly all #ossi"le !ays%
?ere are so$e of te various tings ' tried1 F;2& riding a ten-s#eed to -ova ;cotia and
"ac7& y#nosis& cocaine& sacro-cervical ciro#ractic& joining a caris$atic curc&
jogging& #ro "ono !or7 for te <d Gouncil& $editation classes& te Masons& analysis&
te Dand$ar7 Foru$& te Gourse in Miracles& a rigt-"rain dra!ing !or7so#&
celi"acy& collecting and restoring vintage Gorvettes& and trying to slee# !it a different
girl every nigt for t!o straigt $onts *' rac7ed u# a total of tirty-six for sixty-one
and also got cla$ydia& !ic ' told friends a"out& acting li7e ' !as e$"arrassed "ut
secretly ex#ecting $ost of te$ to "e i$#ressedK!ic& under te cover of $a7ing a
lot of jo7es at $y ex#ense& ' tin7 tey !ereK"ut for te $ost #art te t!o $onts
just $ade $e feel sallo! and #redatory& #lus ' $issed a great deal of slee# and !as a
!rec7 at !or7Ktat !as also te #eriod ' tried cocaine0% ' 7no! tis #art is "oring and
#ro"a"ly "oring you& "y te !ay& "ut it gets a lot $ore interesting !en ' get to te
#art !ere ' 7ill $iself and discover !at a##ens i$$ediately after a #erson dies% 'n
ter$s of te list& #sycoanalysis !as #retty $uc te last ting ' tried% *(+ood ,ld
-eon)& 1.2-1.30
2e catalogue of (esca#e atte$#ts) *Mc?ale& 3C0 turning out to "e futile is anoter
lin7 "et!een te t!o sort stories in Auestion%
ii
;till& te $ost a##arent si$ilarity "et!een te
t!o& located "ot on te story and discourse levels lies in te #reviously $entioned rendering
Wojdyo 7
of $adness as an (infinite regress of self-reflexivity)% *5os!ell& 1C@0 -eal "egins is
narrative "y confessing to te reader tat
*%%%0 #retty $uc all *es0 ever done all te ti$e is try to create a certain i$#ression of
*i$0 in oter #eo#le% Mostly to "e li7ed or ad$ired% 'ts a little $ore co$#licated tan
tat& $ay"e% 5ut !en you co$e rigt do!n to it its to "e li7ed& loved% <d$ired&
a##roved of& a##lauded& !atever% *(+ood ,ld -eon)& 1.10
?e ad "een a!are of te fact tat e !as (a fraud) !ell "efore e died& e called it
te (fraudulence #aradox%)
2e fraudulence #aradox !as tat te $ore ti$e and effort you #ut into trying to
a##ear i$#ressive or attractive to oter #eo#le& te less i$#ressive or attractive you
felt insideKyou !ere a fraud% <nd te $ore of a fraud you felt li7e& te arder you
tried to convey an i$#ressive or li7a"le i$age of yourself so tat oter #eo#le
!ouldnt find out !at a ollo!& fraudulent #erson you really !ere% Dogically& you
!ould tin7 tat te $o$ent a su##osedly intelligent nineteen-year-old "eca$e a!are
of tis #aradox& ed sto# "eing a fraud and just settle for "eing i$self *!atever tat
!as0 "ecause ed figured out tat "eing a fraud !as a vicious infinite regress tat
ulti$ately resulted in "eing frigtened& lonely& alienated& etc% 5ut ere !as te oter&
iger-order #aradox& !ic didnt even ave a for$ or na$eK' didnt& ' couldnt%
*(+ood ,ld -eon)& 1./0
During te $eetings !it is #sycoanalyst -eal reflects on i$self once again only
to notice tat e is $ani#ulating te doctor into li7ing i$& again "eing caugt in te
(fraudulence #aradox)% ?o!ever& as $entioned "efore& tis ti$e te self-reflexivity #ro#elled
regress is ta7en one ste# furter% -eal cooses te ulti$ate esca#e route 6 suicide% ;till& te
single fact tat trougout te narration e is reflecting on is life and deat fro$ a #osition
Wojdyo 8
located in so$e sort of an afterlife suggests tat in Wallaces !orlds te self-reflexivity
regress is infinite%
<s !e ave seen& on te story level& te de#ressed #erson is entra##ed in a $ental cage
constructed "y no one oter tan erself& a cage se is neverteless inca#a"le of esca#ing
