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|ng |t compat|b|e to |oca| cond|t|ons.

The var|ous components o Sh|nkansen


techno|ogy and the construct|on meth-
odo|ogy that |s proposed |s be|ng
taken uphere |n br|e to present the p|c-
ture o what to expect and how the
Kera|a HSPw||| take shape,
A |ook at d|erent c|v|| eng|neer|ng
component o Sh|nkansenPa|| enab|es
to make an |normed cho|ce or the
Kera|a HSP rom the ava||ab|e compo-
nents, techno|ogy and construct|on
methodo|ogy become ev|dent.
Specific Construction Standards for
KeralaHighSpeedRail
A rev|ewo spec||cat|ons o param-
eters |n wor|ds h|gh speed ra||ways has
been made to arr|ve at su|tab|||ty or the
pro|ect (See Tab|e 2 &3)
The |atest |mp|ementat|on o the
Sh|nkansen techno|ogy has been |n
Ta|wan H|gh Speed Pa|| by THSPC and
recommendat|ons have been to adopt
nrev|ewo h|ghspeed ra|| tech-
no|ogy wor|dw|de, |t was e|t
Othat Sh|nkansen techno|ogy |s
the best and saest where no ma|or
acc|dent s|nce |ts |ncept|on has taken
p|ace. (Tab|e 1 g|ves the standard spec-
||cat|ons or ma|or h|gh speed ra||s |n
the wor|d).
lt has been proposed to adopt the
construct|on techno|ogy used or
Sh|nkansen or Kera|a H|gh Speed Pa||
by eect|ng su|tab|e changes thus mak-
240 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
lnrastructure
-e|o|o |gm 3peeo o||
Comsl|ucl|mg lme '3m|m-omsem' 1oy
-e|o|o |gm 3peeo o||
Comsl|ucl|mg lme '3m|m-omsem' 1oy
3ooogopom 3esmoo||
Cm|et - Comleml eve|op~eml. C| - |mt|osl|uclu|e - |mv||om~eml
241 www.masterbu||der.co.|n The Masterbu||der - May 2013
0ounIry
8ecI|on
LengIh oI heW L|ne
0onsIrucI|on Per|od
es|gn 0r|Ier|a
auge
Nax es|gn 8peed
Nax 0ommerc|a| 8peed
N|n 0urve ad|us
N|n Long|Iud|na| 0urve ad|us
Nax 0anI
Permuss|b|e 0anI eII|c|ency
Nax rad|enI
|sIance beIWeen Trac| 0enIers
0ar w|dIh
Nax Ax|e Load
w|dIh oI Trac| FormaI|on
Tunne| 0ross 8ecI|on
(8Iandard oub|e Trac|)
EarIh wor|
8r|dge & V|adncI
Tunne|
ermany
lCE
IIa|y 8pa|n korea Ta|Wan
||
]e|
||
||/|
||/|
|
|
||
||

|
|
|o|
|
2
|
||
||
||
AVE
Nad||d-
Sev|||a
4I1
198I-1992
14J5
JOO
JOO
4,OOO
24.OOO
14O
1OO
12.5
4.J
2.9
1I.2
1J.J
I5
KTX
Seou|-
Busau
412
1992-2O1O
1:| Sec|io| 0e|e
14J5
J5O
JOO
I,OOO
25,OOO
18O
9O
15
5.O
2.9
1I
14.O
1OI
ThSR
Ta|pe|-
Kaoshuug
J45
1999-2OO5
14J5
J5O
JOO
6,25O
25,OOO
16O
6O
25
4.5
J.4
25.5
1J.O
9O
heW
L|ne
64
5
JO
65
5
JO
1II
JO
12O
54
9
JI
2I
J54
115
5
I1
2J
12O
46
I1
5O
2O
JO
4O5
5
O
99
1
O
111
112
189
2I
2I
46
JJ
24I
65
1O
I2
19
Trac| 8IrucIure
TracI|on PoWer
emar|
Bll:|
AC 15|V 16
|::e|e| &
||ei||
Bll:|
AC 15|V 16
|::e|e| &
||ei||
||uee i|ec|
!|c|
AC 15|V 16
|::e|e|
Bll:|
C J|.
