You are on page 1of 7

Title Fourteen

QUASI OFFENSES
Sole Chapter. CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE
Article 365. Imprudence and negligence
Article 365. Imprudence and negligence
Quai!o"ene punihed#
$. Committing through rec%le imprudence
an& act 'hich( had it )een intentional(
'ould contitute a gra*e or le gra*e
+elon& or light +elon&,
-. Committing through imple imprudence or
negligence an act 'hich 'ould other'ie
contitute a gra*e or a le eriou +elon&,
3. Cauing damage to the propert& o+ another
through rec%le imprudence or imple
imprudence or negligence,
.. Cauing through imple imprudence or
negligence ome 'rong 'hich( i+ done
malicioul&( 'ould ha*e contituted a light
+elon&.
Imprudence or negligence i not a crime in
itself, it i impl& a way o committing a
crime.
In intentional crime( the act itel+ i
punihed, in negligence or imprudence(
'hat i principall& penalied i the mental
attitude or condition behind the act, the
dangerous recklessness, lack of care, or
foresight.
A negligent act cauing damage ma&
produce ci*il lia)ilit& ariing +rom crime or
create an action +or /uai!delict under the
Ci*il Code. 0he in1ured part& ma& chooe
'hich remed& to en+orce. !e cannot
reco"er damage# twice or t$e #ame
act or omi##ion o t$e deendant.
Imprudence indicate a de2cienc& o+
action, negligence indicate a de2cienc& o+
perception.
%ec&le## imprudence 3 conit in
*oluntaril&( )ut 'ithout malice( doing or
+ailing to do an act +rom 'hich material
damage reult )& reaon o+ ine4cua)le
lac% o+ precaution on the part o+ the peron
per+orming or +ailing to per+orm uch act(
ta%ing into conideration hi emplo&ment
or occupation( degree o+ intelligence(
ph&ical condition and other circumtance
regarding peron( time( and place.
Simple imprudence 3 conit in the lac%
o+ precaution dipla&ed in thoe cae in
'hich the damage impending to )e caued
i not immediate nor the danger clearl&
mani+et.
Elements of reckless imprudence:
$5 that the o"ender doe or +aile to do an
act
-5 that the doing o+ or the +ailure to do
that act i *oluntar&
35 that it )e 'ithout malice
.5 that material damage reult
55 that there i ine4cua)le lac% o+
precaution on the part o+ the o"ender(
ta%ing into conideration 6
a5 hi emplo&ment or occupation
)5 degree o+ intelligence( ph&ical
condition( and
c5 other circumtance regarding
peron( time and place.
TEST OF NE'(I'EN)E* would a
prudent man+ in t$e po#ition o t$e
per#on to w$om negligence i#
attri,uted+ ore#ee $arm to t$e per#on
in-ured a# a rea#ona,le con#e.uence
o t$e cour#e a,out to ,e pur#ued/ I
#o+ t$e law impo#e# a duty on t$e
actor to rerain rom t$at cour#e or to
ta&e precaution again#t it#
mi#c$ie"ou# re#ult#+ and t$e ailure to
do #o con#titute# negligence.
Reaona)le +oreight o+ harm( +ollo'ed )&
the ignoring o+ the admonition )orn o+ thi
pro*iion( i the contituti*e +act in
negligence.
Criminal negligence preuppoe lack of
intention to commit the wrong done( )ut
that it came a)out due to imprudence on
the part o+ the o"ender.
0here mut )e in1ur& to peron or damage
to propert& a a cone/uence o+ rec%le or
imple imprudence.
Elements of simple imprudence:
$5 that there i lac% o+ precaution on the
part o+ the o"ender
-5 that the damage impending to )e
caued i not immediate or the danger
i not clearl& mani+et.
0he eence o+ a negligent act i that it )e
in e*er& cae *oluntar&.
0he meaure o+ the damage hould )e the
di"erence in *alue o+ the propert&
immediatel& )e+ore the incident and
immediatel& a+ter the repair.
Art 6. relati*e to mitigating and
aggra*ating circumtance i not
applica)le to crime committed thru
negligence.
)ontri,utory negligence i# not a
deence0 it only mitigate# criminal
lia,ility.
7here the concurrent or successive
negligent acts or omission of 2 or more
persons( although acting independentl& o+
each other are( in com)ination( the direct
and pro4imate caue o+ a ingle in1ur& to a
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
165
3
rd
peron( and it i impoi)le to
determine in 'hat proportion each
contri)uted to the in1ur&+ eit$er i#
re#pon#i,le or t$e w$ole in-ury 1ie
SO(I2A%3 (IA4I(IT35+ e*en though hi
act alone might not ha*e caued the entire
in1ur&.
