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OUR MISSION is to Stimulate,


Promote and Co-ordinate
Management Development
for the Achievement of
Management Excellence
in Nigeria and Beyond
CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
promotingmanagement excellence
MISSION STATEMENT
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The Centre for Management Development (CMD) is a resource institution established in
1973 by the Federal Government of Nigeria as the operational arm of Nigerian Council for
Management Development (NCMD), which has overall responsibility for the simulation,
promotion and co-ordination of management education, training, development in Nigeria.
According to Section 16 of the Decree, the Centre shall carry out such functions as may be
assigned to it by the Council and such functions shall include:
a) The provision for the council background information and other technical data
necessary for the Councils policy-making and coo9rdinating functions.
b) Provision of management advisory and consultancy services to Nigerian enterprises;
c) Establishment and maintenance of an up-to-date library for management studies;
d) Publication of journals, research papers and books on modern management and
supervisory techniques; and
e) The sponsoring, promotion and conduct of research into all aspects of management
and allied subjects in relation to the Nigerian situation.
CMD has excellent facilities. There are training halls, which are fully air-conditioned,
suitable for groups ranging from 100 to 150 people, while the syndicate rooms are
ideal for small discussions groups.
Library for Management Studies
CMD has a first class Library for Management Studies with over 26,000 volumes of
management related books and 700 business periodicals. A nucleus of the Library is
maintained with about 3,000 volumes each in Aba and Kano Area Offices. Our
Library has been of tremendous benefit to various managers and management
students in institutions of higher learning. The Library opens to the public on
weekdays from 8:00 am to 1:00 pm on Saturdays. We also have a bookshop with a
wide and up-to-date collection of management books and business periodicals.
has a well-equipped Technical Services Unit, which is helping a lot of
organisations to meet their audio-visual needs in management training and related
fields. CMD audio-visual aids hire service includes:
BRIEF ON CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT (CMD)
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENTS
a. Facilities
b.
c. Audio-Visual Aids
CMD
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We operate a large management training film library, perhaps the largest in the country, our
films span the entire breath of management communication, motivation, leadership human
relations, organizational development, conflict management, managing change, industrial
relations, customer relations, problem solving and decision-making, etc.
(ii) 16mm film projectors, overhead projectors/slide projectors public address systems,
audio-recording machines etc.
CMD provides modern and well-furnished 30 double-bedroom guest facilities in
Management Village, Shangisha. This offers comfortable lodging and boarding for
her teeming programme participants drawn from both public and private sectors of
the economy across the country.
cmdevkan@hotmail.com
(i) Management Films
d. Guest House Facilities
CONTACT ADDRESSES
The Director-General
The Resident Consultant
The Resident Consultant
The Resident Consultant
Centre for Management Development
Management Village Shangisha
Off Lagos/Ibadan Expressway
P M B 21578
Ikeja Lagos
Tel: 01 4978391 7748165
Fax: 4978390
E-mail: cmgtdev@yahoo.co.uk
CMD Area Office
No.126, Aminu Kano Crescent
Off Ahmadu Bello Way
Wuse 2, by Globacom office,
Abuja
Tel: 0803-6124622
CMD South-East Area Office Owerri,
Government House Road,
Opposite Modotel Hotel,
Owerri, Imo State,
Tel: 082 223128
CMD Kano Area Office
African Alliance Building,
F1, Sani Abacha Way,
(Former Airport Road)
P. O. Box 586
Kano
Tel: 064 667271
E-mail:
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A critical element of the countrys development agenda is Nigerias vision 20-2020
which seeks to position the country in the league of 20 leading economies of the
world by 2020. A strategic objective of this agenda is the achievement of quality
public service delivery through accelerated implementation of governments
programmes and projects.
However, a critical success factor in the realization of this objective is a professional
and result-oriented civil service with the impetus to effectively discharge its catalytic
role. Regrettably, the civil service, owing to historical neglect and system decadence
seems incapable of playing the aforementioned role. In its present form, it is
characterized by inefficiency resulting from shortage of skills, lack of core
competencies and requisite knowledge to drive the current reform process. The
poor professional engagement of the top cadre of the service in the last promotion
interview attests to this fact.
Yet, if the civil service is to serve as a driving force in policy making and
implementation, thereby taking full responsibility for success of government
programmes and projects, it is important to put in place a comprehensive and
systematic human capacity building architecture.
It is this desire to build and transform the service into a well performing institution
with the right capacity, ethos and know-how required to propel the country in its
visioning process that has necessitated the design of the programmes.
The programmes has been classified into three categories viz:
It is against this background that, the Head of Service of the Federation in
collaboration with the office of the Senior Special Assistant to the President (SSAP)
on MDGs are desirous to ameliorate this declining human capacity in the federal Civil
Service. Consequently, it is expected that three Manpower Development Institutions
of the Federal Government viz: The Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON),
Centre for Management Development (CMD) and the Public Service Institute of
Nigeria (PSIN) will drive this process of strengthening the capacity of Federal Civil
Servants. It is also expected that, at the end of the programme, Participants will be
able to improve their capacity in policy making, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation and in addition to improving their administrative skills. Furthermore, it is
INTRODUCTION/RATIONALE FOR THE
PROGRAMME
a) Grade Level 08 10
b) Grade Level 12 13
c) Grade Level 14 16
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expected that the programme will induct serving officers into the nuances of the
New Public Management (NPM) thereby bolstering their ability to drive the current
reform process.
2 WEEKS
Lectures, discussions, syndicate work, case studies and exercise, pre and post
programme test/assessment. Audio-visual aids will be used to reinforce these
training/learning methods.
Director,
Entrepreneurship and Business Development
Department (E & BDD)
080-3612-4622
ciheama@yahoo.com
Senior Management (Officers Grade Level 12 13)
DURATION:
DELIVERY METHODOLOGY
COORDINATOR:
CELL PHONE:
e-mail Address:
C. N. Iheama
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1. New Public Management/Managing Change ............... 7 17
2. Elements and Processes of Public Policy ...................... 18 21
3. Government Planning and Budgeting .......................... 22 27
4. Target Setting and Performance Appraisal .................. 28 40
5. Work Ethics and Values ............................................. 41 47
6. Policy Formulation and Implementation ...................... 48 56
7. Speech, Report Writing and Presentation ................... 57 67
8. Using PowerPoint for Presentation ........................... 68 71
9. New Pension Administration and Management .......... 72 78
10.Handling of Official Documents and Registry Functions/
Office Security Management .............................. 79 86
11.Staff Training and Development ............................... 87 93
12.Transition from Personnel Management to HRM ..... 94 104
13.Industrial Relations ................................................... 105 112
14.Appointment Promotion and Discipline ...................... 113 126
15.Project Monitoring and Evaluation ............................. 127 134
16.Wages and Salary Administration .............................. 135 140
17.Productivity Improvement Techniques ....................... 141 151
18.Promoting Gender Sensitive Culture in the Work Place 152 161
19.Management Personnel Information ......................... 162 167
20.Project Investment Planning and Management .......... 168 175
21.Outsourcing in Public Sector: Principles & Procedures 176 189
22.Strategies for Outsourcing ....................................... 190 196
23.Overview of Project Cycle ....................................... 197 207
24.Project Proposal Writing .......................................... 208 214
25.Gender Issues in Public Sector Management ............. 215 219
26.Financial Management ............................................ 220 228
27.Human Behaviour in Organizations ......................... 229 235
28.Public Procurement and Contract Management ......... 236 248
29.Council Memorandum Writing ................................. 249 254
30.Minuting and Minutes Writing .................................. 255 258
CONTENTS PAGES
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SESSION I
NEW PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT/MANAGING
CHANGE
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NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
Concept of New Public Management
Factors respon sible for the par adigm shift in Public Admini stration
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
define the concept of New Public Management
identify fa ctors responsible for the emerg ence of New Publ ic Management [NPM];
mention goals of the New Publ ic Management;
discus the key issues in NPM; and
highlight challenges of the NPM
The New Public Management (NPM) represents a paradigm shift in thinking and practice of
public administrat ion.
The bane aim of MPM as it is conceptualized is to direct government attention to economy,
efficiency and effect iveness of government operations.
It brings mar ket and pri vate sector management princip les into public administrat ion.
The concept of New Public Management represents, a synthesis of public and private sectors
administration.
Emphasis is on performance appraisal, manager ial autonomy, cost cutting, financi al
incenti ves, target setting, innovation, responsiveness, compete ncy, market -orientation and
accounta bility. Therefore , the focus of MPM is on quality improvement, outsourcing,
flexibility, competit ion, choices and information technology.
Focuses on performance appraisal, manager ial autono my, cost cutting, financial incentives,
output targeting, innovation, responsiveness, competency, accountabil ity, market orientation,
quality improvement, out sourcing, f lexibi lity, competit ion, choices, information technology.
Wind of reform of Public Sector institutions across the world as a crucible for aiming at the
best and brightest in the society to work for the public good, in the public se rvice.
Emergence of right -wing pol iticians in western countries that saw the state as part of
problem of fisca l and econo mic cr isis.

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The rise of institut ional economics and public choice policy that provide explanat ion for
poor public ser vice.
Attempt to bring market principles and management practices to public administrat ion.
Catalytic Government
Community-owned Government
Competitive Government
Mission-driven Gove rnment
Result oriented Government
Cust omer - Driven Government
Enterpris ing Government
Decentral ized Gove rnment
Market oriented Government
Anticipatory Government
Entrenching professional management princip les into public administrat ion.
Emphasis on measure of input/o utput
Entrepreneuria l Management
Competition in publi c service del ivery
Stress on private sector styles of management practices
Greater stress on f iscal discipline
Disaggregation of Units
It recogn izes that there is need for professional managers at the top
Goals are clearly speci fied
There are clear responsibil ities
The jobs are contracted and not career positions
Managers have power to h ire and f ire
Staff relations are governed by contracts
Goals and objectives are c learly def ined;
Targets and success indicators are mapped out
Focus is on o utput and outcomes
Emphasis is placed on accountabil ity in the use of resource
Initiatives, abilities ,capabi lities to deploy resources eff iciently and effect ively;
Consta nt innovation
Emphasis on results
Strategic management style
Profitab ility Driven
Goals of the New Public Management
Key Is sues in New Pu blic Management
Hands on professional management
Explicit Standards & measure of perform ance
Entrepreneurial Management

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Competition in the public service
Stress on private sector styles of manageme nt practice
Comparison of Old Public Admin & New Public Sector Man agement
IMPACT OF NPM
CHALLENGES OF NPM

Strong drive for rivalry


Commercialization and privat ization
Applicat ion of market pr inciples
Open and competitive tendering
Contractual Management
Diverse producer operating at minimum costs
Applicat ion of strateg ic management
Departure from mi litary style publ ic service to f lexible democratic style
Performance measure and evaluation
Strong drive for prof itability
Creation of autono mous public organizations
Reducing the size of gove rnment
Reforming Ci vil service Structure
Performance measureme nt and evaluation
Privatization and co mmercial ization of public enterpr ises
Contracting out servic es to private organ ization
Promoting ope nness and trans parency in administration
Declaration of Citi zen Charters
Overhaul of admin istrat ive systems to drive competiti ve and democratic pr inciples
Strengthen capacity for pol icy framework and s trategic management
Overhaul of personnel management practices to focus on individual performance
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Modernization of budget, f inancial mgt , ICT and administrat ive procedure


Instal ling per formance and reward management
Value re-orientation
Continuous capacity building
The New Public Management (NPM) represents a paradigm shift in thinking and
practice of publ ic admin istrat ion
It aims at econom y, efficiency and effecti ve of government operations
It brings mar ket and pri vate sector management princip les into public administrat ion
The most permanent thing in life is . It affects every aspect of life - organizationa l
and indiv idual levels. Change make organ izations more sy nergist ic and more p roductive.
Understanding and managing change are the dominant the mes of ma nagement to day.
Every organ isation mus t adapt to t he continu ous change in the envi ronment.
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be able to:
define change;
identify e lements of change;
discuss forces necessitating or ganizat ional change;
explain why people resist change; and
state the roles of a change agent.
Change is a process that brings about situations and conditions that are different from
already existing ones.
Change denotes a perceptual difference in a situation, a person, a work team, an
organisat ion, a community and a co untry.
It is the process of moving from a rather seemingly unpleasant state to a more desirable
position.
CONCLUSION
1. MANAGING CHANGE
Introduction
change
Learning Ob jectives
What is change?

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Change is a state or a process of being different from the former. It indicates


passage, movement, transformation, replacement or in the organizat ions confli ct.
Change begets conflict , confl ict begets change (Dean Tjosvold) .
Change is any alterat ion that occurs in the overa ll work environment.
According to Websters Dictionary,
change is :
to make dif ferent in some particula r
to make radi cally different
to replace with another
to make a shift from one to another
A change management sy stem is a structured process that will cause proposed changes to
be reviewed for technica l and business readiness in a constant manner that can be
adjusted to business needs an d experiences and also comm unicate the status and exist ence
of changes to al l affected parti es.
Organisat ional change management include processes and tools, managing the people
side of the change at an organ isational level.
It refers to the structured approach that can be used to effectively transit groups or
organisations through change.
There is a need to combine these tools with a good understa nding of individual change
management.
The ent ire process includes :
techniques for creating a change management strategy,
engaging senior managers as change leaders or sponsors,
building awar eness on the need for change,
developing skills and knowledge to supp ort the change,
Helping employees move through t he transition and the meth ods to sustain the change.
Radical improvement in the standar ds or quality of product(s) an d cust omer service ,
Achieving a more competitive cost base,
Building greater flexibility or capacity for innovation ,
Adjusting to market pressures,
Re-organizat ion

What is change managemen t?


Change Objectives
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Continu ous improvement the creation of a learning organization.


Internal Factors
Change in leadersh ip
Introduction of new technology
Restructuring, leading to mer ger of some functions
Change in employees attitude to the organisation
Adoption of new managemen t practices.
Competition ( local and global )
Sustained increase in costs of doing business
Lack of essentia l inputs/raw materials
Community relat ionship
Government policies
Money and capital market
Political stabi lity/ Instabil ity
Change sp onsor Upper level management.
Change agent Middle and Lower management wh o implement decisions.
Change target Individuals and g roups wh o must change.
Organisat ional Change
Personal Change
Strategic vision and scope (purpose, mission, corporate philosophy)
Development of vision and mission statement s
Training focused on changing values and attitudes e.g. achieving a commitment to total
quality
Team bui lding processes
Re-launching corporate identity.
Age
Family/mar ital status
Education
Experience
Jobs and job position
Change Drivers
External Factors
Change in Roles Management
Types of Change
Organisational Change includes:
Strategic Change
Personal change include:
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Social status
Relat ionships
Values, att itude
Resources, wealth
Skills, competencies
Health
(g) Fear of Fa ilure
(h) Lack of Tact
(i) Poor Timing
(j) Threat to Job Status/Security
(k) Break up of Work Groups
(l) Habits.
Prepare for the change
Ask for ideas and suggestions
Explain the and of the change
Put Cha nge into effect
Follow up on adju stment
The dec ision on how to deal with change is affected by a nu mber of f actors such as:
Degree of Resistance
Target Population
The time f rame
Expertise
Dependenc y
The change programme must have the visible support of the key decision-makers of
the organisation.
This is to enable a major commitment to the programme.
Systematic and methodical planning before the commence ment of the programme
implementation
Programme objectives should be stated in measurable terms: goals are
established.
Causes of Resi stance to Change
Dealing with Resi stance to Change
What, Why, Who, When How
Change Man agement Principles
Sponsorship
Planning
Measurement
SMART
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Enabling Environment
Support Structur e
Change Appr oach
C
H
A
N
G
E
The Change Process
Change Sequence

A conducive environment should be created to enable stakeholders engage in genuine


two way dialogue in an atmosp here of open ness, mutual respect and trust.
Sufficient resources and support system are given to both implementers and change
recipients.
reate tension Articulate why change needs to hap pen and why it needs
to happen within the timeframe.
arness sup port Get on board t he key decision -makers, resource holders
and those impacted b y the change .
rticulate goals Define in speci fic and measurable terms the desired
organizat ional outcomes.
ominate roles Assign responsibil ity to specif ic individuals for the
various tasks and ou tcomes.
row capabi lities Build organ izational systems an d people competencies
necessary for affecting the change.
ntrench cha nges Institutional ize the change to make it the way we do
things around here.
A feeling of discomfort
Decision to respon d, to do something
Diagnosis information on existing s ituation and what is required
Planning for change
Communication of change
Implementation of change
Monitoring and eva luat ion
Unfreezing
Changing
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Refreez ing
Anxiety, fear
Poor performance
Inadequac y
Search for information
Identif ication
Internal ization
Feeling of something new
Change in practice/habit
Testing
Accepting new ways
Positive reinforcement
A change agent can also be referred to as a change leader who takes responsibility for
changing the exist ing pattern of behav iour of another perso n or social system. He is :
an analyst and developer of c lear change and goals
a facilitator
an educator
a marketer
a systems integrator and coordinator and,
a monitor
(An Effe ctive Commu nicator)
Team bui lding abi lities
Networking skills
Communication skills
Interpersonal ski lls
Personal enthusiasm an d passion
Ability to stimulate motivat ion and commitment
Negotiat ing skills
Influencing skills
Helicopter perception
Unfreezing
Changing
Refreezing
The Role of a Change Agent
Core Competenc ies of a Change Agent
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CONCLUSION
Change manageme nt is one of the greatest chal lenges fac ing modern organizat ions.
Unfortunately, most organizations are not structured for change but are rather structured to
carry out routine acti vities given a stable env ironment.
But the global economic environment has imposed change on all competiti ve organizations
so much so t hat organizat ions that are not flexib le stand the risk of dying.
The change management process is a systematic and planned approach to cha nge at al l levels.
These levels include global, nat ional, soc iety, organ ization and indiv idual levels.
There must be commitment from top-bottom for an effective change process to be
implemented and the harnessing of the human resource for thorough communication, good
interpersonal re lations and diagnostic sk ills.
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SESSION II
ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES OF
PUBLIC POLICY
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ELEMENTS AND PRO CESSES OF PUBL IC POLICY
INTRODUCTION
Conceptual Framework
The Nature of Policies
Policy Cycle

v
v
v
Redefinit ion of the role of the state.
Shift away f rom pr oduction function s to policy and regu latory functions.
Provision of socia l and envi ronmental infrastructure.
There is need for new attitudes, techniques and higher competencies. The transforme d public
service is to generate a more rapid rate of economic and social development. Emphasis is on
public policy management that is not appropriate for socio-economic deve lopment
Policy is a deliberate plan of act ion to guide decis ions and achieve rat ional outcomes(s).
Policy may a lso refer to :
Official government policy
Broad ideas and goals in pol itical mani festos and pa mphlets
A compa ny policy on a parti cular issue-training
Policy can a lso be seen as:
Making important organizat ional decis ions
Identif ication of diffe rent alternati ves or sp ending prior ities
Choosing among alternati ves on the basis of the impact they wi ll have
i. Guide to action or channels to thinking
ii. Enjoy a long l ife
iii. Direct act ion to the achievement of an objective or goal
iv. Expressed in a qualitat ive, condit ional and genera l way
A tool used for the analyses of the development of a policy item.
Why policy cycle
The path a pol icy takes through its l ife span
Divided into a seri es of stages
Incorporates feedback from the impact that a policy makes
Often not in a l inear fashion

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THE STAGES OF THE POLICY CYCLE
Under Systemic Agenda:
Under the Formal Agenda :
Making a policy explicit
Policy Go als include:
Policy Soluti ons will include:
Policy implementati on includes :
1. Condition: A state of af fairs
2. Problem: A condition becomes a problem when it is percei ved by relevant actors as
needing governmental intervention
Policy cyc le has two important processes :
a. Perception
b. Definition
Problem is w idely discussed
Intensive press covera ge
It is scheduled for act ion by government
Under Pol icy Formulat ion:
Developing a p lan to remedy the pro blem
Policy ana lysis: appraising alternat ive courses of act ion
Know what the policy analysis are
Security
Efficiency
Equity
Liberty
Inducements: to influence behaviour
Rules
Facts/informing, educating , persuading or rem inding
Rights
Powers
Direct Ser vices
i. Establish an agency or expand the duties of an existing one
ii. Organi zat ion, interpretat ion, and applicat ion
iii. Availability of appropriate resources (people, fund, fac ilities, etc. )
v
v

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Impact/Effect/ Consequence s:
Policy Evaluation
Policy Document ation
Standard Components of Polic y Documents
CONCLUSION
a. Intended Consequences
b. Unintended Consequences
c.
a) Further action may be de manded
b) New demand s will feedback into the policy mak ing process: A new problem may
arise from the implementation of the policy
c) Policy succession: Remain as they are, modif ied or terminated
Policies are typica lly promulgated through offic ial written documents
1. A purpo se statement: why an d the desired effect
2. Applicab ility and scope: who the policy af fects and actions that are impacted
3. An effect ive date: when the policy comes into force. It can however, be ret roacti ve
4. A responsibil ities: part ies and organiz ations are responsible
5. Policy Statements: indicat ing the specif ic regulations or mo difications to be haviour
that the policy is to cre ate
6. Background: motivat ing factors
7. Definitions: terms and concepts
Is there often a gul f between stated policy and the actions the organizat ion takes?

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SESSION III
GOVERNMENT PLANNING AND
BUDGETING
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GOVERNMENT PLANNING AND BUDGE TING
INTRODUCTION
What is Planning ?
Development Planning
Learning Objecti ves
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Discuss Conce pt of Planning;
Highlight Reasons for Planning;
Discuss Plan Formulat ion and implementation;
Define the Concept of Budgeting;
Explain Object ives and Si gnificance of Publ ic Sector Budget;
Mention the Budget Processes;
Identify Problems of Effect ive Budget Implementation; and
Discuss some issues in Budget Reform.
Nigeria adopted developme nt planning as a major strategy for achieving socio-economic
transformation and rapid developme nt right from the colonial period. So far, it has
implemented a number of fixed medium-term plans, a short term policy-based plan and
beginning from 1990 a number of roll ing plan.
While planning deals with the architecture of state bui lding, publ ic sector budgeting which is
a very important tool of nationa l economic management, and development is designed to
empower implementation. This paper is aimed at providing an insight into government
planning and budgeting process in Ni geria.
Planning involves looking ahead and anticipat ing the future
It involves making choices from available alternati ves means to achieve specif ic
objectives and formulate programmes of action to attain those objectives
It is an organized process of preparing a set of decisions for future action directed at
achieving des ired goals
Planning is thus a projected course of action geared towards an end
In a developing economy like Nigeria, it is a tool for economic and social
development
Development Planning is a complex process involving the collection of substantial
information, evaluating past development records, projecting future trends and setting out
targets. It involves major policy measures for short, medium and long term planning and
goals.

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Development planning, also known as substantive planning, may be distinguished from fiscal
planning.
is broader and involves the planning of societal goals and objective
as well as the mobi lization of national, human and financial resources needed for their
achievement.
which is narrower and one of the instruments of substantive planning,
consists of planning future budgets decisions, the implicat ions for financing and the methods
of obtaining the necessary resources, and allocating them in accordance with overall nationa l
goals.
on the other hand, is the bluepr int of programmes and policies geared
towards achiev ing the goa ls of deve lopment planning.
Development Plan can be short term (about a year), medium-term (three to f ive years) or long
term (about ten t o twenty years).
Comprehensiveness
Take cognizance of past performance of an economy
Must establish prior ities
Must specify strateg ies for ach ieving identif ied objectives and targets
Provide insight on programmes of capital spending, broken down into specific
projects
Make projections or forecast s about the behaviour of the economy over the plan
period.
A recognit ion of market imperfect ions and the nee d to achieve equity.
In order to ensure rapid institutional and structural changes in the economy.
The necessity to tack le the problem of poverty and widespread u nemployment .
The need to allocate scarce resources to the most productive channels.
The need to recognize general uncertaint ies faced by the economy and initiate plans
and meas ures to deal with them.
The imperat ive to achieve order ly development through the establishment of
priorities, formulat ion of a plan of act ion consistent with the ava ilable resources.
Essential ly, planning enta ils the fol lowing:
Setting of objecti ves, goals and strateg ies for economic and social deve lopment.
Formulating pol icies, programmes and projects for the attainment of the set goals; and
Mobil izing and deploying resources for the implementation of programme s and
projects.
Plans points out the basic directions that the government should follow in
implementing medium and long-term economic policy.
Development Planning:
Fiscal Planning:
Development Plan:
Qualities of a G ood Plan
Reasons for Planning
What Planning Entails?
Characteristics of Econ omic Plans
v
v
v
v
v
v

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v
v
v
It identi fies priority pol icy objectiv es and means.
They present forecasts of the way the econo my ought t o develop.
Economic plans provide bas ic guidelines for household and business activit ies.
Formulation of a development plan invol ves:
i. A statement of goals, objectives and philosophy of development and the strategies and
policies to achie ve them.
ii. Survey of past and current eco nomic conditions.
iii. A list of proposed public investment programmes and projects.
iv. A review of likely development in the private sector.
v. Macroecono mic projections of the econo my.
vi. Sectoral project ions and physical achievement targets.
vii. Financing and measures to ens ure successful plan implementation.
Plan implementation is determined by a num ber of factors. They inc lude:
i. Provision of adequate and appropriate resources of finance, manpower and
management for implementation of projects and programme s
ii. Effect iveness of the organizations having responsibi lities for implementation of
projects, programmes an d policies
iii. Effect ive communication with the agencies formulating pol icies and implementing
projects or programmes.
iv. Procedures ap propriate to eff icient and timely execution; and
v. Existence/effect iveness of mo nitoring and evaluat ion mechanisms.
Plan implementation is supported by monitoring of physica l act ivities and assets, finances or
operations of development projects. It ser ves the fo llowing purposes:
i. To ensure the maintenance of plan disc ipline.
ii. To facilitate on-the-spot assessment of progress made and problems encountered in
the process of p olicy and project implementation; and
iii. To generate data needed for progress reportin g and meaningful annual budget.
The public sector budget is an annual financi al and economic plan that serves as a vehicle for
the mobilizat ion, allocat ion and management of resources. It contains estimated incomes and
expenditures, as well as programmes and projects all of which should be extracted from the
national development plan of the country.
a) To relate expenditure decisions to specified pol icy objectives, and to existing and
future resources
b) To relate all major decisions to the state of the national economy.
PLAN FORMU LATION AND IMPLEM ENTATION
MONITORING
CONCEPT OF BUDGETING
Objectives of Budget
26
c) To ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of public sector
programmes; an d
d) To facilitate legislative control over the var ious phases of the b udgetary proces s
i. It is a quantitat ive expression of the resources which the government intends to
commit within a f iscal year, and the expected results.
ii. It provides a framework for policy decisions, which invariably involves choices
among alternati ves, on resolution of confl icting claims on l imited r esources.
iii. It is a means of implementing policy decisions predominantly through making money
payments and recei ving money pa yments.
iv. It consists of government fiscal pol icy measures of taxation and expenditure changes,
as wel l as borrowing.
v. It has the function of legal control over the operations of government ministries and
agencies.
vi. Serves as an instrument of accountability.
vii. Serves as a tool for national economic manageme nt where surplus or deficit position
has implications for the stabi lization of the econo my as a wh ole.
viii. It is a planning tool.
ix. The budget docume nt is a source of information about government o perations.
The process which produces the budget document involves the following:
i. Appraisal of various government activities in terms of their contributions to national
objectives
ii. The project ion of governmental act ivities over an adequate time period.
iii. The determinat ion of how these objectives can be attained with minimum resources;
and
iv. The revision of the bu dget in the light of chang ing circumstances and ex periences.
In a democratic presidential system of government, the budget goes through a cycle. The
stages are as follows:
1. The execut ive preparation stage in which the budget is packaged in the form of an
appropriat ion bil l for the considerat ion of the leg islature.
2. The legislative considerat ion stage in which it is eventual ly approved by the
legislature.
3. The execution stage at whi ch the executive commences implementa tion of the budget
after the appropriation bill has been considered by the legislature and signed by the
president/governor into an act; and
4. Audit and evaluation stage which involves the management and audit as well as
legislative legal review of the programmes and performances of all agencies of
government.
Significance of the Public Sector Budget
The Budget Proces s
The Budget Cycle
27
PROBLEMS OF EF FECTIVE BUDGE T IMPLEMENTATION
SOME ISSUES IN BUDGET REFORM
Objectives
Key Features of MTEF
CONCLUSION
Ineffect ive budget implementation can arise on account of the follow ing:
i. Faulty appropriat ions which may result from faulty planning on the part of
ministries/agenc ies and inadequate rev iew by the central budget off ice
ii. Lack of flexibility in budget authorization
iii. Delay in budget enactment
iv. Non-release or untime ly release of appropriat ion funds, s ometimes d ue to low revenue
inflow.
To deliver a tota l level of spending that is af fordable; and
Ensure that every Naira spent is put to good use to deliver the services intended and
not wasted on inefficiency and corruption
The budget reform philosophy entails:
i. Changing the incentives that determine the behaviour of controllers and spenders of
public resources, and
ii. Designing and implementing substantial budget rules before the fact and enforceable
accounta bility after the fact.
A desirabl e budget reform should include:
i. Mult i-year budgeting as opposed to single year budgeting
ii. Introduce the medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) and protect the budget
against exogeno us shocks notably fluctuations in crude oi l receipt.
1. Economic analysis at the macro and sectoral levels;
2. Performance management ap proaches and tools (strateg ic planning);
3. Performance based b udgeting;
4. Emphasis on involv ing a wide range of stakeholders in the desi gn and implementation
of the process;
5. Emphasis on t he role of the budget a s a management to ol;
6. Increasing the role of the ministry of finance from one of detai led control to
overseeing progress in performance.
For development planning to yield the desired result in Nigeria, the issue of planning and
budgeting must be given the attention they deserve.

28
SESSION IV
TARGET SETTING AND
PERFORMANCE AP PRAISAL
29
TARGET SETTING AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISA L
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be able to:
determine the capabil ity of an individual against establ ished objectives
device a means of measuring performance of job holders;
determine ski ll gap;
assess candidates potential ity for growth and development in their field of endeavour ;
and
Measure the response of the job h older to the forces of change with in his env ironment.
Several factors affect job performance, po sitively or negati vely, in the organisation.
They range from organisat ional to env ironmental factors. It is our duty as managers
to identify these factors to enable us take appropriate measures that will minimize
obstacles on o ur way and strengthe n factors which wi ll enhance organisat ional
effect iveness. Pe rformance target is one of the factors which can significantly enhance
organisat ional performance and has to be managed effectively.
Another important and complimentary activity to target setting is performance appraisal .
Organisat ions have to periodica lly evaluate the ir performance as wel l as those of the
individual managers and employers if t hey are to make the necessary improvements for
the achievement of desired goa ls.
Furthermore, managers and their subordinates need to understan d the importance of
measurable objectives for the ir units to conform to the overal l objecti ves of the organi zation.
In addition, managers must appreciate the importance of periodic or frequent review of
performance as it re lates to objecti ves.
It is also important for managers to grant some elements of autonomy or freedom to
subordinates in developing means of achieving the stated objectives.
Finally, understan ding the SMART principles in Target Sett ing is a key considerat ion. (S =
Specif ic, M = Measurable, A = Achievable, R = realistic/Realizable, T = Time Bound).

30
THE CONEPT OF TAR GET SETTING
NEED FOR TARGET SETTING
ELEMENTS OF TARGETS
:
:
Performance targets can be conce ived as spec ific outcome s of an employee s task. Target is
the end towards which specif ic effort is directed. It is the exact and tangible result you want
and are wi lling to expend effort to achieve .
Target has been described as the specific and measurable accomplishment to be achieved
within a specif ic time and under specific cost constraints. Targets are expressed in terms of
quantities or qual ity for a speci fied period of time.
Target sett ing can be considered at three levels: Corporate, Departme ntal and Individual
levels.
Achievement or success is a des irable fact of life. Success motivates people to work, inspires
creat ivity and innovativeness and helps in solving problems. Sustained success does not
come by chance. It comes by:
Careful p lanning;
Thoughtful strategy; and
Faithful execution of plans.
Target setting is a desirab le pract ice in result -oriented organisat ions for many reaso ns viz:
Target sett ing helps performance improvement planning as a means of achieving
corporate goals
Targets direct effort and serve as si gn-post for manageria l activities and efforts.
They reduce the subjective element in manager ial relationship and
performance evaluat ion.
They provide the basis for self-evaluat ion, contribution and objective performance
appraisal .
They stimulate achievement motivat ion and draw o ut desired effort.
Target setting facilitates discussion and rev iew of jobs.
What you want to achieve, that is, the outcome of your action,
will enable you set real istic targets.
How do I know I have achieved my goal or
reached the outc ome? Are there measurable standards?
When exactly do I want the action to be completed?
At what cost do I want to achieve the goal, which I am expecting? How
much (in mo ney, and other resources) wil l my effort cost to the extent that can I say I
have done it?