|::e|e| &
||ei||
Bll:|
AC 25|. 5O|
|::e|e| &
||ei||
Slu / Bll:|
AC 25|. 6O|
|::e|e|
Slu / Bll:|
AC 25|. 6O|
|::e|e|
Nauuhe|m-
Slullga|l
99
19I6-1991
14J5
JOO
28O
4,6IO
22,OOO
16O
1OO
12.5
4.I
J.1
19.5
1J.I
82
hauuove|-
wu|/bu|g
J2I
19I9-1991
14J5
JOO
28O
4,6IO
22,OOO
16O
1OO
12.5
4.I
J.1
19.5
1J.I
82
Ko|u-
l|au|lu|l
1II
1995-2OO2
14J5
JJO
JOO
4,OOO
11,5OO
16O
15O
4O
4.5
J.1
2O
12.1
92
||ell|ss |u a
Rome-
l||eu/e
2JI
19IO-1992
14J5
JOO
25O
5,4OOO
2O,OOO
16O
1JO
8.5
5.O
2.9
22.5
1J.O
54/6O/68
lnrastructure
Tab|e 1 Construct|on Standards o Ma|or H|gh-Speed Pa||ways |n the Wor|d
0ounIry
8ecI|on
LengIh oI heW L|ne
0onsIrucI|on Per|od
es|gn 0r|Ier|a
auge
Nax es|gn 8peed
Nax 0ommerc|a| 8peed
N|n 0urve ad|us
N|n Long|Iud|na| 0urve ad|us
Nax 0anI
Permuss|b|e 0anI eII|c|ency
Nax rad|enI
|sIance beIWeen Trac| 0enIers
0ar w|dIh
Nax Ax|e Load
w|dIh oI Trac| FormaI|on
Tunne| 0ross 8ecI|on
(8Iandard oub|e Trac|)
EarIh wor|
8r|dge & V|adncI
Tunne|
Japan France
||
]e|
||
||/|
||/|
|
|
||
||

|
|
|o|
|
2
|
||
||
||
To|a|do
To|yo-Sh|u
0sa|a
515
1959-1964
14J5
21O
2IO
2,5OO
1O,OOO
2OO
9O
2O
4.2
J.4
||-16
1O.9
6J.5
Sauyo
Sh|u 0sa|a-
ha|ala
56J
1965-19I5
14J5
25O
JOO
4,OOO
1O,OOO
18O
6O
15
4.J
J.4
||-16
1O.9
6J.5
Toho|u
To|yo-
No||o|a
496
19I1-1982
14J5
26O
2I5
4,OOO
15,OOO
18O
6O
15
4.J
J.4
||-16
11.6
6J.4
ho|u|||u
Ta|asa||-
hagauo
11I
1989-199I
14J5
26O
26O
4,OOO
15,OOO
2OO
9O
JO
4.J/4.2
J.4
|-16
11.2
62.8
Sud-Esl
Pa||s-Lyou
41O
19I6-198J
14J5
JOO
JOO
4,OOO
25.OOO
18O
85
J5
4.2
2.9
1I
1J.6
|o|e
Al|aul|que
Pa||s-Le
Naus/Tou|s
284
1985-199O
14J5
J5O
JOO
6,25O
25,OOO
18O
6O
25
4.2
2.9
1I
1J.6
I1
Ned|le||auee
Va|euce-
Na|se|||e
25O
1995-2OO1
14J5
J5O
JOO/J2O
6,25O
25,OOO
18O
65
J5
4.8
2.9
1I
14.2
1OO
heW
L|ne
2I4
1IJ
69
5J
J4
1J
1O1
194
268
18
J5
4I
2I
J54
115
5
I1
2J
16
J8
6J
14
J2
54
4O5
5
O
99
1
O
265
J
16
9J
1
6
22O
1I
1J
88
I
5
Trac| 8IrucIure
TracI|on PoWer
emar|
Bll:|
AC 25| V 6O|
|::e|e| &
||ei|| (o|l] lo|
e:i|)
Bll:|/Slu
AC 25| V 6O|
|::e|e| &
||ei|| (o|l] lo|
e:i|)
Bll:|/Slu
AC 25|. 5O|
|::e|e| &
||ei|| (o|l] lo|
e:i|)
Slu
AC 25|. 5O/6O|
|::e|e|
Bll:|
AC 25|. 5O|
|::e|e|
Bll:|
AC 25|. 5O|
|::e|e|
Bll:|
AC 25|. 5O|
|::e|e|

8
0
0
4
3 000
8 876
P.L
7
8
0
0
4

8
0
0
2

3
5
0
7

1
5
0
2
(Area o cross sect|on: 64m )
Shape o NATM tunne| sect|on
F|rst b|ow|ng concrete
Second b|ow|ng
concrete
Poadbed concrete
lnvert concrete
Typ|ca| cross sect|on o NATM tunne|
9,500
T

2
5
0
0ounIry
Sec|io|
|e||| ol |eW |i|e
Co|:||uc|io| |e|io
e:i| C|i|e|i
|eW |i|e
!|c| S||uc|u|e
!|c|io| |oWe|
Re|||
Ta|Wan
!|SR
!iei-|o:|u|
J45
1999-2OO5
14J5
J5O
JOO
6,25O
25,OOO
16O
6O
25
4.5
J.4
25.5
1J.O
9O
Slu/Bll:|
AC 25|. 6O |
|::e||
ue