62octrine o (a#t )lear )$ance7 6 the
contri)utor& negligence o+ the part& in1ured
'ill not de+eat the action i+ it )e ho'n that
the accued might( )& the e4ercie o+
reaona)le care and prudence( ha*e
a*oided the cone/uence o+ the
negligence o+ the in1ured part&.
6Emergency 2octrine7 6 a peron 'ho i
con+ronted 'ith a udden emergenc& ma&
)e le+t no time +or thought( mut ma%e
peed& deciion )aed largel& upon
impule or intinct( and cannot )e held to
the ame conduct a one 'ho ha had an
opportunit& to re8ect( e*en though it later
appear that he made the 'rong deciion.
9o'e*er( thi doctrine i applica)le onl&
'here the ituation 'hich arie to
con+ront the actor i sudden and
unexpected( and i such as to deprive him
of all opportunity for deliberation.
T$e "iolation o a #tatute w$ic$
impo#e# a #peci8c re.uirement to
omit or to do a de8nite act i#
negligence per #e.
0he +ailure to render aitance contitute
a /uali+&ing circumtance.
People vs. Cano
Facts: Cano was charged of the crime of damage to
property with multiple physical injuries thru reckless
imprudence for causing to the bus driven by him to hit and
bump a Phil Rabbit Bus producing damage to the said bus
and injuries to the passengers. Prosecution appealed from
order of lower court in quashing the information based on
the theory that offence of injuries thru reckless
imprudence cannot be compleed with that of damage to
property.
Held: !C set aside the order. "he information does not
purport to comple the offence of slight physical injuries
with reckless negligence with that of damage to property
and serious and less serious physical injuries thru reckless
imprudence. #egligence is a quasi$offence. What is
punished is not the eect o the ne!li!ence "ut the
rec#lessness o the accused. %or convenience to the
administration of justice in general and to the accused in
particular& the prosecution should not split the action
against him in several information for it would require the
presentation of substantially the same evidence.
$"a"ao vs. People
"he proviso in 'rt ()* that +the provisions contained in this
article shall not be applicable, refers to the preceding
paragraphs thereof. Par - . / are eceptions to the
application of the said preceding paragraphs under the
circumstances mentioned. "he last par on failure to lend
aid on the spot necessarily applies to all situations
envisioned in the said article whenever there is an injured
party. 0t is a qualifying circumstance 1because its presence
raises the penalty by - degree2 that must be alleged in the
information to apprise the defendant of this charge.
%uerano vs. C&
"he law penalises the negligent or careless act& not the
result thereof. "he gravity of the consequence is only
taken into account to determine the penalty& it does not
qualify the substance of the offence. 'nd as the careless
act is single& whether the injurious result should affect 1
person or several persons, the offence remains 1 and
the same, and cannot be split into different crimes and
prosecutions.
'an vs. C&
"he test for determining whether or not a person is
negligent in doing an act whereby injury or damage results
to the person or property of another is: would a prudent
man in the position of the person to whom negligence is
attributed foresee harm to the person injured as a
reasonable consequence of the course about to e pursued3
"he law imposes the duty on the doer to take precaution
against its mischievous results and the failure to do so
constitutes negligence. 4ne who suddenly finds himself in
a place of danger& and is required to act without time to
consider the best means that may be adopted to avoid the
impending danger& is not guilty of negligence unless the
emergency is brought about by own negligence
1()(R'(*C+ R,L(2.
Carillo vs. People
5id dies ( days after her operation. 6octors found guilty of
criminal negligence. !C held that doctors
should eercise a higher degree of care in view
of the vulnerable condition of the child. "he
gravamen of offence of simple negligence is the
failure to eercise the diligence necessitated or
called for by the situation which is not
immediately life$destructive but resulted still
in the death of the patient. 0t is the mere lack
of prevision in a situation where either the
threatened harm is not immediate or the
danger not openly visible.
Reodica vs. C&
(Very long blurb, but I dont know how else to put it.
Enlightening naman. )
Reodica was convicted by the R"C of the quasi offense of
reckless imprudence resulting in damage to property with
slight physical injuries. !he was sentenced to arresto mayor
1) months2 and to pay the complainant P-(5. 'ssailed is the
penalty imposed by the lower court.