Goal to be achieved:
Ways the outcome will be measured:
Time Factor
Cost factor
31
TYPES OF TARGETS
PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS TARGETS
Materials Management T argets
Maintenance Targets
Marketing/Sales Targets
Targets reflect the culture, values, objectives, structures and peculiar ities of every
organizat ion. Because of differences in organizations, it is very difficult to provide a generi c
view of targets. Suff ice therefore to state that performance targets may be expressed in
terms of key functions of the organization. The following categor ies are desi gned to throw
light on the types of target:
Unit of goods/services produced per period
Capacity util izat ion
Quality of products/services
Extent to which products or services meet specif ication or expectation
Unit cost per product or service
Cost of o peration
Improvement s in production/ operations pr ocesses
Production/ operational capabi lities
Time taken to process ap plications/attend to reques ts.
Stock ava ilability
Availability of information on su pplies
Qual ity of stock items
Reduction in stock cost (stock holding, stock ordering , stock- out costs)
Reduction in ordering t ime
Reduction in frequency of plant breakdown
Time taken to effect repai rs
Machine ava ilability time
Team wor k among technical team
Capabil ity of technica l team
Qual ity of market ing strate gies and programmes
Unit sold per per iod, per sales persons, per sales territory
Return o n sales (ROS)
Market share
New customers (A, B, C, et c. customers) secured
Sales territory developed (as indicated by geographical areas, states, regions, towns,
etc.)
Cust omers loyalty: (Relat ive sat isfact ion of customers t hrough quality goods)
Response time, (wait ing time)
Cust omers complaints (number of real complaints, nature of complaints)
Qual ity and timel iness of reports

n
n
n
n
n

32
New products developed; New product s successf ully introduced.
Profitab ility tar gets (these ar e organ isation-wide targets) Qual ity of f inancial records
Preparation of f inancial statements (time liness and quality of statements)
Qual ity of f inancial guidelines and proced ures
Management of financia l assets
Cash flow management
Time taken to process pa yment
Debt recovery (performance indicators : amount of debt recovered; time tak en to recover
debts)
Return o n assets, investments (ROI)
Timely preparation of budgets. (Considered against the specif ic dates for budget to be
released).
Time taken to fi ll vacant posit ions
Qual ity of select ion instruments
Availability of qual ity human res ource policy
Capabil ities of staff
Number of staff trained per per iod
Extent to which training enhances career deve lopment, capabil ities and performance
Qual ity performance appraisal
Availability of job description
Availability and quality of personnel
Revenue coll ected
Kilometer of roads constructed
Number of pers ons immunized
Reduction in maternal, infant mortal ity
School reg istrat ion (increase in registrat ion)
Students performance (in examination)
Number of sch ools ope ned
Number of p overty al leviation programmes embarked up on
Reduction in crime rates
Number of jo bs created;
Reduction o n unemployment
Reduction in inflation
Number of low and me dium income h ousing schemes developed
Volume of agr icultural production (during a per iod of time); y ield per hectare
Increase in literacy rate
Financial Ta rgets
Human Resource Targets
Social Service Delivery
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v

v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
33
TARGET SETTING PROCESS
At Corporate Level

At Individual Level
TARGET SETTING PROCESS INDIVIDUAL LEVEL
Set Objectives
iii)
Decide organ isations mission;
Set organisat ional objecti ves and performance standar ds;
Identify and analyze problems; (Where are we now? Where do we want to go?)
Formulate strateg ies and determine action programmes;
Decide on departmental objectives and targets;
Decide on indi vidual tar gets;
Monitor and revi ew performance
Evaluate performance
Decide on objectives
Describe jobs
Identify key result areas KRAs)
Review targets
Set performance targets
Evaluate performance
Attention has been given more to target setting at the individual level. This is because if
individual targets are properly set, and achieved, the tendency of achieving the departmen tal
as wel l as corporate le vel targets is very high.
A key requirement and necessary antecedent for setting targets is objecti ve sett ing. Current
advances in managemen t thought, place considerable emphasis on objective setting. Clear,
specif ic, measurable, realistic and challenging objectives form the basis of targets and
standard s for department s, divisions, managers, superv isors and ot her employees.
This is the statement of position, authority, responsibi lities and duties of a jobholder. The job
description specif ies what the job holder is expected to do and is therefore helpful in
clarifying roles. Many organisations do not have job descriptions and where they do, the job
descriptions often do not reflect the reality. Without clear identif ication of resources, status
and objectives, stan dards are meaning less.
As a planning process, setting performance targets and standards has to take place
ahead of the planning period. The manager translates organisational objecti ves to
departmen tal and then to individual targets. The manager discusses and agrees with
subordinates what is expected of them.

i)
ii) Describe J obs
Set Performance Targets and Standards

34
Targets are set in the core areas of programmes and activities. Targets are expressed
in quantity and q uality terms.
Quantitati ve targets are easier to measure but it is not always possible to set
quantitative targets for every job. Targets should ideally reflect available resources
and capabil ities.
Effort should be made to maintain consistency and objectivity in the target setting
process.
to increase sales volume in the current financi al year by 10% (performance indicator:
percentage incr ease in volume);
to raise production capacity by 5% in the first quarter (performance indicator:
percentage incr ease in capaci ty); and/or
to reduce cost of vehicle maintenance or uti lities by 15% in the f irst quarter
When we set targets, we must allow subordinates some space to get on with the job
We cannot however set targets and go to sleep. We have to develop a mechanism for
ensuring the achiev ement of targets.
Performance monitoring and review act ivate the target sett ing process, provide the
means of help in taking a sincere and hard look at targets, address problems and help
in taking correct ive act ions.
There should be agreement between a superior and subordinates on a timetable for
performance revi ew to a llow for necessary adjust ments.
Evaluation represents a core act ivity in target sett ing. It provides the basis of
determining the extent to which desired targets have been achieved and the
extent to which resources have been effect ively ut ilized. Evaluation is the
basis of future targets.
An important approach to performance target sett ing is to think of act ivities and functions in
output terms and not input terms or behavioural statements. Phrases like: to supervise, to
administer, to organize, and to plan are behavioural inputs which are mere statements of
functions or activities and do not constitute end results. They can however be converted into
output as performa nce targets e. g.
Some Examples of Performance Ta rgets are:
Monitor and Review Perfor mance
Evaluate Performance
v
v
v
v
v
v
iv)
v)
THE INPUT AND OUTPUT STATEMENT OF TARGETS
35
Functions/Acti vities(input) Convert Output
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS OR INDI CATORS
Performance Appr aisal
Handle Production function To Volume or unit per period
Maintain tractor To Tractor availability t ime
Sell company s products To Volume of good s sold,
Return o n sales
Prepare f inancial statements To Financia l statements ready at
specif ic time
Supervision loan grants to farmers To Amount of loans granted,
paid back
To t rain workers To Changed be haviour,
improved ski lls and
capabil ity and improved
performance
Coach s ubordinates To Subordinates effectiveness
On clear examination, you wil l observe that the input column consists of functions,
means or strategies whi le the output column comprises ends or results.
Performance standard s sometimes refer to the same thing as targets. It is not easy to set
targets for certain jobs. But every job must have a performance standard.
Performance standard is value or an indicator of the desired level of performance. It is not an
arbitrary value. It is based on objectives, experience, or study of what is considered feasible.
The managers primary responsibi lity is to ensure that satisfactory level of Performance
is achieved in the key are as of each job un der him.
Closely related to target setting is Performance Appraisal; whi le target sett ing seeks to
establish specif ic, measurable, attainable, realistic and time bound targets; Performance
Appraisal see ks to ensure that targets are attained.
Performance standard is determined by asking the question: what happens when things are
going on well? Without standards, we may not be able to say if an employee is performin g
well or poorly. Of course, people seem to have some standards at all times but these
standard s may not be known, agreed, well stated, measurable, appropriate, consistent and
objective. Performance standar d is much more than what the manager wants or desires.
Standards must be viewed against these factors:
36
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q

Where are we now?


Where do we want to be?
What is the gap between where we are and where we should be?
What apparen t difficulties and constraints are likely to be on the way?
How can these constraints be removed?
What, in the l ight of al l these factors, is feasible and achievab le?
To increase the prospect of their be ing achieved, per formance targets, should meet the
following guidelines:
They should derive from objectives (org anisat ional, departmen tal, unit and individual
objectives)
They should be meas urable. That means that they should be quantifiable.
Each target should have performance indicators (expressed in units, size,
volumes, percentages, or some qualitat ive values) for control and eva luation.
Targets should be written to serve as reference.
Targets should have specif ic time frame or deadl ines
They should be attainable (i.e. a target must be within the capabil ity of the officer
expected to attain them both in terms of skills and authority.
Targets should motivate those who will achieve them. The process should be
sufficiently part icipatory to el icit the commitment of su bordinates to t heir attainment.
Success in setting and implementing targets deri ves from authority over input and
output. There is no absolute authority, of course but managers should limit their
delegat ion and setting of targets to functions under their control or negotiate
with others wh o may be involved to work as a te am.
Targets should be supported by the organisation in terms of values, policies, available
resources, ski lls and fac ilities.
Targets should be controllab le i.e. capabl e of be ing reduced into milestone of progress
to al low for contr ol and correct ion during implementation.
Targets should have assigned accounta bility (i.e. an individual identi fied by name
must be accountable). The individual should be willing to accept the targets and the
required action and the supervision of another for the achiev ement of set targets.
They should have the quality of being evaluated.
Target setting succeeds more when it is organisation-wide rather than an isolated
activity limited to one or two de partment s or units.
Employees and managers like to know the feelings of their supervisors on their job
performance. The appraisal function is akin to the mirror with which an employee finds out
how others, particula rly his superior, feels about him.
Performance appraisal may be described as:
the review of employees, performance aga inst desired va lues, objecti ves and targets;
an objective and systematic rev iew of per formance;
GUIDELINES FOR SETTING PERFORMANCE TAR GETS
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
The Performance Concept
37

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

a formal discussion between supervisor and subordinate for the purpose of


determining subordinates leve l of performance; and
An activity designed to obtain feedback on employee s performance for the purpose
of taking correct ive act ions for enhanced performa nce.
Performance appraisal is carried out in organ izations for var ious reasons:
to determine the capabil ity of an indi vidual against establ ished objectives
to measure the performa nce of stu dents an d job holders;
to establish whether knowledge has been transferred and the level of what has been
transferred;
to confirm the rele vance of an actor in his field of act ivity or endeavour;
to determine ski ll gap;
assess candidates potentiality for growth and development in any field;
to serve as guide in programme design and curriculum development (of examination
result); and
a means of measuring the response of the examinee to the forces of change within his
environment.
Appraisal function can be summarized as a process of personnel , and
for the purpose of effecting benef icial change. The appraisa l act ivity provides a
complement t o target setting and is desi rable for determin ing:
the level of job performance;
extent to which targets are ach ieved;
capabil ities, strengths and weaknesses of employees;
the level of responsibil ities that can be de legated,
the suitabil ity of employees for hi gher responsibi lities;
staff training needs for the enhancement of competencies;
career progr ession;
resources and s upport that wil l be required to enhance performance; an d
appropriate level of reward that matches contribution
Performance appraisal follows certa in steps. They are :
1. descr ibe job
2. set performance tar gets
3. review per formance
self appra isal
superiors appraisal
joint review/feedback
4. prepare act ion plans
5. follow-up.
RATIONALE FOR APPRAISAL
.
Appraisal Proces s
stock taking feedback
reflecti on
38
Appraisal Factors
)
Personal Factors
ISSUES IN TARGET SE TTING AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
1. Lack of Values and G oals:
2. Setting Targets for Administrative Jobs
3. Subjectivity in Appr aisal:
1. Job Factors
quality (sk ills)
quantity (volume)
targets (qua lity, quantity
Attitude, relationships, adaptability, initiative, commitment, reliability, judgment, effort,
communication
1. Contribution to Team
Leadership, fo llowership
Techni cal skills
Organi zing abilities
Self-motivat ion
Planning
Motivat ion
Organi zing; and
Communication
2. Critical incidents
3. Manager ial Ability
4. Complaints, commendations
Target sett ing and objective
appraisal of performance hinge on the existence of core values and goals. Many
public sector institutions do not have visible values and goals. This makes the
practice of t arget setting and performance meas urement difficu lt.
: Some jobs are more amenable to
quantitative measurements. Most administrati ve jobs, including those of personnel do
not have qualitat ive measurement. Top-level jobs are seen as more qualitat ive than
quantitative. Sett ing targets and measuring performance of such involve the use of
more quantitative factors.
Subjectivity is a common
phenomenon in human organizations, but it should be minimized in the managemen t
of the hu man effort. An important cause of subjectivity is the absence of
objective criteria. Subjectiv ity may also come from individual differences or the
halo effect - the tendency to magnify one good effort or short -coming beyond
proportion. It is necessary to develop shared views with subordinates on appropriate
criteria for assessing jobs.

39
4 Some evaluation instruments
are too lengthy. Some are too scanty. Many contain vague and ill-defined factors.
There is predominant use of traits which convey different meanings to different
evaluators.
Many managers are unable to express their
actual fee lings about sub ordinates actual performance. This creates the problem
of retaining the wrong people on the job. The critical question is: Why do
managers find it difficult to express their real feelings on sub ordinates?

Employment of blood relations in the same
organisat ion is a common phenomenon. As organisat ions grow, different forms of
relationships develop.
Managers sometimes find it difficult to express their actua l feelings on
subordinates for fear that t hey might step on powerful toes. We may not be able to
avoid certa in relationships in our organisat ions, but we must not protect tho se who fail
to perform.
Many employees take performance evaluation as a
ritual. Kathleen Murray wrote in the New York Times Service:
Employees take eva luat ion as a
ritual and are passive when they are not given a say, when the climate is threatening
or when the ap praisal will not make a di fference.
Some superiors have a feeling
of sitting in judgment , using evaluat ion to settle old scores. This is wrong. Evaluation
should instead help in re viewing of per formance aga inst targets or resu lts, sharing of
perspectives, obtain ing of feedback and identi fying common ways of improving
performance.
Although target setting
and performance ap praisal ha ve speci fic time period in every organisat ion, they
are not one period activities. Target sett ing and performance evaluat ion have
reviews wh ich should be s pread thro ughout the year.
The tendency to treat select ive incidents as representative of the p lanning period will
distort rea lity.
10. Feedback may be p ositive or negati ve. It is quite easy
to give favourable feedback. Howev er, telling a staff that his performance is
poor, his com munication and interpersonal relationships are poor, his overal l
performance is below expectation is not easy. Neg ative feedback has to be given in
a non-threatening manner so that the morale of staff is not defla ted. Helpful feedback
. Use of Faulty Instruments:
5. Inability t o Expres s Feelings:
6. Favouritism, Godfatherism:
7. Evaluation as a Ri tual:
8. Wrong Attitude B y Superiors:
9. Target Se tting and Evalua tion as one Period Activity :
Giving Negative Feedback:
For many employees,
the annual performa nce
appraisal is a ritual to be endured. You show up and take criticism or receive
glowing rev iews. I n the end, yo u hope to get a raise.
40
relies on here and now events, specific events, not general ization. Helpful feedback
helps sub ordinates and organisations solve problems.
11. An important principle of management
is equity and fai r play, the requirement that staff be rewarded according to
performance. In practice, this is often not so. Some high performing staff may not be
appropriately rewarded because of low educational background and
constraints imposed by time scale for promotion. This poses a problem in
government. Larg e-scale bureaucracy and lack of appropriate work values make it
difficult for some high performing staff to be rew arded.
12. We cannot set targets and expect
performance when we d o not exhibit superior performance. We can only
accuse a staff of tard iness and late coming when we are act ive, committed and
report early for duty. We cannot accuse a subordinate for misuse of resources
when we are less than transpa rent. We cann ot accuse a staff of being
obsolete when we fa il to deve lop and acquaint ourselves with up-to-date
knowledge and sk ills in our disc ipline.
Many organisations and managers do not have clearly identif ied performance targets and
standard s. Many which seem to have do not achieve thei r set targets and standards. Often,
targets are not realized because they are imposed or are unreal istic. Even realistic targets
require proper procedures and s upport.
Negat ive factors in organisations can affect the achievement of set targets. Performance
targets are better achieved in organisat ions that are value-driven and have target setting
practice as an organisat ion-wide act ivity. Success in target setting requires continuous and
sustained effort by the learning organisat ion. It requires appropriate training and sometimes
external consulting intervention.
When targets are set, we must have a time frame to evaluate performance, to determine
whether targets have been achieved, to obtain feedback on factors which tend to facilitate or
slow down performance. Performance evaluation helps managers take correct ive measures
for the achieve ment of performance.
Not Rel ating Rewa rd to Contribution:
Lack of Superior Perf ormance b y Superiors:
CONCLUSION
41
SESSION V
WORK ETHICS AND VALUE S
42
WORK ETHICS AND VALUES
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
KEY ISSUES/CONTENT
THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be able to:
Explain the concept of work ethics and va lues;
List the ro les of the public se rvice in Nigeria;
State elements of work eth ics in the serv ice; and
Discuss the reasons for poor work ethics in the polity.
When we talk about work ethics, we are referring to a set of principles relating to morals,
especia lly as they apply to huma n conduct. In specific t erms, we are talking about:
what is moral ly correct;
what is hono urable;
what is acceptable;
rules of conduct; an d
a set of norms of society.
The Nigerian Publ ic Service, its Role and the Place of Ethics
Concept of Ethics and Accounta bility
Why Work Ethics?
Ethics and Productivity in the Public Service
Nigeria and the Cris is of Ethics
Ethical Issues in the Publ ic Service
Factors responsible for Poor Work Ethics
Value Re-orientation in the Public Se rvice
The Nigerian Publ ic Service is an embodiment of:
The Civil Service, Line Ministries & Extra- Ministerial Agencies;
States and National Assemblies;
The Judic iary;
The Armed Forces;
The Pol ice and Other Security A gencies;
Parami litary Ser vices; and
Parastatals and Agenc ies.

43
ROLE OF T HE PUBLIC SERVICE
PLACE OF ET HICS IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE
WHAT IS ETHICS AND ACCOUNTABILITY
The Publ ic Service pays a lot of rol es in the polity. They include:
i. professional & technica l advice on policies based on knowledge, experience &
expertise;
ii. development of programmes /project o ptions ba sed on avai lable resources;
iii. implementation of polic ies and programmes;
iv. monitoring and eva luat ion of projects;
v. operation of development conscious, performance oriented, efficient and effective
administrati ve system;
vi. promoting the dynamic growth of social ly responsible private sector within the
framework of nat ional economic objectives;
vii. acting as springboard for public policy especia lly where the polit ical leadership is
weak;
viii. provision of continuity in governance; and
ix. serving as store house of knowledge of past government decisions and procedures.
Ethics play a lot of ro les in the Public Service. Ethics come to the fore because:
the conduct of government b usiness req uires off icials interact ion
formal ized rules governing such interact ion which need to be obe yed;
public serv ants are not to breach suc h code of co nduct;
the code of conduct is designed to create awareness on the need for efficient service;
and
it embraces v irtues expected of all public ser vants for e fficient performance.
Ethics is as old as man. It is both a science and an art. It is the science of human conduct. It
is Science of human co nduct. It is a moral phi losophy defining what is right and wrong.
It defines what is acceptable to human society, and specif ies human conduct in any social
arrangement e.g. work etc .

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Accounta bility is the principle which requires that public officers be held
accounta ble/responsible for thei r conduct. It also means that those who serve the people are
expected to give account of their stewa rdship.
Accounta bility is inspired by basic ethics of governance, and made easier if public officers
operate within the limit of rules, regulations and proce dures.
Ethics & accountabil ity are two s ides of same coin.
The essence of this session is unqua ntifiable. It is necessary because:
of the nature of man;
every work is based on philosophy;
it addresses organizat ions corp orate vision and mission statement;
it analyses organizat ions goals and objectives; and
it brings harmony.
It also defines:
System theory (input/output), Methodology, Rules and regulat ions, Relat ionship(s); and
Human interaction in an organi zat ion.
Simple wor k ethics, transparency and acco untability in the organizat ion require :
obedience to rules and regulat ions;
respect for established authority;
respect for time;
honouring targets/results;
respect for others;
interpersonal re lations ski lls;
tactfulness;
dress ethics;
honest labour;
WHY WORK ETHICS
BASIC WORK ETHICS AND TRANSPARENCY

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industry;
Knowing scope of yo ur work;
understa nding your sche dule of duties;
proper seq uencing of your work;
national consciousness ; and
positive attitude to public funds
Many factors gi ve rise to poor work ethics. They inc lude:
negligence at work;
insubordination or disrespect to senior officers;
impoliteness to col leagues & member s of the pu blic;
corruption;
nepotism an d ethnicity;
malicious damage of gove rnment pro perty;
indiscipline;
interference of hi gher authority to under mine disc iplinary procedure;
lack of job security;
poor remuneration; and
lack of career progr ession.
Stephen Covey in his book, , speaks of the character and
personality cr isis in the individual . These are as under -listed:
PURE AND ORIGINAL FAKE AND AR TIFICIAL
REALITY SHADOW
BUILDING CHIPS PUBLIC RELATIONS
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR WORK ETHICS
NIGERIA AND CR ISIS OF ETHICS
CHARACTER PERSONALITY

7 Habits of Successful People


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DEEP-ROOTED & FUNDERMENTAL COSMETICS
FOCUSED OPPORTUNISTIC
PREDICTABLE UNPREDIC TABLE
CONSTANT SHIFTING
CONSISTENT & UNWAVERING INCONSIS TENT
PRINCIPLED UNPRINCIPL ED
ENDURING FLEETING
JOY AND DELI GHT DESTRUCTION
The Public Service of today has undergone transformation. Indeed there has been value
re-orientation sti ll being discussed in re levant quarters. Va lue re-orientation presup poses:
equitable wage distribution, job security, rewarding performance, sanctioning poor
performance, proper gate keeping, human capacity building, institutional capac ity
building, appropriate disciplinary procedure, sustainable service compac t, ethical re-
orientation programme, social mobil ization of the public, sustainable social welfare
programme, strengthening watchdog institutions, and addressing issues in
leadership, etc .
Public officers are expect ed to be humble and well comported at all time. They are to
ensure:
equitable in distr ibution of amenities;
equal opp ortunity in employme nt; and the
avoidance of nepotism, bribery & corruption.
Transparency and accountability are two important components of work ethics which are
vital for effect ive service del ivery and incre ased prod uctivity.
VALUE RE-ORIENTATIO N IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE
BEHAVIOUR E XPECTED OF PUBLIC OFFICERS
CONCLUSION

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Success in creating a new work ethics will requir e a holist ic act ion, whereas strict
adherence to the work ethics and values of the publ ic sector will promo te both the sector
and invar iably the Nigerian polity.
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SESSION VI
POLICY FORMULATION
AND IMPLEMENTATION
49
POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION
Learning Ob jectives
INTRODUCTION
CONCEPT OF POLICY
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be able to:
determine the main policy options facing the univers ity;
relate pol icy to chal lenges facing the univers ity;
determine the process of policy formulation; and
develop share va lues in policy formulat ion in the unive rsity.
Management has the responsibility to make effect ive use of economic resources, provide and
maintain infrastructure, provide an enabling environment for the achievement of corporate
goal.
Effect ive management and good corporate governance are underlined by quality leadership,
shared values, clear goals, effect ive planning , coordination, quality staff ing, appropriate
technology, people - oriented policies, projects that add value, accounta bility, transparency,
etc
Policies take centre place in management process, should drive execution of programmes,
activities and realization of sets goals. Strategy and policy formulation are the responsibilities
of top managemen t and the boar d. In the univers ity, management and Cou ncil are expected to
provide this ro le.
Policy has been defined as a proposed course of action of a person, group, organisat ion or
government to overcome specific obstacles or exploit opportunities within a given
environment for the achievement of desired goals.
Policies are key decisions or guidel ines provided by management to guide the conduct of
people or are concei ved as general statements or understa nding which guide decision-
making, the essence of pol icies being the existence of discret ion within certain limits in
decision.
Put simply, policies are guide to action, to decision making, delimits areas within which
decisions are to be made and ensures that decisions are consistent with and contribute to
objectives.
Managers often have to take decisions on staffing of their organizations. Procureme nt of
facilities and equipment, funding, introduction of new products, developme nt of projects ,
etc. Each of these situations requires pol icies as guide to ensure that the actions of
managers are consistent with the values of stakeholders and contribute to goal
achievement
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POLICIES AND STRA TEGIES
NEED FOR POLICY
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Policies and strategi es may be considered as the same or separate entities. The former
referring to guide to dec ision mak ing and the latter being concerned with major decis ions
Strategy is defined as an integrated pattern of actions designed to achieve specif ic goals.
It is the best options selected for the achievement of desired goals, after careful
considerations of prevai ling circumstances
Strategies refer to ways organizat ions intend to achieve goals; denote a general
programme of action; deployment of resources towards the attainment of goals; represent
organisat ions resp onse to opportunities and threats in the envi ronment.
Major strategies and policies tend to merge. A compan ys policy of growth may be
achieved through acquisition or expansion of products or markets. These essential ly are
strategies.
Strategies are more commo nly used in business, particular ly in response to competition,
the need to move from one state to the other. Pol icy on the other hand is much more used
in government. The dist inction has become very faint
Policies are important instruments of governance. They provide the means of solving soci al
and economic problems, indicate direction and emphasis and enhance goal achievement. The
National Economic Empowerment Strategy (NEEDS) is Nigerias current plan for social and
economic development and prosperity. It aims at achieving the direct ive principles of state
policy by focusing on four key strateg ies, namely:
a) Wealth creat ion;
b) Employment generation;
c) Poverty reduction;
d) And elimination of corruption
Specif ically, why do we need policies? Policies are indispensable component of corporate
governance and are required for the fol lowing reasons, among others :
They help managers to be proact ive, to think ahead of problems before they occur and
enable them act effect ively and respo nsibly
Policies constitute part of the planning process of corporate organisations and compel
analysis and cr itical considerat ion of options t hat wi ll lead to goal achievement.
They act as guide to the workforce, managers, customers, beneficiar ies and all other
stakeholders in responding to opportunities and challenges and indicate processes and
expected be haviour.
Analysis and evaluation of policies facilitate discourse of social and economic issues,
engender participation, good governance and ownership of the options selected
Policies form the basis of deve loping act ion plans and sched ules
They fac ilitate delegation of duties, foster in itiative and emp ower people.
They provide the basis of communicating the posit ion of management and the board on
core issues of governance and administrat ion
Policies facilitate coordination, control, evaluat ion, accounta bility and operational
efficiency.
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TYPES OR NATU RE OF POLICIE S
Major Policies
Derived or Supportive Policies
Originated ( top-down) And Appe aled Policies (bott om-up)
Policies have different attributes. They may be written or impl ied. They may have soci al
impl ications. The Pension Reforms Act is one public pol icy with huge social impact for the
working class and the Nigerian nation. The Due Process Policy may slow things down a bit
but is reported to have helped in raising the level of transparenc y and accountability in
government bu siness. In genera l, policies may be class ified as:
Personal (pri vate), corporate, state.
Written, impl ied
Major or minor; derived or supportive
Proactive , reactive
Popular, unpop ular,
May be related to socia l, economic, business, environmental or industria l matters
Functional (human reso urces, financia l, operational , administrat ive, etc)
They give unif ied di rect ion to organiz ations or the state.
They are supportive of vision, miss ion and o bjectives.
They give the organ isation or state character or shape events and affect goa l achievement.
In business, dominant policies direct act ion in human resource, mar keting,
development of products, financial resources, investments, capital projects, technology,
etc.
These are pol icies that support major policies, guide thinking and help unified planning. An
organisat ion which aims at strong leadership will need pol icy support through quality
staffing, research, compensation a nd supportive pol icies.
If the state wants industria l harmony and peace, it may provide training and embark on other
corporate activities that will stimulate interact ion. If the state is to step up internal ly
generated revenues, it may embark on income generating ventures, stress sustainabil ity of
projects provide a cl imate for investments in the state.
If there has a strong desire to deve lop products an d remain competiti ve, a comp any may carry
out marketing research, mar ket surveys and undertake benchmarking in terms of quality,
pricing, distribution and pro motion as sup portive pol icies. Without supportive pol icies, it may
be diff icult for major pol icies to succeed.
Policies flow from top managemen t, polit ical office holders, what they percei ve as
problem or development agendas. Policies flow from objectives and tend to be broad in
scope.

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Key managers provide policy initiatives, interpret and clarify policy and implement
policy. Policies may be promulgated in ways that leave little room for definit ion and
interpretat ion.
Originated policies often give the notion of being imposed. The may not be. They could
be discussed for consensus building for policies.
Policy may come from lower level of the organizat ion. Lower level management do not
have the authority to formulate or enforce pol icy but could provide important initiatives
in pol icy formulat ion.
Appealed policies receive attention when they are sound, address specific problems and
there is general or publi c support for them.
Policies may be imposed on an organizat ion (or state) from external authorities. Government
and its agencies have often imposed policies on business and industrial organisations, some
as a response to pr oblems and crisis. O rganisations have to be proacti ve and the responsibil ity
to take act ions that wil l prevent the imposition of unfavourable polic ies by government.
Enabling act
Vision and values of organi zat ional leaders
Public opin ion and press ures from civ il society
Response to challenges and problems increases
Policies as part of public se rvice reforms.
Agenda setting
Policy ana lysis
Policy formulat ion
Policy implementation
Policy evaluation and rev iew
Note that there are different models of the policy circle. The process may alternati vely be
presented as: (i ) Policy formulat ion; ( ii) Policy implementation: (iii) Evaluat ion Review
Policies are ideally developed as acceptable and effective courses of action for addressing
what has been placed on the policy agenda and are related to the goals and chal lenges facing
the organization. For the political office holder, public policy is formulated to enhance
economic development and provide the dividends of democracy. Public pol icies are howeve r
tainted by election campaign promises, patronage, consensus building and compromises that
will enable pol icies to rece ive legislative backing.
Imposed Policies
THINGS THAT DRIVE P OLICIES
POLICY CYCLE
POLICY FORMULATION
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For corporate organizations, policies provide the basis of analysing social and economic
issues, environmental factors in relation the objectives, values and expectation s of
stakeholders and the resource capabil ities of the organizat ion.
The pol icy formulation process also involves generat ing and evaluat ing options and selectin g
the option that will yield desirable results. Conceptually therefore, we may identify five
elements in the policy formulation process: (i) statement or recognition of problem; (ii)
Policy ana lysis; (iii) select ion of policy options; (iv ) authorizat ion; and (v) Publ ic acceptance
The first question to ask is: what problems, challenges, opportu nities should policy
address?
Policy formulat ion involves specif icat ion of policy issues (agenda) which often arise
from responsibilities of the goals, mandate and responsibility of the institut ion and
chal lenges fac ing it.
Policies are often formulated to address problems, to preempt or to achieve higher level
of performance. They address human needs, deprivations, dissat isfact ion, agitation,
natural causes, etc
Most public pol icies address problems that are percei ved as publ ic problems, involving a
larger number of pe ople and having w ide ranging effects.
Private problems or problems affecting specif ic individuals, minorit ies or enterprises may
be elevated to the status of public, state or nations problems.
Problems may be correcti ve, progr essive or creative. Recognit ion of social problems as
problems de pends on the leadership, thei r perception and va lues.
Formulating problems require careful analys is of expectations, objectives, authority
consideration, l ikely public react ion and reso urce capabil ities.
Policy analysis involves a careful invest igation of problems, their causes and possible
solutions
Policies analysis also involves consideration of options and their likely outcomes and
effects
Like strategic management, choice of options depends on generation of ideas or options,
evaluation of options and selection of the best option in the light of prevailing
circumstances.
Policy decisions are often taken after rigorous consideration of specifi c criteria and
values. Such criteria may include cost, savings, expected benefits to the people and
solutions of pro blems.
Problem Identificati on
Policy Analysis
Policy Decision and Selecti on
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Policy Authoriz ation
POLICY IMPL EMENTATION
POLICY IMPL EMENTATION A CTIVITIES
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For the private enterpr ise, pol icy selection and authorization is almost one and the same
thing. However, major policies even in the private enterpr ise have to receive the approval
of the board.
Public pol icies have to be consistent with state goals and should receive the stamp of
authority legislators. Major pol icies by government institutions are expected to receive
authority of boards, supervising authorit ies, regulating authorit ies and in some cases
legislators.
Often good intentions or policies are not enough. There is considerable needs for proper
articulation.
For policies that may cause part of the community some discomf ort, there is need for
good relat ion and co mmunication wit h legislators and the genera l public.
Policy implementation is the process of translating pol icy goals into concrete results,
effect ing benefi cial change, enforc ing act ions and shaping events. Good policies are
contingent on careful analys is and are the product of s ound management.
Policy formulation poses challenges. However , pol icy implementation has posed greater
chal lenges in Nigeria. This is because our development process has been slowed down more
by faulty implementation of policies than by the quality of polic ies.
Without successful implementation, good policies may lose thei r desi red values. We
therefore have a great need to show commitment to policy implementation. Successful
implementation of policies requir es analysis and knowledge of factors which tend to derai l
policies.
There is often a gap between policies as conceived or formulated and policy implementation
Policy implementation invo lves different act ivities and act ions, including the fol lowing:
1. Planning and scheduling
2. Budgeting
3. Resources
4. Action of responsibil ities
5. Provision of appropriate structure
6. Communication and orientation
7. Change manageme nt
8. Monitoring and eva luat ions
9. Review.
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Planning and Scheduling
Resources for Policy Implementation
Budgeting and Budgetary C ontrol
Action Programmes and Respon sibilitie s
Communication of Policy
Monitoring and Evaluati on
If a policy involves specific programmes or projects, the activities must be properly planned
and scheduled. Such planning involves clarifying policy goals, determining key result areas,
performance indicators, action programmes, activities, time frame, monitoring and review.
Planning should also specify the resources that wi ll be needed to exec ute the polici es.
Some policies merely guide act ion; some involve specif ic programmes and actions and may
therefore require speci fic resources. Resour ces required for the implementation of policies
have to be appropriately identif ied. Such resources will generally include funds, human
resources, facilities and equipment. Resources should be properly identi fied and obtained.
Implementation of policies is often slowed down by inadequate resources or ineffect ive use
of resource.
Budgets usually reflect act ivities, resources and funds required to implement policies. If a
particular requi re act ions and there is not budget back-up, it may be difficult to implement
them. Budgets compel a careful considerat ion of all act ivities and resources and their
impl ication, direct and control actions in policy. Budget approval and release of funds
represent practical elements of policy authorizat ion process. The budget should not be
another to ol of bureaucracy.
Achievement of pol icy goals may require speci fic act ivities and action responsibi lities.
People and institutions, that will be involved in policy implementation should be identified
and assigned appropriate responsibilities. Assigning responsibil ities require defining and
clarifying roles.
Core values, strategies and policies may not mean much if they are not well communi cated.
Communication provides the means of prov iding shared vision, values, pol icy orientat ion and
participation in policy formulat ion and implementation. Public pol icies are often resented
because of poor communication. The use of circulars can be complemented by conferences,
seminars, interact ive fora, meetings and discussion.
After policies are formulated, we must take measures to monitor them, to ensure that we are
on course, that expected gains are realized. Monitor ing enables us to take correct ive act ions
before serious damage is done. Evaluation, especia lly termina l evaluat ion, enables us to
56
determine whether expected results have been achieved and form the basis of future policies
or change in pol icies.
1. Policies should be consistent with values and goals (agenda) of the state and generally
improve the l ives of people.
2. Policies should be stated, specif ic, clear and understan dable.
3. Policies should be f lexible and allow for benef icial change.
4. Policies should address the interest of the la rger society without mortgaging the legitimate
concerns of minorities.
5. A major thrust of public pol icy is to achieve long-term goals. Not frequently, there are
short-term discomf orts. Such situations sh ould be tolerable.
6. Policies should be authorized by the appropriate authorities or legislation to give them
force of act ion.
7. Policies should be effect ively communicated and enj oy the support of the larger society.
8. Policies should be feasible, implementable and address the issue for which they were
formulated.
9. Acceptance and effective implementation of policies depend on the process, the extent to
which they were partic ipat ive.
The nation faces huge development challenges. Our institutions have to be effectively
managed for the achievement of our national goals. Policy provides clear thinking, directs
action, gives new orientation, guides choice of programmes and helps the achievement of
goals. Good policies must be complemented by equally good policy implementation.
Policy formulat ion involves appropriate values, agenda setting, identi ficat ion of developmen t
needs, analysis and selection of appropriate options. Policy formulat ion involves
participation of all stakeholders. The management and principal officers of every
organisat ion have an important role to play in policy initiation and formulation. Other cadres
of staff can make s ignificant contribution to policy formulat ion and implementation.
SOME REQUIRE MENTS FOR POLICY FORMULATION AND
IMPLEMENTATION
CONCLUSION
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SESSION VII
SPEECH, REPORT WRITING AND
PRESENTATION
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SPEECH, REPORT WRITING AND PRESENTA TION
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
REPORT WRITING
Definition:
1. Types of Reports
2. Job Function-Related Repo rts
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
explain what report wr iting is;
discuss various types of reports;
list steps in speech/report wr iting;
explain uses of report; and
understa nd structure of report/speech.
Effect ive report/speech presentation de pends on the quality of report wr iting.
One thing is to have good materia ls for report wr iting, another thing is the way and man ner
the report is structured which also af fect qual ity of presentation.
Therefore the structure of a report/speech is the basis for a good presentation.
A report is a written statement of:
a) a situation or ev ent/incident
b) a project
c) a process or test
a) Annual Reports usually written
b) Bi-Annual Reports on performance
c) Quarter ly Reports
a) Internal Audit Report
b) Accident Report
c) Appraisal Report
d) Sales Report Prepared by com mercial Establ ishment