|/ e:i| See
|/ Co||e|cil See
|i| Cu|.e Riu:
|i| |o|i|ui|l Cu|.e Riu:
|/ C||
|e||u::iule C|| ellicie|c]
|/ ||ie||
i:||ce ue|Wee| !|c| Ce||e|:
C| wi||
|/ A/le |o
wi|| ol !|c| |o|||io|
!u||el C|o:: Sec|io|
(S||| ouule !|c|)
|||| wo||
B|ie & Vi|c|
!u||el
||
Ye|
||
||/|
||/|
|
|
||
||

|
|
|o|
|
2
|
||
||
||
JJ
24I
65
1O
I2
19
F|gure 3
F|gure 2
F|gure 1
ground. lt has been app||ed to tunne|s
|n mounta|nous and urban areas where
the overburdern |s th|n.Th|s w||| he|p to
reduce cost substant|a||y wh||e ensur-
|ng that genera| pub||c dur|ng con-
struct|on goes on w|th |ts regu|ar act|v|-
t|es w|thout any |nconven|ence thats
norma||y caused by construct|on act|v-
|ty. (F|gure 1, 2 &3)
Tunne| excavat|on or a ma|or part
o th|s underground sect|on |s expected
to be carr|ed out by Tunne| Bor|ng
Mach|nes. Tunne| bor|ng mach|nes
(TBMs) capab|e o dr||||ng |n sot so||
w|th a |n|shed |nterna| d|ameter o 7.8
m. can be successu||y emp|oyed or
bor|ng tunne|s through th|s stratum.
pass|ng under Poad, and |t |s pro-
posed to tunne| through Tunne| Bor|ng
Mach|ne (TBM) or New Austr|an Tun-
ne||ng Method (NATM) |n the overbur-
den so|| mass. Th|s method, wh|ch
a||ows tunne||ng o the ground by us|ng
|ntr|ns|c strength o the ground |s capa-
b|e o cop|ng w|th var|ous types o
|t or Kera|a h|gh speed ra||. The spec||-
cat|ons o ta|wan h|gh speed ra|| are |n
Tab|e 4.
Construction MethodoIogy
A. UndergroundConstruction
Most o the area a|||ng |n the under-
ground sect|on |s e|ther bu||t-up or
TV ||nes
France
a||Way L|ne
0ounIry
Trac| cenIer-
Io-cenIer
d|sIance (m)
Tab|e 2: Track center-to-center o wor|ds h|gh-speed ra||ways
I0E ||nes
erman
AVE ||ne
8pa|n
|reII|ss|ma
IIa|y
kTX ||ne
korea
Th8 ||ne
Ta|Wan
4.2
4.5
4.I 4.J
5.O 5.O 4.5
TV ||nes
France
a||Way L|ne
0ounIry
Nax|mum
ax|e We|ghI
Tab|e 3: Ax|e |oad o wor|ds h|gh-speed ra||ways
I0E ||nes
erman
AVE ||ne
8pa|n
|reII|ss|ma
IIa|y
kTX ||ne
korea
Th8 ||ne
Ta|Wan
1I l| 2O l|
1I.2 l|
22.5 l|
19 l| 2O l| 25.5 l|
Tab|e 4 Ta|wan THSP Sh|nkansen Techno|ogy
242 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
lnrastructure
NATM (New Austrian TunneIing Method)
on both s|des o the cut. Th|s w||| he|pto
|so|ate the cut area |n case o any |eak-
age to the p|pe||ne so as to avo|d |ood-
|ng o the cut/damage to the works.
Support Walls
PCC D|aphragmWa|| support wa||s
are common|y usedas these oer many
an advantage. The var|ous advantages
o d|aphragm wa|| are as o||ows:
- lt |s r|g|d type o support system
and thereore ensures the max|-
mum saety aga|nst sett|ement to
the ad|acent structures.
- Can be used as part o the perma-
nent structure and, thereore, con-
s|dered econom|ca|.