H(L-: 'ccording to the par. - of 'rt. ()*& the penalty for
reckless imprudence resulting in slight physical injuries& a
light felony& is arresto menor in its maimum period& with a
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
166
duration of /- to (7 days. 0f the offense of slight physical
injuries is& however& committed deliberately or with
malice& it is penali8ed with arresto menor under 'rt. /)) of
the Revised Penal Code& with a duration of - day to (7
days. Plainly& the penalty then under 'rticle /)) may be
either lower than or equal to the penalty prescribed under
the first paragraph of 'rt. ()*. "his being the case& the
eception in the par. ) of 'rt. ()* applies. 9ence& the
proper penalty for reckless imprudence resulting in slight
physical injuries is public censure& this being the penalty
net lower in degree to arresto menor.
's to reckless imprudence resulting in damage to property
in the amount of P:&*;/.77& par. ( of 'rt. ()*& which
provides for the penalty of fine& does #4" apply since the
reckless imprudence in this case did not result in damage
to property only. <hat applies is the par. - of 'rt. ()*&
which provides for arresto mayor in its minimum and
medium periods 1- month and - day to ; months2 for an act
committed through reckless imprudence which& had it been
intentional& would have constituted a less grave felony.
#ote that if the damage to the etent of P:&*;/.77 were
caused deliberately& the crime would have been malicious
mischief under 'rticle (/= of the Revised Penal Code& and
the penalty would then be arresto mayor in its medium and
maimum periods 1/ months and - day to ) months which is
higher than that prescribed in the first paragraph of 'rticle
()*2. 0f the penalty under 'rt. (/= were equal to or lower
than that provided for in the par. -& then par. ) of 'rt. ()*
would apply& i.e.& the penalty net lower in degree& which
is arresto menor in its maimum period to arresto mayor in
its minimum period or imprisonment from /- days to /
months. 'ccordingly& the imposable penalty for reckless
imprudence resulting in damage to property to the etent
of P:&*;/.77 would be arresto mayor in its minimum and
medium periods& which could be anywhere from a minimum
of - month and - day to a maimum of ; months& at the
discretion of the court& since the par. * of 'rt. ()* provides
that in the imposition of the penalties therein provided
>the courts shall eercise their sound discretion without
regard to the rules prescribed in article );.>
!ince public censure is classified under 'rt. /* of the Code
as a light penalty& it follows that the offense of reckless
imprudence resulting in slight physical injuries is a light
felony. 4n the other hand& reckless imprudence also
resulting in damage to property is& as earlier discussed&
penali8ed with arresto mayor 1a correccional penalty2& thus
the quasi offense in question is a less grave felony.
!ince criminal negligence may& as here& result in more than
one felony& should 'rticle ;: of the Revised Code on
comple crimes be applied3 #o.
Clearly& if a reckless& imprudent or negligent act results in
two or more grave or less grave felonies& a comple crime
is committed. 9owever& in ?ontok v. @orgonio& this Court
declared that where one of the resulting offenses in
criminal negligence constitutes a light felony& there is no
comple crime. 'pplying 'rt. ;:& it follows that if one
offense is light& there is no comple crime. "he resulting
offenses may be treated as separate or the light felony may
be absorbed by the grave felony.
%ollowing ontok& the conclusion is inescapable here& that
the quasi offense of reckless imprudence resulting in slight
physical injuries should have been charged in a separate
information because it is #4" covered by 'rt. ;: of the
Revised Penal Code. 9owever& petitioner may no longer
question& at this stage& the duplicitous character of the
information. "his defect was deemed waived by her failure
to raise it in a motion to quash before she pleaded to the
information.
9owever& the case must be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction
on the part of the R"C Aakati. 't the time the information
was filed& the A"C had jurisdiction over crimes punishable
by censure 1R0R0 slight physical injuries2 and over crimes
where the imposable penalty therefor was arresto mayor in
its minimum and medium periods B the duration of which
was from - month and - day to ; months 1R0R0 damage to
property2.
)an.anares v. People /20060
%inally& as to petitionersC argument that Desus Basallo
1EictimF deceased2 should be presumed negligent because
he was driving with an epired license and the passenger
jeepney owned by his brother "eodorico did not have a
franchise to operate& we hold that the same fails to
convince. +"he defense of contributory negligence does
not apply in criminal cases committed through reckless
imprudence& since one cannot allege the negligence of
another to evade the effects of his own negligence.,
%.A. 9:5;
Seat 4elt# U#e Act o <===
>$at i# a #eat ,elt de"ice/
Seat )elt de*ice hall re+er to an& trap(
'e))ing or imilar de*ice in the +orm o+ pel*ic
retraint or lap )elt( upper toro retraint or houlder
trap or a com)ination thereo+ deigned to ecure a
peron in a motor *ehicle in order to mitigate the
reult o+ an& accident( including all necear&
)uc%le and other +atener( and all hard'are
deigned +or intalling uch eat )elt de*ice in a
motor *ehicle. :;35
%e.uirement# under t$e law
$. 0he dri"er and ront #eat pa##enger# o+ a
pu,lic or pri"ate motor "e$icle are re/uired
to 'ear or ue their eat )elt de*ice 'hile
inide a *ehicle o+ running engine on an& road or
thorough+are
<or pri*ate *ehicle( e4cept +or 1eep( 1eepne&(
*an( )ue and uch other pri*ate *ehicle a
ma& )e determined in IRR( ront and ,ac&
#eat pa##enger# are li%e'ie re/uired to ue
their eat )elt de*ice at all time. :;.5
NOTE* 6?otor "e$icle#7 hall not include the
tric&cle and the motorc&cle.