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a. Clear,
Unambiguous
b. Concise
c. Complete
d. Correct
e) Production Re port
Relies heavily on technical content
E.g. Reports of accou ntants, Management C onsultants etc.
These constitute a specia l type of report;
The Green Paper indicates proposed Policy and will usually invite comment s
while the white paper indicates spec ific decisions.
Governments usually set up panels, stud y-groups or co mmittees to conduct studies
invest igate a mishap or examine a subject with a v iew to proffer ing recommen dations.
Oral
Writ ten
3. Scientific and Technic al Reports
4. Professional/Advi sers Reports
5. Government G reen and White Papers
6. Reports of Committee of Injury
Proce ss
Sende r Receive r

Information
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STRUCTURE OF REPORT/SPEEC H WRITING
Structure must depend on
Title Page
STEPS FOR REPORT/SPE ECH WRITING
a) Subject
b) Contents
c) Purpose
a) The Title
b) Date the date of the report/speech
c) Reference Number
d) Classif icat ion Secret, Confidentia l, Not to be Published
e) Author s Name
f) The authority for the report
g) Forward
h) Abstract/Executive Summary
i) Introduction
j) Methodology adopte d
k) Body of the report
l) Conclusion
m) Recommendation
1. Adopt t he rule of the Four Cs
a) Clear must be clear , easily understo od by the reader
b) Concise information must be intel ligible and intelligent, no verbosity,
unambiguous
c) Complete all necessary information should be included, no irre levance
d) Correct every piec e of information is accurate and ver ifiable.
2. Knowing the Reader: who is the rec ipient?
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3. Preparation:
a) Collect ion of informat ion ensure accuracy and currency of facts.
b) Accuracy in quotation, paraphrasing, summar y and rep orted speech
c) Information mu st be rel iable, relevant and suitable
d) Note taking and processing of al l data/information col lected
1) To inform provide information or place interpretat ion on known facts
2) To expla in specif ic events
3) To obtain ag reements to a course of action as a basis for discussion
4) To assess a situat ion
5) To record work done, whether conclusion or not
6) To test the va lidity of information
7) To provide means of cross -fertilization of ideas
8) To circulate new ideas
9) To keep others especial ly management informed of work done and progress made
10) To indicate a future course of action to be taken as a r esult of work done.
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Define presentat ion;
Mention basic steps for effect ive presentation;
Understand their audience and how to relate to them in a most effect manner;
Identify the reasons and needs for corp orate presentation.
Specify the k ind of information needed for effect ive corporate presentation; and
Identify the ski lls needed for ef fect ive presentat ion.
USES OF REPORTS
PRESENTATION SKILLS
Learning Ob jectives
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Introduction
What is Presentation?
SEVEN BASIC STEPS FOR EF FECTIVE PRESENTATION
A new trend in organi zat ional dynamics is the market ing of or ganizat ion.
Organi zat ions are forever mar keting their worth, value and services to both internal and
external customers.
It is a strategy for market penetrat ion and repositioning.
In an age of competition, it is a strategy for establ ishing its relevance to stakeholders and
the general public.
Market ing an organizat ion requires e ffect ive corporate presentation ski lls.
Presentation is a form of communication;
It is the communication of ideas by words and visual a ids;
It is walled about with restrict ions and loaded w ith burden s;
It is a prelude to further discussion and exposition;
If it succeeds, the audience to whom it was g iven will want to study the s ubject matter
in more detai l;
Usual ly a presentat ion is successful if it arouses curiosity and stimulates a desi re for
more information; and
The desi re can be sat isfied in other ways and at other times.
Decide what you want to achieve;
Decide the best mode of presentation to achieve this objective;
Decide what form it should take;
Prepare a scr ipt (in whatever form suits you best);
Design and prepare v isual aids and han douts;
Rehearse; and
Do it.
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UNDERSTANDING Y OUR AUDIEN CE
SYSTEMATIC PREPARATION FOR PRESE NTATION
OUTLINE YOUR PURPOSE:
Do you place too muc h dependence upon the power of yo ur words an d your logic?
Do you pay t oo litt le attent ion to other aspects of your very personal contribution to
the presentation? E.g.
Body language;
Vocal Style;
Charm or Charisma.
Do you realize that where there are conf licting messages, the way these non-verbal
qualit ies are perce ived by others wi ll normal ly far outwei gh the effect of anything you
might say.
Studies have shown that we tend to base our judgment of other people on three main
character istics:
Verbal content 7%
Vocal interest 38%
Body language 55%
Remember that if your overal l personal style is inconsistent, your audience will base
their impression on the 93% non-verbal signals you put out rather than the 7% of
verbal content, no matter how clever, logical and reasonable the verbal content may
be.
Request for prese ntation induces PANIC.
Why not turn this to your advantage by using it as a five-part reminder of the very
elements of a good presentation?
Often the purp ose of presentation is dictated by so meone else or by the context in which
presentation wil l take place. e.g.:
a. Your department head asks y ou to show Moji Sa lami (a new employee) the ropes.
b. You are chosen to giv e senior management a brie f overview of the wor k done by your
team.
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Are you required to train Moji Salami in some specific tasks, or simply to familiarize her
with the genera l routine?
Are you doing a solo presentation to senior manageme nt, or are you o ne of a dozen s peakers?
In order to produce a successful presentation, you must have a clear idea of what the
presentation is to be about.
Your understan ding must be b oth precise and accurate; and
If necessary, push for further information until you are sure that you have a solid grasp on
that purp ose.
In the example weve looked at, a specific audience has been mentioned the new
employee, senior management;
One of the first th ings you sh ould do when preparing for any presentation is to f ind out as
much as you can about your intended audience, and then focus your presentatio n
according ly.
Even if you dont have an opportunity to meet any of the members of your audience in
advance, you can still use a simple but surpris ingly powerful test to make a pretty
accurate estimate.
Q1. If I am describ ing a new idea to you, would you prefer that I start with (a) the details,
or (b) the big picture?
Q2 (a) If you answered (a) to question 1, would you like me to (c) work up from the
detai ls to the bigg er picture, or (d)stick with the detai l?
Q2 (b) If you answered (b) to question 1, would you want me to (e) work down to a
more detailed descr iption, or (f ) st ick with the bi g picture?
If you answered (a) and (d) you obviously prefer to work w ith detai ls.
If you selected (b) and (f) you are probably much more comfortable dealing in
generalities.
A person wh o selects (a) and (c) is primarily deta il-oriented, but is a lso interested
to see how th ose details re late to the big p icture.
Finally, if you selected (b) and (e), then you pro bably prefer to work in
generalities, whi lst being able to deal with more prec ise details when this is
appropriate.
AUDIENCE
65
APPLICATION OF ABOVE TEST
NEED
INFORMATION
We can apply these conclusions to job roles to estimate what kind of presentation style
the correspo nding job -holders might prefer.
Senior managers and Board Members: They think in terms of company strategy for the
next five years, and competition at the national and international level.
It seems likely that such people would select answers (b) and limited (e) indicat ing a
fairly non-detailed type of presentation.
Staff in the R & D Department, on the other hand are more likely to answer (a) and (d),
which would call for lots of facts and figures in either the presentation or in the
supporting hand out.
A presentation at a Sales Conference or Stock Taking Conference might tend to be (b)
and (f) if the main purpose is to celebrate the years results or (b) and very limited (e) at
the rollout of a new product.
If youre still not sure what approach to adopt, you might try start ing with a reasonably
high level overview, then work down to a medium degre e of detail - Leave plenty of time
for people to ask questions.
Every presentation has a reason, and need s.
The purpose for taking Moji through the office procedures may be to bring her up to
speed in her job as quickly as possible, but what are her needs?
Does she nee d detailed instructions or just a brief refresher?
And what d o you need in order to be able to meet this requir ement?
Do you need t o do some research?
The more clearly you can define the needs of the situation, the more chance you have of
giving a really spot on prese ntation.
So you now know who your presentation is for, and why?
But what information should be included to achieve the required outcome?
If you gi ve too l ittle information, the event becomes a waste of everyones time.
Give too much information, most of it will be forgotten by the next day and the event
becomes a waste of time for everybody
66
The more accurately you define your goal, the easier it will be to determine what mu st go
into the presentation and w hat can be left out.
What visual-aids wi ll you use (if any)?
Where wi ll the presentation be staged?
What kind of fol low-up wi ll be required?
How will it be perceived by your audience (will they hear what you meant to say, what
you did say, what they think you said or what they think you meant by what they think
they heard y ou say)?
Apprehen sion is natural before embark ing on presentation. Issues to worry abo ut include:
Will the audience be responsive?
Will the presentation be appro priate to their needs
Will the main power supply flow smoot hly?
The secret remedy for so-called stage fright is simply to acknowledge the feeling
without lett ing it upset you.
An effective way to acquire skills is to understa nd what acknowledg ed experts do,
understa nd what makes them s uccessful and then mention the m.
The following is a list of five skills most frequently used by people rated by their
colleagues as outstanding presenters:
i. Fine-tuning : A skilled presenter constantly loves and refines her material to
make it as appropriate as possible for a given audience.
ii. Achieving Outcomes: If you dont know where you want to go, how will
you know which route to take? How wi ll you know whe n youve arr ived?
Top presenters work to answer t wo basic questions ri ght from the start of
the planning stage :
What do I want the presentation to achieve?
How wi ll the audience behave if I am ach ieving my outcome?
iii. Effect ive Chunking : This is a process of presenting information in
manageable segments.
COMMUNICATI ON
PERFORMING EDGE
WINNING WAYS
67
-
Skilled presenters most frequently chunk downwards;
They also watch for audience reactions which will tell them if they are
working in the ri ght direction and at the ri ght pace.
iv. Unlimited point of view: Many top speakers give thei r presentations from
three diffe rent positions:
Position 1 is thei r own v iew point;
Position 2 is the audiences vie w point;
Position 3 is the mental observers position.
By mental switching from one position to another, they can give thei r
presentation a personal dimension (position 1), they can judge how they
are coming across to the audience (position 2), and can avoid any conflict
or confrontation, should it arise by moving to position 3.
v. What must be, wil l be: An unshakeable belief that each presentation is
bound to be successf ul, no matter what happe ns.

68
SESSION VIII
USING POWERPOINT FOR
PRESENTATION
69
USING PO WERPOINT FOR PRESENTA TION
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
What is Power Point?
Steps in PowerPoint Pre sentation
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Use the PowerPoint for presentat ion;
Prepare lecture notes, workshop papers or enlightenment campaign or programmes
aimed at educating the g rass root;
Use the desi gn facilities to reduce the comm unication gap; and
Use computer aided designs and equipme nt to faci litate learning.
Global ization and explosion of information technology (IT) has made presentation in
workshop s and seminars interact ive based, more interesting and enterta ining as they are no
longer paper based del ivery.
Communication is now based on endearing signs and symbols by engaging powerful graphi c
designs, art istic colour presentation, desktop designs and environmental fr iendly designs.
Among the different applicat ion software/packages useful for delivering lectures and seminar
in a video and computer format, Power point is the most com monly used.
PowerPoint is a Microsoft -based applicat ion used for creating dazzling presentation that can
be displayed in varieties of ways using overhead project or, (35mm) on the screen or on the
internet.
PowerPoint presentation facilitates effect ive learning and understan ding of the subject matter
of discussion because of its animative features. As the name implies, the topic of discussion
is boldly projected both in word or for meaningful discussion between the presenter and his
audience.
Step 1: Write your manuscripts.
Step 2: Mark out the v ital points, f igures and diagrams.
Step 3: produce in words and convert to PowerPoint or directly create PowerPoint.
70
Step 4: Copy your work into f lash drives.
Step 5: Arrange for projector and screen.
Step 6: Make necessary connections and do a trial projection.
Step 7: Real Presentat ion.
Using the auto content wizard,
A template or,
A blank presentation.
Opening an existing presentation from dia logue box.
It will walk you thorough creating a presentation from the scratch,
It will also make content suggestion.
A template is an Eng ine-room where major designs are stored for easy ret rieval and usage by
the designer.
How a template can be easily adopted and edited to suite most of our own design needs with
little addit ion or subtraction of the orig inal format.
Understanding the Template Configura tion of Power point and its design to make
presentation animated.
Template offer a unique look for your presentation but makes no content suggestion.
Understanding the many pre-designed templates provided by P owerPoint.
Understanding how Template acts like presentat ion blue-prints.
From slide sorter view, wor king with your slide show as a whole is simplified.
Slide can be permanently removed from a presentation by selecting the slide, then
clicking the edit menu an d then deleting the sl ide.
A detai led explanation of how to arrange s lides for presentation.
Means of Cre ating a Presentation
The use of an Auto content wiz ard
What is a Templ ate ?
Arranging Slides for a Presentation
Adding Animation Effec t

71

Animation effect will add object to slide one by one to create a more effective
presentation. It include ones with sound effects.
To enable animat ion effects, choose one of the effect from the pretext animation drop
down list box o n the formatting tool bar.
Once al l slide shows are prepared the way yo u want;
Power point allows you to start and run the show from any of the slides. by scrolling to the
slide you want to s tart with and cl ick slide show to run.
One notable factor in power point presentation is the fact that the presenter must be
adequately equipped and gain the mastery of the subject matter. Other wise this will make
non-sense of the presentation as the point or issue in discussion only shall be projected while
the rest discussion is based on t he extent of the ma stery of the su bject by the presenter.
Running Slide Shows
CONCLUSION
72
SESSION IX
NEW PENSION SCHEME
ADMINISTRATION
73
NEW PENSION SC HEME ADMINISTRATION
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
Pension: What is it?
At the end of this session participants wi ll be able to:
discuss conce pt of pen sion scheme;
explain or igin and development of pension a dministration;
know why government is involved in pension administrat ion;
discuss the provisions of the Pensions Reform Act of 2004, relating to the administrat ion
of pensions; a nd
understand the implications of the New Pension Reform Act.
Pension administra tion in Nigeria is old, yet is new. It is old because
pension administration has been in existence for a long time before it was replaced by
contributory pension scheme via Pension Reform Act of 2004.
There is no doubt that the anomaly of the old pension administration rendered it ineffect ive
and not sustainable, thus given rise to the new scheme.
Pension is a promise of a particular amount of income by an employer of labour to an
employee and w hich can only take ef fect after retirement.
Pension has to be earned after which the employer agrees to make mont hly payment s
throughout the life of his former employee.
Gratuity, on the other hand is a lump-sum payment usually granted immediately upon the
retirement of an office r. Since the payment is gratu itous, it is exempt from taxation.
Pension being an earned income and in accordance with the Income Tax Management of Act
of 1961, is taxed. However, cur rently it has been exempte d from tax.
Like the contract of employment which the employer enters into with an employee, the law is
necessary to legitimize the social contract entered into by the employer to pay retirement
benefits to his former employee who is no longer productive to his or ganizat ion.
In real terms, it is the totality of plans, procedures, legal and administrati ve processes of
securing and setting aside funds, designed to meet the social obligation of care which
employers owe to t heir employees on retirement.
Federal Gove rnment Powers to Legis late On Pensions
In exercise of the exclusive powers of the Federal Government over matters relating to
pensions and gratuity, the Pension Act No. 102 of 1979 (now CAP 346, Laws of the
Federation of Ni geria, 1990) was enacted with a commencemen t date of 1st Apri l 1974.

74
The Act consolidated all enactments on pensions and incorporated pensions and gratuity
scales dev ised for publi c officers by the Udoji Publi c Ser vice Review Commission in 19 74.
Before now the Pensions Act 102 of 1979 is the basic pension law from which other pension
laws in the public se rvice of Nigeria have deve loped.
Other Laws Which Cater For Speci fic Profess ional Groups
They however reta in the main ingredients of Act 102 of 1979,these are :-
The Armed Forced Pension s Act No. 10 3 of 1979;
The Amendme nt Acts No. 51 of 1988, 29th of 1991 and 62 of 1991. The Pensions Act No.
103 of 1979 like its counterpart No. 102 of 1979 consolidated all enactments deal ing with
pensions, disabil ity benefits and gratuit ies scales devised for the A rmed Forces.
At the level of parastata ls and Government owed Companies, the Pension Rules are a replica
of the Pensions Act No. 102 of 1979.
The major difference is the numbering of the provis ions. In addit ion to the provisions of the
Pensions Act, various circulars Rules, Regulat ions and general guidelines are issued from
time to time.
It is the pol icy of the Federa l Government that Public Service Organsations (Parastata ls,
Corporations, Universities and other tertiary institutions) established by Decree in the Federal
and Edict in the States should operate Pension Schemes similar to what obtains in the Civil
Service.
At the level of parastata ls and Government owed Co mpanies, the Pension Rules are a replica
of the Pensions Act No. 102 of 1979.
The major difference is the numbering of the provis ions. In addit ion to the provisions of the
Pensions Act, various circulars Rules, Regulat ions and general guidelines are issued from
time to time.
The NSI TF scheme is a Gov ernment sp onsored private sector scheme.
It started with the National Provident Fund (NPF) in 1961 which was then converted into the
Nigeria Social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF) in 1994.
Features of the Scheme
The NSITF is meant to provide social protection to all non-public sector wor kers and all
those not covered by t he public service pension sche me.
Scheme Ob jectives
75
Coverage of the Scheme
Organizati ons:
Individual s
Those Exempted
Benefits of the Scheme
Challenges Facing NSITF
The NSI TF scheme covers the fol lowing:
1. registered companies;
2. partnerships;
3. Other fi rms employing at least five persons.
1. citizens of or ordinar ily resident in Nigeria;
2. have each atta ined the age of 1 8;
3. have each not yet attained the age of 6 5
1. government employees;
2. diplomats;
3. non-resident workers;
4. the cler gy.
Invalidity pension
Invalidity Grant
Retirement Pensions
Retirement Grant
Survivors Pension
Survivors Grant
Funeral Grant
Under the new Pension Reform Act., the Pension Act has merged private and public sector
schemes with provisions for Private Pension Fund Administrators (PFAs) to enhan ce
competition.
The Act under sections 42 and 71, has redef ined the functions of NSITF. It divided the
activities of NSI TF into two.
On the one hand NSITF is allowed to register as a Pension Fund Administrator (PFA) to
compete favorably with any other organization in the private sector that is licensed to be a
PFA. This is because under the new Act, PFAs will be registered and licensed by the
National Pension Commission (PENCOM), provided they meet with the capital requi rements
and ot her conditions of the PENCOM . on the other ha nd,
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
76
NSITF is allowed to do social secur ity. Under the new law, everybody who is currently
contributing to the NSITF Pension Scheme or having his account with the Fund is expected
to continue until the next five years.
After five years, they have the option to either remain with the PFA to be established by the
Fund to take their money to an y PFA of their choice .
They allow these five years period to enable NSITF stabi lize, monetize and liquidate most of
its assets where contr ibutions have been invested, so that it will be able to pay off those
contributors wh o may wish to withdraw their Funds.
Nigeria is currently saddled with an est imated N1 trillion, pensions overhang owed
pensioners wh o worked and re tired from the public ser vice.
Hundred s of aged pensioners and other frustrated ones who gave their youth to the service of
the nation have died w ithout receiv ing their due, many of the m, on pe nsion queues arou nd the
countr y.
The exper ience was not better either for those who worked with private sector operators,
some of wh o had no pension schemes in place for the ir employees on retirement.
It was in order to forestall the suffering experienced by Nigerian workers on retirement, that
the National Assembly passed the recent Act establishing a contributory pensions scheme to
which employers will make 7 and employees will also make 7 for the payment of the
employee s pension on retirement.
Government has come to the painful conclus ion that it can no longer sustain the present Pay-
As-You-Go system where the funding of the public service pension is borne hundred percent
by Governme nt at al l the three t iers and parastatals.
In response to this reality, the Pension Reform Act 2004 is enacted by the National Assembly
to establish a contributory Pension Sche me
Ensure that every person who worked in either the public or private sector receives his
retirement benefits as and when due.
Assist individuals by ensuring that they save enough to cater for their comfortable livelihood
during old age .
Establish a uniform set of rules and regulations for the administration and payment of
retirement benefits for both the private and public sectors.
The Need for Pension Reform
The Pension Reform Act 2004
Objectives of the Pension Reform Ac t 2004
Role of National Pension Commission
77
Regulate and supervise the Scheme established under the Act;
Ensure pay ment and remittance of contributions; ens ure that: -
i) pension fu nds are secure,
ii) pension rights are protected,
iii) benefits due to beneficiar ies on ret irement are paid;
Approve, license, regulate and supervise pension fund administrators (PFAs), custodians
(PFCs) and other institutions relating to pension matters as the Commission may, from time
to time, determine;
Establish standards and guidel ines for the manageme nt of the pension funds under the
Scheme;
Ensure the maintenance of a National Data Bank on a ll pension matters;
Carry out public awareness and education on the establishment and management of the
Scheme;
Promote capacity building and institutional strengthening of pension fund administrators and
custodians;
Receive and investigate compla ints of impropriety leveled against any pension fund
administrator, custodian or employer or any of their staff or agent;
Perform such other duties which, in the opinion of the Commission, are necessary or
expedient for the discharge of its functions under this Act.
Retirement Benef its
Any employee who retires on attaining the age of 50 years, will utilize the balance in his
saving account for the follow ing benef it:
Programmed monthly or quarterly withdrawals calculated on the basis of an expected life
span;
Annuity purchased from a Life Insurance Compa ny with mont hly or quarterly payment s;
and
A lump sum from the balance standing on the credit of his retirement savings account,
provided that the balance after such withdrawa l will not be less than 5% of the employee
annual remuneration as at the date of his reti rement.
Implicat ions of the New Pensions Act
Pensions n ow mandatory
Pensions n ow funded
Pensions n ow contribut ory
Separation of authority/contr ol between
Issue guideline s for the investment of pension funds

78

Contribut ors (employer and em ployees)


Administrators (PFAs) and
Cust odians (PFCs)
No benefits until 50 years
Voluntary retirement does not qualify you for pension u ntil you clock age 50 years
Pension benefits very mobile
Employee has right to select Administrator or custodian
You have option of what to take on retir ement (1st insta llments 25%
No more gratuity in publ ic sector ( it is now merged to the scheme)
The scheme provides for voluntary contributions to retirement savings account.
Contribution u nder the sc heme to form part of tax deductible expense.
Every employee shall maintain accounts retirement Savings Account in his name with
any Pension F und Administrator.
Transit ion
If less than 3 years to go, you hang on t o the old sche me, others new sche me.
The management and administration of pensions is very dynamic.
A good pension manager is the one that responds to these dynamics. The ultimate goal is to
ensure that retirement benefits are obtained w ith less pain and anguish.
The pension administrator should at all times put in place a good structure which he will
sooner than later be in a position to benefit f rom.

CONCLUSION
79
SESSION X
HANDLING OF OFFICIAL
DOCUMENTS AND REGISTRY
FUNCTIONS/OFFICE SECURITY
MANAGEMENT
80
HANDLING OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS AND REGISTRY FUNCTIONS/OFFICE
SECURITY MANA GEMENT
Learning Ob jectives
INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF REGISTRIES
Opening Registry:
Secret/ Confidential Registry
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
discuss the nat ure and ty pes of registr ies;
explain the functions of a reg istry;
know duties of reg istry staff;
understa nd office security management; and
know how to handle confidentia l documents.
A registry is the ner ve-centre of any organizat ion or a Ministry/Extra -Ministerial Department.
It connects all the departments in an organization and it is where information, are received,
recorded and classified. Documents and other correspondences are enclosed in files to
facilitate their identif icat ion and location to make information available for decision-making
process. It is also an office where clerical functions are performed and which are often
tailored toward the needs of the organization objectives.
2.
Registr ies are principally of two types: -
i) Open Registry and
ii) Secret/confidentia l Registry
In this registry, non-classified documents /correspondence are stored and
retrieved. People especia lly outsiders are allowed to enter an Open Registry. This registry
keeps all kinds of forms ranging from the Smal l Gen. Form 1 to the big jacket of various
descriptions.
: In some Ministries/Extra Ministerial Departments, this
registry is split into two: Secret Registry and Confidential Registries, depending on the size
of the Ministry/Department coupled with the volume and number of personal and subject
files that ar e involved.

81
2.1 In the Secret Registry, folders with various colours are used to denote the degree of
confidential ity and Officers working here are required to swear an Oath in accordance
with the Secret Act of 1962. A Secret Registry essential ly keeps subject files. Entry
into such registry is often strict ly restr icted. Documents are stored away in steel
cabinets with iron bar f itted across with locks.
2.2 Closely associated with the Secret Registry is the Confidential Registry which keeps
mostly personal confidential files of staff of the Ministry/Extra -Ministerial
Department. However, in some Ministries/Extra Ministerial Departments, personal
confidential files of Senior Officers are kept in a cabinet under lock and key in the
office of the Permanent Secretary whi le those of the junior officers are locked up in
the cabinets in the office of the Director of Personnel Department. This system
obviates the creat ion of a separate Confidentia l Registry. In whichever form the
creat ion of the Confidentia l Registry is made of officers in charge and concern
themselves with the staff personnel records. Pink or green colour files jackets are in
this registry.
4.
4.1 Every organizat ion has at least a Registry. Since a Registry is a clearing house for
paper work, it is generally regarded as the main stay of an organizat ion. It functions
can brief ly be def ined as fol lows:
1. Opening: Files are opened in Registry. Opening of files in other offices should
strict ly be discouraged in other to avoid duplicat ion of files. Opening files in
the registry gives room for proper classification of files and giving room for
record purp ose.
2. Recording: It is in the registry that movement s of files are recorded when they
are removed from files racks or cabinets. This recording is essential for proper
movement of files out of the reg istry.
3. Classifying: The registry classified files and documents into various types and
classes for effective record management. Since records are not of equal
importance it is necessary that files and documents should be classified for
proper attention.
FUNCTIONS OF THE REGISTRY
82
4. Indexing: Indexing is a sear ch light for unrefer enced letters and this is
essential because not all letters that come into an organizat ion carry reference.
It is through indexing that the organizat ion will know whether or not such
correspon dence has a file into which such documents can be enclosed. So
indexing assist in opening of new f iles.
5. Cust ody of Files: It is in the registry that files are kept properly for a time
when they will be needed. The registry has specialized equipment for keeping
files and documents. Keeping of files at home by officers should be
discouraged. Since the registry has records of files and the personnel are
trained for proper custody, registry should be responsible for keeping of files
in an organi zat ion.
6. Enclosure of Correspondence: Enclosure of correspondence is done in the
registry. This gives room for proper paging of documents and cross-
referenc ing in appropriate files in order to facilitate thei r identif ication,
locat ion and retriev al.
7. Supply of Files on Demand. Registries also supply files on deman d when suc h
files are required by officers for their act ion. Where the files cannot be
immediately retrieved, registry uses various methods to locate the movemen t
of such files.
8. Dispatch of Corresponde nce. The registry is responsible for sending out
names or letters that are meant for other organ izations. Also it can perform this
function internal ly that is, to dispatch letters to other departme nts within the
organizat ion.
9. Recording of Precedents. Precedents are very important decisions which has
occurred as reference for the future. Registry maintains a register where such
precedents are recorded.
The test of a good Registry service lies in its ability to retrieve or produce speedily
any vital information, documents or files for the efficient conduct of the business of a
Ministry/Extra -Ministerial Department. The Registry is both training ground and a
very important centre for management of information system. A registry must
therefore be given adequate attention in relation to proper staffing, provis ion of
83
modern equipme nt and good accommodation. Unless these and other improvemen t
are made, Ministries/Extra-Ministerial Departments will continue to experience
persistent mal-functioning of their administrat ive machinery bearing in mind that
registries are the nerve-centre of the organizat ion especia lly as they are responsible
for the storage, dissemination and speedy retrieval of relevant information for
decision-making.
5.1 The following outl ine shows the duties which are performed in a Registry and the
designation of the members of the staff who perform t hem:
TYPE OF WORK DESIGNATION
Types of Work
Supervising
Receipt of in-coming corresponde nce
Dispatching of letters/files
Indexing
Recording of Movement of Fi les
Enclosing of ma ils in file
Reviewing of files
Tracing of files
Bringing up of f iles
Putting away of f iles
Designat ion
Supervisor
Receiving Clerk
Dispatch Cler k
Indexing Cler k
Transit Clerk
Enclosure Cler k
Review Clerk
File Tracer
B.U. Clerk
PA Clar k
The routine procedure for treatment of mai ls in a Registry is as follows:
1. Delivery to rece iving Clerk and
2. Opening of l etters by rece iving Clerk checking of
enclosures
3. Affixing date stamp to indicate the day the lette r was r eceived
5. DUTIES OF REGISTRY S TAFF
6. TREATMENT OF MAILS
84
4. Submission of letter received to the supervisor in dai ly main fo lders or suitable
files.
5. Submission of all unope ned letters addressed personally to members of the
staff but secret or confidentia l letters should be delive red to the secret re gistry.
6. registrat ion in correspondence register (that is) in-coming register and
recording of items of va lue, deeds, in the va lue register or book.
7. Examination of correspondence for urgent papers and affixing of appropriate
priority labels where necessary.
8. Quoting of file numbers by reference to index and if none is in existence the
next serial number in the bo ok of numbers wi ll be allocated.
9. Enclosing of letters in files, paging of letters and other document s, if any and
complete cross referencing .
10. Marking out of files on action sheet and recording them on charge slip for
entering on absent fi le cards in the cabinet
11. Passing files to supervisor to check(s) where reference to the procedure for
opening letters and checking enclosures to a letter should be reported
immediately to the supervisor.
7. In some government offices, no record is made of in-coming mai l, but in offices
where such records are made, the letters are entered only when:
(a) they have been circulated in the dai ly mai l folders :
(b) being marked w ith the appropriate f ile number.
It is the duty of the dispatch arm of the registry to prepare and record everything that is being
sent out of the office, but in some offices, letters going by post are not recorded in main
registers.
Official letters received direct ly by schedule officers should be passed at once to the registry
where they sho uld be stamped, placed on fi le and refe rred back to the office r for act ion unless
he had already marked them PA in which case they are merely stamped with date rece ipt and
are put away in the proper fi le.
85
OFFICE SECURITY MANAGEMENT
HOW TO HANDLE AND CONVEY CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS
Classif ied document s are documents graded Top-Secret, Secret, Confidentia l, Staff
Confidential and Restricted. Document s classified should be carefully handled because its
content s when disclosed to an unauthorized person could cause embarrass ment to the
organizat ion and the nation at large .
Officers who are responsible to handle such documents must be properly inducted or trained
and be ma de to swear to an oath of secrecy.
8.
8.1 The following are example of the several ways in which graded letters could be
dispatched
8.2 If a Confidential letter is to be delivered by hand, the envelope must be stamped
with the appropriate grading in red capital letters at the top and bottom centre. The
envelope is then wax-sealed at both ends with official sealing stamp and then entered
in a dispatch bo ok and delive red to the addressee.
8.3 A Secret letter meant for delivery by hand is first of all be stamped with the
appropriate grading in red capital letters at the top and bottom centre. It is then
enclosed in a suitably addressed envelope with the reference number and date inserted
on the right hand top corner. The envelope is then wax-sealed with the offic ial sealing
stamps and is enclosed in another envelope on which appears only the address of the
addressees. It is then entered into the dispatch bo ok and sen t to the ad dressee by hand.
8. When a Confidential of Secret letter is to be delivered through the post the
procedure is slightly different. In both cases, the letter is first of all stamped with
appropriate grading Confidentia l or Secret at the top and bottom centre. Then it
s enclosed in a suitable addressed envelope and the reference number and are inserted
on the right hand top corner. The envelope is then wax-sealed with the offic ial sealing
stamp an d then enclosed in another envelope on which appears only the address. T hen
two block lines are drawn across the outer cover of the envelope and then it is
registered at the post office. A receipt is obtained and pasted on the dispatch book if
there is an entry of it on the dispatch book, otherwise it is pasted on the file or office
86
copy of the letter. If the letter is to be dispatched within the country it is done by car
or plane accompanied by a resp onsible senior off icer.
8.5 Dispatch of confidentia l docume nts to another country is normal ly done through the
Diplomatic Ma il Bag.
8.6 Officers should be careful that they do not leave classified docume nts on their tables
while they are out of the office. It should be kept in a fire-proof cabinet under lock
and key.
The following must be n oted:
i) Never hand over letters or files that are classified to messengers unless they
are locked in a security box or enclosed in sealed double enve lopes
ii) Only officials that are authorized, excluding messengers and other junior
officers, can transmit c lassified docume nts by hand.
iii) Classified documents for addresses outside the same locality should be
dispatched thr ough the Diplomatic Ma il Bag.
9.
This is done by t he following methods:
i) Shredding
ii) Burning
iii) Shredding and b urning
A senior officer must witness the burning exercise to confirm that no document is left
un-burnt.
The registry is the live-wire of any organizat ion especial ly the Public Service. It is a
place where correspon dences are received, processed and sent to other organizations.
When the registry is mal -functioning it will affect the entire act ivities of such
organizat ion. Officers who are to work in the registry must be knowledgeable, honest
and discipl ined.
The office should not be dumping ground for indiscipline and inefficient staff. The
registry staff must be given adequate training in registry duties and record keeping
from time to time. The registry staff must be given adequate training in registry duties
and record keeping f rom time to time.
DESTRUCTION OF CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS
CONCLUSION:
87
SESSION XI
STAFF TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT
88
STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
Concept of Educa tion
Human Resource Development
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be expected to:
develop shared values in human reso urce train ing and deve lopment;
determine the main elements of tra ining and development function
determine factors which af fect training desi gn; and
take dec isions that can enhance the quality of tra ining for the atta inment of
organizat ional objecti ves.
Training is an important function of the manager and a tool for performance improvement. It
is a huge amount of the resources expended on training in the country every year do not give
correspon ding benefits. Sev eral factors account for the po or results of tra ining in the country.
Many people handle training functions without appropriate value orientation and training for
it. For training to provide the desired benefits and live up to expectation, it must be based on
identif ied needs and sh ould be han dled competent professionals.
A social proces s by which people are subjecte d to the influence of a selected and controlled
environment (especial ly that of the school) so that they may attain social competencies and
optimum individual development. It include act ivities which are designed to improve
performance on t he job.
It is a planned process whereby attempts are made to affect predetermined behavioura l
changes in indi viduals and group.
The purpose of training is to either introduce a new behaviour or modify existing behaviour
that a particul ar and specif ied kind of job and respo nsibility requi re.
Human Resource Development refers to the systematic planning and appl ication of training
and other activ ities to prov ide a person w ith the whole rang e of knowledge, skills and attitude
needed for effecti ve performance now and in future.
While training is much more concerned with the present, human resource developmen t tends
to look far ahead into the future.
q
q
q
q
89
PEOPLE ORGANIZATIONS
COMMUNITY
Learning
Basic Philosophy of HRD
Domains of Learning
Targets of Le arning/Training
Learning comprises the sum total of changes brought about by interactions or stimuli
(situations) and response s made b y individuals in relation to their env ironment.
Learning involves change. It is concerned with the acquis ition of habits, knowledge and
attitudes, which enables the individual to make both personal and social adjustments.
Learning arises from education, tra ining, development, ex perience, responsibi lities, etc.
We beli eve that :
(1) HRD makes a major contribution to the successful attainment of the
organisat ions objectives and that investment in it benefits all the stakeholders
of the organisat ion.
(2) HRD plans and programmes should be integrated with and support the
achievement of business and h uman resource strategies.
(3) HRD should always be performance -related, designed to achieve specif ied
improvements in corporate, functional, team and individual performance and
make major contribution to b ottom-line results.
Knowledge
Skills
Attitude
Competencies
Personality
People
Organisat ions
Community