- W|th d|aphragm wa|| |t |s poss|b|e to
construct an underground structure
by top down method. ln th|s method
top s|ab |s cast once the excavat|on
|s reached to the top s|ab |eve|, w|th
r|g|d connect|ons to the d|aphragm
wa|| by means o |eav|ng coup|ers |n
the d|aphragm wa|| re|norcement
at appropr|ate |eve|. The top s|ab
then acts as strut between the two
support wa||s and g|ves much more
r|g|d|ty and saety to the construc-
t|on. Excavat|on thereater can be
conven|ent|y comp|eted.
Th|s method a|so he|ps |n restora-
t|on o the surace aster w|thout wa|t|ng
or u|| structure to be comp|eted.
Anchors ReplaceStruts
Support wa||s can be kept |n pos|-
t|on by so||/rock anchors |nstead o
struts and by do|ng so, the constructor
can der|ve advantage o c|ear space
that becomes ava||ab|e between two
support wa||s. The c|ear space ensures
speed up excavat|on enab||ng aster
construct|on as compared to the case
where |arge number o struts prov|ded
creat|ng h|ndrance to the movement o
equ|pments and mater|a| aect|ng
progress adverse|y.
These are some pr|nc|p|es based
on wh|ch the support wa||s system or
cut and cover sha|| be chosen or par-
t|cu|ar |ocat|ons. Depend|ng upon spe-
c||c s|te character|st|cs the comb|na-
t|on o a|| the type o reta|n|ng wa||s,
The tunne|s are proposed w|th a m|n|-
mum so|| cover o 7-8 m.
The sh|e|d tunne||ng method uses a
sh|e|d mach|ne to excavate the ground,
app||es concrete pane|s to ||ne the
|nterna| wa|| o the tunne|, and creates a
|arge ho|e or tra|ns to run|n. F|gure 4
SENS (Cast-in-place Support System
UsingShield)
The SENS (Cast-|n-p|ace support
system us|ng a sh|e|d) |s an |nnovat|ve
tunne| construct|on system (S) wh|ch
comprehens|ve|y comb|nes the advan-
tages o ace stab|||ty enab|ed by the
sh|e|d tunne||ng Method (S), prompt
ground c|osure enab|ed by the ECL
method(E), andpr|marysupport enab|ed
by NATM (N).(Granted the techn|ca|
award by the Japan Soc|ety o C|v||
Eng|neers, and the spec|a| award by
the Japan lndustr|a| Techno|ogy Grand
Pr|x Pev|ewBoard). (F|gure 5 &6)
Utility Diversion
A|| ut|||t|es that ||e w|th|n excavat|on
area are to be moved away |n advance
to avo|d damage and consequent ser-
v|ce d|srupt|on dur|ng the excavat|on/
construct|on phase. The on|y excep-
t|on sha|| be the cross ut|||t|es, wh|ch
sha|| be kept supported. The pressure
water p|pe||nes cross|ng the proposed
cut area are to be prov|ded w|th va|ves
To porta| To ace
SENS
Secondary ||n|ng
Water proo|ng
sheet
Pr|mary ||n|ng
Pr|mary support
mater|a| o NATM
Pat|ona| support
Earth pressure ba|anced
Sh|e|d mach|ne
Support|ng ace
Sae excavat|on
Doub|e-track
c|rcu|ar tunne|
Sh|e|d mach|ne
(Earth pressure ba|ance method)
F|gure 6: lnterna| Form (Pear v|ew o Sh|e|d)
F|gure 5
244 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
F|gure 4
lnrastructure
struts/anchors may be necessary or
the pro|ect to su|t the part|cu|ar s|te.
B. Choiceof Superstructure
The cho|ce o superstructure has to
be made keep|ng |n v|ew the ease o
constructab|||ty and the max|mum stan-
dard|zat|on o the orm-work or a w|de
span ranges. Fo||ow|ng type o super-
structures has beencons|dered:
B.1 Segmental Balanced Cantilever
Method
- Cast-|n-s|tu Segmenta| Ba|anced
Cant||ever Method.
- Precast Segmenta| box g|rder
us|ng externa| unbonded tendons.
- Precast segmenta| -Channe|
superstructure w|th |nterna| pre-
stress|ng.
Ater study|ng a|| the eas|b|e
opt|ons, Pre-cast segmenta| box g|rder
us|ng externa| unbounded tendon had
been adopted. The advantages seen
or us|ng th|s method are:
- Peduct|on |n structura| concrete
th|ckness as no space |s occup|ed
by the tendons |ns|de the concrete.