@Ari"ate motor "e$icle@ hall re+er to an& o+
the +ollo'ing#
An& motor *ehicle o'ned )& indi*idual and
1uridical peron +or pri*ate ue,
An& motor *ehicle o'ned )& the National
Go*ernment or an& o+ it agencie(
intrumentalitie or political u)di*iion(
including go*ernment!o'ned or controlled
corporation or their u)idiarie +or o=cial
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
161
ue, and
An& diplomatic *ehicle.
@Au,lic motor "e$icle@ hall re+er to pu)lic
utilit& *ehicle or *ehicle +or hire.
@Front #eat pa##enger#@ hall re+er to#
peron on )oard a pu)lic utilit& *ehicle
eated at the right ide )eide the
dri*er +or pu)lic utilit& 1eepne& :>?@5
paenger eated at the right ide
)eide the dri*er and thoe at the 2rt
ro' immediatel& )ehind the dri*er in
the cae o+ pu)lic utilit& )ue :>?A5
paenger eated on the right ide
)eide the dri*er +or pri*ate motor
*ehicle.
-. In the cae o+ pu,lic motor "e$icle#( the
dri*er hall )e re/uired to immediatel& in+orm
and re/uire the +ront eat paenger upon
)oarding a *ehicle o+ running engine to 'ear the
precri)ed eat )elt. An& paenger 'ho
re+ue to 'ear eat )elt hall not )e allo'ed to
continue hiBher trip. :;.5
3. <or #pecial pu,lic #er"ice "e$icle# uch a
chool er*ice and other imilar *ehicle a
ma& )e determined )& the IRR( eat )elt de*ice
hould )e pro*ided and ued )& )oth dri*er and
+ront eat paenger and the 2rt ro'
paenger immediatel& )ehind the dri*er at all
time 'hile inide a *ehicle o+ running engine.
:;.5

.. Operational motor "e$icle#( )oth pu)lic and
pri*ate( 'hich are not e/uipped 'ith the
re/uired eat )elt de*ice( are gi*en one :$5
&ear +rom the iuance o+ the IRR )& the Land
0ranportation C=ce :L0C5 to retro2t appropriate
eat )elt de*ice in their *ehicle. :;.5
5. In+ant andBor children 'ith age i4 :65 &ear
and )elo' hall )e prohi)ited to it in the +ront
eat o+ an& running motor *ehicle. :;55
6. Car manu+acturer( aem)ler and ditri)utor
hould enure that eat )elt de*ice are properl&
intalled )e+ore the ditri)ution and ale o+ the
aid *ehicle a determined )& the IRR. 0he
t&pe o+ de*ice re/uired hould )e in accordance
'ith the tandard et )& the D0I and the DC0C
:ee IRR5.
Manu+acturer( aem)ler and ditri)utor o+
-eepney# may in#tall a pel"ic re#traint or
lap ,elt onl& in the dri*erE and +ront eat
paengerE eat and thi hall )e conidered
a u)tantial compliance 'ith the re/uirement
o+ thi la'. :;F5
NC0E# Regitration o+ motor *ehicle co*ered )&
thi la' hall not )e allo'ed unle the eat )elt
de*ice are properl& intalled. :;$G5
Act# puni#$a,le :;H5
1. :on the importer5 Importation or cauing the
importation o+ an& *ehicle 'ithout appropriate
and operational eat )elt de*ice a re/uired.