90
Training and the Individual
Training and Organisation
Elements of Training
Evaluation o f training
Training Function
Relate wi th training providers
Training Equips the individual with knowledge, skills and desir able att itudes. It also develops
human personality and self confidence ; it provides the individual with values and enhances
commitme nt and motivates towards organizat ional goals.
Training enhances problem solving , decision mak ing, leadership and other social skills.
Training provides shared values, direct effort and enhances commitment to organizationa l
goals; solves problems fac ing an organ isation (cost, waste, sk ills, mora le, technique, etc) .
Training:
Improves the skills, attitudes and compete ncies of the work force. It also ffacilitates the
use of new meth ods, processes an d technology.
Sharpens organisations response to market, competition, technolog ical and other
environmental factors.
Improves the capabil ity and overal l performance of an organisat ion.
Identif ication of train ing needs
Statement of training objecti ves
Design of tr aining programme
Implementation of training
Initiate and deve lop training pol icy
Identify tra ining needs
Prepare tra ining proposals
Prepare tra ining budgets
Plan, desi gn, organ ize, evaluate training (coordinate tra ining)

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
91
n
n
n
n
n
Locate and develop train ing mater ials
Develop or manage fac ilities and equipme nt
Facilitate on tra ining programmes
Conduct training and HR research,
Supervise tra ining staff etc
92
Types of Training
Training Methods
Some Tr ainers Role
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
n
n
n
On-the-job training
Job assignment /rotation
Inplant train ing
Attendance at external courses
Attendance at worksho ps and conferences
Exchange programmes
Educational programmes
Self-development
Note that the right tra ining method is the one that facil itate learning and yie ld results.
Subject s pecialist
Expert instructor
Teacher, tutor
93
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

Lecturer
Facilitator (discussion leader)
Coach, co unselor
Change agent
OD specia list
Manpower planner
Wants to instruct (interest, enthusiasm)
Knows what t o instruct
Knows h ow to instruct
Knows trainees
Can motivate the learner
Willing to learn/recepti ve of new ideas
Creati ve and innovati ve
Has ri ght personality confidence, integrity)
Able to commu nicate
Negative attitude to tra ining
Training is often not based o n identif ied needs
Inadequate allocat ion of resources
Inadequate training mater ials
Training personnel sometimes do n ot have the train ing and the compete ncies
Training is organized for objectives other than the desire to improve ski lls and att itude
Training is ad hoc, pol itical or at best administrat ive
Training is firmed out to co ntractors
Use of wrong tra ining methods
No l inkage between tra ining and job or organisat ion
Qualities of Trainers
Training and Devel opment Challenges
94
Non-evaluat ion of train ing
1. Can training fail?
2. State and analyze fi ve (5) reasons why training c an / cannot fai l.
We invest much resources and effort in training with belief that training can enhance
individual and organizat ional performance. Much of the desired benefits and results are not
achieved because of a number of reasons identified in the ear ly part of this wor k.
Consequently, for training programmes to serve organizational needs, they should be relevant
to the polici es of the spon soring organiz ations.
In addition, contents should be limited to the objectives that can be accomplished within the
time limit.
General ly speaking, it is important to realize that training is an effect ive tool for driving
organizat ional per formance.
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
95
c
SESSION XII
TRANSITION FROM PERSONNEL
MANAGEMENT TO STRATEGIC
HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
96
TRANSITION FROM PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO S TRATEGIC HUMAN
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Learning Ob jectives
Delivery Methods
Introduction
What is Personnel Management?
Personnel Management in the Civil Service
At the end of this session, participants wi ll be able to :
develop personnel administration in gove rnment establishment ;
understand the need for change in ci vil service organizat ions; and
appreciate the ef fort of gove rnment in bring ing civil service at par with corporate
organizat ion.
Lectures
Discussions and
Exercises
All people in an organizat ion responsible for the work of others engage in personnel
management to some degree. The main use of the term personnel management however is to
describe the activities of specialist staff whose work is typif ied by its exclusive concern with
people ; activities and/or problems.
The expression Personnel Management refers pr imarily to the acti vities of staff responsible
for implementing the personnel objectives of the organ ization. They p rovide advi ce,
guidance and assistance to management a nd employees o n matters affecting employment
generally.
The personnel management function is responsible for dev ising and executing the
organizat ion's polic ies and strategi es for the people.
The term Public Service refers to the total ity of all organizations that exist as part of
government machinery for policy decisions and service delivery that are of value to the
citizens. It is a mandator y institution of the State under the Constitution of the Federal

97
Republic of Nigeria. Chapter VI of 1999 Constitution under the title: The Executi ve, Part I
(D) and Part I I (C) prov ides for a Publ ic Service at Federa l and State Leve ls.
The publ ic service in Nigeria is largely known as the civil service, consisting of the line
ministr ies and extra-ministerial agencies. We have the enlarged public bureaucracy, the likes
of PHCN, the Pol ice, Judic iary and plenty m ore.
Personnel Management has evolved over time. In recent years, as economic conditions and
social att itudes have changed, emphasis on personnel management has changed. There has
been a gradual move toward making personnel function more robust, hence the term Human
Resources Management.
Personnel Management in the Nigeria Publ ic Service in Nigeria evolved during the coloni al
rule. Since Nigerias independence in October 1, 1960, the public service has undergone
series of review, the latest being the Public Service Rules of 2006, bye review committee
headed by the then Minister of Feder al Capita l Territory, Malam Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai .
From the colonial era up to the early 1970s, the Nigerian Publ ic Service was largely
percei ved as focused, less corrupt, re latively efficient and driven by the Br itish Service ethics.
Personal Management aims to:
develop corporate personnel policy and implementation;
provide special ist knowledge and skills within the context of organization s personnel
policy; and
develop and maintain the procedures an d routines con nected with employ ment.
In the contex t of the above, the P ersonal Management function should assure the following:
achievement of corporate goals;
established and implement sou nd policies;
meeting legal duties;
proving relevant job information ;
conducting fair interview;
ensure fair treatment ;
ensure job satisfact ion;
maintain reliable workforce;
ensure peaceful industria l relations; and
provide satisf actory work ing condition .
Evolution of Personnel Management
Role of Personne l Management in an organizati on

98
Categories of Personnel Activities
Strategic
Advisory
Operati onal
There are three (3) basic categor ies of personnel act ivities. They are :
(a) Strategic;
(b) Advisory; and
(c) Operational. Strategic.
Advisory: Assist ing other managers in key areas of personnel management.
Operational : Day-to-day tacti cal help to the various depart ments within the
organizat ion
This involves innovation and long term planning. It includes:
policy mak ing,
devising personnel strateg ies, and
contributing to the organizat ion's corporate plan .
This requir es assist ing other managers in key areas of personal management. It a lso include:
manpower planning ;
industrial relations;
training;
manpower development ; and
organizat ional Development .
This is the day -to-day technical help to the various departments within the organ ization. It
includes:
recruitments,
select ion procedures ,
job analysis ,
payment systems,
administration of g rievance and disc iplinary procedures ,
communicating conditions of service, and

99

keeping personnel records.


Policy mak ing is a key part of the tota l planning act ivities of an organ ization.
Policy is a statement of intended conduct, a rule of behavior. It is an expression of the
organizat ion's values and beli efs concerning a ll the major functions of the organiz ation.
The development of personnel policies and strategies is a vital part of the corporat e
planning process in organ izations.
Policies are intended to express the organization's long term view of how it intends to
conduct its employee relations. These rules of behavior should be established and
strategies that are consistent with them equal ly developed.
Change is passing from one form, phase, place or state to another.
It is also defined as a process of unlearning o ld habits as well as learning new ones.
Change is something that presses u s out of our comfort zo ne. It is said to be the only
permanent t hing in life.
Change is both inevitab le and inequitab le
It is not a respecter of persons.
Change is for the better or for the worst, depending on the angle you vi ew it.
Change has an adj ustment period which vari es from one individual to another.
It is uncomfortable because changing from one state to the next upset s our control over
outcomes.
Change is not comforted by the state ment just hang in there but with the stateme nt you
can make it.
Change isnt fixed by crying, worrying , or mental tr ead mi lling.
Change is won by victors not vict ims; and that choice is ours.
Perhaps the o nly thing more funda mental than that, is that people don't li ke change.
The first and most obvious definit ion of change management is that the term refers to
the task of managing change.
Personnel Policie s and Strategie s
Concept of Change Management
Characteristics of Change
What is Change Man agement
100

Managing change is itself a term that has at least two meani ngs. One meaning of
managing change refers to making changes in a planned and managed or systematic
fashion. External e vents may also necessitate organ izational change
Change managemen t is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the
perspective of an organ ization and on t he individual level.
Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization as it is in the natural
world. Just like plants and animals, organizations and the individuals in them inevitably
encounter changi ng condit ions that they are powerless to control. The more effect ively
you deal with change, the more l ikely you are to thrive .
Histori cally, it has not been very important for public sector leaders to wor ry too much
about change. This is because the day -to-day operations of government remain relatively
stable.
However, what we find is that histor ically, most public-sector change occurs around the
destruction of the established order. So does this mean that change-managemen t isnt
important to the public-sector? Certain ly not,
Various issues dri ve change, such as:
i. globalizat ion
ii. competition
iii. technology
iv. government policy
v. economy
vi. polit ics
Various sk ills are needed to monitor and control change. They include:
Organi zat ions are f irst and foremost social systems. Without people there can be
no organization. Lose si ght of this fact and any wo uld-be change agent w ill likely
lose his or her head.
Civil Service Change Management
Drivers of Change
Monitoring & Controlling Change Skills & Strategies
Political Skills
o
101

Analytical Skills
People Skills
System Skill s:
Business Skills:
o
o
o
o
Make no mistake about it, those who would be change agents had better be very
good at so mething, and that so mething better be analysis.
As stated earl ier, people are key in an organi zat ion, so knowing how to ma nage
people is a plus.
Theres much more to this than learning about computers, although most peo ple
employed in todays world of work do need to learn about computer -based
information systems. System skills also make us know about the entire
organizat ional setup.
Simply put, it is to better to understand how a business works, to be able to
control change with in that business. .
Some of the m ore important factor s to consider in cra fting a change a genda are a s
follows:
Degree of Resistance.
Target Population.
The Stakes.
The Time Frame.
Expertise.
People resist change anyway, but t hey have var ious reasons w hich inc lude:
Shock of the new scenario
Economic focus
Competence fear s
Threat to status or ski ll
Threat to interpersonal re lations
Uncertainty
Inconveniences
Creating a Change Agenda
Reasons for Resi sting Change
102
What is Strategy ?
What is Strategic Human Resources Management?
Difference be tween Personnel Management and Human Resources Management
What then is Stra tegic Human Resources Management?

The word strategy was or iginally used in mi litary operations.


It is the a rt of deploying t roops in order to win (have an edge) over the oppone nts
Simply put strategy is the art of or a scheme for managing an affair cleverly
Strategic Human Resource Management is an off -Shoot of Strategic M anagement.
An understanding of Strategic Management is therefore essential for a good grasp of
Strategic Human Resources Management .
Strategic Management is the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an
enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for
carrying out those goals.
It is about identifying alternat ive courses of action and determining the best courses of action
to achieve the desi red objectives .
It is being proacti ve- ant icipating changes and how to respond to them, recognizin g
tomorrows opport unity toda y.
The former (PM) is concerned with people who engage in special ist personnel functions.
Human Reso urces Management is broader, it includes human resources functions performed
by staff who are not in Personnel Department . Thus an Accountant performs a bit of
personnel functions, so is an Engineer
It is the systematic and proactive approach to the acquisition, utilization, development,
retention and disengagement of human resources in an organization in line with its corporate
mission, v ision and va lues.
It is systematic because it involves conscious effort and it is forma l.
Strategic Human Resources Management should operate in tandem with the mission and
vision of the organizat ion. It should also identify with its culture and shared va lues.
Strategic Human Resources Management should give competiti ve advantage to any firm,
whether a non-profit mak ing or government establishment.
Strategic Human Resources Management is a continuous process of identifying mission
related objectives and al igning personnel pol icies and practices with those objectives.
103
It is the on-going efforts to align an organizations personnel pol icies and pract ices with its
business strategy.
Recently, it is being given attention because of the growing awareness that human resources
is the key to success in both private and public sectors. It involves analyzing interna l and
external env ironment .
In a nutshell, strategic human resource ma nagement involves :
identify ing the organ izations strategic objecti ves,
developing human resources objectives consistent with the organizational goals- (vertical
integrat ion), and
aligning human resources p olicies and pract ices with each other (horizontal integrat ion).
There are some fundame ntal dif ferences between the pri vate and the public sector such as :
(a) Lack of competit ion in the public sector ,
(b) Lack of autonom y, and
(c) Lack of per formance based incentives to be successfully transferr ed to the pu blic sector,
there is need to tai lor its des ign and implementation to take into account the unique
character istics of the publ ic sector.
For strateg ic Human Reso urce Management to thrive in the Publ ic Sector, government
should:
i. have an establ ished strategic planning process ,
ii. invol ve human resources directors in the strateg ic planning process ,
iii. clear cut organizational miss ion and vision statements ,
iv. align human resources p olicies and procedures with the mission , and
v. institute a personnel off ice with organ izational role and structure consistent with
organizat ional mission and strategic objectives.
There have been a lot of innovation and diversi ficat ion in this are a in recent t ime. Some of
which inc lude:
Out- sourcing invo lves contracting out some of the d uties that are being performed by
staff to outsiders.

Public Sector Vs Private Sector


Procedural and S tructural Requirements For Strategic Human Resource s Management
in The Public Sector
Recent Developments in Human Resources Management
(a) Out-Sourcing
104
Many organizations now out-source some of their operations inc luding.
Security.
Drivers.
Cleaners.
Cashiers/Te llers.
Such organizations acquire, dev elop and reta in skilled core sta ff.
The advantages of out -sourcing inc lude the fol lowing:
It saves costs such as me dical facilities, gratuity, etc.
There is relatively easy disenga gement of out -sourced staff. The organi zat ion
only terminates the contract of the com pany that su pplied them.
It gives time to personnel staff to concentrate on more crucial issues.
However, out -sourcing has a major drawback . The out -sourced staff are not likely to
be loyal to the organizat ions that contract the jobs out , because they are not their
employers.
Such staff especial ly securit ies, drivers and cashiers can pose security problems by
colluding with outsiders and reveal ing confidentia l information to them.
Out-sourcing is a product of Strategic Human Resources Managemen t and it is bound
to face oppo sition from staff as it will erode their j obs.
The Federa l Government of Nigeria recently introduced compulsory pre-retirement
training wor kshops for any retiring staff in the c ivil service. This is desi gned to ensure
that retirees dont mismanage their entit lement. This is also a product of Strategic
Human Resources Management which has proved very helpful to retirees.
Promotion was virtually automatic in the Civil Service before now. Only recent ly,
staff who desire to be promoted, now have to sit for written examination. Those who
scale through the examination will undergo oral interview. The objective is ensure
that it is only the best that are promoted It will also make staf f to sit up .
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES:
Pre-Retirement Workshops
Promotional Examination in Civil Service

105
Succes sion Planning
Information Technolog y
CONCLUSION
Many organizat ions now plan well in advance about replacement of staff, especia lly
the key ones. With good succession planning, no staff will be able to hold an
organizat ion into ransom. Potential successors should be identified, trained and made
to understudy their bosse s
With the recent development in information communication technology and the issue
of e-governance becoming a major issue in government institution, the use of IT has
become a major promotional issue. All cadre of staff are now required to be computer
literate.
Strategic human resources management as embraced in the private sector should be
adopted in the public sector g iven its various benefits.
However we need to take into consideration certain pecul iarities of the public sector,
which might be a deterrent as mentioned in this paper . Such issues should be
addressed t o enable the Civ il Service to move forwa rd.
106
SESSION XIII
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
107
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
state the background to ind ustrial relations in Nigeria;
discuss the o bjectives of labour le gislations;
analyze the Joint Industrial Committee (JIC); and
explain the chal lenges of leadership in union government ad ministrat ion.
The expression industrial relations by itself means relationship that emerges out of day-to-
day working associat ion of labour and management.
It could also be given as relations between an employee and an employer in the course of
running of an industry and may project itself to spheres which may transgress to the areas of
quality control, mark eting, price fixat ion and dispo sition of profits among others.
In the pre-independence days, workers were hired and fired, as the princip le of demand and
supply governed industria l relations.
The employers were in a commanding position and the condition and terms of employment
were very poor. When these conditions continue d despite the efforts of leaders, it paved the
way for revo lutionary movements.

108
Trade unionism came to be a factor to be seriously reckoned with in the overal l Nigerian
system, on account of its strategic placement in the three-sub-systems politics, industry and
the econo my.
To the extent that its membership is comprised of the bulk of the Nigerian workforce. So the
well organized Nigeria trade union came to be a pressure group in the Nigerian scheme of
things.
After Nigeria attained independe nce, the workers became more enlightened and more
conscious of their role.
Formation of workers group became the order of the day, and the Nigerian workers became
aware of the need to unite.
The prol iferation of federations and congresses (amalgamat ion) of trade unions gave
government some anxiety and this must have led to the enactment of Trade Union Decree 31
of 1973. The decree offered the legal standards and the basis for the amal gamation of trade
unions and regulations of trade union finances.
This decree was amended by various governments civilian and military Decr ee No. 44 of
1976, 22 of 1978 and 17 of 1986.
In 1974, the Labour Decree No. 21 was enacted to regulate the conditions of employmen t
(wages, recruitment, special classes) in Nigeria and this is a re-enactment of Labour Code
Ordinances, 19 45.
A major feature of the decree is the protection of an employee from indiscriminate
termination of employment by employers.
Decree 21 has since been amended by Labour (Amendment) Decree 21 of 1978 and Labour
(Amendment) Decree No.27 of 1988.
The latter amendment in particular and unequivocal ly places liability for the injury of a
worker by another worker in the course of the employ ment, on the employer.
Disputes are inevitable in the continuo us interaction of groups of human beings. The labour
scene characterized mainly by the interaction of employees and employers has not been an
exception to this state of affa irs.
Guidel ines to the disputes that arise on the Nigerian Labour scene have been given in various
enactment s on trade disp utes by government.
The Federa l Government promulgated decree 21 of 1968 to replace the Trade Dispute
Ordinance of 1941 and this introduced the compulsory settlement of disputes.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS POST-INDEPENDENCE ERA
Industrial Relations Post-Independence Era
109
Decree 57 of 1969 was also introduced to outlaw strikes and lockouts and provided very stiff
penalties for the breach of its provisions. It also prohibits general or percentage increase in
wages without government agreement.
In 1976, the Trade Dispute Decree No. 7 replaced the 1969 decree and it lifted the ban on
wage increase without reference to gove rnment.
Trade Dispute (Amendme nt) Decree of 1977 reintroduced the ban. Decree 23 of 1976 was
enacted to give power to the Head of State to proscribe any trade union or association whose
members are engaged in any essential services or which engage in acts capabl e of disrupting
the peace of the cou ntry, etc.
An important characterist ics feature of Industrial Relat ions in the post-independence period
was the change in the government s attitude towards labour and their problems. We have
seen that many labour laws were enacted to protect the interest of industria l workers from
1960 1976. These laws cover many issues concerning social security, disciplinary matters,
wage rates, paid hol idays, seniority, etc .
The saf ety of workers on the job s hould not be com promised, as many employers ma y tend t o
overlook this in thei r pursuit of prof itable returns from business. The factor ies and the
workmens Compensati on Act have been promulgated to safeguard the interest of workers, in
addition to other things.
The first legislation move to regulate the physica l environment of work and thus ensure the
safety of the worker is the factories Act, 1956 which stipulated the minimum requirements
for a worke rs safety at work.
The act was replaced by the Factories Decree 1989 which introduced refinements on the
earlier act by stipulat ing the provision of certain conveniences in addit ion to the mandator y
safety provision.
The workmens Compensation Decree specifies a schedule of rate of compensation due to
varying degrees of injury. Other decrees include Minimum Wage Decree of 1990, Trade
Union Decree, 1996 which reduced the nu mber of Trade Unions from 42 to 1 9.
Apart from the ones mentioned above, several other solutions were sought to solve Industria l
Relat ion problems, such as recognition of unions, plant committees, grievances procedure for
workers, work ers partic ipat ion schemes, etc.
The objecti ves of Labour Leg islation are to:
protect workers from exploitat ion;
strengthen industrial r elations; and
provide machinery for sett ling industrial d isputes and welfare of wor kers.
These labour laws regulat e not only the conditions of work of industria l establ ishments, but
also industrial relations, payment of wages, registrat ion of trade unions, certification of
standing orders, etc.
OBJECTIVES OF T HE LABOUR LEGISLATION

110
They define legal rights and obligations of employees and employers and also provide
guidelines for their relationships. The various attempts by government to enact these laws
have been a true manifestation on her part to forge ahead with the development of industrial
relations in this country.
Workers participation scheme had its beginning after the independence and this was
organized to meet the le vel of tensions, industrial str ife, etc. The motiv e behind this scheme is
to ensure that the parties concerned with industrial relations direct ly (wor kers and the
employers) make conscious efforts to resolve confl icts between them.
Another reason for the introduction of the scheme is to create co-operat ion between the
workers and their employers. In some industries the workers part icipat ion scheme is referred
to as workers committee, with the sole responsibility of resolving confl icts at the industry
level to ensure good labour -management relations.
The membership of the Joint Industrial Committee comprises an equal number of
representatives of employers and employees and their functions include resolving matters
relating to safety, we lfare, education, vac ation, hol idays, etc. but excludes matters like wages,
allowances, bonu s, and matters co ming under collect ive agreements.
The ma in objectives of the Joint Industria l Committee (JIC) are:
to promote harmonious relat ions between labour and ma nagement, increase productivity,
secure better wel fare facilities for wor kers, etc.
However, the most important feature of the JIC is that the workers may not necessarily be
organized into a trade union. In fact, a trade union may not even be in existence at all before
the formation of a JIC. But formed, it must be registered with the Ministry of Labour and
Productivity in order to have the force of the law and to make its decis ions binding.
Once the JIC meets and agrees on an issue or issues relating to the terms and condition of
employment of workers, such an agreement must be registered with the Ministry for Labour
and Productivity.
The Minister may in turn issue an order making the provis ions of the agreement binding and
legally enforceable.
Another important feature is that the agreement must cover either the interest of all the
workers or a ll the employers or both.
Once an order on the agreement is made, it remains valid and binding on both the employers
and the employees.
This scheme is operational in both the public and private sector undertakings. But the scheme
has not been able to achieve the objective for which it was set up, especial ly in the public
sector.
FORMATION OF JOINT INDUS TRIAL COMMITTEE

111
Most labour leaders appreciate the attendance of representatives of their mother union s at JIC
meetings.
In the private sector, JIC is well respected and their decisions have the force of the law unlike
in the public sector due to its bureaucratic bottlenecks and unnecessary delays.
Going by Decree 31 of 1973, a trade union is any combination of workers or employers,
whether temp orary or permanent, the pur pose of which is to re gulate the terms and conditions
of employment of workers. The most important aspect of this definit ion is the regulat ions of
the terms and co nditions of employ ment.
As at today there exist (in Nigeria) 19 industrial Unions, 19 Senior Staff Associat ion and 9
Employers Associat ions. This is as a result of the restruct uring exercise carried out by the
Federal Government in early 1996 in order to make the industria l unions more articulate and
purposeful.
The objectives of any trade union organization anywhere in the world are to among others to
achieve the following:
wages;
job stability;
rural labour mo bilization; and
womens labour.
A union elects officers (leaders) at the Nat ional Delegates Conference which is held every
three or four years. The officers that are elected usually include: the President, Vice-
President, Nat ional Treasurer, Trustee, Nat ional Auditor etc. These officers usual ly
administer the Union and report their activities to the National Executive Council, which is
the Governme nt of the Union in between conferences. Actually the Governme nt of the Union
comprises the follow ing:
National Delegates Conference
National Executive Council
National Admin istrat ive Council
State/Zonal Councils
Local (plant) Branches.
The Nat ional Delegates Conference is the hi ghest poli cy making body of the Un ion, whi le the
National Executive council is the government of the Union in between two conferences.
Unions or their members play various roles in form of workers participation, participat ive
roles in decision making, collective bargaining etc. Nowadays, Unions represent workers in
LEADERSHIP C HALLENGES IN UNION GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION
v
v
v
v

112
tribunal (IAP) Commissions (Wages and Salaries Commission), Public Service Negoti ating
Council etc.
A trade union government is expected to champion a number of issues if it wishes to
guarantee its relevance to the mass membership. Outside the most common wage issue and
its related fringe benef its, in our time, owing part ly to measures and partly to the general
changes in the wor ld economy, other issues have emerged which trade union members
consider very cruc ial. These includes:
(a) Job security As the economic recession deepens more and more, people find
themselves outside the wage system due to rationali zat ion etc. and sometimes total
retrenchment. Increasingly, workers are beginning to get more worried about the stability of
their jobs. Union governments have an abiding responsibil ity to come out with practical
suggestions on h ow to abate jo b insecurity which hunts their members.
(b) Womens Labour Increasing ly more and more women are joining the labour force
since the advent of economic recession in Nigeria. Sometimes they do more stressful work
than their male counterparts. It has a lso been discovered that women work under
despicable conditions. Consequently, women issues have become both important and
contentious. Union government wishing to be re levant must embrace them.
(c) Government interference Military adventure into the polit ical life of Nigerians
has a very bi g impact on trade unionism. From a free col lective bargaining system
which we inherited f rom Great B ritain, Nigerian trade unions see m to be moving
toward corporatism.
(d) Rural Labour Mobil ization In reality, trade unionism seems more like an
urban phenomenon. The question is, what happens to the rural majority of workers in the
countr yside who work under terr ible and inhuma n conditions? Dont they deserve some
protections? Union government must find an answer to these questions if only to defend the
charge of e litism which has often been le velled against them. To be able to address the above
issues and ot hers, unions req uire a virile leadership.
Industrial relations, previously bi-part ite in nature, has become tri-partite and the labour
relations which had hitherto been based on violence is now based on moral principles of non-
violence and volunt ary arbit ration of disputes.
The establ ishment of the National Public Service Negotiat ing Councils in the public sector
and the various labour legislations also show that the government is gradual ly playing a vital
role in the shaping of labour - management relat ions and p olicies.
The Nigeria industrial relation should concern itself more with issues of national and social
interests rather than be pre-occupied with issues on wages, bonuses, allowances, etc.
Certain issues pose challenges to the three actors in industrial relations.
The first is making the machinery for settlement of industrial disputes more active and their
awards binding and le gally enforceable (e.g. IAP).
FUTURE OF C OLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN NIGERIA
113
Another is the Joint Industrial Commi ttee. There is need to make the scheme more
autonomous and t heir dec isions binding and enforceable a lso.
114
SESSION XIV
APPOINTMENT, PROMOTION
AND DISCIPLINE IN THE PUBLIC
SERVICE
115
APPOINTMENT, PROMOTION AND DISCIPLINE IN T HE PUBLI C SERVICE
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
Institutional Ar rangement
Junior Staf f Commit tee (Local)
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Discuss issues in promotion an d discipl ine in the Ci vil Service;
State how app ointment s are made in the Civil Service;
Explain issues on transfers, secon dment and discipline in the Civil Service; and
Know their r ight concerning pet itions.
In the Civil Service, the power to appoint, promote and discipl ine staff lies with the Federal
Civil Service Commission in accordance with section 153, part 1 (d) of the 1999 Constitution
of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The Commission is established to perform the following
responsibilities:
(a) To appoint persons t o offices in the Federal Civil Service; and
(b) To dismiss and exercise disc iplinary control ove r persons holdi ng such offices.
In exercis ing these functions, the commission subject to the approval of Mr. President can
delegate any of its functions to any of its members or any officer in the Civil Service of the
Federation.
In every Ministry/Extra-ministerial department, there shall exist the following committee to
carry out matters relating to appointment, promotion and discipline.
(a) Junior staff committee ( local)
(b) Junior staff committee (headquarters)
(c) Senior staff committee (pool)
Composition of the committee should not be more than 9 and less than 7 members of
the ministry in the state/zone.