- Good corros|on protect|on due to
tendons |n po|yethy|ene ducts, the
grout |nspect|on |s eas|er and |eaks,
| any, can be |dent||ed dur|ng the
grout|ng process.
- S|mp|||ed segment cast|ng. There |s
no concern about a||gnment o ten-
dons. lncreased speed o construc-
t|on.
- The e||m|nat|on o the epoxy rom
the match-cast |o|nts reduces costs
and |ncreases speed o construc-
t|onurther.
- Pep|acement o tendons |n case o
d|stress |s poss|b|e andcanbe done
|na sae and conven|ent manner.
- Fac|||ty or |nspect|on and mon|tor-
|ng o tendons dur|ng the ent|re ser-
v|ce ||e o the structure.
B.2SpanbySpanConstructionMethod
Th|s o||ows construct|ng the typ|ca|
spans on an Advanced Launch|ng
G|rder (ALG) w|th system ormwork or
span-by-span cast-|n-s|tu construc-
t|on.
|ng on|y a narroww|dtho the road.
- Good qua||ty gets assured as the
pre-cast e|ements are cast on con-
tro||ed cond|t|ons |n a product|on
||ne |na construct|ondepot,
- The method |s env|ronment r|end|y
as no concret|ng work |s carr|ed at
s|te or the superstructure wh||e at
depot contro|s ex|st on product|on
||ne.
LaunchingScheme
Launch|ng g|rder |s spec|a||y de-
s|gned or |aunch|ng o segments. ln|-
t|a||y, the |aunch|ng g|rder |s erected on
p|er head at one end o the work. The
segments are ||ted |n sequence and
dry matched wh||e hang|ng rom the
|aunch|ng g|rder. Ater dry match|ng,
the segments are g|ued w|th epoxy and
pre-stressed rom one end. The g|rder
|s |owered on the temporary / perma-
nent bear|ngs ater pre-stress|ng.
The |aunch|ng g|rder then moves
over the |aunched span to next span
and the sequences cont|nue.
B.4Viaduct Structural System
Superstructure
The superstructure o a |arge part o
the v|aduct compr|ses o s|mp|y sup-
ported spans. spec|a| stee| or cont|nu-
ous un|t |s prov|ded at ma|or cross|ng
over or a|ong ex|st|ng br|dge.
Norma||y the Box G|rder hav|ng a
so|t w|dth o about 4.0 m (approx)
accommodates the two tracks s|tuated
Th|s construct|on methodo|ogy o
Advanced Launch|ng G|rder w|th sys-
tem ormwork has been successu||y
used |n S|ngapore and has proved to
be eect|ve |n the v|aduct construct|on
toach|eve qua||ty |n|shes. The advanced
Launch|ng G|rder |s a stee| structure
spec|a||y des|gned and abr|cated or
the cast-|n-s|tu construct|on o the typ|-
ca| spans o the v|aduct.
The h|gh cap|ta| |nvestment |n the
equ|pment or th|s type o construct|on
gets econom|ca||y |ust||ed cons|der|ng
the tota| |ength o approx|mate|y 25.4
km o v|aduct and the |arge number o
equa| spans.
B.3Pre-Cast Construction
Pre-cast segmenta| construct|on |s
the recommendat|on or the e|evated
sect|ons o super structure or the v|a-
duct. Pre-cast members are the cho|ce
or stat|ons superstructure a|so. The
pre-cast construct|on br|ngs w|th |t cer-
ta|nd|st|nct advantages:-
- Peduct|on |n construct|on per|od by
bene|t o para||e| act|v|t|es because
concurrent work|ng takes p|ace or
substructure and superstructure.
- Transportat|on ease & economy or
a|| segmenta|, pre-cast e|ement (o
greater than3.0m |ength), rom con-
struct|ondepot to s|te.
- M|n|mum |nconven|ence |s caused
to the pub||c ut|||s|ng the road as the
superstructure |aunch|ng |s carr|ed
out through |aunch|ng g|rder requ|r-
C|v|| eng|neer|ng
structure
C|v|| eng|neer|ng
structure
Arch|tecture
structure
Arch|tecture
structure
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u
c
t
u
r
e
M|dor|no Stat|on, Tsukuba Express
[The bu||d|ng rame |s ent|re|y
Covered by the exter|or o the
arch|tectura| structure]
lnrastructure
245 www.masterbu||der.co.|n The Masterbu||der - May 2013
F|gure 7 Convent|ona| & Hybr|d structures
at 4.2m center to center (c/c). The Box
G|rder superstructure or a|most a|| the
s|mp|y supported standard spans w|||
be constructed by precast prestressed
segmenta| construct|on w|th epoxy
bonded |o|nts.