2. :on the dri*er5
a. +ailure to 'ear the precri)ed eat )elt
de*ice andBor +ailure to re/uire hi
paenger to 'ear the precri)ed eat )elt
de*ice
). +or pu)lic utilit& *ehicle( +ailure to pot
appropriate ignage intructing +ront eat
paenger to 'ear eat )elt 'hen inide
the *ehicle. :operator alo lia)le in thi
cae5
3. :Cn an& manu+acturer( aem)ler( importer and
ditri)utor5 <or ditri)uting to the pu)ilc *ehicle
'ithout eat )elt de*ice intalled
%A B<36
TraCc %ule#+ )$apter B
DD(engt$y and tec$nical rule# on rig$t o way+
turning+ o"erta&ing+ #peed limit+ etc. w$ic$
cannot ,e #ummariEed wit$out #acri8cing
#u,#tance.
)!AATE% IF. G T%AFFI) %U(ES
A%TI)(E I. G Speed (imit and Heeping to t$e
%ig$t
Sec. 35.%e#triction a# to #peed. ! :a5 An& peron
dri*ing a motor *ehicle on a high'a& hall dri*e the
ame at a care+ul and prudent peed( not greater nor
le than i reaona)le and proper( ha*ing due
regard +or the tra=c( the 'idth o+ the high'a&( and
o+ an& other condition then and there e4iting, and
no peron hall dri*e an& motor *ehicle upon a
high'a& at uch a peed a to endanger the li+e( lim)
and propert& o+ an& peron( nor at a peed greater
than 'ill permit him to )ring the *ehicle to a top
'ithin the aured clear ditance ahead.
:)5 Su)1ect to the pro*iion o+ the preceding
paragraph( the rate o+ peed o+ an& motor *ehicle
hall not e4ceed the +ollo'ing#
MAIIM?M ALLC7AALE
S>EEDS
>aenger
Car and
Motorc&cle
Motor truc%
and )ue
Cn open countr&
road( 'ith no
J)lind cornerJ
not cloel&
)ordered )&
ha)itation.
HG %m. per
hour
5G %m. per
hour
Cn Jthrough
treetJ or
)oule*ard( clear
o+ tra=c( 'ith no
J)lind corner(J
'hen o
deignated.
.G %m per
hour
3G %m per
hour
Cn cit& and 3G %m per 3G %m per
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
162
municipal treet(
'ith light tra=c(
'hen not
deignated
Jthrough treetJ.
hour hour
0hrough cro'ded
treet(
approaching
interection at
J)lind corner(J
paing chool
Kone( paing
other *ehicle
'hich are
tationer&( or +or
imilar dangerou
circumtance.
-G %m per
hour
-G %m per
hour
:c5 0he rate o+ peed hereina)o*e precri)ed
hall not appl& to the +ollo'ing#
:$5 A ph&ician or hi dri*er 'hen the +ormer
repond to emergenc& call,
:-5 0he dri*er o+ a hopital am)ulance on the
'a& to and +rom the place o+ accident or other
emergenc&,
:35 An& dri*er )ringing a 'ounded or ic%
peron +or emergenc& treatment to a hopital( clinic(
or an& other imilar place,
:.5 0he dri*er o+ a motor *ehicle )elonging to
the Armed <orce 'hile in ue +or o=cial purpoe in
time o+ riot( inurrection or in*aion,
:55 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle( 'hen he or hi
paenger are in puruit o+ a criminal,
:65 A la'!en+orcement o=cer 'ho i tr&ing to
o*erta%e a *iolator o+ tra=c la', and
:F5 0he dri*er o=ciall& operating a motor
*ehicle o+ an& 2re department( pro*ided that
e4emption hall not )e contrued to allo' unle or
unnecear& +at dri*ing o+ dri*er a+ore!mentioned.
Sec. 36.Speed limit# uniorm t$roug$out t$e
A$ilippine#. ! No pro*incial( cit& or municipal
authorit& hall enact or en+orce an& ordinance or
reolution peci+&ing ma4imum allo'a)le peed
other than thoe pro*ided in thi Act.
Sec. 3:.2ri"ing on rig$t #ide o $ig$way. !
?nle a di"erent coure o+ action i re/uired in the
interet o+ the a+et& and the ecurit& o+ li+e( peron
or propert&( or )ecaue o+ unreaona)le di=cult& o+
operation in compliance here'ith( e*er& peron
operating a motor *ehicle or an animal!dra'n *ehicle
on a high'a& hall pa to the right 'hen meeting
peron or *ehicle coming to'ard him( and to the
le+t 'hen o*erta%ing peron or *ehicle going the
ame direction( and 'hen turning to the le+t in going
+rom one high'a& to another( e*er& *ehicle hall )e
conducted to the right o+ the center o+ the
interection o+ the high'a&.