116

The Director (Personnel Management) shal l be chairman of the committee and other
members s hould not be below GL. 08
Where there are less than 7 officers on GL.08 and above in the state ministry, more
officers but not excee ding 3 in number shall be f rom the head quarters.
Quorum at any meeting of the com mittee shal l be 5 members; including the cha irman.
A representative of the state c ivil service commission shall attend the meeting.
The composition sho uld ref lect Federa l Characte r as much as po ssible.
Absence of the representative in the meeting renders the proceedings nul l and void.
The committee is to handle appointment, promotion and discip line matters of officers
on GL.03 06.
The compo sition of the committee shall consist of not more than 9 and not less than 7
members.
No member should be below GL. 12 and there shal l be a representat ive of the Federal
Civil Service Commission.
The Director (Personnel Management) shal l be the chairman.
The composition of the com mittee shal l reflect Federa l Character as much as pos sible.
Quorum at the meeting shal l be 5 members
The committee is to handle appointmen t, promotion and discipl ine matters.
Absence of the representative in the meeting renders the proceedings nul l and void.
It is comprised of al l Directors in the M inistry/Extra -Ministerial Department s
The Permanent Secretary shall be the chairman and Director (Personnel Management)
as member/secretary.
The committee shal l handle c ases affect ing officers on GL.0 7 14
Recommendation of the committee shal l be approved by the Federal Civil Service
Commission.
A commissioner from the FCSC shall be in attendance.
Absence of the co mmissioner renders al l proceedings of the committee nul l and void.
Junior Staf f Commit tee (JSC) (Headquart ers)
Senior Sta ff Committee
117
Senior Sta ff Committee (Pool )
Meeting of the Junior/Seni or Staff Committ ee
APPOINTMENT
In the office of the Head of Civil Service of the Federation (OHCSF), there shall be a
committee to handle cases of pooled officers control led by the office i.e. Administrat ive,
Executive, Store, Library Officers, Librarians, Secretar ial Staff and Stock Verifiers on GL.07
14.
Recommendation of the com mittee shal l be subject to the ap proval of the FCSC.
The composition of the committee, including a commissioner in the FCSC shall be as
follows:
(i) Permanent Secretary (Public Se rvice) Chairman
(ii) Permanent Secretary (FCSC) Member
(iii) Director (Estab & Ind. Relat ions) Member
(iv) Director (Ministry of Finance) Member
(v) Director (Ministry of Education) Member
(vi) Director (Ministry of Works) Member
(vii) Director (Ministry of Housing and Urban Dev) Member
(viii) Director (Publ ic Service) Member/Secretary
In the case of the Ministry of Information, Justice, the Office of the Auditor General
of the Federation, Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, there shall be a
senior staff committee to handle the cases of offi cersGL. 07 14.
Quorum of the committee shall be a simple majority.
It is mandator y that the relevant staff committee shall meet at least once every quarter to deal
with matters and dispose them regularly.
Absence of the commissioner/representative shal l render the proceedings of the meeting nul l
and void.
Appoint ment means filling of vacanc ies by the appointment of persons not already in the
Civil Service and it exc ludes transfer of off icers from other Civ il Service of the Federat ion.

118
Appoint ments into Public Offices other than those of Permanent Secretaries, are vested in the
Federal Civil Service Commission. It has delegated part of its powers to Ministries and extra-
Ministerial Department to appoint junior posts on GL 06 and below. However appointment
into GL07 - GL 10 is not deleg ated in order to re flect federa l character.
There shall be an annual competitive Civil Service Entry Examination for posts GL 07 - 10
for new entrants and serving off icers wishing to transfer from other sched uled serv ices
The Federa l Civil Service Commiss ion shall make appointment to post graded GL 12 - 17.
Such appointment shall be made as the need arises into the available vacanc ies after
advertisement.
Persons seeking appointment to permane nt and pensionable position s in the Federa l Civil
Service are to fu lfill the following condit ions:
Must be a Nige ria as def ined in the 1 999 Constitution of the
Federal Republi c of Nigeria;
Must not be less than 18years and not m ore than 50 years of age;
Should possess the "minimum qualification" specif ied for the job applied for: the
qualifications for jobs in the civil service are prescr ibed in the schemes of service for
each cadre. (the min imum qualifications are being reviewed upwards);
Should be certified by an authorized health care provider sound in health and
medical ly fit for gove rnment service;
Should present a testimonial of good conduct from school/college or last employer;
State employments previously engaged in; why he resigned and if he is obliged to
remain in any employ ment;
State whether or not he is free from financ ial embarrassment;
Should posse ss the NYSC discharge or exemption cert ificate where appl icable.
Appoint ment of officers into the service must have been authorized by OHCSF and
supervisory Boards in the case of parastata ls.
There are several types of appointment in the p ublic ser vice as follows:
i. Trainee or pupil appointment;
ii. Probationary app ointment;
Eligible for Appointment. PSR 02205
Types of App ointments

119
iii. Permanent Pen sionable Appointme nt;
iv. Contract Ap pointme nt;
v. Month-to-Month Appointment;
vi. Temporary Appointme nt;
vii. Acting Appointment;
viii. Special Appointment.
An officer remains on probation until his appointment is confirmed normally after 2 years.
The condit ions for confirmation are :-
i. Passing of the stipulated examinat ion, if any;
ii. Satisfactory progress report on the officer .
Confirmation is normally verified by publication in the government gazette. An officer who
is not confirmed may suffer certain disadvantages such as denial of benefits like study leave,
gratuity/pension. His appointment can also be terminated.
The recruitment of persons into temporary positions by Ministries/Extra -Ministerial offices is
hereby abolished. A breach of the rule is an offence whi ch may attract appropriate
disciplinary action including surcharg e.
When it is necessary that a particular duty post (not lower than level GL. 05 should continue
to be filled at a time when no officer corresponding substantive rank is available for posting,
some other officer may, with the approval of Federal Civil Service Commission be formally
appointed by notice in the gazette to act in the duty post and assume fully or in part, the
duties and responsibi lities of the post . It is not a form of trial promotion; it is always made
when necessary.
Contract appointment is a temporary appointment which does not attract pension pay ment for
specif ic period. A contract appointment must be recorded in a formal a greement.
Those to be granted contract appoint ment are:
- A ret iree/Pensioner;
- Expatriate when suitable Nigerians are not ava ilable;
Tempor ary Appointment
Acting Appointment:
Contract Appoin tment
Rules for Appointment on Contract
120
- Foreigner mar ried to Ni gerian who does n ot want to cha nge his/her c itizenship;
- A Nigerian already 50 yea rs or above at the time of being employed
- A Nigerian who is less than 50 years but specif ically requests for such contract and it is
deemed in the interest of the Serv ice.
- A contract officer cannot be promoted but his pay can be enhanced if he possesse s
experience and special qual ification.
Transfer is the permanent release of an off icer from one service to
another or from one class to another within the same service.
(i). Inter-Service Transfer e.g. from the Federa l Civil Service to Statutory Corporatio n or
to State Civ il Service.
(ii) Inter- Ministry/Department Transfer e.g. from one Ministry with the Federal Civil
Servant to another.
Secondment means temporary release of an officer from one post to another or to the service
of another government, approved body or any recognized international organization or body
for a specif ic per iod.
The period of secondment at one's request is two years and an extension for another two
years.
All appl ications for transfer sha ll be supported by t he following document s:
(i) Completed applicat ion form for appointme nt to the Federal Civil Service (Form
FCSC 2), duly counter-signed by the applicants em ployer;
(ii) Evidence of quali fications;
(iii) APER for the 2 years immediate ly preceding the date of the appl ication;
(iv) Certified copy of officers up-to-date Record of Service showing clearly the career
progression of the applicant;
(v) Recommendation from the applicants employer, including a statement that the officer
will be released, if the appl ication is successful.
(vi) Certificate of Loca l Government/State of Orig in.
Transfers and Secondments:
Requirements for Tr ansfer
121
Condition for Transfer and Secondment
PROMOTION
Conditions for Promo tion
1. The officer's appointment must be confirmed
2. There must be vacancy
3. He should p ossess qualif ication as specif ied by the orga nizat ion
4. The transfer/secondmen t should in no way jeopardize the promotion prospect s of the
serving officers.
5. Transfer on prom otion is not al lowed except the post is advertised
6. An officer who has assumed duty on transfer cannot be granted review of the grade
level with which he secured the transfer.
7. His office must be willing to release him and the organisation must be ready to accept
him.
In the Federal Civil Service, promotion becomes effective only when the Federa l Civil
Service Commission gives approva l except where such power has been delegated to
Permanent Secretaries and Heads of Extra-Ministerial Departments.
Promotion is not a right but a pri vilege and it is subject to the follow ing condit ions:
1. there must be vacancy;
2. confirmation of appointment;
3. maturity on the p ost;
i. GL 03 06 2 years
ii. GL 07 -14 3 years
iii. GL 15 - and above 4 years
4. The off icer must appear before prom otion interv iew and score at least 60%;
5. Must posses good APER for 2, 3, or 4 years; which indicates that the staff has been
found suitable both in character and performance of his/her job.
6. Must not be having any disc iplinary matter or case pending a gainst him;
7. Must fal l within the fi eld of select ion.
8. Officers must perform well in promotion examination/interv iew, which comprises of
written examination and oral interview. The award of marks for promotion examination
and interv iew are as follows:
(a) Examination/Intervie w - 70%
122
(b) APER - 20%
(c) Seniority - 10%
(2 Marks for Each Year Matur ity)
(d) Overall pass mark - 60%
The effect ive date of promotion IN THE Civil Service is 1st of January.
:- is a promotion granted an officer retrospectiv ely, to enable
him/her be at par with his colleagues. This promotion has been suspended. Those who can
qualify for notional promotion are:
Those on In-service training;
On leave of absence
Study leave with pay;
Those on sec ondment.
An officer shal l leave the ser vice on the fol lowing grounds:
(i) Terminat ion of appoint ment either on pro bation or otherwise
(ii) Relinquishme nt of appointment within the period of probation. He/she will be
required to refund any expenditure made by government in transporting him/her
and family.
(iii) An officer who fails to take the confirmat ion examination after three (3) years of
first appointment s hall be r equired to res ign from the serv ice.
(iv) Resignation: An off icer who res igns his appointment is l iable to:
(a) Forfeit all claims of vacat ion leave
(b) Refund in full to government any m oney owed
(c) All previous pensiona ble service will be forfeited and cannot be taken into
account for pension purpose except the break of service is approved by
OHCSF.
(v) Officers who fa il promotion exa mination on three consecu tive attempts and wh ose
on-the-job performance is con sidered below avera ge.
(vi) On abolit ion of office or redundanc y.
(vii) Compulsory retirement in the public interest.
NOTIONAL PROMOTION
Leaving the Service

123
(viii) Statutory retirement of 60 years old or 35 years of service (70 and 65 years for
judicial officers and univers ity lecturers respect ively)
(ix) Directors s hall compulsorily ret ire upon serving e ight years on the p ost.
(x) Permanent Secretaries shal l only hold office for four years and renewable for a
further term of four years subject to satisfactory performance.
(xi) Dismissal: Officers leaving service as a result of dismissal or resignat ion shall
not be entitled to prop ortionate lea ve during a leave year.
(xii) Withdrawal of se rvice
(xiii) Voluntary retirement
(xiv) Death
The power to dismiss or exercise disciplinary control over officers in the Federal Civil
Service is vested in the Federal Civil Service Commission. The commission has however,
delegated powers to discipl ine officers from GL 01 13 to Ministries/extra -ministe rial
departmen ts. In the case of dismissa l, howeve r, the power is only delegated to ministries in
respect of office rs on GL01 - 06.
There are three broad ground s for discip linary action aga inst an off icer, viz:-
i. Genera l inefficiency
ii. Misconduct
iii. Gross miscond uct
consists of a series of omissions or incompetence when added
together, shows that the officer is not capable of discharging efficiently his duties. It is the
duty of every superior officer to point out to officers under him, and record same, any
observed shortcoming in the officer 's work with a view to improving his performance. Before
removing an off icer for general inefficiency he must have been:
i) warned in wr iting on two or more previous occasions or suffered
loss or deferment of his last increment.
ii) given ample opportu nity for improvement (with in a year) .
is a spec ific act of wrongdoing or improper behaviour, which can be
invest igated and proved. It includes the fol lowing among others: -
Dishonesty, corruption, drunkenness, false claim against government, foul language ,
insubordination, negligence, falsification or suppres sion of records, financial embarrassment,
absence without leave, engaging in polit ical act ivity, trading or doing business without
Discipli ne
General inefficienc y:
Misconduct:
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authority, disobedience of lawful order, disclosure of classified information, unaut horized
public utterance, receiving of gifts on official duty, receiving the influence of prominent
persons, embezzlement, fighting on duty, insubordination, action prejudicia l to state security,
etc. Misconduct wil l lead to compulsory retirement or termination of appointment.
is an act of very serious wrong doing which is inimical to the image of
the service, that is to be invest igated and proved. Gross misconduct leads to dismissal from
duty. An officer who is dismissed forfeits all benef its and cannot occupy any public office
again.
When a serious case that may lead to dismissal has been instituted against an officer, the
Permanent Secretary may interdict him on not more than half salary pending the
determination of the case. Suspension shall apply to an officer where prime-facie
evidence/case, the nature of which is serious has been instituted against an officers and it is
considered necessary in the Public Interest that he should cease to occupy his office, he shall
be placed on suspension without pa y pending the determination of the matter.
All disciplinary matters should be concluded within 3 months. Extension beyond this period
shall be approved by the Federal C ivil Service Commission.
i. Issuance of q uery
ii. Representation of the officer will be examined by this Head of Departme nt with
Comment.
iii. This will be forwarded to the Director (Admin) who will forward it the Permanen t
Secretary with his recommendation.
iv. The Permanent Secretary, if he is of the opinion that the officers should be
disciplined, he wi ll direct the matter to be pla ced before appropriate committee.
v. The appropriate committee will examine the matter and forward its recommen dation
through the Director (Admin) to the Permanent Secretary.
vi. The commi ttee's recommendation will be approved in the matters concerning a junior
officer by the Permanent Secretary and federal Civil Service Commission in the case
of Senior Off icers on GL.0 7 and above.
Gross Misconduct: -
Suspension and Interdiction
Discipli nary Procedure
125
The following are the d isciplinary measures that may be taken aga inst err ing officers:-
(i) Dismissa l, termination or ret irement;
(ii) Reduction in rank
(iii)Reduction in salary;
(iv)Withholding of increment;
(v) Loss of pay/non-payment for the corresponding days an officer is not in his duty
post/ station without aut hority;
(vi)Surcharge;
(vii) Reprimand;
(viii) Written warn ing;
(ix)Verbal wa rning.
Civil Servants who are aggrieved are entit led to seek redress through petition. The
petitioner should however abide by the fol lowing rules:
The petit ion should be addressed to the appropriate authority but should be routed
through t he proper chan nel, start ing with the petit ioner's supervis ing officer;
It should state the full name, rank , department, etc of the petit ioner.
The petit ioner's case and relief sought should be stated clearly and the petition should
be devoid of abusive or improper language;
The case should be such that is le gal;
The petition must not be released to the Press;
Advanced cop y may be sent to t he authority to which the petit ion is made.
Every officer or ex-officer has a right of appeal against the decision of the appropriate
authority.
Appeal against the decisions of the Junior Staff Committee (JSC) shall be forwarded
to the Senior Staff Committee (SSC) for considerat ion.
Appeal against the decisions of the SSC shall be forward to Federa l Civil Service
Commission (FCSC) for determination. This shal l be through the Permanent
Secretary of the Ministry or head of the Extra-Minister ial Department and an advance
copy s hall be sent to FCSC.
Petition Rules

126
The Director (Admin) shal l forward the original of such appeal to the FCSC together
with the brief and minutes of meeting of the relevant committee and its comment s
within four wee ks of rec eipt.
Where appropriate committee of the ministry/Extra -Ministerial Department fails to
consider the appeals of the officer, and minutes of meeting with recommen dations are
forwarded to the commission, the commission shall consider and take decision on the
appeal as it deems fit based on the advance copy of the appeal forwarded by the
officer.
An officer or former officer who is dissatisf ied with decisions of the FCSC has right
of appeal to the Head of State for redress. Such appeal sha ll be sent through the FCSC
with comments.
Petit ion means a formal appeal to ultimate authority, that is to Head of Government for
special consideration of a matter a ffect ing an off icer personal ly.
Petit ion to Head of government sh ould be ad dressed to:
a. Federal Civil Service Commission in respect of matters relating to appointme nt,
promotion, transfer and discipl ine; or
b. The head of Civil Service of the Federal on matters relating to other conditions of
service e.g. leave, passages, a llowances, pensions, gratuit ies etc.
An appeal/petition may be disqualif ied; if it:
a. does not contain names of the aut hor;
b. deals with the case in wh ich legal action is pending in a court of law;
c. is illegible or meaning less;
d. is worded in abusive , improper or foul languag e;
e. merely repeats the substance of a previous petition;
f. does not contain new subs tance and written after s ix mont hs decision ; and
g. is time barred, that is, written afte r six mont hs decision .

Petition
Petition to Head of Government
Disqualification o f petiti on/Appeal
127
CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have h ighlighted cr itical issues of appointme nt, promotion and discipl ine in
the public service. The objecti ve is to guide public off icers and ensure sm ooth and orderly
career in the serv ice.
128
S SE ES SS SI IO ON N X XV V
P PR RO OJ JE EC CT T M MO ON NI IT TO OR RI IN NG G A AN ND D
E EV VA AL LU UA AT TI IO ON N ( (M M& &E E) )
129
P PR RO OJ JE EC CT T M MO ON NI IT TO OR RI IN NG G A AN ND D E EV VA AL LU UA AT TI IO ON N ( (M M& &E E) )
L Le ea ar rn ni in ng g O Ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve es s
:
At the end of the session, participants wi ll be able to:
Define key terms used in Project Monitoring and Eva luation;
Discuss the log f rame as a monitoring and evaluat ion tool;
Demarcate project objectives to be monitored and evaluated respective ly
Develop a report of t he outcome of a monitoring and evaluation exercise
I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
Monitoring and Evaluat ion are integral compo nents of the programme/pr oject managemen t
cycle. Used at all stages of the cycle, monitoring and evaluat ion can help to strengthen
project design, enrich qual ity of interventions, improve decision-making, and enhance
learning.
D De ef fi in ni it ti io on ns s
P Pr ro oj je ec ct t
Has a beg inning
Has an end
Has an objective
Uses mult iple and fin ite resources
Is measurable (quantif iable)
May be represented b y a plan
Coexists with other projects but is distinct from them
an ongoing process of data collect ion that allows for examining positi ve and
negati ve trends whi le a project is being implemented and readju sting according ly.
Measures the outcomes (short and medium term effects) or impacts (long-terms
effects) of a project
M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g
E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n: :
130
T Th he e N Ne ee ed d f fo or r M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n
transparency an d accountabil ity in terms of use of project resources
providing constant feedback on t he extent t o which projects are achie ving thei r goals
identifying potential problems at an ear ly stage and proposing po ssible solut ions
monitoring the acc essibi lity of the project to al l sectors of the target population
monitoring the efficiency with which the different components of the project are being
implemented and suggesting improvements
providing guidelines for the planning of future projects
improving project desi gn
Incorporating v iews of stakeholders etc .
Relat ionship betwee n Monitoring and Eva luation
Clear statements of m me ea as su ur ra ab bl le e o ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve es s for the project
A structured set of indicators
Provisions for collecting data and managing project records
Institutional arrangements for gathering, analyz ing and reporting project data, and for
invest ing in capacity bui lding
Proposals for the ways in wh ich M&E findings will be fed back into decis ion-making
Also known as the Logical framework or Project Fra mework.
It is a 4x4 matrix wh ich has both vertica l and horizontal logic.
It is a tool for p pl la an nn ni in ng g, a ap pp pr ra ai is si in ng g and e ev va al lu ua at ti io on n of projects for Donor agencies
For project managers, it he lps to clar ify objectives and establ ish a m mo on ni it to or ri in ng g system
It is a way of organis ing information and activities that concisely describes a propose d
project
Each row (of the matrix) represents a different level of the project s objectives (i.e.
project s hierarchy of objectives) with the highest level at the top linked logically to the
lowest at the bottom
description of what the project intends to achieve and how.
main activities and resources that must be undertaken to accomplish the
outputs.
: : the deli verables or terms of re ference ( TOR) of the project.
: : The effect (short and medium term) of the project e.g. increased consumption
of safe water, production of goo ds for exp ort etc.
R Re ea as so on ns s f fo or r c ca ar rr ry yi in ng g o ou ut t p pr ro oj je ec ct t m mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d e ev va al lu ua at ti io on n i in nc cl lu ud de e:
M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n D De es si ig gn n
G Go oo od d d de es si ig gn n h ha as s f fi iv ve e c co om mp po on ne en nt ts s: :
T Th he e L Lo og g F Fr ra am me e: :
L Lo og g F Fr ra am me e T Te er rm mi in no ol lo og gi ie es s
Narrative Summary :
I In np pu ut ts s:
O Ou ut tp pu ut ts s
P Pu ur rp po os se e
131
G Go oa al l
A As ss su um mp pt ti io on ns s/ /R Ri is sk ks s:
O Ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve el ly y V Ve er ri if fi ia ab bl le e I In nd di ic ca at to or rs s ( (O OV VI Is s) ):
W Wh ha at t d do o w we e m mo on ni it to or r? ?
: : The impact (long-term changes) of the project in broad developme nt
objectives in economic or demographic terms either at national, sectoral or
state level.
important external factors needed to achieve project objectiv es.
Means of Verification (MOVs) sources of data neede d to verify the status of the objectives of
accomplishments of the project .
M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n u us si in ng g t th he e L Lo og g F Fr ra am me e

concerned with the deli very of i in np pu ut ts s to o ou ut tp pu ut ts s


required at a ll stages of project development especial ly during implementation
tracks p pr ro oc ce es ss s i in nd di ic ca at to or rs s or o ou ut tp pu ut t i in nd di ic ca at to or rs s
checks i f project is on schedule to achieve its planned o ou ut tp pu ut t
quantitative and qualitative signs
(criteria) for meas uring or access ing
the achievement of project
activities and objectives
M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g
We moni tor the lower project objectives (input and output). To be able to monitor
effect ively, we must p ut in place indicators or milest ones for inputs and outputs
quantified and time-bound project
Examples:
- number of bricks brou ght to site
- quali ty of bricks (or o ther materials)
- starting time of activities
- appointment of staff
- time materials got to site etc.
(sometimes called process evaluati on):
I I n np pu ut t I I n nd di ic ca at to or rs s: :
132
- number of teachers admitted
d de es sc cr ri ib be e t th he e p pr ro oj je ec ct t a ac ct ti iv vi it ty y o or r s sh ho ow w t th he e
i im mm me ed di ia at te e p ph hy ys si ic ca al l a an nd d f fi in na an nc ci ia al l o ou ut tp pu ut ts s
o of f t th he e p pr ro oj je ec ct t
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: :
- - c cr ro op p y yi ie el ld d p pe er r h he ec ct ta ar re e
- - n nu um mb be er r o of f c cl la as ss sr ro oo om ms s b bu ui il lt t o or r p pe er rc ce en nt ta ag ge e c co om mp pl le et te ed d
- - p pr ro oj je ec ct t c co om mp pl le et ti io on n t ti im me e
- - r ra at ti io o o of f t te ex xt t b bo oo ok ks s t to o p pu up pi il ls s
- - n nu um mb be er r o of f t tr ra ai in ne ed d t te ea ac ch he er rs s
(Sometimes ca lled operational monitor ing or ef fect iveness eva luat ion)
- determines e ef ff fe ec ct ts s and i im mp pa ac ct ts s of facilities created by the project
- Questions project s uccess in achiev ing its purpose
We evaluate the higher project objectives (Purpose and Goal). To be able to evaluate
effect ively, we must put in place indicators or milestones for both the purpose and
goals
describe the operation of the project activity
- number of p upils attending the school
- percentage of increase in school re gistration
measure change in the condition of the community or
long-term deve lopmental goa ls
- reduced i lliteracy in the commu nity
- reduction in poverty level
.
O Ou ut tp pu ut t I In nd di ic ca at to or rs s: :
E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n
W Wh ha at t D Do o w we e E Ev va al lu ua at te e? ?
O Ou ut tc co om me e ( (P Pu ur rp po os se e I In nd di ic ca at to or rs s) ):
Example:
I Im mp pa ac ct t ( (G Go oa al l) ) I In nd di ic ca at to or rs s:
Example s:
L Li in nk ki in ng g t th he e L Lo og g F Fr ra am me e t to o M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n M Mo on ni it to or ri in ng g a an nd d
E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n D Da at ta a G Ga at th he er ri in ng g T To oo ol ls s
133
Basic tools i n use for gathering M & E data include the foll owing:

S Se el le ec ct ti in ng g M M& &E E M Me et th ho od ds s
W Wh he en n s se el le ec ct ti in ng g M M & & E E m me et th ho od d, , r re el le ev va an nt t q qu ue es st ti io on ns s t th ha at t w wi il ll l f fa ac ci il li it ta at te e e ef ff fi ic ci ie en nt t M M & & E E r re es su ul lt t
m mu us st t b be e a an ns sw we er re ed d. . S Su uc ch h q qu ue es st ti io on ns s i in nc cl lu ud de e: :
What information is needed?
Of this information, how much can be collected and analysed in a low-cost and practical
manner, e.g. using questionnaires, surveys and check lists?
How accurate wi ll the information be?
Will the method s get al l of the needed information?
What additional method s should and co uld be use d if addit ional informat ion is needed?
Will the information appear as credible to decision makers, e.g. to donors or top
management?
Are the methods appropriate for the target group? For example, if group members are
illiterate, the use of questionnaires might not be appropriate unless completed by the
evaluators themselves
Who can administer the methods? Is training required?
How can the information be analysed?
Every project manager must be able to write a good evaluat ion report. The quality of such
report would be reflected in the quality or decision taken by the manageme nt of such project
and the success recorded. In writing evaluation report, the qual ity of such report depend on
the content which include:
Title
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
- identify those who con tributed to the evaluation
Executive Summary
- Summarise the project evaluated, the purpose and methods used, the major findings
and the recom mendations
Introduction
Questionnaires/Surveys
Interviews
Observation
Focus groups
Key informant interviews etc .
E Ev va al lu ua at ti io on n R Re ep po or rt t C Co on nt te en nt ts s
134
-Identify project descript ion/background
-describe the project being evaluated (the setting and problem addresse d, objectives and
strategies, funding)
- summarise the eva luation context (pur poses, sponsors, comp osition of team, duration)
Evaluation objectiv es and method ology
- List the eva luat ion objective (the questions the evaluat ion was designed to answer
- Descr ibe fully the evaluation method s and instruments (e.g., what data were collected,
specif ic methods u sed to gather and a nalyse them, rationale for visiting selected s ites)
- Limitat ions of the eva luation
Findings and Conclusions
- State findings clearly with data presented graphical ly in tables and figures. Include
effects of the f indings on achie vement of project goals
- Explain the comparison s made to judge whether adequate progress was made
- identify reasons for accomplishments an d failure of espec ially continuing constraints

- List the recommendations for different kinds of users in priority order. Include costs
of implementing them, when possible
- Link recommen dations explicitly with the findings, discussing their impl ication for
decision-makers
- Include a proposed time-table for implementing/re viewing recommen dations
Lessons Learned (o ptional)
- identi fy lessons learned from this evaluation for those planning, implementing or
evaluating s imilar act ivities
Appendices
Recommendati ons
135
- Terms of References
- Instruments used t o collect data (copies of questionnaires, surveys, etc)
- List of persons interv iewed and sites v isited
- Data col lection instruments
- Case Studies
- Abbreviat ions
- Any related literature
- other data (tables not inc luded in the findings chapter
S So ou ur rc ce e: UNICEF, A UNICEF Gu ide for Monitor ing and Ev aluat ion: Making a Difference?
136
SESSION XVI
WAGES AND SALARY
ADMINISTRATION
137
WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRA TION
Learning Ob jectives
COMPONENTS OF WAGES AND SALARY SYS TEMS
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :


Identify the main components of financial rewards
Select an appropriate technique for instal ling an adequate wage and s alary systems
Initiate pol icies and appropriate reforms re lated to wages and sal ary administrat ion.
This is often referred to as emolument . It includes salary, wage, over-time or leave pay,
commission, fee, bonu s, gratuity, benef it, advanta ge (whether or not that advantage is capabl e
of being turned into money or money's worth), allowance, pension or annuity paid, given or
granted in respect of any employmen t or office.
Collect ive bargaining is a type of negot iation used by employees to work with thei r
employers. During a collective bargaining period, workers' representati ves approach the
employer and attempt to negotiate a contract which both sides can agree with.
Typical issues covered in a labor contract are hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and
the rules of the workplace. Once both sides have reached a contract that they find agreeable,
it is signed and kept in pl ace for a set per iod of time, most com monly three years.
There has been a recurr ing battle between the various levels of Nigerian governments on the
one hand, and between these governments and organized labour on the other, over the
determination of public sector wa ges.
The machiner ies set up for collective bargaining in the publ ic sector, such as the Nationa l
Civil Service Negotiat ing Councils and the State Civil Service Negot iating Councils, were
never allowed to work. Public sector wages have been set through government fiat or quasi-
polit ical wages commissions or tribun als largely set up by the government.
The implementation of agreements on wages, reached through the machinery of nationwide
negotiat ions that has predominated in the public sector, has often been chaotic, attended by
controversy, agitations, and widespread strikes costing the country enormous resources in
terms of man-days lost.
138
CONCEPT OF RE WARD AND REWARD MANA GEMENT
AIMS OF REWARD MANAGEMENT
Broad aim:
Specific Aims
(i) Organiz ation Aims
(ii) Individual Aim s:
The essentia lly static techniques of salary administrat ion management have developed into a
dynamic approach of reward management. Indeed, many of the conventional approaches to
salary administrat ion operated since the 1970s are no longer valid these days when
enterprises is the key to success .
Reward manageme nt is concerned with the design, implementation and maintenance of
remuneration system which help an organization achieve its objecti ves. Reward management
provides for competitive levels of remuneration and ensures that rewards are linked explicitly
to contribution, performance an d potentials
The primary aim of reward management is to reinforce the drive to improve organizationa l
performances.
The achievement of excel lence - productivity through people depends on attracting and
retaining the right caliber of people and then providing them with both financial and non
financi al incentives and rewa rds which w ill mainta in and indeed increase thei r motivat ion.
The spec ific aims of rewa rd management can be viewed from three perspecti ves:
: The system aims to among others:
ensure that the organization can recru it the quantity and quality of staff it requir es.
Provide rewards for good performance and incentives for further improvements in
performance.
Achieve suffi cient equity in the pay for simi lar jobs .
Encourage suitable staff to rema in with the organ ization.
Be cost -effect ive in the sense that the benefits of the syste m are obtained without undue
expense.
Individual wants to feel that they are being treated fairly and would thus like to be paid
according to their own valuat ion of their worth based on comparisons with the market
rates for similar jobs elsewhere and with the pay received by other staff in the
organisat ion. Also, they will want their salaries to keep pace with inflation and general
increases in salary level.