The standard spans c/c o p|ers o
s|mp|y supported spans constructed
by precast segmenta| construct|on tech-
n|que has been proposed as 28.0m.
The usua| segments sha|| be 3.0m |n
|ength except the D|aphragm seg-
ments, wh|chsha|| be 2.0m each.
The other spans (c/c o p|er) com-
pr|ses o 31.0 m, 25.0 m, 22.0 m, 19.0
m & 16.0 m, wh|ch sha|| be made by
remov|ng/add|ng usua| segments o
3.0 m eachrom the center o the span.
- The p|er segment w||| be |na||zed
based on s|mp|y supported span o
31.0m and the same w||| be a|so
kept or a|| s|mp|y supported stan-
dard span.
- For ma|or cross|ng hav|ng spans
greater than 31.0m, spec|a| cont|n-
uous un|ts norma||y o 3 span con-
struct|on or stee| g|rders have been
env|saged.
- A|| these cont|nuous un|ts (|n case
prov|ded at ob||gatory |ocat|on) w|||
be constructed by cast-|n-s|tu ba|-
anced cant||ever construct|on tech-
n|que.
Substructure
The v|aduct superstructure w||| be
supported on s|ng|e cast-|n-p|ace PC
p|er. The shape o the p|er o||ows the
|ow o orces. For the standard spans,
the p|er gradua||y w|dens at the top to
support the bear|ng under the box
webs. At th|s pre||m|nary des|gn stage,
the s|ze o p|er |s ound to be ||m|ted to
1.8m to 2.0m d|ameter o c|rcu|ar
shape or most o |ts he|ght so that |t
occup|es the m|n|mumspace at ground
|eve| where the a||gnment oten o||ows
the centra| verge o ex|st|ng roads.
B.5FoundationRecommendation
Substratum cons|sts o top 1 meter
as |||ed up so|| o||owed by sand, s||ty
sand, s||ty sand m|xed w|th grave| up to
30 meter depth. P||e oundat|ons have
been recommendedor the oundat|ons
as per the stratumencountered. Hence,
p||e oundat|ons w|th vary|ng p||e depths
depend|ng on so|| character|st|c have
tobeprov|dedonacase-by-casebas|s.
The contractor sha|| be respons|b|e
or the proper hand||ng, ||t|ng, stor|ng,
transport|ng and erect|on o a|| seg-
ments so that they may be p|aced |nthe
structure w|thout damage. Segments
sha|| be ma|nta|ned |n an upr|ght pos|-
t|on at a|| t|mes and sha|| be stored,
||ted and/or moved |n a manner to pre-
vent tors|on and other undue stress.
Members sha|| be ||ted, ho|sted or
stored w|th ||t|ng dev|ces approved on
the shopdraw|ngs.
Movab|e p|atorm
barr|ers
(kyushu Sh|nkansen)
Movab|e p|atorm
barr|ers
(Tsukuba Express)
F|gure 8 Stat|on on Comp|et|on
E|evator (M|natom|ra| L|ne)
F|gure 10
F|gure 9
246 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
lnrastructure
B.6Constructionof Stations
The proposa| |s to construct e|e-
vated stat|ons w|th e|evated concourse
over the road at most o the |ocat|ons to
m|n|m|ze |and acqu|s|t|on. To keep the
ra|| |eve| |ow, |t |s proposed not to take
v|aduct throughthe stat|ons.
Stations focus on economic efficiency
anddesign
Shorten|ng the construct|on per|od,
cutt|ng down on costs and |mprov|ng
des|gn |ex|b|||ty, can be by the Sh|n-
kansen deve|oped "hybr|d structure"
(patented) that comb|nes a "c|v|| eng|-
neer|ng structure and an arch|tectura|
structure". Sh|nkansen has app||ed |t to
a var|ety o ra||ways.