Sec. 39.)la##i8cation o $ig$way#. ! >u)lic
high'a& hall )e properl& clai2ed +or tra=c
purpoe )& the pro*incial )oard( municipal )oard or
cit& council ha*ing 1uridiction o*er them( and aid
pro*incial )oard( municipal )oard or cit& council hall
pro*ide appropriate ign there+or( u)1ect to the
appro*al o+ the Commiioner. It hall )e the dut& o+
e*er& pro*incial( cit& and municipal ecretar& to
certi+& to the Commiioner the name( location(
and limit o+ all Jthrough treetJ deignated a uch
)& the pro*incial )oard( municipal )oard or council.
A%TI)(E II. G O"erta&ing and Aa##ing a Fe$icle+
and
Turning at Inter#ection#
Sec. 3=.O"erta&ing a "e$icle. ! 0he dri*er o+ an&
motor *ehicle o*erta%ing another *ehicle proceeding
in the ame direction hall pa at a a+e ditance to
the le+t thereo+( and hall not again dri*e to the right
ide o+ the high'a& until a+et& clear o+ uch
o*erta%en *ehicle e4cept that on a high'a&( 'ithin a
)uine or reidential ditrict( ha*ing t'o or more
lane +or the mo*ement o+ tra=c in one direction( the
dri*er o+ a *ehicle ma& o*erta%e and pa another
*ehicle on the right. Nothing in thi ection hall )e
contrued to prohi)it a dri*er o*erta%ing and paing(
upon the right( another *ehicle 'hich i ma%ing or
a)out to ma%e a le+t turn.
Sec. B;.2ri"er to gi"e way to o"erta&ing
"e$icle. ! 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle a)out to )e
o*erta%en and paed )& another *ehicle
approaching +rom the rear hall gi*e 'a& to the
o*erta%ing *ehicle on uita)le and audi)le ignal
)eing gi*en )& the dri*er o+ the o*erta%ing *ehicle(
and hall not increae the peed o+ hi *ehicle until
completel& paed )& the o*erta%ing *ehicle.
Sec. B<.%e#triction# on o"erta&ing and pa##ing.
G
:a5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle hall not dri*e to the
le+t ide o+ the center line o+ a high'a& in o*erta%ing
or paing another *ehicle proceeding in the ame
direction( unle uch le+t ide i clearl& *ii)le( and
i +ree o+ oncoming tra=c +or a u=cient ditance
ahead to permit uch o*erta%ing or paing to )e
made in a+et&.
:)5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle hall not o*erta%e or
pa another *ehicle proceeding in the ame
direction( 'hen approaching the cret o+ a grade( not
upon a cur*e in the high'a&( 'here the dri*erE *ie'
along the high'a& i o)tructed 'ithin a ditance o+
2*e hundred +eet ahead( e4cept on a high'a& ha*ing
t'o or more lane +or mo*ement o+ tra=c in one
direction 'here the dri*er o+ a *ehicle ma& o*erta%e
or pa another *ehicle# >ro*ided( 0hat on a high'a&
'ithin a )uine or reidential ditrict( ha*ing t'o or
more lane +or mo*ement o+ tra=c in one direction(
the dri*er o+ a *ehicle ma& o*erta%e or pa another
*ehicle on the right.
:c5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle hall not o*erta%e or
pa an& other *ehicle proceeding in the ame
direction( at an& rail'a& grade croing( not at an&
interection o+ high'a& unle uch interection or
croing i controlled )& tra=c ignal( or unle
permitted to do o )& a 'atchman or a peace o=cer(
e4cept on a high'a& ha*ing t'o or more lane +or
mo*ement o+ tra=c in one direction 'here the dri*er
o+ a *ehicle ma& o*erta%e or pa another *ehicle on
the right. Nothing in thi ection hall )e contrued to
prohi)it a dri*er o*erta%ing or paing upon the right
another *ehicle 'hich i ma%ing or a)out to ma%e a
le+t turn.
:d5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle hall not o*erta%e or
pa( or attempt to pa( an& other *ehicle(
proceeding in the ame direction( )et'een an& point
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
163
indicated )& the placing o+ o=cial temporar& 'arning
or caution ign indicating that men are 'or%ing on
the high'a&.
:e5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle hall not o*erta%e or
pa( or attempt to o*erta%e or pa( an& other
*ehicle proceeding in the ame direction in an& Jno!
paing or o*erta%ing Kone.J
AR0ICLE III. ! Right o+ 7a& and Signal
Sec. .-. Right o+ 'a&. ! :a5 7hen t'o *ehicle
approach or enter an interection at appro4imatel&
the ame time( the dri*er o+ the *ehicle on the le+t
hall &ield the right o+ 'a& to the *ehicle on the right(
e4cept a other'ie hereina+ter pro*ided. 0he dri*er
o+ an& *ehicle tra*eling at an unla'+ul peed hall
+or+eit an& right o+ 'a& 'hich he might other'ie
ha*e hereunder.
