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Amity Business School

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Amit y School of Business
Amity School of Business
BBA, Semester I
Computer In Management
Ar pan Sinha
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Modul e - 2
Comput er Net wor ks
and Int er net
Technol ogy
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What is a Networ k ?
A Network is a Connected System of Objects or
People.
Computer Network
It is a Collection of Computers and Other
hardware devices connected together so that
network users can share hardware, software, and
data as well as electronically communicate with
each other.
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Uses of Computer Networ k
Simultaneous Access
Sharing of Peripheral Devices
Streamlined Personal Communications
Easier Backup Process
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Advantages and Disadvantages
of Computer Networ k
Advantages
File Sharing
Resource Sharing
Increase Storage
Capacity
Increase Cost
Efficiency
Disadvantages
Security Issue
Rapid Spread of
Computer Virus
Expensive Setup
Dependent on
Main File Server
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Components of Networ k
(Networ king Har dwar e)
To Establish a computer Network various hardware are
required ; To Connect multiple network together or to
connect a computer or network to the internet. Some of
the most common types of networking hardware's are :
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Component of Computer
Networ k
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Modem
Hub
Switch
Router
WAP
Bridge
Gateway
Repeater
Multiplexer
Wi-Fi
Bluetooth
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Network Adaptor or NIC (Network interface
Card)
It is used to connects the PC physically to the
Network in order to send outgoing data from the
PC and to receive all incoming data sent via network
to PC.
To connect a PC to an Ethernet (IEEE802.3 i.e.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering)
network using twisted pair cabling with RJ 11
Connector and Ethernet network adaptor with RJ
45 Connector would be used.
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Modem
It is the term used for a device that connects a
computer to the internet.
The name Comes form the term Modulation and
Demodulation.
Modulation refers to converting digital signals to
analog form so they can be transmitted over analog
media such as telephone lines.
Demodulation refers to the translation from analog
form back to digital form.
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There are various types of Modem used:
Conventional dial-up modem
Used to transmit and receive data via regular
telephone lines max speed is 56kbps.
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network)
Used to transmit and receive data via ordinary
telephone lines, but by combining signals its max
speed is up to 128kbps.
Router
Firewall
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DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines)
Used to transmit and receive data over standard
telephone lines.
Use a technology that does not tie up your
telephone lines, so you can use the Internet and
make voice calls at the same time.
Data transmission is much faster then Previous
one.
It speed degrades as the distance get closer.
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Cable Modem
Used to connect a PC to a cable Internet Services
similar to a cable TV services, max speed around
1.5Mbps
Satellite Modem
Used to transmit and receive via a Personal
Satellite dish.
It is little slower than both DSL and Cable
Transmissions, but they have the advantages to
being able to be used in rural areas.
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HUB
It is least sophisticated and transmit all data
received to all network nodes connected to hub.
Consequently, with a hub, the network capacity is
shared among the nodes.
Switches
A switch is smarter than a hub and offers more
bandwidth. A Switch identifies the device for
which the data is intended and sends the network
data to that node only.
It allows each node on the network to use the full
capacity of the Network.
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Routers
Routers are even smarter-they pass data on to the
intended receipt only.
They can plan a path through multiple routers to
ensure the data reaches its destination in the most
efficient manner possible.
It used in LAN,MAN and Internet.
Wireless Access Point
It is a device that functions similar to a hub, but it
is used to connect wireless devices to a wired
network
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Bridge
A bridge is a device that connect two network
based on similar technology. Such as a LAN in one
city and a similar LAN in another.
It can also be used to partition one large LAN in
to two smaller ones. Wireless Access Point
It is a device that functions similar to a hub, but
it is used to connect wireless devices to a wired
network.
Computer 1 Computer 2 Computer 3 Computer 4
Computer 1 Computer 2 Computer 3 Computer 4
Bridge
LAN A
LAN B
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Gateway
A gateway is a device to connect two dissimilar
network, such as two networks using different
networking communications Protocols.
Repeaters
Devices that amplify signals along a network.
Due to loss of signal strength it is often necessary
to use a repeater to boost the signal.
Multiplexers
Combines the transmissions from various devices
and sends them as one message.
Concentrator
Type of multiplexer where individuals messages are
active instead of being sent as a single message.
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Communication Protocols
It is an agreed upon standard for transmitting
data between two devices on a network.
Protocols specify how devices physically connect to
a network, how data is packaged for transmission,
how receiving devices acknowledge signals and how
errors are handled.
Common Protocols Ethernet and Token Ring (wired
networks) Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (wireless) TCP/IP
and WAP (Internet)
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Ethernet
Most widely used in wired networking protocol
developed in 1970
Used in LANs
Speed 10Mbps 10Gbps
Ethernet uses a set of procedures known as
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision
Detection)
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Token Ring
LAN protocol developed by IBM
Used with ring networks
Uses a packet Token (data + address)
Token carries data to recipient.
If token is free, any computer can take it and
attach message to it and send it.
Eliminates collision.
Speed 4-16 Mbps
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Wi-Fi (802.11)
Wireless Fidelity
Developed in 1990s
Standard for wireless networks in the home or
office and connecting to Internet.
Connection to Internet via Hotspot geographical
area covered by Wi-Fi wireless access point.
Designed for medium range data transfers.
Speed 11 Mbps 100Mbps
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Bluetooth
Wireless technology using radio waves frequency
band of 2.4GHz
Designed for short range communication (less than
10 meters)
Appropriate for communication between mobile
devices, computer and peripheral devices.
Speed upto 3Mbps
Two Bluetooth enabled devices recognise each
other and establish a piconet.
8 devices can use the same piconet
One device Master and others slaves
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TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
Protocol for Internet developed in 1970s
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
Standard for delivering content to mobile devices,
smart phones and pagers.
Uses cellular telephone network.
Content can be web content, email
Uses WAP enabled browser - microbrowser
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Types of Net wor ks
LAN (Local Area Network)
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
WAN (Wide Area Network)
PAN (Per sonal Ar ea Networ k)
VPN (Vir tual Pr ivate Networ k)
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Cl ient -Ser ver Net wor k
This method of network organisation requires one or
more servers to which a number of clients may obtain
services.
The servers act as central resource managers for
the network.
A star topology is often used for this form of
network.
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Types of Tr ansmission Media
Or Communication Media Or
Communication Chennel
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Networ k Topol ogies
Bus Topology
Star Topology
Ring Topology
Tree Topology
Mesh Topology