139
(iii) Collective ( Trade Unions and Sta ff Association) Aims
MOTIVATIO N THEORY
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Motivation at work can take place in two ways viz;
(i) Intrinsic Motivation: -
(ii) Extrinsic Motivation:-
THEORY OF WAGES
The collective aims include to obtain the maximum benefits for their members
without unduly prejudicing their future security. They will want members pay to keep
ahead of inflation, to match or exceed market rates and to reflect any increases in the
prosperity of the company.
Motivat ing is the processes of getting people to move in the direct ion you want them to. The
organisat ion as a whole can provide the context within whi ch high levels of motivation can
be achieved through reward systems and the provision of opportunities for learning and
development.
The self-generated factors which influence people to behave in a part icular way or to
move in a particular direct ion. These factors include responsibil ity (feeling that the work
is important and having control over ones own resources), freedom to act, scope to use
and develop skills and abilities, interest ing and challenging work and opportunities for
advancement.
What is done to or for people to motivate them. This includes rewards such as increased pay,
praise or promotion; As established by the Neo-classical school of thought, the extrinsic
motivators can have an immediate and powerful effect, but this will not necessarily last for
long.
These human needs as ranked by Maslow in order of importance are:
? Psychologica l needs
? Secur ity needs
? Social needs
? Recognit ion needs
? Self Actualization needs
Wages refers to the total emolument paid to a worker for performing services In other
words, wage is the payment made to labour for his contribution to the attainment o f the goals
of an organizat ion (Enia iyejuni, 2005).
140
Eniayejuni (2 005) listed three d imensions of wages as fol lows:
(i) The amount of money received by the employee at the end of the
working per iod or the amou nt received per unit of outpu t.
(ii) The quantity of goods or services the money can buy.
(iii) This takes into consideration the total wage bill and how it
trans lates to hourly or dai ly rate for each employer.
Maduabum (2006) and Eni aiyejuni (2005) identi fied the fol lowing determinants of wages and
salaries:
(a) The wages and salaries payable is premised on
market forces, that is, the demand and supply situation.
(b) The going rate in a particular labour market or
industry.
The prof itability of the product provided by labour will determine
what an organizat ion can pay.
(d) This is based on the cost of living index.
(e) Wages t ied to the prod uctivity level of employees.
(f) Governme nt policies on income as they change from
time to t ime affect wage administrat ion.
(g) This represents wages jointly agreed to by both
management and Union.
(h) This is the logical method of determining the relative worth of
jobs in organizat ion. It is meant to correct any imbalance resulting from a non
systematic emergence of a pay structure.
With respect to the public service, the highlighted wage determinants (a-h) above can be
classified into three broad categories :
Giving directives on pay through the issuance of circulars to
affected organ ization
(ii) The use of wage commissions to recommend income of
workers.
The use of negotiation between management and
workers union.
Money Wage:
Real Wage:
Average Wage:
DETERMINANTS OF WAGES AND SALARIES
The Labour Market Situation:
The Prevailing Wage Rate:
(c) Ability to Pay:
Cost of Living:
Productivity Level:
Government Regulations:
Collective Bargaining:
Job Evaluation:
PUBLIC SERVICE DETERMINANTS
(i) Administrative fact:
.
Wages Commissions:
(iii) Collective Bargaining:
141
RECENT HISTORICAL OVERVIE W OF WAGES AND SALARIES
ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
A COMPARISM OF PU BLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR
REMUNERATION
CONCLUSION
1970 Adebo Commission Recommended that employer and employees in the organized
private sector should negotiate on pay; zo nalizat ion of wages and sal aries reduction.
1972 Udoji Commission Recommended 100% salary increase,Estab lished the Unified
Grading Sa lary Structure ( UGSS) 01-17
1981 Onosode Commission Reviewed the structure of salaries in the public enterprises and
recommen ded the removal ofsome Parastatals from the UGSS. This led to disparity in
salaries of Publ ic Service.
1991 Babangida Regime Introduction of Wage deregulation among different tiers of
government.
1993 Babang ida Regime Creation of Nat ional Salaries, Income and Wages Commission
(NSIWC).
1995- 1998 Babagida, Abacha and Abdusalam Regimes Unilateral Salary/ Wage Award
Regime
1999 Civilian Dispensation Situating salary within long term goals the Nat ional Economic
Empowerme nt and Development Strategy (NEEDS). Focus is on monetization policy and
upward review of sal aries and al lowances
Some schools of thought opined that caution is required in making comparisons between
government and private sector salaries, since civil servants remuneration includes both cash
and in-kind benefits. However, it is worth pointing out that various in-kind benefits also exist
in the pri vate sector.
The recogn ition of and reward for individual achievement is fundamental to good wage and
salary administrat ion. Organizat ion should established regular periods for the purpose of
reviewing each employee's salary in relation to job performance, years of service and total
experience.
142
SESSION XVII
PRODUCTIVITY I MPROVEMENT
TECHNIQUES
143
THE CONCEPT OF PRODU CTIVITY
Productivity can be defined as the margina l contribution per unit of labour. Productivity can
also be v iewed f rom the perspective of results from a unit of input for a unit of outp ut.
For the purpose of this discussion, let us look at productivity as a quantum leap in
performance in your output. Bearing in mind that Stakeholders are also interested in our
productivity so as to ascertain the reasonabil ity of our Organizat ions decision points within
the conte xt of Cost -Benefit analys is, marching Revenue with cost.
Remember, every organisat ion exists to achieve goals, before goals are achieved, an effort
has to be ex pended and reso urces used. The eff iciency and effect iveness with which e fforts or
performance leads to the achievement of goals determ ines productivity of the ef fort
Productivity is a function of performance ; productivity can only be efficient performance of
individuals and g roups in the organisation:
If one looks at a group of people performing the same job for some time, one will observe
that some people do it better than others. The differences can be attributable to either varying
degrees of skill or ability or to motivation and leadership. In other words, the degree of
performance is dependent on the skill and ability of the worker, his leadership style and on
how motivated he or she is with respect to the job.
It can be assumed that the personnel select ion and deployme nt process would have ensured
that the right worker is doing the right job, that he/she has the requisite skills, abilities and
facilities necessary for good performance. Even if this is not the case, most Managers are
stuck with the people they have. Increased productivity can therefore arise mainly from the
effect ive leadership and motivat ion of staff to perform better, In other words effective
leadership and motivat ion can affect performan ce positi vely.
This relationship between leadership, moti vation performance and productivity is based on
the fact that the amount of effort put forth by a worker in a work situation will depend on his
perception of the workstation itself the expected rewards and how his needs will be satisf ied
through the effort and the rewards. The manager ial act ion areas tends toward improved
leadership and motivat ion.
Profit is an important objective of any corporate organisation. The profit of an organisation is
defined as the excess of income over expenditure during a given period of time. The profit
declared by any company, Organizat ions no exemption will determine to a large extent the
life and well being of that organisation and indeed guarantees the continuity and
sustainabil ity of the business.
The profit that a Organizations makes is the direct result of the collective efforts put in by all
levels of employees of the Organizations. Consequently, to improve the profit mar gin,
employees m ust improve their level of productivity.
144
The concept of productiv ity has different connotations to different people depending on the
profession being considered, be it engineering, economics, accounting or personnel
management. Omolayole (1982) defines productivity as a ratio of output to input within the
unit of a production system . This definition is similar to that given by the Concise Oxford
Dictionary of the English language which defines productivity as "production or output per
man hour' That is, the rat io of output to t he effort expressed in man h our.
Higher productivity means accomplishing higher results (output) in terms of the quality and
quantity of products or services from the same input resources. The term can therefore be
described as a re lationship between results (o utputs) and the time it ta kes to accompl ish them.
The less the t ime taken to achie ve the desi red result, the more productive the system.
Whereas, to an average employee, productivity is the management s term to speed-up the
production process and put the workers on their toes, management equates productivity with
the efficient use of resources, a means for reducing costs and increasing enterpr ises
profitabi lity. It is the means through which manageme nt can achieve the workers demand for
improved condition of service - (increase in salaries and wages); to achieve customer
satisfact ion so as to ensure continuous customer patronage. It is also the means by which
reasonable returns to owners and shareholders in terms of high dividend pay out from the
company can be made.
: The degree with which they are ach ieved
: How eff iciently resources are used to generate useful output.
: What is achieved compared to what is pos sible within a reasonable t ime.
Assets per staff
Deposits per staff
Loans an d advances per staff
Earnings per staf f
Non-interest income per staff
Profit per sta ff and
Staff cost per unit, etc.
Many factors enhance productivity in the workplace. Aside from a conducive environment,
training and development, motivat ion is also cruci al factor to be considered in the process of
improving the productiv ity of employees. This is why motivat ion is one of the most
important tasks faced by any ma nagement team. Management ex perts agree that motiv ation is
From the foregoing, produc tivity is a complex measure of how organizati ons satisfy the
following:
Objectives
Efficiency
Effectivenes s
The most common measures of staff productivity in the Organiza tions include:
PRODUCTIVITY EN HANCEMENT

145
a Posit ive reinforcement, which changes behav iour in the desired direction. They maintain
that to develop the right attitude to work, people need to see their work as meaningful
activities, which give them self-fulfilment and enriches their professional knowledge and
career plans. A survey conducted in some Asian counties indicated that with the proper
motivation of worke rs, productiv ity can easi ly be raised to as high as 90 per cent.
Motivat ional systems are based on several important principl es. Two of the principles that
are relevant to this paper are as follows:
Motivat ional system must provide equal opportu nities for employment and Less concern
with pay positions relative to its competitors, and more concerned with what the
organisat ion can afford; and
Implementation of programmes, which can encourage and reward performance. In fact, a
recent survey revealed that this is the number one compensation issue facing large
organizat ions today.
You can prevent a Clique from spreading harmful rumours and inciting disharmony. You
must. Here are six steps to make this happen.
The link between motivat ion and performance in the workplace is a positi ve one the more
motivated an employee, the better his or her performance is likely to be. Furthermore, the
better their per formance the more m otivated they are likely to become. The link is therefore,
in both directions.
The ability of an indi vidual to do the job
The effects of two much motivation
If someone does not have the ability he will not succeed, and therefore, motivation will
evaporate. This more complex set of relationships is as shown in the illustration that follows
where there is a positive correlation between ability, performance, motivat ion and job
satisfact ion.

MOTIVATIO N AND PERFORMANCE


However, we also need t o take account of two further factor s:
Ability to do required job
Desire to stay on the job
Job satisfaction Work Performance
146
We should also bear in mind that high performance motivations have the potential to increase
stress. Inevitably, if individuals are expose d to excessive pressures they will not be able to
cope.
The Sat isfact ion of needs.
The wor k situat ion.
The leadership style .
Empowerme nt.
The Reward System.
Align with the strateg ic plans of the Or ganizat ions.
Maintain tight business focus
Target setting
Profitab ility
Discipline and code of cond uct
Select ion process
Staff development and renewal
Staff Welfare Package
Compensation and reward
Promotion
Transfer
Retirement etc.
Efficiency is doing things right. Effect iveness is doing the right things (1974). This is
significant, not only because it is important about the ma nagement development pr ocess itsel f
that it should be effective and not just efficient, but more crucially that developmen t
activities should be conce ntrated on effectiveness and not just on efficiency. In the ir different
ways Rosemary Stewart (1982), Henry Mintzber (1973) and John Kotter (1982) have built on
the essential Drucker propositions and exploded the classical authors on management
perhaps not so surprisingly, because the work of all three is based on detailed observation,
questioning and analysis rather than on theoretical propositions about what all managers do.
An important theme for all of them has been that, although there are some
important similarities in what managers do, the requirements to meet the different needs of
different organizat ions are at least as significant. What the effective manager has to do, and
therefore what he or she has to be developed to do, ought to be determined by careful ana lysis
of the specific and contingent nature of the managers job Learning on the in specifi c
organizat ion.
PRODUCTIVITY GEARING INDI CES
DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES FOR OPTIMUM PER FORMANCE

147
LEARNING ON T HE JOB:
EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES:
Roles of the boss
Processes of learning and development for managers arise far more from the variety of
opportunities to learn on the job than they do from off-the-job activities. Sadly, the
opportunities are often ignored or misunderst ood. Managers fail to make use of some
opportunities usual ly because they see themselves only as manag ing and not as managing and
learning at the same time. It has, however, become clearer over the last ten years or so that
effect ive management development revolves more practical ly around the learning
opportunities on the job than neatly contrived experiences off the job.
Effect ive management developme nt depends on a clear understa nding of the specific features
determining effect iveness in any particular management job as already explained. Without
such a recognition of the facts of manageria l life, management development schemes and
activities may concentrate on systems, skills, act ivities and processes which are not actually
of prime si gnificance.
One can, however, go further in identifying blockages to development within any particular
cultural environment. The job itself may suffer from a number of disadvantages from the
point of vi ew of giving scope and practice for improv ing management abi lities. It may be too
restrict ed in authority or content; it may be entirely responsive to rules and procedures,
offering little opportu nity to think. It may alternat ively be so vaguely descr ibed and so
lacking clear priorities and objectives that the manager swims in a turbulent sea, uncertain of
direction and purpose.
Perhaps even more powerful is the role of the boss in provid ing opportu nities, encouragement
and reward for the development of su bordina tes.
Far too little has been written about the role of the boss in the developmen t of subordinates.
It is insuff icient and unhelpful to say that the manager is responsible for the development of
subordinates and to imply that this will be achieved by a combination of fruitful appraisa l,
participation in coaching and giving high priority to the attendance of subordinates at off-the-
job training courses.
Much the most substantial responsibil ity for the boss is the identificat ion and use of
opportunities for learning on the job (see also Mumford, 1989). The boss can certainly
provide some of the opportunities: by acting as a direct coach in some situations, if the bos ss
style in coaching is suitable both to the need and to the recipient; and by providing an
example both in direct ing the priorities of others toward learning and in showing a personal
commitment to learning.
148
The individual learner
Developing on the job
Contrived learning on the job
Self-development
The other main element helping or hindering development is the combination of personal
characteristics and behaviour of the individual manager . Again, it is important to look at the
individual . The single most useful step towards improving management development over
the last ten years has been the recognition of the different character istics and learning
preferences of the indi vidual. One approach to this is to rev iew those ob stacles to lea rning, as
set out by Boydell and Temporal (1981). This is a useful approach and successful with some
individuals. Not all managers, however, will want to go into some of the deeper causes of
blockages, which can be re viewed through that proces s.
If there were no management training centres, no manageme nt developme nt advisers and no
management educators, managers would still learn. They can be helped to learn either by
expanding the number of on-the-job opportunities or by helping them to recognize that
normal manageria l act ivities contain learning opportu nities within them.
An extensive list of opportunities for learning in working time from the managers existing
job is given in Honey and Mumford (1989). Managers can and do learn from discussing
problems in advance and revi ewing the results of solut ions ad opte d.
They can learn from watching others at work and modelling what they see as appropriate
behaviour. They can set objectives for the results of an interview or a negot iation and then
review afterwards what actual ly happene d and why. They can seek explanations from others
of what has happened and why during some managerial act ivity. They can look for new
opportunities to stretch themselves, to try out new ideas and new techniques. All these
processes are available, though many of them are unrecognized and managers need to be
helped to recognize them.
There is another range of opportunities on the job where the situation may have been created,
initiated or stimulated by the need to give someone a learning opportunity, but in which the
content of the manageria l activity remains rea l and respon sible.
The crucial themes of self-development spring, therefore , from this prime understanding that
it is the person who is being developed who has the greater function, and not the boss or the
provider of education and training. Self-development does not mean that the individual is the
only person involved, but means the individual takes responsibi lity for using any offers of
help on development, which come along (or indeed reject ing such offers).
It is a dramatic and fundamental shift from a done to process to a done with process.
Learning is the responsibility of the learner and not of the provider. The learner is involved
not only in the analysis of needs but also in discussing potential solut ions, rather than being
149
the recipient of professional advice from others on what the solutions might be. Involvement
and responsibil ity for solutions mean that there are fewer excuses to be offered about either
relevance or applicab ility of solutions. There is a much -heightened sense of taking personal
responsibility for ones own actions rather than following someone elses prescription about
what useful actions might be.
There are many opportunities to learn from colleagues at work. Colleagues may be more
expert in a particular subject; more experienced with a part icular act ivity; they may know a
particular person better; or know sources of information, which other managers do not know.
They can certainly therefore help managers learn by discussing a advance issues and
problems. They can also help in the process of review and reflection after a manageri al
experience by offering feedback, guidance and suggestion.
There is, however, an important industry offerin g processes for helping to develop managers
off the job, including a range of things such as courses, seminars, programmes or worksho ps
The challenge is for the designers of the programme to deal with the issues of effect iveness
specif ic to thei r organization rather than to provide company interpretation of generalized
management skil ls.
There are two reasons for choosing to send managers on a general external course rather than
a specif ic internal programme (if the organizat ion can afford the choice). One is to send
individual managers on programmes of the short variety because they have hit the public eye.
All too often in these cases, nominations for the programme are based not on logical
development process but on current excitement about a subject. A variation is to send
complete groups of managers, as has been done, for example, with programmes in team
building or manager ial grid. Decisions in favour of this kind of approach are likely to be
better founded simply because the decision to spend large sums of money in this way
improves ref lection and analysis.
The main justif ications for courses of any variety are that they provide something, which is
not available through on-the-job processe s. Although effective management developmen t
may revolve around normal work opportunities, clearly not all needs will or can be
satisfactor ily met in this way. Courses are particu larly useful when:
The capacity of individual managers to learn is affected by the working environment,
particularly by the boss, by the motivat ions and prospects of rewards felt by the individua l
manager, and by the relative strength of any preferred learning styles held by the individual .
The effect ive development process for any individual takes account of all these factors, of
which the most identifiable is now the learning style preference. This can be discovered by
using the work of Kolb (1983) or Honey and Mumfor d (1986).
Colleagues and mentors
Off-the-job training
THE EFFECTIVE LEARNER
150
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPM ENT SYSTEMS
The main features of a management development system are:
Employee Compensation: Directl y or indirectl y
Conventional Pa y Systems
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

A process for identify ing individual development nee ds


A process for reviewing the results across a unit, division or company of individual
development analysis
A clear process for taking act ion on the results of analysis (preferably placing the main
responsibility on the manager and the managers boss)
An overal l review of resources dealing not only with succession and development but
with performance issues
A process for meeting a ll the act ion requirements emerging from these rev iews.
The emphasis is on the need for a management resource plan rather than simply a succession
plan. This derives from the proposition that developmen t needs for managers may have
nothing to do with future prospects. Moreover, discussion on potential and succession is too
often an easy once-a-year discussion for man agers enabling them to avoid discussing some of
the more immediate issues about developing managers.
Direct Compen sation refers to salaries and wages; indirect refers to the various types of
benefits
The intention in compensation administrat ion is to develop policies and procedures that
will attain, maximum returns on the Naira spent in terms of attracting, satisfying,
retaining and perhaps m otivat ing employees.
Employees are paid on the basis of job performed and usually the personal character istics
they bring to the job an d/or the pers onal contributions the y make while on the job.
Three pol icy and procedural issues are involved in conventional pay system: pricing jobs,
pricing individual employees and administration and control.
To develop a pay structure, job must be arranged in a hierarchy i.e. Job evaluat ion
(Ranking, Class ification, factor comparison or point syste m), the hierarchy must be priced
(consider abi lity to pay, labour unions a nd labour markets).
A Performance Measurement System is a set of interrelated indicators that constitute a
quantitative expression of overall business objectives, from the more strategic levels to the
more operational ones.
151
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATION:
1. Learning and Gr owth Perspective s: Meas ures:
2. Proces s Performance: Measures:
3. Customer Perspective: Meas ures:
4. Financial Pers pective: Measure s:
QUALITY PER FORMANCE MEASURES:

Employees knowledge and ski lls


Sharing and applying the knowl edge
Employees satisfaction
Information syste ms adequacy and struct ure.
Product an d Service attributes
Product an d Service reliability
Waste reduction
Process flexib ility
Process capabil ity
Cust omer satisfaction
New customers acquisition
Cust omer retention
Profitability increase
Value added per employee
Sales per employee (output/e mployee)
Earnings per share
Economic value added and market va lue added
Cost reduction
Product Quality easily measured in absolute, quantitative terms based on physical &
chemical properties.
Service Quality features are often measured in subjective, qual itative terms based on
observations and co mparison s.
There are except ions to these generali zations.

152

Competence:
Commitment:
Congruence:
Cost effectivenes s:
CONCLUSION
How competent are employees in their work? Do they need additional
training? To what extent do human resource management policies att ract, keep, and
develop employees with sk ills and knowledge needed now an d in the future.
How committed are employees to their work and organization?
Surveys can be conducted through interviews and question naires to obtain answers to this
question. Other sources could be personnel records about voluntary separation,
absenteeism; and grievances
Is there trust and common purpose between managers and employees ?
Incongruence can be detected in the frequency of strikes, confl icts between managers and
subordinates, or an increase in grievances. A low level of congruence results in low
levels of trust and com mon purpose.
Are huma n resources ma nagement p olicies cost -effect ive in terms of
wages, benefits, turnover, absenteeism and strikes.
One of the observable improvements in managemen t development processe s in organizat ions
over the last ten years has been the attempt, and sometimes the achievement, of a close
association with the organizat ions business plan. The emphasis so far on identifying the
specif ic character istics of existing jobs has to be complemented by an awareness of the future
direct ion of the or ganizat ion.
153
SESSION XVIII
PROMOTING GENDER
SENSITIVE CULTURE IN THE
WORK PLACE
154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
GENDER:
CULTURE:
GENDER CUL TURE:
WORK:
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Highlight gender discr iminat ion in the workpl ace;
Discuss the theories of gender in relation to work;
List the cause of under-representation of women in the workplace;
Discuss some co mmon women experiences in the workpla ce; and
Demonstrate how to pr omote effecti ve gender sensit ive culture in the workpl ace.
In most developing countries and in fact the developed world, there is gross inequal ity
between men and women, especially in pol itical, representat ion, economic management and
gender leadership. The male gender dominates the economic and political spheres thereby
holding reigns of power relations and exerting sole authority over resource allocation and
control.
The purpose of this session is to appraise gender culture in the work place, challenges and
way forward ( i.e. promoting gender in the work p lace).
This is the attribution of male and female labels to the social roles and
character istics of a person.
is the shared value, beliefs and behavior patterns of groups of people. The
group may be cooperation, a nation, or any other organized group. Every group, nation or
organizat ion, develops its own culture or personality. And must have its operating
procedures which me mbers understand.
This reflects two different attitudes to women and mens
similarities or differences. Traditional cultures believe that men and women are
fundamentally different and have different roles in society. Thus, they assure that the
differences between them are natural and ordained. Others believe that men and women are
equal and have no differences in their capabi lities.
(Labour): This is humans mental and physical effort aimed at achieving
organizat ions goals and objectives. People exert their mental or physical effort to achieving
results with the probability of receiving a reward (salaries, wages) and the magnitude of that
reward are known in advance. Simply put, every man/wo man works to keep body and soul
together. To at least ach ieve the best necessit ies of life.

155
GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE
Horizontal segregation:
Vertical Segregati on
THE NIGERIAN SIT UATION
THEORIES OF GENDER IN RELATI ON TO WORK
THE GENTLEMENS CLUB
The Gentlemens Club
THE BARRACK YARD
The Barr ack Yard:

There are two types of gender discrimination in the workplace. They are Horizontal
and Vertica l segregation in men and wo mens job.
This is the extent to which men and women do different
jobs.
: This is the extent to which men have higher status and
higher pa id jobs tha n wome n.
In Nigeria, few women occupy elite positions in society. At the wor k place, discrimination
occurs both in recruitment and all kinds of occupation. Women are not equally represented
throughout the organizat ional structure.
Despite the dramatic increase in the number of working women in the decade, women are
still under -represented in positions of power and responsibil ity. As managers, women often
fail to advance past mid level, and even those who do ascend middle management positions
find that he cannot climb all the way to the top. Gender discrimination is dissat isfy and
demotivating.
The following are some of the theories that promote gender inequality in the wo rkplace:
1. Gentlemens Club
2. The Barrack Yard
3. The Gender Blind
4. The smart Ma rcho
5. Paying Lip Service
6. Women as gatekeepers
is not hostile to women who conform, women are valued in the jobs
they do, but they are not expected to break barriers or move outside of traditional women s
work. The gent lemen culture expects women to be caring and moral at work and if they
behave appropriately they are rewarded by warmth and concern. Women are assumed to
serve and not to direct.
This is like the military rule of Command and obey Barrack Yard
mangers disregard training and developme nt and assume people are either top or bottom
candidates. Thus women are vulnerab le as they rare ly have sen ior status with in organi zat ions,
their interests and comme nts are ignored and are rendered inv isible.
156
THE GENDER BLIND
The Gende r Blind:
THE SMART MACHO
The Smar t Macho:
PAYING LIP S ERVICE
Paying Lip Service:
WOMEN AS GATEKEPPER S
Women as Gateke epers:
CAUSES OF UNDER REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN T HE WORK PLACE
AND OTHER INSTI TUTIONS
1.1 SOCIO-CUTURAL LEVEL
The gender blind person believes that women are capable and should
be promoted at work as there are no differences between men and women. They assume that
there is a level playing field. They deny real ity and differ ences.
These ones believe in who can work and deliver on time. The smart
marcho is driven by extreme competitiveness; they discriminate against those who cannot
work at the same pace or those who challenge economic criteria. If you cannot keep up you
are likely to be sacked, demoted or passe d over, whoever you are.
There are those who pay lip service to equality programme and declare
themselves to be equal opp ortunities employers, but d o little to promote or develop wome n.
Too often the books or resistance to women managers or
professional advancement come from other women. Women may collide or fail to resist
stereotype s and prejudices, which undermine their own sex. Their self esteem and survival
may be so closely connecte d to traditional norms that they see no advantage in changin g
common practice.
Many things form obstacles to women in their work place. They differ in form. These
constraints ob stacles can be found at several levels and they include:
1.1 Socio-Cultural level
1.2 Political level
1.3 Legal level
1.4 Economic level
The pers istence of socio -cultura l prejudices and sexist stereotypes
The rate of illiteracy among women
The low number of educate d wome n as wel l as the low level of their education
The low number of qualif ied women
The or ientation of women toward traditional and house keeping act ivities
The unwi llingness of women to offer thei r services in some jo b opportunities.
The biased interpretat ion of re ligion to women s disadvantage.
The tendency to give precedence to custo mary law over positi ve law.
The lack of trust of men in women
The lack of self-confidence of women
The lack of sol idarity among women.

157

The weakness of the strugg le by women to impr ove their status.


The inadequate lobbying for women exercising their citizen rights and women
participation to power.
The lack of knowledge of laws by populations in genera l and women in particula r.
The inadequacy of the representation of wo men in managemen t positions.
The negat ive image attached to wome n holding responsible positions.
The lack of apprec iation for the role of women in pol itics.
The weak mobi lizat ion of el igible women
The low representation of women in the decision-making structures of polit ical
parties
The inadequacy of the public recourses allocated to literacy and basic education
programmes.
The inadequacy and in-existence of employment program me for women.
The inadequate training and information of pol itical leaders, leaders and social
workers on gender and developing approach.
The lack of democratic culture
The absence of transparency in our dealin gs.
The lack of support from the state an d political leaders in favour of women.
The lack of coordination and harmonization between the national legislation and the
international level instruments rectif ied by state.
The existence of discr iminatory laws against women.
The insuffi cient dissemination and circu lation of laws protect ing women.
The ignorance of national legislation on internat ional agreement.
The ignorance of women rights.
The uneasy access of women t o legal systems and proces ses.
The slowness of lega l procedures.
The lack of independe nce of judges.
The lack of resources in the l ight of the requirements of educa tion and p olitical
activity.
The poverty of the populations and t he growing paupersation of women.
The lack of access of women to credit and land.
The spread of poverty among wome n.
The primary status of women is perceived to be as mothers and housewives. As such, their
careers are discontinued because they move out of the labour market to produce and rear
children.
1.2 AT THE POLITI CAL LEVEL
At the Politic al Level
1.3 LEGAL LEVEL
1.4 ECONOMIC LEVEL
REASONS FOR LACK OF FEMININE MOTIVATION
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

158
Tradit ional ly, women are regarded as secondary bread winners. This encourages the attitude
that it is right and proper that women should be paid less than men. Women are less
geographica lly mobile than men because of the mot her and/or h ousewife role which t ies them
to their husban ds.
The employers will not attract female labour with high wages, career oppo rtunities and
improved working conditions like their counterparts because this is a reverse of employable
women.
Some certain statut ory regulations limit womens hour of work and bar them from some
occupation. Women are less likely to be unionized and so are less able to resist redundanc y
than me n.
Women are often prepared to work for less pay than men because they can rely on their
husbands wages as the main source of income for the fami ly.
In spite all these limitations and demotivators there is the need to make a conscious change in
the affa irs of women in the work pl ace. Lets examine them un der these leve ls:
At the fami ly level, promote a no n-discrimatory education for boys and girls.
Sensitize classes of societ y with a view to chang ing thei r mental ity towards women
and the me ntality of women themselves.
Sensitize the pop ulation to the role of women in society as a gents of development.
Enhance the image of young gir ls and women.
Take measurement aimed at maintai ning and fac ilitating girls access to school.
Sensitize women to the fact that professional career advancement is not the exclusive
privilege of men.
Develop the spirit of solidarity between wome n
Encourage the participation of women in decision making at the family and
community level.
Educate men to share in househ old respon sibilities to allow women time to part icipate
in education, polit ical and other social act ivities.
Emphasize education so as to change negative cultura l pract ices and perception of
women.
Develop a coherent framework for the di fferent implementation of sectoral pol icies.
Promote t he education of y oung girls.
Promote t he partic ipation of women in polit ical life.
Encourage women leadership.
Institute an education policy on hu man rights.
Create and synergize the effort of all development partners.
Guarantee a strong polit ical position to government departme nt in charge of
promoting women.
STRATEGIES FOR C HANGE
Socio-Culture Level
At the Politic al Level

159

Have government take special measures to achieve representation of women through


affirmative action and quota s ystem.
Sensitize decision makers at a ll levels to gender issues.
Allow women to hold other ministerial posit ion rather than those of women
promotion and s ocial affairs.
Sensitize women to the need to s upport and vote fo r women.
Legal barriers to women eq ual representation should be abolished.
Encourage change of behaviour w ithin the judici al system
Train the judicia l staff on the gender approach
Allow associat ions defending women rights to bring cour t cases
Against women right v iolation perpetrators
Disseminate the national and internat ional texts on gender using the IEC approach
(information, education, commu nication).
Promote wo mens access t o employ ment, finance, technolog y and credit.
Enable women s access to land owners hip
Strengthen wome ns economic network.
Take measures in order to facilitate the access of women to credit and economic
activities.
Take measures to foster the emergence of women entrepreneurship.
In spite of all odds, the few women are both qualified and ready to take up paid job still
face a lot of cha llenges such as:
Faculty recru itment and selection processes
No equal access to train ing and deve lopment opportunities.
Certain employment regulat ion that restrict women to certain jobs.
Women are in most cases temp orary workers who can be la id off at any time.
The assert ion, that to be an effective manager one has to be tough minded analytical
and have an ability to set aside all things emotional and personal, traits is assumed to
be lacking in women.
Men are said to have greater economic responsibil ity, while women
have greater domestic responsibil ity. Hence they are to be found in low paid jobs. So no
womens interest and co mments are ignored.
While men feel women are over ambitious, women believe
what they nee d is encouragement.
At the Legal Level
At the E Econ omic Level
SOME COMMON WOMEN E XPERIENCE IN T HE WORK PLACE
Division of Labour :
Ambition vs. Encouragement :-
160

Women are expected to be more compliant and reti cent


They are underrepresented in decis ion-making posit ions.
A few areas such as teaching, nursing, schools, cater ing management and fashion etc.
dominated by the m are considered to be exte nsion of d omestic work.
The work place is only but a part of a larger environment in which women are not equally
represented. Below are some suggestions which management can adopt to promote an
effect ive gender sensit ive culture in the work place.
This is a central technique for integrat ing women
employees into the firm. The exclusive of women from such training is a serious barrier to
women as piring to manageri al positions.
A deliberate and concerted effort should be made to ensure that women are equally
represented in decision-making posit ions. This will ensure their participat ion in decisions that
affect them
This should be taken as professional development for
women. Training should be geared towards considering the needs of women and also focused
on equipping them with the coping and survival skills for combining their professional and
domestic roles. To achieve these, the fo llowing measures should be put in place:
The desi gn of work schedules in organizat ions need to be reviewed regularly to
respond to gender issues.
To foster human relationship in management, job appraisal should be human and
positive feminine traits should be incorporated.
Build a friendly and caring environment which will promote a safety, friendly and
caring atmosphere at work.
Polices should be put in place to ensure adequate protection of women from sexual
harassmen t and should be made for health area of women and other occupational
hazards.
There should be open channels of communication to deal with grievance and
complaints on issues particularly those bothering on gender
Office facilities, furniture, space etc. should be comfortable for women.
Recreational facilities that will also contain such things as current journals, videos on
women issues s hould be provided.
Closely related to the above is the provision of day care centres for nursing mothers
within the organizat ion to reduce the excuses and conflicts of mothers who have to go
far for such because the y are not readi ly available. This will reduce man hour spent on
the roads an d other co nflicts and hazards to wo men.
Women should equally be unionized to be able to resist some discriminatory polices
against them.
We all are stakeholders in the fight for gender equal ity and we have to stop paying
lips service to the issue of equal representation and back it up with financial and other
materials resources.
HOW TO PROMOTE EFFECTIVE GENDER SENSITIVE CUL TURE IN THE
WORK PLACE
In-House Training Technique :
Staff Training and Development:
161
Other pr actical steps to be taken include:
HOW TO BUILD A FIRM STAND ON Y OUR RIGHTS AT WORK USING
ASSERTIVE SKIL LS
SOME USEFUL TI PS
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Promotion of women as at whe n due
Promote eq ual employme nt opportunities
Show respect an d treat them as hu man beings that they are
The men should develop a culture of trust rather than culture of fear
Create gender awareness- advocacy / lobbying
Geographica l transfers should be encouraged as a technique to integrat ion
The issue of marr ied couple in same work p lace should be rev isited.
A woman aba ndoned cannot afford to aban don herself.
He should be able to differentiat e between aggress ive behav iour, a non-assertive person and
assertive person
Aggress ive behaviour : This breeds enmity and result in flight. Ideas are killed and
contribution ignored in order to dominate a situation.
A non assertive person wastes valuable time worrying, brooding, feeling insecure and
being resentful of other. This results in incompetence and ineffect iveness with a
tendenc y to refrain from correcting, other peoples mistakes, flee from crisis and
chal lenges avoid criticizing others. Detest speaking against the flow of Ideas for fear
of being wrong. Never argue with the boss or anyone in position of authority. Run
away from angry col leagues or customers.
On the other hand an assertive person expresses his/her needs and beliefs in direct,
honest and proper way. He or she:
is a good team pl ayer
can handle irate colleagues and manage aggress ion
delegat ing effect ively
is firm and able to turn dow n unreas onable requests
engages in constructive cr iticism
gives posit ive but not dogmatic
is transparent in his/her dea lings
Careful ly organize your thought s/ideas before going for a meeting and be
prepared to defend them.
Develop your own effective schedule and do not follow those of others
dogmatical ly.
Respect other peoples views/opinions and politely ask others to listen to you
without interruption.
Try as much as possible to make your statement brief and precise factua l.
Give yourself time to think before responding to a request or if possible. Buying
time is an essentia l technique in this regard.
Speak with confidence avoiding hesitat ion errm y ou knows etc.
To avoid aggressive confrontation ask people to state their grievances clearly. Be
calm and post pone the discussion if possible
Wear clothes that make you feel conf ident and attractive.

