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# Reservoir Engineering II (PCB2053) Reservoir Engineering II (PCB2053)

FUNDAMENTALS OF
RESERVOIR FLUID FLOW
FUNDAMENTALS OF
RESERVOIR FLUID FLOW RESERVOIR FLUID FLOW
RESERVOIR FLUID FLOW
Diffusivity Equation Diffusivity Equation
Ali F. M. Altaee
Outcomes Outcomes
To Derive Diffusivity Equation.
To apply constant terminal pressure solution To apply constant terminal pressure solution
(CTP)
To apply constant terminal rate solution
(CTR)
P
i
P
i
r
3
r
2
r
1
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
e
Const.
Flow rate
P
i
P
i
t
1 t
2
t
3
P
r
3
r
2
r
1
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
e
Const.
P
wf
P
i
P
i
t
1 t
2
t
3
Pressure disturbance as a function of time
r
e
Pressure disturbance moves away from
wellbore at a rate determined byy
Permeability
Porosity Porosity
Viscosity
Rock & Fluid Compressibilities Rock & Fluid Compressibilities
f f Transient flow is defined as the time period
boundary has no effect during which the
h b h i i h i on the pressure behavior in the reservoir
its infinite and the reservoir will behave as
i i . in size
Basic Transient Flow Equation q
The flow rate into an element of volume of a The flow rate into an element of volume of a
porous media may not be the same as the flow
rate out of that element rate out of that element
The fluid content of the porous medium changes
with time with time
Ti t Time, t
Porosity,
Total compressibility, c
t
Basic Transient Flow Equation q
Q
1
Q
2
The flow rate into & out of an element of volume Q
1
= Q
2
1
2
Time, t
Porosity,
Total compressibility, c
t
Transient Flow equation
must have these
independent variables +
limits
The mathematical formulation is based on: The mathematical formulation is based on:
C ti it E ti Continuity Equation
MBE
Transport Equation
Darcy
p q
Compressibility Equation
Isotherm coeff
Initial and Boundary Conditions Initial and Boundary Conditions
C ti it E ti Continuity Equation
A material balance equation that accounts for q
every pound mass of fluid produced, injected,
or remaining in the reservoir. g
Transport Equation
The transport equation is Darcys equation in
its generalized differential form g
Compressibility Equation
Expressed in terms of density or volume Expressed in terms of density or volume
Is used in formulating the unsteady-state
equation with the objective of describing the equation with the objective of describing the
changes in the fluid volume as a function of
pressure pressure
Initial and Boundary Conditions Initial and Boundary Conditions
Boundary Conditions:
Th f ti d t t t t i t th The formation produces at a constant rate into the
wellbore
There is no flow across the outer boundary and There is no flow across the outer boundary and
the reservoir behaves as if it were infinite in size,
i.e., re = e , e
Initial Condition Initial Condition
The reservoir is at a uniform pressure when
production begins i e time = 0 production begins, i.e., time 0
Diffusivity Equation Diffusivity Equation
where k = permeability, md
p = pressure, psia p pressure, psia
c
t
= total compressibility, psi
1
t = time, hrs
= porosity, fraction
i it = viscosity, cp
CONTINUITY EQUATION
According to the concept of the material-
balance equation
Mass entering
volume element
d i i t l t
Mass leaving
volume element
d i i t l t during interval t during interval t
rate of mass
accumulation
during interval t
-------- -------- ( (56 56))
g
Mass entering the volume element during
time interval t time interval t
-------- -------- ((57 57)) (( ))
where = velocity of flowing fluid, ft/day
= fluid density at (r + dr), lb/ft3
A = Area at (r + dr) ea at ( d )
t = time interval, days
The area of element at the entering side is:
-------- -------- ( (58 58))
Combining Equation (58) with (57) gives:
-------- -------- ( (59 59))
Mass leaving the volume element
-------- -------- ((60 60)) (( ))
T t l A l ti f M Total Accumulation of Mass
The volume of
some element
of r
Differentiating
with respect to r
OR ((61 61)) OR -------- -------- ((61 61))
Total mass accumulation during t = dV [()
t + t
()
t
]
Substituting for dV
((62 62))
Total mass accumulation = (2rh) dr [()
t + t
()
t
]
-------- -------- ((62 62))
Replacing terms of material balance Equation with calculated relationships
Dividing by (2rh) dr t
OR
-------- -------- ( (63 63)) where = porosity
= density, lb/ft3 density, lb/ft3
= fluid velocity, ft/day
continuity equation
The transport equation
D L i ti ll th b i ti Darcys Law is essentially the basic motion
equation
The velocity is proportional to the pressure gradient (p/r) The velocity is proportional to the pressure gradient (p/r)
------ ------ ( (64 64))
where k = permeability, md
= velocity, ft/day
Combining Equation (64) with Equation (63) results in:
y, y
Combining Equation (64) with Equation (63) results in:
-------- -------- ( (65 65))
Expanding the right-hand side by taking the indicated derivatives eliminates the porosity
from the partial derivative term on the right-hand side:
-------- -------- ( (66 66))
porosity is related to the formation compressibility
COMPRESSIBILITY EQUATION
-------- -------- ( (67 67))
Applying the chain rule of differentiation to /t,
Substituting Equation (67) into this equation
substituting the above relation into Equation (66)
and the result into Equation (65), gives:
-------- -------- ( (68 68))
Compressible Fluids
the permeability and viscosity are constant over
pressure, time, and distance ranges
-------- -------- ( (69 69))
Expanding p g
Using the chain rule in the above relationship yields:
Dividing by Dividing by
Recalling that the compressibility of any fluid is related to its density by:
Combining the two equations
very small and may be ignored
-------- -------- ( (70 70))
Define total compressibility, ct, as:
-------- -------- ( (71 71))
Combining Equations (70) with (71)and rearranging gives:
((72 72)) -------- -------- ((72 72))
diffusivity equation
where the time t is expressed in days
Diffusivity Equation Diffusivity Equation
It is one of the most important equations in It is one of the most important equations in
petroleum engineering
Particularly used in analysis well testing data Particularly used in analysis well testing data
where the time t is commonly recorded in hours
-------- -------- ( (73 73))
where k = permeability, md
di l iti ft Th Diff i it C t t r = radial position, ft
p = pressure, psia
c
t
= total compressibility, psi
1
t = time, hrs
The Diffusivity Constant
t time, hrs
= porosity, fraction
= viscosity, cp
When the reservoir contains more than one fluid, total
compressibility should be computed as: compressibility should be computed as:
-------- -------- ((74 74)) (( ))
C
o,w,g
= compressibility of oil, water and gas
S
o,w,g
= fractional saturation of oil, water and gas
The Diffusivity Constant The Diffusivity Constant
-------- -------- ( (75 75))
The diffusivity equation can then be written in a more convenient
fform as:
-------- -------- ( (76 76))
The diffusivity equation is essentially designed to The diffusivity equation is essentially designed to
determine the pressure as a function of time t
and position r and position r
The assumptions and limitations used in
developing the diffusivity equation developing the diffusivity equation
Homogeneous and isotropic porous medium
U if thi k Uniform thickness
Single phase flow
Laminar flow
Rock and fluid properties independent of pressure
Laplaces Equation
for a steady-state flow condition, the pressure at any
point in the reservoir is constant and does not change point in the reservoir is constant and does not change
with time
p/t = 0 p/t = 0
Substitute in diffusivity equation
-------- -------- ( (77 77))
Laplaces equation