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PRACTICAL ASPECTS ON DETAILING OF

RCC MEMBERS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION


BY
V.M.RAJAN
CE/CIVIL/MTPP



















Detailing is important factor to be considered in Design.
Most of structural distress is caused not due to inaccurate analysis or
incorrect design but by improper or in adequate detailing practice.
Good detailing gives safety, economy and simplicity of layout.
Proper detailing practice will go on long way reducing cracking,
deformation of the structure.


The design ideas normally need to be communicated for construction at
site, by translating them into detailed structural drawings.
The detailed drawings acts as a guide in order to perform certain operation
on the site in a specified manner.
The drawing serves as a record of some important assumption made in the
design.
Engineering drawing prepared should specify grades of concrete & steel,
Live load, dimensions, reinforcement, lap lengths, concrete cover and other
information need for detailing the reinforcement, building the forms,
fabricating reinforcement and placing concrete.
For preparing structural drawings the following codes are used:
IS 5526-1969 & SP 34-1987.

General guide lines for preparing detailing:
1. Label each bar and show its shape clearly.
2. Prepare bar bending schedule.
3. Indicate proper cover to reinforcement.
4. Adopt U-type hooks for mild steel and L-type hooks for deformed
bars.
5. Adopt commonly available sizes of bars &spirals in the market.
6. For a single member the number of different sizes of bars shall be
kept minimum.
7. Show enlarge details at corners, intersections of walls, beams &
column joints etc.
8. Indicate all expansion, construction and contraction joints on plans
and provide details for such joints.
9. Reinforcement shall not extend across an expansion joint and the
break between the sections shall be complete.
10. The location of construction joints shall be at the point of
minimum shear approximately at mid or near the mid points. It shall
be formed vertically and not in a sloped manner.
11. Congestion of bars should be avoided at points where members
intersect and make certain that all reinforcement can be properly
placed.
12. In case of bundled bars, lapped splice of bundled bars shall be
made by splicing one bar at a time, such individual splices within
bundle shall be staggered.
13. Lap splice shall be not be used for bars larger than 36mm dia
except where welded.



STAGES IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN:
The structural design involves the following stages.
1) Structural planning.
2) Computation of loads.
3) Analysis.
4) Member design.
5) Detailing, Drawing and Preparation of schedules.

STRUCTURAL PLANNING:
1. Position and orientation of columns.
2. Positioning of beams.
3. Spanning of slabs.
4. Layouts of stairs.
5. Selecting proper type of foundation.



Scheme Grid Reference



Structural Lay-Out Drawing:
Two axes marked one side with alphabets and the other with
numbers.
Columns are marked at the intersection of grids
Beams are marked using two parallel lines
Slabs are indicated either as one way or two way


Structural Layout of Footing






Column Position:
1.Column can be provided at the intervals of 12 , 15, 18, 20 and so
on based on our requirement.
2. Provide Columns at beam-beam junctions.
3.Provide columns symmetric or at regular intervals not zig-zag.
Orientation of columns:
1. Structural point of view : place depth of column where B.M. is
more i.e in the plane of maximum bending.
2. Functional point of view : orient column merge with wall without
any offset. The column must have sufficient strength in the plane
of maximum bending. This can be made possible by arranging
longitudinal steel at the faces in the plane of bending.
Positioning of beams:
1.Based on functional requirement of buildings.
2. Beams shall normally be provided under the walls or below a heavy
concentrated load to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs.
3. Avoid larger spacing of beams from deflection and cracking criteria.
Positioning of Slab:
1. Based on their aspect ratio (Ly/Lx) slabs are either spanned only
one direction or along both directions.



SLAB
1. Standard Slab
thickness:100,110,120,125,130,140,150,160,180,200mm (In
multiples of 5mm)
2. Dia of bars used in practice:
Main rod : 8mm, 10mm &12mm dia Fe415 grade steel.
Distributors: 8mm dia Fe415 grade steel.
3. Spacing :
Main steel : 3 d or 300 mm whichever is smaller.
Max spacing 200mm (8)
Distribution Steel : 5d or 450mm whichever is smaller.
Max spacing 250mm (10)
4. Minimum Reinforcement : 0.15% for Fe 250(Mild steel)
0.20% for HYSD bars Fe415.
.
5.Maximum dia of bars : Not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
6. Cover : Not less than 20mm nor less than dia of bar whichever is
higher.


Notation : 20 Y 10-2- 150 T.
This means 20 Nos. Deformed bars 10mm dia marked No.2 at
150mm centre to centre at top.



ONEWAY SLAB:



Using Straight bars






TWO WAY SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLAB

TWO WAY CONTINUOUS SLAB







Torsion Rods at Discontinuous edges








Rectangular opening in a slab


Circular Openings in a slab

Detailing of beams:
1. Size of beams:
Rectangular Beams : Depth 1/10 to 1/20 of span.
Tee beam : in multiples of 25 mm up to 500mm.
Ell beam : in multiples of 50mm for greater sizes.
Width : 1/3 to of depth.
Correspond to supporting members.
Practical beam size:
9 x (9 +4) =9 x 13
9 x (12 +4) =9 x 16
9 x (15 +4) =9 x 19
9 x (18 +4) =9 x 22
9 x (21 +4) =9 x 25
9 x (24 +4) =9 x 28
2. Longitudinal reinforcement:
Minimum Reinforcement =0.20% for Fe415 bars
=0.34% for Mild steel Fe250.
Maximum Reinforcement =4% of c.s. area for both tension and compression
reinforcement.
3. Normal Dia of bars used:
Main bars: 12,16,20 &25
Stirrups : 8 &10mm RTS
4. Spacing between bars:
Minimum spacing:
Not less than dia of large bar nor less than max. size of
aggregate +5mm whichever is greater.
Max. spacing : For Fe415=180mm & for Fe500=150 mm.
5. Cover : Not less than25mm nor less than dia of bar.
6. Stirrups:
Minimum dia : 8mm
Maximum dia : 16mm
Spacing : minimum 80mm C/c
Maximum 0.75 d or 450mm whichever is minimum.
For width of beam > 350mm, use 4 legged stirrups.
Side face reinforcement:
7.Depth > 750mm
Longitudinal bars have to provided at a spacing of >300mm.
Area of bar: 0.1% of cross sectional area of beam rib.
Dia of longitudinal spacer bars (hanger bars)-12 to 16mm.
8.Splicing :
Lap length- 2 Ld or 30 dia whichever is greater (Direct tension)
Development Length: Ld or 30 dia whichever is grater.(for flexural
tension)
Straight lap length > 15 dia or 20mm.
Lap length in compression< 24 times dia
Splicing is effected through welding sleeves.

Notation used for beam detailing:
Main Longitudinal bars:
4 Y 25-1 i.e. 4 Nos. Deformed bars, 25mm dia, mark No. 1.
Notation for stirrups :
12 R 10-6-200 i.e. 12 Nos. mild steel links, 10mm dia, mark No.6
spaced at 200mm centres.