By adopt|ng a 2-p|||ar v|aduct |nstead
o the convent|ona| 4-p|||ar v|aduct and
|ntegrat|ng the p|||ars on both s|des
w|th the upper structure, the stat|on
ac|||t|es |nc|ud|ng concourses, esca|a-
tors and e|evators, etc., can be |a|d out
more |ex|b|y. Perhaps th|s des|gn can
be o much advantage | adopted or
the Kera|a HSP. (F|gure 7 &8)
User-friendly StationFacilities
Movab|e p|atorm barr|ers, e|eva-
tors, etc., are |nsta||ed to a||ow every
passenger to wa|k through the stat|on
sae|y and comortab|y. (F|gure 9 &10)
Equ|pment |mportant to ensure a
sae env|ronment and comort |n sub-
ways and tunne|s |nc|udes: a|r cond|-
t|oners, vent||ators and smoke e|ectors
|nsta||ed on the p|atorms, concourses
and stat|on o|ces, and vent||ators and
smoke e|ectors |nsta||ed |n tunne|s.
Such equ|pment a||ows passengers to
use stat|ons sae|y and comortab|y.
(F|gure 11)
A|| |re-prevent|on measures are to
be |np|ace as per code. (F|gure 12)
D|stances between end o p|atorm
and co|umns, wa||s o subway, over-
br|dge and others
Sae d|stances to be ma|nta|ned
per des|gnareshown|n|gures13to15.
Sae d|stances to be ma|nta|ned
per des|gn are shown |n |gures 13
to15.
B.7Gradeof Concrete
lt |s proposed to carry out construc-
t|on work w|th des|gn m|x concrete
through computer|zed automat|c Bat-
ch|ng P|ants w|th o||ow|ng grade o
248 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
No|e lhau 2.O m
No|e lhau 2.5 m
No|e lhau 1.2 m
lnrared temperature camera
Tra|n |re detector (Se|kan Tunne|)
F|gure 11
A|r cond|t|oner room or subway
(m|natom|ra| L|ne)
vent||ator room or tunne|
(M|natom|ra| L|ne)
Stat|on B Stat|on A
F|gure 12
F|gure 13 D|stance between end o p|atorm
and co|umns
F|gure 14 D|stance between end o p|atorm and
wa||s o subway, over-br|dge
F|gure 15 D|stance between screen door and wa||s
o subway, over-br|dge
lnrastructure
concrete or var|ous members as per
des|gn requ|rement/durab|||ty cons|d-
erat|ons.
|) P||es - M-35
||) P||ecapandopenoundat|on- M-35
|||) P|ers - M-40
|v) A|| precast e|ement or v|aduct and
stat|on- M-45
v) Cant||ever p|ers and porta|s - M-45,
M-60
v|) Other m|sce||aneousstructure- M-30
For a|| the ma|n structures, perme-
ab|||ty test on concrete samp|e |s rec-
ommended to ensure |mpermeab|e
concrete.
B.8 Reinforcement and pre-stressed
Steel
lt |s proposed to use HYSD 415 or
TMT stee| as re|norcement bars.For
pre-stress|ng work, |ow re|axat|on h|gh
tens||e stee| strands w|th the con|gura-
t|on 12 T 13 and or 19 K 15 |s recom-
mended (con|rm|ng to lS:14268).
C. Track Structures & Signals for
Shinkansen
S|ab tracks, the bas|c structure or
Sh|nkansen tracks, are adopted or v|a-
ducts, br|dges, tunne|s and earth road-
beds. (F|gures 16, 17)
There are two types o track s|abs:
F|at track s|abs and rame track s|abs.
The |atter are ma|n|y used or tunne|s
and warm reg|ons.
Ba||ast tracks have been adopted
or the track structures o convent|ona|
||nes. ln recent years, tracks d|rect|y
astened to ant|-v|brat|on s|eepers are
ma|n|y used. These tracks d|rect|y as-
tened to ant|-v|brat|on s|eepers a||ow
ma|ntenance work to be carr|ed out
w|thout d||cu|ty, and are w|de|y adop-
ted or urbanra||ways.
RoadbedStructurefor SlabTracks
S|ab tracks, the bas|c structure or
Sh|nkansen tracks, were once unsu|t-
ab|e or structures made o so||, such
as cut earth or embankments due to
prob|ems |nc|ud|ng subs|dence. But a
newtype o econom|ca||y e|c|ent road-
bed structure has been deve|oped that
a||ows |ts use or s|ab tracks based on
the resu|ts o P&D and test|ng.