v
v
v
v
v
v
v
162
-
-
-
-
-

Develop your voice. Speak in a measured and auth oritive manner where necessary
Maintain an assertive posture, standing or sitting up straight at meetings, or
discussions. Use plenty eye contact avoiding nervous gestures and fidget ing
To be assert ive means you have to believe in yourself and your role, having good
self worth exuding confidence, be ing firm and honest in exercising yourself.
i. More women should be encouraged to be involved in decision making
ii. Give training on health for thei r empowerment
iii. Women should be empowered to be involved income generation business to
reduce over dependence on friends and relatives
iv. There should be co nsistency of so und policy
v. Policies must be geared towards l ife transforming opport unities
vi. Build self confidence and esteem in people who are seen as outcasts without
ability, giving back humanity to the bastar dized and deh umanized.
vii. Deliver financial services to victims of hard core poverty
viii. Ensure adeq uate health del ivery service. A hea lthy nation is a wea lthy notion.
Whatever has been discussed above, will remain in the realm of theory until the women
themselves take them to the terr itory of practice . This can be done b y:
Just like Nigerian who has to work twice as hard as the citizens of their home countries
abroad to excel, the women sho uld realize that nothing good come s easy. The women l ike
our brothers and sisters in the diasporas should work twice as their male counterparts to
equally entrench themselves in positions of auth ority and inf luence.
Grabbing eve ry educatio nal and other ava ilable opportunities to deve lop themselves
Using thei r numerica l strength to ensure favourable pol icies
Real izing that no particular professional or education course is meant for men and others
for women e.g. nursing, hea lth educatio n teaching, cate ring fashion design etc .
Real izing that when a man says, madam do nt worry we will do that your job/assignmen t
for you; it is a ploy to edge you out when the time comes because he will take credit for
the job d one.
Women putting a stop to using all sorts of excuses to avoid assigned roles and
responsibilities and work like their male counterpart.
Real izing that a ll the problems of women cannot be heaped on the d oor step of me n as
women are equally, in some cases the architect of their own problems. (What about
women violence against women, disobedience to women managers etc.
As had been said repeatedly care should be taken to ensure that one gender is not
empowered to the detriment of the other as these will about another phase of gender
inequal ity.
To sustain whatever progress made, developme nt and gender mainstreaming should be
embraced by all.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Note:
CONCLUSION
163
SESSION XIX
MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL
INFORMATION IN THE PUBLIC
SERVICE
164
MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL IN FORMATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION:
COMPOSITION OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION
PERSONNEL FILE:

at the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to:


discuss composition of personnel information;
understa nd methods of keeping informat ion;
know advantages of personnel information; and
explain factors inhibiting personnel information keep ing in the serv ice.
Personnel information is a permane nt account of activities of workers or staff in an
organizat ion. It is also concerned with a collection of vital stat istics concerning employees in
an organization.
Personnel records can be stored, processed and retrieved for useful act ivities and kept for
future reference to ensure its continued existence.
2.
In the Public Ser vice, the fol lowing items constitute perso nnel records;
[i] Personnel Fi le
[ii] Personnel Index Card
[iii] Book of Numbers
[iv] Nominal Rol l
[v] Records of Service
[vi] Official Gazette
[vii] Federal Sta ff List
2.1
This is a folder open on assumption of duty in respect of an employee. It contains
vital and detailed information concerning the employee throughout his/her career in
the organization which can be referred to from time to time. A personal file reflects
the names of the employee and a number is allocated to it for record purpose. Such
file can be an open or classif ied.
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The open file is accessibl e by the employee and other staff whi le the confidentia l one
is inaccessib le except to authorized person s.
2.2
The personnel file index is a card usually allocated to each officer file which bears the
officers surname in capital letter and other names in full , file number, depart ment and
his substa ntive rank and the office rs locat ion/station.
2.3
Numerica l Index or book of numbers is a record of all files that are opened and
numbered serially. Each of the cards bears the number and subject of the file. The
personnel information are also recorded in a register called the book of numbers for
durabil ity and safety. When opening a new file, the numerical index or book of
numbers must be consulted to determine the next unallocated number of files already
opened in the series. This is to avoid duplication of files. Where duplication occurs,
one of suc h numbers sho uld be allotted to anot her file.
2.4
The Record of Service contains necessary information on personnel. Some of this
information inc ludes the follow ing:
[a] : of an employee for proper identif ication of staff.
[b] The date of birth is obtained from the birth certificate or court
declarat ion submitted by an employee at the time of his/her appointment and
recorded in the Record of Service. The date of birth is also essential
information to determine when an officer should retire on age grounds. It is
not acceptable for an officer to change his date of birth he has recorded on
entry to service.
[c] is very important as it is used to calculate his
length of ser vice.
[d] Are equally necessary to determine who gets the
benefits in case of the unexpected and untimely death of an em ployee.
[e] Notification and updating of children records is
mandat ory and it must be su pported with their dates of bi rth.
PERSONNEL INDEX CARD :
NUMERICAL INDEX OR BOOK OF NUMBERS:
RECORD OF SERVICE:
Full name s
Date of Birth:
Date of First Appointment:
Full names of spouse:
Particulars of Children :
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[f] The Record of service also contains the full names of next of kin
and their re lationship to the em ployee.
An officer is empowered to change his next of kin as he wishes. The next of-
kin of a staff will be ent itled to staff benefits in case of death.
[g] Shows details of career movement of officers from the
date of appointme nt to time of retirement. Other information are confirmation,
promotion, advancement, transfer, secondment, etc. these movemen t
publicat ion are usua lly published in off icial gazette.
[h] Names and address of institutions attended are recorded in the
records of serv ice of an employee.
[i] The record of service gives room to the record the home
address of an employee. This is important for determination of the officers
transport fare entit lement on retirement.
[j] Other information in the re cords of serv ice are:
(a) Leave/ Tour
(b) Emolument
(c) Schools attende d
(d) Recommendation/Cen sures
(e) Language Spoken and written
(f) Previous employ ment in the pu blic service
(g) Detai ls of ser vice in the forces
(h) National ity
2.5
The Federa l Government Official Gazette serves as a medium of information in the
Public Service. Movements of public servants concerning their appointmen ts,
promotion, advanceme nts, acting, transfers, secondme nt etc, are published at the
auspices of the OHCSF by the Federal Government Printer on a week ly basis wh ich is
usually eve ry Thursday. The Records Div isions of the OHCSF ob tains information for
publicat ion of moveme nts of officers from Ministries Departments. The Federal Civil
Service Commission is responsible for the issuance of staff changes for officers on
GL. 07 and above while the (OHSCF) is responsible for the moveme nts of officers on
GL. 01-06.
Next of kin:
Career Progress ion:
Qualifications:
Home Addres s:
OFFICIAL GA ZETTE
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2.6
Immediately the new employee assumes duty on new appointment, posting or annual
leave, he should enter his personnel particulars on Assumption of Duty Certificate
which should also he attached to other documents to be forwarded to the office of the
Civil Service of the Federation or OHCSF.
2.7
This contains personnel information of all Civil Servants on level 07 and above. It is
published by the Office of Head of Civil Service of the Federation. Attempts are
being made to include all Civil Servants in the federal staff list. It reflect the officers
names, qualification, substantive rank, date of present appointment and the ministry.
2.8 :
This is an important source of personnel information it contains the names, rank, date
of birth, qual ification, date of first appointment, date of confirmation of appointme nt,
date of present appointme nt, state of origin/local government area. File number,
departmen t and the stat ion of the officer.
3.
Record can be kept in two broad categories :-
It is kept manually in:
i. Files
ii. Cabinets
iii. Record of Servic e Sheet (Gen.9 0)
iv. Kalamazoo B inders
v. Index Cards
vi. Nominal Rol l
(a) It can a lso be kept in:
i. Diskettes
ii. IBM Typewr iters Ribbons
iii. Video/Radio Cassette Tapes
iv. Disc
v. Mini/hand/pocket comp uters etc.
ASSUMPTION OF DUTY CERTIFICATES:
FEDERAL STAFF LIST:
NOMINAL ROLL
METHOD OF KEEPING INFORMATIONS
(a) Manual Rec ord Keeping:
Electronic System Record Keeping:
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4.
a. Personnel records provide the basic information for manpower Policy, plans
and proce dures.
b. Personnel records enable management to know more about their workforce,
the knowledge and skill available for the improvement and maintenance of
productivity in the organ ization.
c. From records, precedent s are available from where one can draw references
d. Record keeping prevents distort ion in information before its uses.
5.
Some of the identified factors inhibiting good records keeping in the public Service
are:
i. Negat ive attitude to work
ii. Lack/ inadequacy of training on the job
iii. Resistance to change
iv. Low appreciation of the functions of records/information management
v. Inadequate/lack of resources e.g. equipment, hu man and money
vi. Negat ive attitude towards maintenance of equipmen t
vii. Reluctance to gi ve information by the pu blic
viii. Irregular movement of officers especia lly on their returns from training
courses.
ix. Lack/ inadequate su pervision of record staff.
6.
If an Organization must survive, it should have an efficient and effective record
keeping system and management. It should therefore allocate adequate resources to
records management activit ies.
Personnel skills should be developed on record management by adequate training
from time to time. The area of keeping record manually is almost over. What we have
now is record management which invo lves efficient creation, control management and
preservat ion of records for prosperity and sustainable development of the entire public
service.
ADVANTAGES OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION
FACTORS INHIBITING PERSONNEL INFORMATION KEEPING IN THE
SERVICE
CONCLUSION
169
SESSION XX
PROJECT INVESTMENT
PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
170
PROJECT INVESTMENT PLANNING AND MANA GEMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction :
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRO CESS
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Understand project ma nagement proce ss;
identify ro les project stakeholders; and
explain the benefits of participatory approach to project planning and management.
Projects are activities which must be undertaken to stimulate meaningful socio-economic
development and growth of a nation. However, exper iences have shown that major ity of
projects are del ivered later than planned and s pecifically resear ch firms report that:
74% of a ll projects come in over budget or run past the original
Deadl ine.
28% of projects fa il altogether.
The above facts surely reveal a more effective and efficient project investment planning and
management for project ma nagers.
But a good knowledge of project management process, as well as tools is paramount for a
result-oriented project planning and management.
Project management pr ocess can be simply repr esented by the figure below:
Initiating - Recognizing that a project or phase should begin and committing to do so.
Planning - Devising and maintain ing a workable scheme to accomplish the utility
need that the pr oject was un dertaken to address.
Executing - Coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan.
Control - Ensuring the project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring
progress and taking corre ctive action when ne cessary.
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Figure 1: Project Management Process


1.0 Initiating 5.0 Closing
2.0 Planning
4.0 Controlling 3.0 Executing
Project
Management
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} Closing - Formalizing the acceptance of the project or phase and bringing
it to an orderly end.
In Nigeria, projects are identif ied and executed in a wide spectrum of sectors and industries.
The figure be low illustrates some s elected projects in some selected industries in N igeria.
Government Projects in Nige ria include the follow ing:
Local government init iatives
Community programs
Infrastructure projects
Health and safety in itiatives
Information Technology projects
Policy change programs
Telecommunications projects
Legislative change prog rams
Military projects
Change manageme nt programs
Defense projects
Process improvement programs
Identifying Pro ject
Government Pro jects
Figure 2: I dentifying Project the Nigerias Experience

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Enterprise Projects
Why Projects Fail Basic I ssues to Consider
Financial Informa tion
Poor Organiz ation
Enterprise Projects are executed in the fol lowing sectors:
Banking and Finance
Construction
Engineer ing
Manufacturing
Information Technology
Telecommunication
Statement of Work (SOW)
A poorly defined SOW will fail to fully descr ibe the products or services to be delivered and
when and where they are to be delivered.
A good SOW wil l contain:
Task Descr iption
Deliverable Document s List (sometimes called Contract Data Requirements List or
CDRL)
Period of Performance
Schedule
Specif ication
Specif ication will facilitate direct and timely financial information required for project
decisions.
If the project speci fication is poorly defined, there will be inadequate understanding of
exactly what the financ ial information is r equired..
A wel l-defined Specif ication contains at least the fo llowing:
Scope of the Project
Applicab le Documents
Requirements
Item Def inition
Performance Characterist ics
Physical Character istics
Process Requirements, if needed
Projects could experience failure if implementation structure is poorly organized particular ly
the numbers of pers onnel assi gned to each dut y and task are sub -optimal.
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Symptoms would include:
Poor Procurement
Improperly written Purchase Orders
Incompetence of Vendors to Perform the Task
Poorly Performing Vendors
Human problems
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Accomplishing the task through overt ime
Low team morale
Inappropriate mix of personnel
Personnel not acting and reacting as a team
Poor procurement could lead to project failure and can be expressed in various dimensions.
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Human problems could lead to project failure even where other resources are adequately
provided. Human pro blem cou ld also be expressed in various dimensions:
Personnel Incom petence
Incompetence of individual team members to perform the tasks assigned means that the
task performer was g iven the task based on criter ia other than merit.
The incompetence of indiv iduals to perform the task assi gned usually results f rom:
Poorly defined Job description
Poor leadership qual ity
Inadequate team training
Poor motivation
Low Ski lls Competency
Inadequate ex perience
Poor interpersonal re lations
Other Factors that cause project Failure include:
Political Instabi lity
Bureaucrat ic Bottlenecks
Tribal, Religious and Cultural problems
Bribery and corruption
Purchase Order is incomplete and improperly
written when it does not contain the following: Reference Number, Order Date, Vendor,
Contact Information, Name of Item, Stock (Catalog) Number, Number of Uni ts, Price,
Delivery Schedule, Delivery Loca tion, Purchaser, an d Authorizing Signature.
Vendor s are incompetent to perform their
tasks if they do not pass the criteria set forth in an organization procureme nt requirements.
Vendors are performing improperly or poorly when all
monitored events are being performe d behind schedule, over budget, and in a technically
incompe tent way.
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Effective Pro ject Planning and Management: Need f or Peoples Participati on
BROAD CLASSIF ICATION OF STAKEH OLDERS
Financial Stakeholde rs
The Product/Marke t Stakeholders
Government agencies
Organizati onal Stakeholders
Stakeholders Roles and Respon sibilitie s
Project Sponsor
For an effect ive and efficient project planning, implementation and management, there is the
need for engag ing part icipatory approach.
The approach begins w ith identi fication of the projects stakeholders:
Project manager
Project benefic iaries
Performing org anizat ion
Project spo nsor
Influencers
Stockholders
Financia l institut ions (sup pliers of capita l)
Creditors
Donor agencies
Primary customers
Primary suppliers
Competitors
Unions
Representatives of federa l, state and loca l tiers of government.
Local government committees
Chief Executi ve Officers
Board of Di rectors
Employees
Managers
As a project stakeholder provides vital input into project planning and implementation by the
role the play. Such ro les could be as fol lows:
A Project Sponsor is primar ily responsible for :
Leading the Project Board as Chairman

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Defining the vision, purpose an d objectives of the p roject
Approving the requirements, timetabl e and resources
Approving the provision of funds and resources
Authorizing acc eptance of the fina l solut ion deli vered by the project
As a member of the Project Board you should be primarily responsible for :
Oversee ing the progress of the project
Resolving all high-level risks, issue and change requests
Ensuring that the project team has everything it needs to deliv er successful ly
If you are appointed as the Project Manager you should be primar ily
responsible for :
Delivering the project on time, w ithin budget and to specificat ion
Managing project staff, suppli ers, customers and all other project stakeholders
Undertak ing the act ivities required to initiate, plan, execute and close the project
As Project Le aders you s hould be primar ily responsible for :
Undertak ing all tasks a llocated by the Project Manger per the Project Plan
Reporting progress of the execution of tasks to the Project Manager on a frequent
basis
Escalat ing risks and issues to be addresse d by t he Project Manager
The roles of project benefic iaries include:
identif ication of project of prior ities and optimal v alues.
Project ownership for sustainabil ity.
In addition, by participat ing in the management and deli very of projects, we could all
help to stem the tide of waste that results from project abandonment and project
failure.
Specif ically, effect ive participat ion by all stakeholders will help in the achieveme nt of the
following:
For bot h Government an d Enterprise Projects: -
Reduced cost of co mpletion
Faster creat ion of del iverables
Increased eff iciency in de livery
Improved q uality of de liverables
Greater Return on Investment
Shortening of procuremen t cycles
Better control of changes to project scope
Project Board
Project Manager
Project Leaders -
Project Benefici aries
Other benefi ts of ef fective stakeholder p articipation are:

176
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Effect ive Monitor ing and Control of Projects
Effect ive Management of Ris ks
Improvement in Project Co mmunications
Effect ive Control of Payment Mi lestones
General Improvement in Project Eff iciency
Through effective stakeholders participat ion in project planning , implementation and
management we can:
Clarify the ro le of projects and project manageme nt
Develop community ownership of project for sustainabil ity
Establish a standard project manageme nt methodology, including tools and
communication
Provide for t raining in project management and project management t ools
Provide guidance and mentoring
Develop a cadre of trained and competent project managers and project control
special ists
Audit the implementation of project management and provide assistance in complying
with standard project ma nagement practices
Perform a watchdog role to assure that good project management practices are being
applied
Gather project experience and data for use in future projects and improve project
management methods.
CONCLUSION
177
SESSION XXI
OUTSOURCING IN PUBLIC
SECTOR:
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
178
OUTSOURCING IN PUBLIC SE CTOR: PRIN CIPLES AND PROCEDURES
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction/ Conceptual Issues
Outsourcing
Offshoring
At the end of the m odule, part icipants wi ll be able to:
Explain the concept of outsourcing, off -shoring;
Mult i-sourcing, and strateg ic outsourcing, etc.;
Identify the benefits/reasons for outs ourcing;
Discuss the major elements of out sourcing;
Identify some weaknesses in outs ourcing, and
Suggest strateg ies to ensure serv ice qual ity delivery through o utsourcing.
Outsourcing involves the transfer of the management and/or day -to-day exec ution of an entire
business function, project/ progrmme execution or part of it to an external service provider .
The client (or outsourcing) organizat ion and the supplier enter into a contractual agreement
that defines the transferred services. Under the agreement the supplier acquires the means of
production in the form of a transfer of people, assets and other resources from the client. The
client agrees to procure (or pay) for the services of the supplier in accordance to the term of
the contract.
Business segments that normally fall into outsourcing arrangement include information
technology, human resources, facilities, real estate management, and accounting. Many
companies also outsource customer support and call center functions like: mar ket research,
manufacturing, design ing, web deve lopment, conte nt writ ing, and eng ineering.
Given the global reforms aimed at rapid development of social infrastructures, government
do outsource the business of providing necessary infrastructures to the private sectors,
particularly under the arrangement of public-private-partnership (PPP). We have various
types of o utsource arrangements such as Build -Operate-Transfer (BOT); Build-Own-Operate -
Transfer (BOOT) and Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer (ROT) and other concessional
arrangements. Government also outsource human capacity bui lding functions, revenue
generat ion function, con sultancy an d programme developme nt functions, etcetera.
Offshoring and outsourcing are used interchangeably in public discourse despite impor tant
technical differences. Outsourcing involves contracting with a supplier, which may or may
not involve some degree of offshoring. Offshoring is the transfer of an organizationa l
function to another countr y, regardless of whether the work is outsourced or stays within the
same corporation/c ompany.
179
With increas ing global ization of outsourcing companies and privat ization exercise that
followed economic reforms, the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring will become
less clear over time. For example , this is evident in the increasing presence of Indian
outsourcing companies in the United States and United Kingdom. The global ization of
outsourcing operating models has resulted in new terms such as nearshoring, noshoring, and
rightshoring that reflect the changing mix of locations. This is seen in the opening of offices
and operations centers by Indian companies in the U.S. and UK where major job that is being
outsourced is accounting. They are able to complete tax returns across seas for people in
America. In Nigeria, accounting, IT development, programme s developme nt, project
management, estate manageme nt, and co nstruction, etc are often outs ourced.
Mult isourcing refers to large outsourcing agreements (predominantly IT). Mult isourcing is a
framework to enable different parts of the client business to be sourced from different
suppliers. This requires a governance model that communicates strategy, clearly defines
responsibility and has end-to-end integration.
Strategic outsourcing is the organizing arrangement that emerges when firms rely on
intermediate markets to provide special ized capabil ities that supplement existing capabi lities
deployed along a firms value chain. Such an arrangement produces value within firms
supply chains beyond those benefits achieved through cost economies. Intermediate markets
that provide special ized capabil ities emerge as different industry conditions intensify the
partit ioning of production. As a result of greater information standardization and simplified
coordination, clear admin istrat ive demarcat ions emerge along a value chain. Part itioning of
intermediate markets occurs as the coordination of production across a value chain is
simpl ified and as information becomes standardize d, making it easier to transfer act ivities
across bo undaries.
Organi zat ions that o utsource are seek ing to rea lize benefits or address the fol lowing issues:
1.3 Multi sourcing
1.4 Strategic Outsourcing
4.1 Reasons (Benefits) for Outsourcing
180
Cost savings
Focus on Core Busine ss
Cost restructuring
Improve quality
Knowledge
Contract
Operati onal expertise
Access to talen t
Capacity management
Catalyst for change
Enhance capaci ty for innovation
. The lower ing of the overall cost of the service to the business. This will
involve reducing the scope, defining quality levels, re-pricing, re-negot iation, cost re-
structuring. Access to lower cost economies through offshoring called "labor arbit rage"
generated by the wage gap between industria lized and developing nations.
. Resources (for example investment, people, infrastructure) are
focused on developing the core business. For example often organizations outsource their IT
support to s pecialized IT services companies.
. Operating leverage is a measure that compares fixed costs to variable
costs. Outsourcing changes the balance of this ratio by offering a move from fixed to variable
cost and also b y making v ariable costs more predictable.
. Achieve a posit ive change in quality through contracting out the service
with a new ser vice level agreement.
. Access to intellectual property and wider experience and knowledge are
possible.
. Services will be provided to a legally binding contract with financial penalt ies and
legal redress. This is not the case with internal se rvices.
. Access to operational best practices that would be too difficult or
time consuming to develop in-house.
. Access to a larger talent pool and a sustainable source of s kills, in part icular
in science and engineer ing.
. An improved method of capacity management of services
and technology where the risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by the
supplier.
. An organizat ion can use an outsourcing agreement as a catalyst
for major positive change that can not be achieved alone. The outsourcer becomes a
Change agent in the process.
. Compa nies increas ingly use external knowledge
service providers to supplement limited in-house capacity for product innovation.

181

Reduce time to market


Commodifica tion
Risk management
Venture Capital
Tax Benefit
4.2 Elements of Outsourcing
Deciding to ou tsource
Supplier proposals
. The acceleration of the development or production of a
product through the additional capabi lity brought by t he supplier is possible .
. The trend of standardizing business processes, IT Services and
applicat ion services enabl ing businesses to intelligent ly buy at the right price. Allows
a wide range of businesses access to services previously only available to large
corporations.
. An approach to risk management for some types of risks is to
partner with an outso urcer who is better abl e to provide the mit igation.
. Some countries match government funds venture capital with
private venture cap ital for start -ups that start bu sinesses in their country.
. Countries offer tax incenti ves to move manufacturing operations to
counter high corporate taxes within another cou ntry.
For any supply chain function, the most significant decision is whether to outsource the
function or perform it in-house. The decision to outsource is made at a strategic level and
normally requires board approval. Outsourcing results in the supply chain function being
performed by a third party. The process begins with the firm identifying the act ivity to be
outsourced and general ly using a make-buy analysis to justify the decision. Only once a high
level business case has been established for the scope of services will a search begin to
choose an out sourcing partner.
Due to the complexity of work definition, codifying requirements, pricing, and legal terms
and conditions, clients often utilize the advisory services of outsourcing consultants or
outsourcing intermedia ries to assist in scoping, decis ion making , and vendor eva luation.
A Request for Proposal (RFP) is an invitation for suppliers, often through a bidding process,
to submit a proposal on a specific commodity or service. A bidding process is one of the best
methods for leveraging a company's negotiating ability and purchasing power with suppliers.
The Request process brings structure to the procurement decision and allows the risks and
benefits to be identif ied clearly upfront .
182
A reasonable time frame is given for the submission and defense of proposals. The added
benefit of input from a broad spectrum of functional experts ensures that the solution chosen
will suit the compan y's requirements.
The RFP have terms of reference that may dictate to varying degrees the exact structure and
format of the supplier's response. The creativity and innovation that suppliers choose to build
into their proposals may be used to judge supplier proposals against each other. The
information by bidders help great ly in the decision making process. Effective RFPs typica lly
reflect the strategy and short/long -term business objectives, providing detai led insight upon
which suppliers w ill be abl e to offer the ir product or serv ice.
A competition is held where the client marks and scores the supplier proposals. This may
involve a number of face-to-face meetings to clarify the client requirements and the supplier
response. The supplie rs will be screened out until only a few remain. This is known as
in the industry. It is normal to go into the due di ligence stage or repeat b id process with
two suppliers to maintain the competition. Following due diligence the suppliers submit a
"best and final offer" (BAFO) for the client to make the final down select decision to one
supplier. It is not unusual for two supplie rs to go into competiti ve negoti ations.
The negotiat ions take the original RFP, the supplier proposals, BAFO submissions and
convert these into the contractua l agreement between the client and the supplier. This stage
finalizes the docume ntation and t he final pricing structure.
At the heart of every outsourcing deal is a contractual agreement that defines how the client
and the supplier will work together. This is a legally binding document and is core to the
governance of the relationship. There are three significant dates that each party signs up to,
the contract signature date, the effective date when the contract terms become active and a
service commenceme nt date when t he supplier will take over the ser vices.
Supplier competition
Negotiati ons
Contract finalization
down
select
183
Transition
Transforma tion
Ongoing ser vice delivery
Benchmarking
Terminati on or renewal
Quality Risk s
Quality Risk
The transit ion will begin from the effect ive date and normally run until say four mont hs after
service commenceme nt date. This is the process for the staff transfer and the take-on of
services.
The transformation is the execution of a set of projects to implement the service level
agreement (SLA), to reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) or to implement new services.
Emphasis is on 'standardization' and 'centralization'.
This is the execution of the agreement and lasts for the term of the contract.
Some outs ourcing contracts contain clauses giving the client the right to benchmark the price
paid to the provider at certain milestones during the life of the agreement. A third party
benchmarking firm is selected according to the terms agreed to at contract signing (e.g.
selected by client, selected by provider, selected by mutual agreement, or pre-selected at
contract signing), and conducts a comparison of the price being paid to current market prices.
If the terms of the contract provide for it, the provider and client may adjust the pricing based
on the results of the benc hmark.
Near the end of the contract term a decision will be made to terminate or renew the contract.
Terminat ion may involve taking back services (in-sourcing) or the transfer of services to
another s upplier.
is the propensit y for a product or service to be defect ive, due to operations -
related issues. Quality risk in outsourcing is driven by a list of factors. One such factor is
4.3 Criticisms of outsourcing
184
opportunism by suppliers due to misal igned incenti ves between buyer and supplier,
information asymmetry, high asset specificity, or high supplier switching costs. Other factors
contributing to quality risk in outsourcing are poor buyer-supplier commu nication, lack of
supplier capabil ities/resources/capacity, or buyer-supplier contract enforceabil ity. Two main
concept s must be considered when considering observabi lity as it related to quality risks in
outsourcing: the concepts of testability and criticality. , in the context of quality
risk in outsourcing a product or service, refers to a produ cts or services cover age, or the
ease of inspecting every single unit. Testabi lity also refers to a products or services
thoroughnes s, or the ease of inspecting for single possible defect . Thus, the testabil ity of a
product or servic e is measured by wh ere it lies on the coverage and thoroughness axes:
Low Thoroughness + Low Coverage = Products or Serv ices with Low Testabi lity.
High Thoroughness + Low Coverage = Complete Inspections of Few Products or
Services.
Low Thoroughnes s + High Coverage = Incomp lete Inspections of Most Products or
Services.
High Thoroughness + High Covera ge = Products or Serv ices with High Testability
, in the context of quality risk in outsourcing a product or service, refers to the
potential negati ve impact of a quality defect - the higher the criticality of a product or service
the higher the potential negat ive impact.
The qual ity risk in outsourcing a product or service can thus be summed as a function of its
testabil ity and cr iticality:
Low Testab ility + Low Cr iticality = High probabil ity of minor defects
High Testabi lity + Low Cr iticality = Lowest Qual ity Risk
High Testabi lity + High Criticality = Low Probabi lity of Cr itical Defects
Low Testab ility + High Criticality = Highest Qua lity Risk
There have been numer ous reports and media coverage recent ly focused on the concerns
about the quality and safety of drugs from Latin Amer ica. There is commentary that India
helpdesk companies are engaging in a pract ice called . is the
Testability
Criticality
Quality f ade
Quality fade

quality fade
185
deliberate and secret ive reduction in the qual ity (labour or service or product) in order to
widen profit margins. In the case of labour, the downward changes in human capital are
subtle but progressive, and usually unnoticeable by the out sourcer/custo mer. The initial
interview meets requirements, however, with subsequent support, more and more of the
support team are replaced with newbi e or less exper ienced workers. India IT shops will
continue to reduce the quality of human capital, under the pressure of drying up labor supply
and upward trend of salary, pushing the quality limits. Such practices are hard to detect, as
customers may just simply give up seeking help from the help desk. However , the overall
customer satisfact ion will be reduced great ly over time. Unless the compan y constantly
conducts customer satisfaction surveys, they may eventually be caught in a surprise of
customer churn, and when they find out the root cause, it could be too late. In such cases, it
can be hard to dispute the lega l cont ract with the India outsourcing compan y, as their staf f are
now trained in the process and the origina l staff made redunda nt. In the end, the co mpany that
outsources is worse off than before it outsourced its workforce to India.
There is a strong public opinion regarding outsourcing (especia lly when combined with
offshoring) that outsourcing damages a local labour market. Outsourcing is the transfer of the
delivery of services which affects both jobs and individuals. It is difficult to dispute that
outsourcing has a detrimental effect on individuals who face job disruption and employment
insecurity. Howeve r, its supporters believe that outsourcing should bring down prices,
providing greater economic benefits to all. There are legal protect ions in the European Union
regulat ions called the Transfer of Undertak ings (Protection of Employme nt). Labour laws in
the United States are not as protective as those in the European Union. A study has attempted
to show that public controvers ies about outsourcing in the U.S. have much more to do with
class and ethnic tensions within the U.S. itself, than with actua l impacts of outs ourcing.
In the area of call centers, end-user-experience is deemed to be of lower quality when a
service is outsou rced. This is exacerbated when outsourcing is combined with off-shoring to
regions where the first language and culture are different. The questionable quality is
particularly evident when cal l centers that ser vice the public are outsourced an d offshored.
Public opinion
Language sk ills
186
There are a number of the public who find the linguistic features such as accents, word use
and phraseology different which may make call center agents difficult to understan d. The
visual clues that are present in face-to-face encounters are missing from the call center
interact ions and this also may lead to misundersta ndings and difficu lties.
Outsourcing sends jobs to the lower-income areas where work is being outsourced to, which
provides jobs in these areas and has a net equal izing effect on the overall distribution of
wealth. Some argue that the outsourcing of jobs (particularly off-shore) exploits the lower
paid workers. A contrary v iew is that more people are employed and be nefit from paid work.
On the issue of high-skilled labor, such as computer programming, some argue that it is
unfair to both the local and off-shore programmers to out source the work simply because the
foreign pay rate is lower. On the other hand, one can argue that paying the higher-rate for
local programmers is wasteful, or charity, or simply overpayment. If the end goal of buyers is
to pay less for what they buy, and for sel lers it is to get a higher pr ice for what they sel l, there
is nothing automatically unethical about choosing the cheaper of two products, services, or
employees.
Qual ity of service is measured through a (SLA) in the outsourcing
contract. In poorly defined contracts there is no measure of quality or SLA defined. Even
when a SLA exists it may not be to the same level as previously enjoyed. This may be due to
the process of implementing proper objective measurement and reporting which is being done
for the fi rst t ime. It may a lso be lower qual ity through design to match the lower price .
There are a number of stakeholders who are affected and there is no single view of qual ity.
The CEO may view the lower quality acceptable to meet the business needs at the right price.
The retained management team may view qual ity as slipping compared to what they
previously achieved. The end consumer of the service may also receive a change in service
that is within agreed SLAs but is still perceived as inadequate. The supplier may view qual ity
in purely meeting the defined SLAs re gardless of perception or abi lity to do better.
Social responsibility
Quality o f service
service level agreement
187
Qual ity in terms of end-user-experience is best measured through customer satisfaction
question naires which are professional ly designed to capture an unbiased view of qual ity.
Surveys can be one of research. This allows qual ity to be tracked over time and also for
correcti ve act ion to be identif ied and taken.
The staff turnover of employee who originally transferred to the outsourcer is a concern for
many companies. Turnover is higher under an outsourcer and key company skills may be lost
with retention outside of the control of the company. In outsourcing offshore there is an issue
of staff turnover in the outsourcer companies call centers. It is quite normal for such
companies to replace its entire workforce each year in a call cent er. This inhibits the build-up
of employee knowledge and keeps quality at a low level.
Outsourcing could lead to communication problems with transferred employees. For
example, before transfer staff have access to broadcast company e-mai l informing them of
new products, procedures etc. Once in the outsourcing organizat ion the same access may not
be available. Also to reduce costs, some outsource employees may not have access to e-mail,
but any information which is new is delivered in team meetings.
The outsourcer may replace staff with less qual ified people or w ith people w ith different non -
equivalent quali fications. In the engineer ing discipline there has been a debate about the
number of engineers being produced by the major economies of the United States, India and
China. The argument centers around the definit ion of an engineer ing graduate. Even in
Nigeria, some fore ign contract staff are far less qual ified than the indigenous staff.
Business transformation has traditional ly been promised by outsourcing supplie rs, but they
have usually failed to deliver. In a commo ditized market where any half-decent service
provider can do things cheaper and faster, smart vendors have promised a second wave of
benefits that will improve the clients business outcomes. According to Vinay Couto of Booz
Staff turnover
Company kn owledge
Qualifications of outsourcers
Failure to deliver business transformation
188
& Compan y Clients always use the service providers ability to achi eve transformation as a
key select ion criterion. Its always in the top three and sometimes number one. Often
vendors have promised transformation on the basis of wider domain expertise that they didn t
really have, though Couto also says that this is often down to clients unwil lingness to invest
in transformation once an outsourcing contract is in place.
Offshore outsourcing for the purpose of saving cost can often have a negative influence on
the real productiv ity of a compan y. Rather than investing in technology to improve
productivity, companies gain non-real productiv ity by hiring fewer people locally and
outsourcing work to less productive facilities offshore that appear to be more productive
simply because the workers are paid less. Sometimes, this can lead to strange contradictions
where workers in a developing country using hand tools can appear to be more productive
than a U.S. worker using advanced computer controlled machine tools, simply because their
salary appears to be less in terms of U.S. dol lars.
In contrast, increases in real productiv ity are the result of more productive tools or method s
of operating that make it possible for a wor ker to do more work. Non-real productiv ity gains
are the result of shift ing wor k to lower paid workers, often without regards to real
productivity. The net result of choosing non-real over real productiv ity gain is that the
company falls behind and obsoletes itself overt ime rather than making investments in real
productivity.
From the standpoint of labor within countries on the negative end of outsourcing this may
represent a new threat, contributing to rampant worker insecurity, and reflective of the
general process of global ization. Whi le the "outsourcing" process may provide benefits to
less developed countries or global society as a whole, in some form and to some degree -
include rising wages or increas ing standards of living - these benefits are not secure. Further,
the term outsourcing is also used to describe a process by which an internal departme nt,
equipment as well as personnel, is sold to a service provider, who may retain the workforce
on worse conditions or discharge them in the short term. The affected workers thus often feel
they are being "sold down the riv er" or used and dumped.
Productivity
Standpoint of labor
189
Security
Fraud
4.4 Strategies for Ensuring Quality Service Delivery in Outsourcing
Before outsourcing, an organizat ion is responsible for the actions of all thei r staff and liable
for their act ions. When these same people are transferred to an outsourcer they may not
change desk but their legal status has changed. They no-longer are direct ly employed or
responsible to the organizat ion. This causes legal, security and compliance issues that need to
be addressed through the contract between the client and the suppliers. This is one of the
most complex areas of outsourcing and requires a specia list thi rd party adviser .
Fraud is a speci fic security i ssue that is cri minal acti vity whether it is by e mployees or
the supplier staff. However, it can be disputed that the fraud is more likely when
outsourcers are involved, for example credit card theft when there is scope for fraud
by credit card cloning. In April 2005, a high-profile case involving the theft of
$350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when call center workers acquired
the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts
opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the
American customers noticed discrepancies w ith their accou nts and notified the ba nk.
We will conclude this write-up by suggesting some strategies for enhancing quality service
delivery through outsourcing.
Outsourcing generally has chal lenges like any other change initiatives. Many organizat ions
do not execute outsourcing arrangement well, and not all providers deliver to expectation.
Even when both parties get it right, other factors can keep the relationship from deli vering its
intended be nefits. One would recommend t hat:
Clients, be it government or private must carefully assess the offering, experience and
demonstrated capabil ities of potential providers. It should not be assumed that a vendor
can deli ver uptime or quality ser vice just because it c laims it can.
The providers track record of service commitment, in this regard, in performance in the
industry of reference.