fro$% ;i$ilarly& te sort storys discourse level is constructed in suc a !ay as to reflect te
de#ressed #ersons situation% 't $igt "e #resu$ed& tat !at !e !itness in (2e De#ressed
3erson) is a (forci"le dislocation of #ersonality) *Mc?ale& 220 !ere"y te de#ressed #erson
is in fact te narrator of te story referring to erself in te tird #erson% 2is is visi"le& for
instance& in te narrators use of igly carged evaluative adjectives in recounting events of
#articular e$otional i$#ortance for te de#ressed #erson& and te use of e$#asis& as in te
follo!ing frag$ent regarding te de#ressed #ersons #arents figt over !o !as su##osed to
#ay for er ortodonture1 (*%%%0 er fuc7ing #arents utterly fuc7ing sick ina"ility to
co$$unicate and sare onestly and !or7 troug teir o!n sic7& dysfunctional issues !it
eac oter%)*(2e De#ressed 3erson)& .00 2e a"ove excer#t $igt "e regarded as one of te
#assages in te text tat de-$as7 te narrator1 er see$ingly o"jective attitude to!ards te
!ole situation flic7ers& revealing te narrator to "e te de#ressed #erson erself% 't reveals
tat te de#ressed #erson and narrators #oints of vie! are identical on tree out of four of te
(#lanes) distinguised "y 5orys Es#iens7i% 2e de#ressed #ersons judg$ent of er #arents is
visi"le in te adjectives e$#loyed& !ile te e$#asis "elongs to te narrator% 2e de#ressed
#ersons and narrators #oints of vie! diverge only on te #lane of s#atiote$#oral
caracteristics 6 te narrator is reflecting on events tat ave already a##ened% 't also
a##ears tat te tera#ist encouraged (te creative use of analogy and narrative) *(2e
De#ressed 3erson)& 330 as a tera#eutic $easure& tus adding evidence in su##ort of te tesis
tat te de#ressed #erson is in fact te narrator of te story& at te sa$e revealing an intricate
structure of te narrative situation re#etitively e$#loyed "y David Foster Wallace%
Wojdyo 9
2is ty#e of narrative structure& !ere a #art of te story is te re#etition of te story
itself is referred to "y 5rian Mc?ale as a mise-en-abyme *Mc?ale& 12@0% 2o si$#lify it& te
reader encounters te de#ressed #erson 6 as narrator 6 dragging te narratee inside er !orld&
trying to $ani#ulate i$Ler into sy$#ati8ing !it te de#ressed #erson& as7ing to judge er
"ut at te sa$e ti$e $a7ing te judg$ent i$#ossi"le "y a##earing to ave already judged
erself in te arsest #ossi"le !ay% ,ne level "elo!& tere is te story of te de#ressed
#erson $ani#ulating er friends into sy$#ati8ing !it er !it te sa$e $eans& tus
creating an a"ys$al !orld teres no esca#e fro$
iii
%
<#art fro$ tis& te reader is faced !it anoter $ulti#lication of narrative levels&
!ere te de#ressed #erson narrates te story of te de#ressed #erson narrating er story to
te tera#ist and $e$"ers of te su##ort syste$% Fven !ile atte$#ting to ste# outside er
o!n self-reflexive story and narrate it in te tird #erson& te de#ressed #erson gets caugt in
te regress of self-reflexivity% 2e mise-en-abyme along !it te $ulti#lication of narrative
levels see$s to "e conducive to creating te i$age of te de#ressed #ersons $ind as an
inesca#a"le (infinite regress)& !ic $ay "e !y te de#ressed #erson found te tera#ists
a"it of for$ing (various enclosing sa#es) !it er ands *(2e De#ressed 3erson)& 3H0 so
#articularly annoying%
2e mise-en-abyme and $ulti#lication of narrative levels are also #resent in (+ood
,ld -eon)% ?ere& -eal-te-narrator narrates is story in te first #erson& fro$ is o!n #oint
of vie!& tus necessarily #resenting su"jective descri#tions& and #ossi"ly trying to construct a
#articular i$age of -eal-te-caracter in te readers% Mean!ile& on te intradiegetic level&
-eal-te-caracter narrates is story of "eing a fraud to te #sycoanalyst& at te sa$e ti$e