:)5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle approaching )ut not
ha*ing entered an interection( hall &ield the right o+
'a& to a *ehicle 'ithin uch interection or turning
therein to the le+t acro the line o+ tra*el o+ uch
2rt!mentioned *ehicle( pro*ided the dri*er o+ the
*ehicle turning le+t ha gi*en a plainl& *ii)le ignal
o+ intention to turn a re/uired in thi Act.
:c5 0he dri*er o+ an& *ehicle upon a high'a&
'ithin a )uine or reidential ditrict hall &ield the
right o+ 'a& to a pedetrian croing uch high'a&
'ithin a cro'al%( e4cept at interection 'here the
mo*ement o+ tra=c i )eing regulated )& a peace
o=cer or )& tra=c ignal. E*er& pedetrian croing
a high'a& 'ithin a )uine or reidential ditrict( at
an& point other than a cro'al% hall &ield the right
o+ 'a& to *ehicle upon the high'a&.
:d5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle upon a high'a& hall
)ring to a +ull top uch *ehicle )e+ore tra*ering an&
Jthrough high'a&J or railroad croing# >ro*ided(
0hat 'hen it i apparent that no haKard e4it( the
*ehicle ma& )e lo'ed do'n to 2*e mile per hour
intead o+ )ringing it to a +ull top.
Sec. B3.EIception to t$e rig$t o way rule. ! :a5
0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle entering a high'a& +rom a
pri*ate road or dri*e hall &ield the right o+ 'a& to all
*ehicle approaching on uch high'a&.
:)5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle upon a high'a& hall
&ield the right o+ 'a& to police or 2re department
*ehicle and am)ulance 'hen uch *ehicle are
operated on o=cial )uine and the dri*er thereo+
ound audi)le ignal o+ their approach.
:c5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle entering a Jthrough
high'a&J or a Jtop interectionJ hall &ield the right
o+ 'a& to all *ehicle approaching to either direction
on uch Jthrough high'a&J# >ro*ided( 0hat nothing in
thi u)ection hall )e contrued a relie*ing the
dri*er o+ an& *ehicle )eing operated on a Jthrough
high'a&J +rom the dut& o+ dri*ing 'ith due regard +or
the a+et& o+ *ehicle entering uch Jthrough
high'a&J nor a protecting the aid dri*er +rom the
cone/uence o+ an ar)itrar& e4ercie o" uch right o+
'a&.
Sec. BB.Signal# on #tarting+ #topping or
turning. G
:a5 0he dri*er o+ an& *ehicle upon a high'a&(
)e+ore tarting( topping or turning +rom a direct line(
hall 2rt ee that uch mo*ement can )e made in
a+et&( and i+ an& pedetrian ma& )e a"ected )& uch
mo*ement( hall gi*e a clearl& audi)le ignal )&
ounding the horn( and 'hene*er the operation o+
an& other *ehicle approaching or +ollo'ing ma& )e
a"ected )& uch mo*ement( hall gi*e a ignal
plainl& *ii)le to the dri*er o+ uch other *ehicle o+
the intention to ma%e uch mo*ement. cdt
:)5 0he ignal herein re/uired hall )e gi*en )&
mean o+ e4tending the hand and arm )e&ond the
le+t ide o+ the *ehicle( or )& an appro*ed mechanical
or electrical ignal de*ice.
A%TI)(E IF. G Turning and Aar&ing
Sec. B5.Turning at inter#ection#. ! :a5 0he dri*e
o+ a *ehicle intending to run to the right at an
interection hall approach uch interection in the
lane +or tra=c nearet to the right!hand ide o+ the
high'a& and( in turning( hall %eep a cloe a
poi)le to the right!hand cur) or edge o+ the
high'a&.
:)5 0he dri*er o+ a *ehicle intending to turn to
the le+t hall approach uch interection in the lane
+or tra=c to the right o+ and nearet to the center
line o+ the high'a&( and( in turning( hall pa to the
le+t o+ the center o+ the interection( e4cept that(
upon high'a& laned +or tra=c and upon one!'a&
high'a&( a le+t turn hall )e made +rom the le+t lane
o+ tra=c in the direction in 'hich the *ehicle i
proceeding.
:c5 <or the purpoe o+ thi ection( the center o+
the interection hall mean the meeting point o+ the
medial line o+ the high'a& interecting one
another( e4cept 'hen it i occupied )& a monument(
gra plot or an& permanent tructure( other than
tra=c control de*ice.