luleg|aled |e|ulo|ced couc|ele |oadbed
T|ac| s|ab
F|gure 16 v|aduct sect|on (Tsukuba Express) F|gure 17 Tunne| Sect|on (Tsukuba Express)
F|gures 18 Track s|ab p|aced over lntegrated re|norced concrete roadbed
249 www.masterbu||der.co.|n The Masterbu||der - May 2013
lnrastructure
Comparison of brake patterns of a conventional ATP and the new ATP
New ATP S|ng|e
Stage Brake Contro|
Brake start|ng po|nt Brake start|ng po|nt
Convent|ona| ATP
Mu|t|stage brake
contro|
Peduced
break|ng t|me
Fo||ow|ng tra|n
(Convent|ona|)
Fo||ow|ng tra|n
(New)
Speed s|gna| Stop po|nt |normat|on Speed po|nt
Smooth break|ng |mproves
r|d|ng comort
!|i| Co|||ol |
Co||u|ic|io|
|e|Wo||
(ec| c|)
|eW A!C
(lei| c|)
u:e ol ||e |eW A!C
:]:|e|: :ee |
o:i|io| i|lo|||io|
|il| ol
||e i|
:|i|
Conventional transformer
(Modified wood-bridge connection)
New transformer
(Roof delta connection)
Pr|mary
w|nd|ng
Secondary
w|nd|ng
Step-up
transormer
Pr|mary
w|nd|ng
Secondary
w|nd|ng
275kV
60kV
60kV
60kV
275kV 60kV
(granted the techn|ca| deve|opment
award by the Japan Soc|ety o C|v||
Eng|neers). (F|gure 18)
Spec|a| mach|nes, un|que to ra||-
way construct|on, des|gned to ac|||tate
track construct|on such as |ay|ng o
ra||s, and e|ectr|ca| work such as cate-
nary construct|on are dep|oyed. Work
|s thus carr|ed out sae|y and e|c|ent|y.
(See F|gure 19)
NewSignal System
A new s|gna| system w|th autono-
mous on-board dev|ce (ATP: Auto-
mat|c Tra|n Protect|on) has been put to
pract|ca| use. Th|s serves great|y to
|mprove r|d|ng comort, reduce brak|ng
t|me and shortenheadway.
A|so, the Tohoku Sh|nkansen
(Hach|nohe-Sh|n-Aomor|) o|c|a||y em-
p|oyed a non-|nsu|at|on track c|rcu|t or
the |rst t|me as a Sh|nkansen ||ne. (F|g-
ure 20 &21)
Eco-friendly roof delta connected
transformer
As an a|ternat|ng current eed|ng
transormer or u|trah|gh vo|tage recep-
t|on or the Sh|nkansen, a new roo
de|ta connected transormer was dev-
e|oped and put |nto serv|ce to rep|ace
the convent|ona| mod||ed wood-br|dge
connected transormer.
Th|s new transormer has a s|mp|er
structure than the convent|ona| one
and |s more compact and ||ght-we|ght,
resu|t|ng |n reduced power |oss and
enhanced eco-r|end||ness. (See F|g-
ure 22).
Leapfroggingis best way forward
Sh|nkansen |s the best bet as |t |s
engaged |n perenn|a| |nnovat|on and |s
on|y prudent to |o|n hands w|th |t rather
than try|ng to |nvent the whee| by one-
se|. Moreover |t has an env|ous saety
and punctua||ty h|story. And | lnd|a |s
ab|e to st|ck to schedu|es and as be|ng
env|saged the Japanese |ntent|on o
und|ng as we|| as post comm|ss|on|ng
he|p gets mater|a||zed Kera|a cou|d
we|| be lnd|as |rst megapo||s !
Author's Bio
The author |eads our De|h| bureau. An
Eng|neer and qua|||ed ADP proess|ona|
(NALSAP a|umnus), Sadagopan Seshadr|
has been a sen|or Contract Management
Proess|ona| |n |argenat|ona| &lnternat|ona|
Compan|es. H|s doma|n exper|ence |s |n
Bu||d|ng Products, Cement p|ants and
MegaPower pro|ect execut|on. He |s expert
v|s|t|ng acu|ty or Contract Management
at the SSAA, lPn|vers|ty, NewDe|h|.
Be|ng pass|onate about Env|ronment
he has now turned to Landscape Pro|ects
des|gn teamed w|th ||ke-m|nded arch|tects
& eng|neers or susta|nab|e |andscapes
deve|opment He |s voca| w|th h|s v|ews on
these areas throughh|s wr|t|ngs.
H e c a n b e r e a c h e d a t
des|gn2xce|_gma||.com
Tract|on veh|c|e capab|e o runn|ng on tracks
as we|| as the ground, name|y h|-ra|| car
Catenary work wagon (back |et) and
w|re stretch car (Front r|ght)
F|gure 20
F|gure 22
F|gure 21 Body lnc||n|ng System
250 The Masterbu||der - May 2013 www.masterbu||der.co.|n
lnrastructure