$ani#ulating te doctor into #erceiving a certain i$age of is #atient& and is una"le to sto#% 'n
oter !ords& -eal is #ostu$ously reflecting on is #revious reflections and narrating is
for$er narrations%
'n is uicide as an !"#erience of Imagination& ;tefan G!in notes tat creating
inesca#a"le& soli#sistic& fictional !orlds is a co$$on #ractice a$ong !riters !o ended teir
Wojdyo 10
lives !it a suicide% ;adly& David Foster Wallace i$self $igt "e seen as anoter exa$#le in
su##ort of tis tesis for& after a long struggle !it de#ression& e anged i$self in 200C%
;till& it is only one of te lin7s "et!een te autor and te #rotagonists of te analy8ed sort
stories% ?e ad undergone various courses of treat$ent& too7 so$e of te $edications
#rescri"ed to te de#ressed #erson& "ut $ost i$#ortantly& as it trans#ires troug is letter to
Fli8a"et Wuert8el& e also got entangled in a variety of self-reflexivity #ro#elled loo#s% ?e
!rote1
' go troug a loo# in !ic ' notice all te !ays ' a$ K for just an exa$#le K self-
centered and careerist and not true to standards and values tat transcend $y o!n
#etty interests& and feel li7e '$ not one of te good onesM "ut ten ' countenance te
fact tat ere at least ere ' a$ !orrying a"out it& noticing all te !ays ' fall sort of
integrity& and ' i$agine tat $ay"e #eo#le !itout any integrity at all dont notice or
!orry a"out itM so ten ' feel "etter a"out $yself *' $ean& at least tis stuff is on $y
$ind& at least '$ dissatisfied !it $y level of integrity and co$$it$ent0M "ut tis
soon "eco$es a veicle for feeling su#erior to *i$agined0 ,tersN% 't as to do !it
+od and gods and a "asic sense of trust in te universe v% fear tat te universe $ust
"e eld at "ay and $icro$anaged into giving $e so$e s$idgeon of so$e gratification
' feel ' si$#ly cant live !itout% 'ts all very confusing% ' tin7 '$ very onest and
candid& "ut '$ also #roud of o! onest and candid ' a$ K so !ere does tat #ut
$e% *Jaco"s0
;till& te exe$#lified a"ove (vicious infinite regress) of self-reflexivity evident also
"ot on te story and discourse levels of te exa$ined sort stories is only one of te treads
in David Foster Wallaces co$#lex and ca#tivating treat$ent of $ental anguis%
i
See also: The Soul is Not a Smithy (Oblivion), Little Expressionless Animals(Girl With Curious
air)
ii
The depressed person attempted to !"lti#ate and de#elop !arin$ %riends and relationships in
the !omm"nity thro"$h !h"r!h $ro"ps or n"trition and holisti! stret!hin$ !lasses or !omm"nity
&ood&ind ensem'les and the li(e )***+, )The -epressed .erson/ 50+
iii
The story ends &ith a 0"estion: 12o& &as she to de!ide and des!ri'e 3 e#en to hersel%/
loo(in$ in&ard and %a!in$ hersel% 3 &hat all she4d so pain%"lly learned said a'o"t her5,+ )1The
-epressed .erson,/ 58+
W,OP; G'2FD
5audrillard& Jean% $evenge of the Crystal% 3luto 3ress& <#ril 1444& 1/.% We"% 30 June 2013%
5os!ell& Marsall% %nderstanding &avid 'oster (allace) Eniversity of ;out Garolina
3ress& 2003% 3rint
Foster Wallace& David% (2e De#ressed 3erson)% Brief Interviews with Hideous Men%
<"acus& 2001& 31-@C% 3rint%
---% (Gurc -ot Made Wit ?ands)% Brief Interviews with Hideous Men% <"acus& 2001&
1H@-1C0% 3rint%
---% (+ood ,ld -eon) Oblivion% <"acus& 200@% 1.1-1C1% 3rint%
Jaco"s& <lan% (David Foster Wallace and te 3ro"le$ of Oeentry%) *he +merican
Conservative% 11%12%2012% We"% 30 June 2013%
Mc?ale& 5rian% ,ostmodernist 'iction% Metuen& 'nc%& 14C/% 3rint%
3ease <llan& 5ar"ara% *he &efinitive Book of Body -anguage% 3ease 'nternational% We"% 30
June 2013%
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