Sec. B6.Aar&ing pro$i,ited in #peci8ed place#. !
No dri*er hall par% a *ehicle( or permit it to tand(
'hether attended or unattended( upon a high'a& in
an& o+ the +ollo'ing place#
:a5 7ithin an interection
:)5 Cn a cro'al%
:c5 7ithin i4 meter o+ the interection o+ cur)
line.
:d5 7ithin +our meter o+ the dri*e'a& entrance
to and 2re tation.
:e5 7ithin +our meter o+ 2re h&drant
:+5 In +ront o+ a pri*ate dri*e'a&
:g5 Cn the road'a& ide o+ an& *ehicle topped
or par%ed at the cur) or edge o+ the high'a&
:h5 At an& place 'here o=cial ign ha*e )een
erected prohi)iting par%ing.
Sec. B:.Aar&ed "e$icle. ! 7hene*er a motor
*ehicle i par%ed unattended on an& high'a&( the
dri*er thereo+ mut turn o" the ignition 'itch and
top the motor and notch e"ecti*el& the hand )ra%e.
A%TI)(E F. G ?i#cellaneou# TraCc %ule#
Sec. B9.%ec&le## dri"ing. ! No peron hall
operate a motor *ehicle on an& high'a& rec%lel& or
'ithout reaona)le caution conidering the 'idth(
tra=c( grade( croing( cur*ature( *ii)ilit& and
other condition o+ the high'a& and the condition o+
the atmophere and 'eather( or o a to endanger
the propert& or the a+et& or right o+ an& peron or
o a to caue e4cei*e or unreaona)le damage to
the high'a&.
Sec. B=.%ig$t o way or police and ot$er
emergency "e$icle#. ! ?pon the approach o+ an&
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
110
police or 2re department *ehicle( or o+ an am)ulance
gi*ing audi)le ignal( the dri*er o+ e*er& other
*ehicle hall immediatel& dri*e the ame to a
poition a near a poi)le and parallel to the right!
hand edge or cur) o+ the high'a&( clear o+ an&
interection o+ high'a&( and hall top and remain
in uch poition( unle other'ie directed )& a
peace o=cer( until uch *ehicle hall ha*e paed.
Sec. 5;.Tampering wit$ "e$icle#. ! No
unauthoriKed peron hall ound the horn( handle the
le*er or et in motion or in an& 'a& tamper 'ith a
damage or de+ace an& motor *ehicle.
Sec. 5<.!itc$ing to a "e$icle. ! No peron hall
hang on to( ride on( the outide or the rear end o+
an& *ehicle( and no peron on a )ic&cle( roller %ate
or other imilar de*ice( hall hold +at to or hitch on
to an& mo*ing *ehicle( and no dri*er hall %no'ingl&
permit an& peron to hang on to or ride( the outide
or rear end o+ hi *ehicle or allo' an& peron on a
)ic&cle( roller %ate or other imilar de*ice to hold
+at or hitch to hi *ehicle.
Sec. 5J.2ri"ing or par&ing on #idewal&. ! No
peron hall dri*e or par% a motor *ehicle upon or
along an& ide'al%( path or alle& not intended +or
*ehicular tra=c or par%ing.
Sec. 53.2ri"ing w$ile under t$e inKuence o
li.uor or narcotic drug. ! No peron hall dri*e a
motor *ehicle 'hile under the in8uence o+ li/uor or
narcotic drug.
Sec. 5B.O,#truction o traCc. ! No peron hall
dri*e hi motor *ehicle in uch a manner a to
o)truct or impede the paage o+ an& *ehicle( nor(
'hile dicharging or ta%ing on paenger or loading
or unloading +reight( o)truct the +ree paage o+
other *ehicle on the high'a&.
Sec. 55.2uty o dri"er in ca#e o accident. ! In
the e*ent that an& accident hould occur a a reult
o+ the operation o+ a motor *ehicle upon a high'a&(
the dri*er preent( hall ho' hi dri*erE licene(
gi*e hi true name and addre and alo the true
name and addre o+ the o'ner o+ the motor *ehicle.
No dri*er o+ a motor *ehicle concerned in a *ehicular
accident hall lea*e the cene o+ the accident 'ithout
aiding the *ictim( e4cept under an& o+ the +ollo'ing
circumtance#
$. I+ he i in imminent danger o+ )eing
erioul& harmed )& an& peron or peron )& reaon
o+ the accident,
-. I+ he report the accident to the nearet
o=cer o+ the la', or
3. I+ he ha to ummon a ph&ician or nure to
aid the *ictim.
C2005 Criminal Law 2 Reviewer
111