190

The providers exist ing customers/cli ents and how satisfied they are should be the
centerpiece of an or ganizat ions due dil igence efforts. Prospecti ve provider should furnish
the organizat ion with a r epresentative sampling of their clients base.
For the external outsourcer, the migration plan must be expli citly known by the client,
and in perfect order.
Although service levels, not pricing, should be the key basis for provider different iation,
pricing is undeniably an important element of the value equation. It is essentia l to query
providers on excessive costs. And also to get a clear idea of how pricing will change a
need s scale up or down over time.
The client organization needs to properly audit the service providers staffs in terms of
skills and expertise to check against what is called labour quality fading intrigues,
whereby sub-standard workers are used to substitute the skilled ones as implementatio n
continues. Indian contractors have been note d for this abnormal behaviour.
Arrangements have to be made to pay direct workers salaries and allowances by the
clients, rather than the outsourcing service provider to avoid under payment and possible
compr omise deal w ith the rea l government or organizat ions pr oject contractors.
The financial health of the outsourcing service provider has to be established to avoid
being frustrated by a low cash flow that would demand that until client pays for service
rendered activ ities remain pending.
There should be pro per legal framework for outsourcing
There should be pro per monitoring and eva luat ion to guarantee quality ser vice delivery.
There should be proper communication and reporting system or feedback mechanis m
between the client and outsourcer organizat ions. The use of ICT to promptly track
information and activ ity progress would be of hi gh value.
191
MODULE XXII
THE STRATEGIES FOR
OUTSOURCING
192

THE STRATEGIES FOR OUTS OURCING


Learning Ob jectives
Content
Introduction
WHAT IS OUTSOURCING
At the end of the m odule, part icipants wi ll be able to:
identify the concept of outs ourcing;
analyse the meaning and importance of out sourcing for todays ecos ystem;
identify re asons for out sourcing; and
apply strategies of outsourcing.
Introduction
Reasons for Outso urcing
Strategies of Outsourcing
Analysis Cr iteria
Conclusion
The existence of any organizat ion is to provide service. The survi val and operational success
depends on the extent to which an organizat ion can succeed in the provision of quality
service to its clientele.
With todays business ecosystem, the who gamut of operations, production and marketing
become highly cumbersome and an investment of energies that could have been plunged back
into the core-competence of the organization.
Outsourcing has affected the global economy, it is occurr ing in almost every business and
nation.
Outsourcing has been defined as the transferring of internal business function or functions,
plus any associate assets to an external supplie r or service provider who offers a defined
service for a speci fied period of time, at an agreed but proba bly qualif ied pr ice.

193
It has been described as another form of special ization which has been defined as
concentrating activity in those lines of production in which the individual or firm has some
natural or acquired advantage .
A core competence is a bundle of skills and technologies that enables a company to provide a
particular benef it to customers.
Tradit ional ly, organizat ions have focused on differentiat ing themselves and improving
operational eff iciencies by owning thei r enti re supply chain.
Ownership was the only way to achieve the seamless flow of information that would allow
them to truly optimize operations. Ownership also allowed organizations to take complete
control of their business, a ve ry appeal ing prospect to lar ge enterpr ises in part icular.
Todays business ecosystem backed by the global access provided by advances in
information technology and the resulting transparency into a business extended operations,
have facilitated a changing view of ownership. Companies can now leverage on the core
compete ncies of their partners to create v alue.
The organization focuses its resources on what it does best. It become s a leaner
organizat ion and more resp onsive to what its customers changing demand s are.
In outs ourcing, the cost of operations is reduced.
In view of the fact that an organisations resources are allocated to its core
compete ncy, the core products will have fewer defects, possess high reliability and a
reduction in le ad time.
With the outsourcing of functions by an organizat ion, it will receive the added benefit
of access to the latest technologies for that function.
TODAYS BUSINESS ECOSYS TEM
REASONS FOR OU TSOURCING
1. Focus on core competenc y
2. Reduced cost and capi tal resources
3. Increase proces s quality
4. Access to latest technology
194
5. Smoothen busine ss cycles
6. As a source of insulation
7. Support t otal qualit y managers
8. Drive shareholders value
5.2 STRATEGIES OF OUTS OURCING
Combined with lean manufacturing practices, outsourcing approaches can smooth out
business cycles
Outsourcing has also served to insulate part icipants in volatile industries. The ability
to report predictions and consistent earnings despite dynamic market condition is
vital. An adaptive, demand driven business model through outsourcing can insulate
companies to some extent from rapid market changes as suppliers bear the burden of
fixed overheads or inventory obsolesce during sudde n market contractions.
Being a customer value driven process, companies thrive to ensure that their core
compete ncies are given the best qual ity that the customers ever desire and that meet
with thei r corporate philosophy.
Outsourcing is also poised to ensure that the shareholders of the company have the
best value for their investment as cost reduction and clear focusing when combined
with financial prudence gives a good return on investment s. Shareholder value
which is a way of measuring profit after allocat ing the cost of capital, favours assets
light business .
Outsourcing generally has the twin benef its of lower cost and redu ction in fixed assets
and working cap ital associated w ith production.
1. The dec ision whether to use internal or external resources must be made b y:
Understanding the needs and c onstraints of the organization.
Identifying and pr ioritizing the goals of the project.
Identifying and quantifying the appropriate measures for internal and external
operations.
Conducting a cost -benefit analysis of the interna l and external a lternat ives

195
2. Identifying Organisations need s
Address the strategic interests and goals of the organisat ion. This includes
considering the strategi c plan of the organization, performance measures. The
goals of the organization serve as a basis for determin ing project success.
Core competencies are not expected to be outsourced.
Specify the service to be provided and identify the reasons to consider
outsourcing.
cost savings
enhance d service levels
transition to a di fferent technology platform
the need for increased technica l knowledg e and sk ills not present in the
organizat ion
insufficient staf f resources to accomplish specif ic targets
Pace the decision process in a neutral framework the justification regarding
the use of internal or externa l resources must be framed solely in business case
scenario.

o
o
o
o
o
196
OUTSOURCING
DECISION FLO W
CHART
Establishin g Analysi s
Criteria
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Organisation
Strategic Plan
Define or ganizat ional
needs and outcomes
Upon the determination
that the use of external
resources may be an
option that would meet
business needs, a cost
benefit analysis should
compare both the internal
and external resource
option knowing and
comparing agency costs
and benefits at the start
enable the agency to
make the best decision
and act effi ciently upon its decision.
Cost-benefit analysis enables decision-makers to account for the full costs and benefits of
outsourcing and in-sourcing options. The analysis helps to prove or disprove whether a
project su pports organizat ion goals and outco me in the most effectiv e manner.
Analyse options to
achieve outco mes
Outsourcing
Establ ish
Measurements
requireme nts
Manage,
monitor ,
Manage
transition
end of
contract
197
CONCLUSION
SESSION XXIII
Outsourcing is an initiative that has been used by organisations all over the wor ld to enhance
core compete ncies and reduce cost of o perations.
The various strategies to be employed are dependent on distinguish ing factors of each
organisat ion.
198
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
CYCLE:
OVER VIEW OF THE PR OJEC T CYCL E
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
understa nd what a pro ject is; and
explain the project cycle
Although the role of projects in developme nt process the world over has for long been
recognized and appreciated yet there is no consensus as to the definit ion of a project. A
review of development literature revealed further that it has no universally accepted
definit ion. Thus, today there are many and varied definitions of a project each based on
authors (such as policy makers, development managers, donors, project analysts, etc.) and

199
expectations. Following the introduction is the definition of project in Sect ion 2, Sect ion 3
discusses the pr oject cycle whi le Sect ion 4 concludes the paper.
I.
Though the definit ion of a project is numerous and varied, neverthe less, the concept
of a project has provided a sound methodology for planning, appraising and
implementing of discrete investment activities. As a working definition several
authors have described project as:
any scheme or part of a scheme, for investing resource which can reasonably be
analyzed and evaluate as independe nt unit (Litt le and Mir rless (1980))
a planning process, which uses one or more scarce resources during a specifi c
time for the purpose of producing some economic returns or output at a later
date.
a capital investment to develop facilities that to provide goods and services
(Bierman and Smidth, 197 0).
the utilization in the near future of scarce or at least limited resources in the hope
of obtaining in return some benefits over a long per iod (UNIDO Manual , (1972)).
as an option of investment oriented actions by means of which a defined
combination of human and material resources is expected to cause a determined
amount of econ omic and s ocial development.
a set of coordinated activities to bring into existence something of value and the
utilization of resources to prod uce value or benef its at a later date.
According to Kayode (1979) the important aspect of a project is not whether it is
action or physical goods/works -oriented, but rather the investment in value and
the benefits expected.
On the basis of these diverse working definitions, certain facts about a project have emerged.
The facts constitute fe atures of a project and include the fol lowing: These features include:
Project conscious of resources that are scarce;
It involves planning
The invested resources must be capable of analysis and evaluation as an independent
unit;
The achievement of some s pecific objective(s); that purchases util ity.
Definition of a Project

200

Costs/ benefits or returns on t he projects;


Project has T ime dimension;
Projects have var ied sizes;
It involves risk and uncertainty;
It has cost elements
Risk and uncertainty;
II.
Project activities take place in several dist inct stages. These stages are commo nly
referred to as the project cycle. They are closely linked to each other and follow a
logical sequence. Thus, the distinctions among the various stages of the project cycle
are often blurred in practice, and their relative importance can vary greatly, depending
on the character and history of each project. With varying degrees of detai l and
refinement, as the project advances through the cycle, the same issues may be
addressed.
Project cycle encompasses the whole process of project analysis. In other word, it
provides an analytica l/logical framework and sequence within which data can be
compiled and analyzed, investment priorit ies establ ished, project alternati ves
considered and sector policy issues addressed. Project cycle imposes a discipl ine on
planners and decision makers, and ensures the relevant problems and issues are taken
into account and subjected to systematic analysis before decisions are reached and
implemented.
Although, project cycle framework has long been seen as a veritable tool in project
management, it is rather not a substitute for good management. Besides, the fact that
it is regarded as cumbersome in some quarters, the project cycle paradigm has been
criticized as not more rel iable than the data sk ill judgement involv ed.
3.1
The project cycle has been modelled overt ime to capture distinct event during the
life of a project and drawing distinct ions between them. The typical project cycle
model in development literature include:
Baum cycle otherwise called the basic model;
The Pro ject Cycle Management
Models of the Project Cycle
201
-
-
-

Development Project Management Cycle;


Rondilnellis Cycle;
Integrated Project P lanning and Management Cycle (IPPMC);
UNIDOs diagrammatic cycle;
The composite diag ram by MacArthur.
From the above mo dels, eight distinct stages can be identif ied in the cycle of a project.
This include:
Pre-identif ication/Pre-investment;
Project Identif ication;
Project Preparation (pre-feasibility and feasibi lity studies) ;
Project Appraisal;
Project Negotiat ion and Select ion;
Project Implementation;
Project Monitoring;
Project Eva luation.
This represents the idea/stage and it involves act ivities concerned with surveying, reviewing
and inventorying existing data and information. Such data (obtain from government agencies
or survey work) include :
natural resource data;
human reso urce data;
socio-economic data.
For the purpose of ownership, public sector project identif ication stage must involve major
stakeholders. Such stakeholders may include:
Pre-identificati on/Pre-investment
202
-
-
-

the beneficiary community;


the local authority; and
the donor agencies as we ll as CBOs/CBAs.
Having achieved a good data base through the involvement of the key stakeholders, the
process of identification of gaps would have been laid. Thus, such gaps, which lead to
project ideas, could be generated from:
resource ava ilability;
market gap;
need gap.
Who can identify a project?
Private individual;
Government;
Non-government b odies;
Potential a id donors.
Once a project is identi fied, the next step is to carry out a project preparation docume nt,
which invo lves pre-feasibility and feasib ility studies.
While pre-feasibility study makes a preliminary analysis of a project proposal, the feasibility
study will generally give full details of the project proposal. The proposal basically contains
the objective of the project, identificat ion of the constraints and means of overcoming the
constraints. The pre-feasibility gives direct ion for full detailed study in the feasibility study,
all the techni cal, institut ional, economic and financial condit ions necessary to achieve the
objectives of the project are highlighted. At the conclus ion of the feasibility study, a project
report would have been prepared. The report will serve as wor k plan or a guideline to
implement the project, provide the basis for appraisal/ review and a baseline data for
subsequent monitoring and impact ev aluat ion.
Project Identific ation
Project Prepara tion (Pre-feasibility and Feasibility) Studies
203
Project Appraisal
Technical Appraisal
Institutional Appraisal
Financial Appraisal
Appraisal involves carefully reviewing all aspect of the project v is a vis the project
objectives. The proposal is subjected to se nsitivity ana lysis at th is stage. Some explic it
appraisal is a necessary part of the decis ion-making process before funds are committed.
General ly internal sta ff as against consultants are used for project ap praisal (definitely not
people who were invol ved in planning the project) aspect of project appraisa l include:
(a)
Techni cal appraisal looks into issues such as:
- locat ion of project;
- choice of technology package;
- physical scale, layout;
- types of eq uipment an d its relevance to local conditions;
- implementation scheduling, etc.
Techni cal appraisa l should rev iew:
- project cost estimates;
- provision for r ecurrent costs;
- procedure for obtaining technica l or engineering services;
- procureme nt arrangements, etc.
(b)
- an important factor for project failure is inadequate attention often paid to
institutional factors.
Some of the maj or issues addresse d here include:
- the organizat ional sett ing of the unit undertak ing the project;
- adequac y of local capabi lities for the v arious tasks;
- policy and institut ional changes outside the unit of the project;
- organizat ional structure of t he project;
- channels of com munication within the project;
- implementation scheduling, etc.
-
204
Major concern to ensure enough funds to complete the project. For revenue
yielding project the appraisa l takes into account:
1. Project costs,
2. Sources of fun ds,
3. recovery of investment, and
4. recovery of operating costs.
For other type s of projects, financia l feasibility can be v iewed from the point of v iew of :
- what are the likely financial effects of the project on the benef iciaries (e.g. poor
farmers, can they be induced to ad opt new meth ods).
- Risk calculation of benefic iaries to enjoy the project etc.
-
- Necessary to ensure that in all years of project life cash flow will at least equal
cash outflow (Cash flow governing grants, loans, subsidies, cost recovery
provisions, etc.) (cash outflow project investment, recurrent costs, maintenance,
loan repayment, etc.
- Necessary to draw up cash flow statement for the government to justify any
grants or subsidies to be provided.
They emphasize more on su stainabil ity of a project.
Economic feasibility assess the net benefits of a project in terms of efficient use of
scarce resources.
Under economic feasibility relevant questions as to whether or not the project make
the most efficient use of scarce resources are to be answered.

Projects Beneficiaries
The Pro ject
The Government
The Donors and NG O
(d) Economic Feasibility (Appraisal)
205
Project managers should note that the traditional approach as used in financial
appraisal are difficult and unsuitable since they cannot address the time value of
money in project decisions. Therefore, managers are advised to use discounte d cash
flow techniques which incorporate the time va lue of money in project decisions.
Financia l and econ omic appraisal assumes that a Naira has the same va lue for both
rich and poor perso ns. It also assumes that a naira used for consu mption has the sa me
value as a Na ira saved, or a Naira in the hands of the government.
- Social appraisa l tries to remove such assumptions;
- This necessari ly enta ils value judgement.
For example, social appraisa l will attach a greater weight of the benefits to every stratum of
the society:
male or fema le
rich or poor
private or public
old or you ng
able or disab le.
Both the environment and a project constitute an open system. Therefore,
environmental appraisa l deals with the e ffects of a project on an env ironment an d vice
versa. The effects could either be posit ive, negative or neutral . In a case where
projects have more of negative impacts, the task therefore could be minimized
reduced or elim inated and by w hat meth od(s).
This stage involves discussions with the l ender(s) or prov ider(s) of funds or assistance
on the measures needed to ensure success for the project. The agreement reached at
this stage is further embodied in the project agreement. The proposed project is
(e) Social Appr aisal
(f) Environmental Appraisal
Project negoti ation and Selec tion

206
presented to t he policy makers or p lanners for approval . After the necessary approval,
the agreement is s igned and the prop osed project goes into implementation.
Implementation or project execution refers to the development/c onstruction activ ities
up to the point at which the project becomes fully operational. If there has been good
preparation and programming, then efficient and timely implementation depends on
good ma nagement su pervision, technical staff and t imely release of funds. During
this stage, the f ramework of project organ ization and ma nagement has t o be wel l
defined and instituted. Power re lationships have to be defined and effecti ve
coordinating mechanism mu st be put in place. Popular tools in this regard include
PERT and CPM. The tools he lp to define the f low of act ivities, time and cost
evaluation.
The importance of procureme nt in project management can not be overemphasized. It
is the heart of project implementation. It is all embrac ing concept that describe the
process/guideline for the acquisit ion of the inputs (goods an d services) for the project.
Broadly speak ing, the concept deals w ith contract packages ( like what, how, when
and who to do it) in respect of input deli very.
The monitoring unit has been described as lar ge as the pol ice unit . They deal specif ically
with the supervis ion of the implementation of the project. They prod uce periodic report
that highl ight.
- any variance between the budgets and actual expenditures and short fall in the
physical aspects of implementation;
- whether the budgets or target are realistic in the first place and whether
circumstances had cha nged which could not reaso nable bye foreseen.

Project Implementa tion


Project Procurement
Project Monit oring
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- Causes of slow progress or delays;
- Remedies to bot tlenecks and delays to implementation.
A good monitoring report should result in quality management decisions to improve its
future performance.
The final phase of the project cycle is the Evaluation of Project. While projects may be
subject to on-going monitoring/eva luat ion, there is need for a more comprehensive
evaluation. The essence of evaluat ion is that it often provides an opportunity to learn
from experience. Such lessons are built into the design and preparation of future projects.
The evaluation or impact assessme nt is concern with some of the follow ing.
- Is the outp ut target me t?
- Have the tar get benefi ciaries been reached by the project?
- Are the identi fied constraints removed or minimiz ed?
- Are the net benefits sustained or not?
- What lesson can be learned from the project in terms of project selection, design
and implementation of new projects? This forms the feedback activities of new
projects.
In project evaluat ion an attempt is made to look at the past, present and future of
projects in terms of rece ipts and pa yment for goods an d services.
This paper has highlighted the importance of project (discrete investment activities) in the
development process of a nation. Without doubt, project is a two edged word that can be
made or mar a development process. This paper thus discusses a way to strengthen the
relevance of a project. Discussing from project cycle framework, it concluded that the
planning of a project is as important as its implementation as well as the evaluation of its
impacts. Act ive management of a project through monitoring and evaluation does not only
guarantee the relevance of the project but most importantly its sustainabil ity. However, as a
matter of fact, few developing countries Nigeria inclusive, have establ ished a comprehe nsive
Project Evaluati on
CONCLUSION
208
system for monitoring and evaluating the results of their project investment. Many
abandoned project today may probably not have been so if proper monitoring and evaluating
are put in place .
Bogunjoko, O. J. (2 000); the Project Cycl e: A lecture paper presented o n Basic
Course in Project and Investment Planning Analysis and Appraisal.
Kayode, M. O. (1 979); The Art of Project Evaluat ion, Ibadan Univ ersity Press.
Little, I.M.D. & J.A. Mirrless (1980): Project Appraisa l and Planning for
Developing Countries, Heinemann, London.
Rondinelli, D.A. (1970); Why Development Projects Fail : Problems of Project
Management Deve loping Countries Project Management Quarterly
Vol. VI I No.1.
REFERENCES
SESSION XXIV
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PROJECT PROPOSAL WRITING
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PROJECT PROPOSAL WRITING
Learning Objectives
KEY ELEMENTS OF A PROPOSA L
PROPOSAL WRI TING
Significance/purpose of assignment
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Identif ication of specif ic compone nts of a pro posal;
Discuss var ious stages of propo sal writing;
Key elements of a good prop osal; and
Uses of a good proposal.
Background Information Stating Why The Proposal Has Been Prepared;
A Statement Of The P roblem;
Descript ion And Understanding Of The Cl ients Need;
Objectives Of The Project;
Approach (Meth odology) To Be Used;
Detai led descr iption of the scope of the pr oject including dia grams, draw ings, e.tc.;
Indicat ions of what results and p otential benef its the cl ient wi ll gain as a consequence
of the engagement;
Outlines of the approach and credentials of the consultants;
Time during which the project is expected to be concluded;
The cost implicat ion; and
Terms and condition of contract.
A good pro posal must c onform with The fol lowing bas ic format :
1.
Goals and objectives of the assi gnment stated in clear, specif ic and measurable terms
to faci litate monitor ing and Eva luat ion.
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2.
The potentia l output (benefits) which the client stands to gain as conseque nces of the
assignment.
These are to be stated convincing ly but real istically.
3.
Approache s to be ad opted in executing the assi gnment
Specif ically, approaches to be used in gather ing, setting, analyzing and
interpret ing data.
4.
Schedule/plan of acti vities
Outline of t ime-frame for each stag e of assi gnment, if to be executed in stages.
If training is involved, prepare a deta il time-table and clea rly indi cate batches.
5.
This sect ion must inform cl ient suff iciently as to:
What wil l the f inal outcome of the assignment be?
Will there be a r eport?
Will there be a desi gn ?
6.
Briefing/reporting a fter commissioning
Progress brie fing/reporting as assi gnment goes o n
Briefings/submission of draft of f inal report
Final report.
7.
If the assi gnment is not a f ixed fee type, then the co nsultant must state his fee on:
Expected output (bene fits)
Methodology/ approaches
Duration of assi gnment
Expected fin al results
Reporting
Billing
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Per diem charges/da ily charges
Hourly i.e. Charges per consultant man hour.
8.
Who is the con sultant ?
What are your ed ucational qual ifications ?
What is your experience ?
Have you do ne simi lar assignment in the past ?
What are the credentia l of your staff who are to be used in executing the assignment ?
What professional bo dies do yo u belong to ?
9.
Provision of counterpart team
Provision of secretar iat
Provision of tea/snacks and lunch
Provision of transport and lodging
Provision of access to records
Support of to p management
10.
Is payme nt to be ma de at the end of the assignment ?
Is payme nt to be ma de at the commenceme nt of the assignment ?
Is payment to be ma de instalmental ly at speci fic stage of the assignment ?
What percentage of the total fee is to be paid at what sta ge of the assi gnment ?
11.
Consultants credentials
Client s role
Method of payment
Summary/cl osing statement
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It is a useful conclusion for all readers as it helps them to capture the essence of the
proposal.
Useful in influenc ing others around t he decision makers
Ensure that the final word, and final impression left with the reader, is about benefits
and value for money.
12.
Copy of terms of reference
Contract details
Worked examples
Graph, fi gures and tables
Memorand um of understa nding
Certificate of incorporation
List of s imilar assi gnment/project exec uted etc.
13.
A good covering letter do the fol lowing:
Exemplify and emphasize elements of the prop osal
Say something about t he organizat ion and the pe ople
Link To The Circumstances (for example, stating that another meeting is needed)
Enhance the ap pearance of the total package
Act, not least, as a courtesy.
Appendices
Covering letter
PROPOSAL CON TENT ANALYSIS
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Basic Element s
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
MANAGEMENT PROPOSAL

The Cover Page


Title Page
Letter of Transmittal
Table of Figures, Tables, Graphs and Charts
General Appendices
Introduction
Background
Project Objectives
Approach/Met hodology
Job Breakdown
Structure
Job Sche duling
Job Scheduling Techniques(s)
Previous Experience
Project Te am
Management Strength
Organi zat ional Establ ishment
Manpower Capability Assessment
Internal Staf f
External Staf f
Contribution b y Client
Cognate Experience
Physical Fac ilities
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Sub-contracting Plan
Cost Analysis
Costing Polic ies
Costing Procedure
Consulting assi gnments vary widely in nature, scope , depth and duration. So also are
proposals.
It is somewhat diff icult to identify a part icularly universa l approach to proposal writing.
COST
CONCLUSION
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SESSION XXV
GENDER ISSUES IN THE PUBLIC
SERVICE MANAGEMENT: AN
OVERVIEW
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GENDER ISSUES IN T HE PUBLIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT
Learning Ob jectives:
Introduction
Achieving Meaningful and Sustainable Development
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll
be able to:
Recognize the multid imensional nature of gender issues affect ing women;
Explain the socio-cultural contexts, which have shaped womens social roles; and
discuss the millennium goals focusing on human development.
Many people, whether male or female, approach topics related to gender issues and/or
advancement of women with sentiment, not with an objective and rational view, This will not
help us.
It is assumed t hat everyone here has so me understan ding of gender issues already.
Presentation based m ostly on personal field experiences social reality.
The people I refer to today are largely the poor, uneducated, mostly rural men and women. I
do not represent y ou or your husband/wife.
The goal of development interventions needs to go beyond temporary gains in productivity or
increased income. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the
present without co mprising the abi lity of future g enerations to meet their own needs.
An important consideration with designing effect ive and sustainable developmen t
intervent ions is the realization that many development problems are overlapping and
therefore do not lend the mselves eas ily to simplist ic solutions.
1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
2. Achieve Universal Primary Education
3. Promote Gen der Equality and Empower
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Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Focus ing on Human Development
Sometimes Development Interventions dont help
Enhancing the Participati on of the Sociall y Marginalized
Who are the Sociall y Marginalized?
1. Halve between 1990 and 2015, the population whose income is less than US1.00 per
day and who s uffer from extreme hunger.
2. Ensure that by 2015 everywhere, boys and girls, will be able to complete a full course
primary education.
3. Eliminate gender dispar ity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005
and to all levels of education not later than 2 015.
Economic growth has created some opport unities for many people, but also created new
inequal ities or re inforced exist ing ones.
People-centered approach has shifted from primary emphasis upon growth as goals of
development to well-being, equity, fundamental human freedoms to develop ones human
potential.
It is necessary to add a note of caution here as we try to maximize the potential for human
development. It is sobering to note that some development interventions do not only yield
disappointing results; in some cases, good intentions have some cases, good intentions have
sometimes ma de matters worse for the very people for whom help was intended.
Recent emphasis has shifted to a participatory approach in which the targeted beneficiaries of
development programmes are able to have some control over the decisions made about them
and are involved in project implementation, actual ly having some control over the
development process as it affects them.
Some risks are involved in project implementation, actual ly having some control over the
development process as it affects them.
Some risks are involved in handlin g over the st ick to the local population like possibi lity of
poor decision-making or ending up with progammes not truly participatory for all local
stakeholders.
Members or groups of the population who are usually not included in development
opportunities;
Poor men a nd women, in rural & urban areas;
Tenant farmers or other resource-poor prod ucers;
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Ethnic minorit ies;
Pastoralists or other nomadic/semi-nomadic peo ple; and
Such people are often depende nt upon resources they do not control and are very
vulnerabl e.
Failure to involve socially marginalized groups in development programmes will perpetuate
the dissatisfact ion and ali enation of the majority of the pop ulation
Inabil ity to benefit from opportunities by significant segments of the population will creat e
greater poverty and insecurity.
Gender gaps in Education: utilizing several indices including Gross Intake Ratio (GIR) ,
Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), Gender Ratio and Gender Gap, findings on findings on GIR
indicate a higher percentage of school -aged males than females entering school at both the
primary and secondary levels throughout the period. This indicates a somewhat higher
general level of access to formal education for male ch ildren.
The GER refers to the percentage of the total enrolment relative to the total eligible
population for the educational level. Findings again show that the GER for primary schools is
higher for males throughout the 10 year period (19991-2001). The gender ratio shows that
there is a gender imbalance in favour of males for both primary and secondary education in
Nigeria. The figures for the Gender Gap also demonstrate the gender disparity in formal
education.
All people have the right to enjoy the highest standard of health, but womens health
problems are usually overlooked by policy makers and implementers. The gender -specif ic
problems of females include high maternal morta lity rates. Reproductive tract infect ions
including STIs, HIV/AIDs, cervical and breast cancer, FGM and tradit ional pract ices inimical
to good health, teenage pregnancy, vesico-vaginal fistulae (VVF), poor access to health
facilities, poor distribution of trained medical personnel, low level of socio-economic
development con tribut ing further to poor health status of wome n.
The findings of the surveys clearly support the general view that femal es are under -
represented in higher salaried posit ions of formal employment, yet they dominate jobs such
as teaching, nursin g, secret arial and other support services. Males dominate the higher
administrati ve or manager ial positions.
Impact of Soci al Marginaliza tion
Gender Gaps Do exist
Gender Gaps in Education
Gender Gaps in He alth
Gender Gaps in the Formal Sect or of the Economy
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The findings on gender -related differences in the formal employment of males and females
are significantly related to the educational and social ization differences for males and
females.
While females make up about 50% of the national population, their representat ion in formal
polit ical posit ions falls very far short of that proportion. In 1999, men held 347 positions in
the House of Representatives, while women held only 13 comparati ve posit ions. In the
Senate, the ratio of male to female senators was 106 to 3. Among the Ministers appointed,
only 6 out of 46 we re women.
The history of constitution -making has not favoured womens popular participat ion in
Nigeria. Yet, women have been deman ding changes in the constitution.
The media has done little to promote gender equality or to spotl ight contributions by women
to public life, often portraying o ld prejudices and negati ve stereotypes.
In polit ical part ies, powerfu l members (finders) we re all men.
The nature of pol itical part icipat ion does not favour wome n.
Many female polit icians are often unwil ling to carry forward the womens agenda unless it
fits their own purpose.
There is need for a `cr itical mass of wo men in any p olitical forum.
Women politicians need to network among them selves and with interest groups.
Training is needed for wom en to enhance their polit ical performance.
A major step forward in correcting the gender imbalance has been the recognit ion that not
only do females have the right to improved status, but that this is in the interest of everyone
in the society. It is hoped that we will go beyond recognition of the problems to concrete
actions to further correct the gender imbalance in the society.
Gender Gaps in the Political Sec tor
Obstacles to Female Participati on in Political Arena
CONCLUSION
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SESSION XXVI
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
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FINANCIAL MANAGEMEN T
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION
At the end of this workshop participants wi ll be able to:
Define Financial Management
State detai l functions of f inancial Mgt
Identify the l imitations of Finance Manage r
Maintain sustainable F inancial management System in organizat ion
One of the most critical and dynamic aspect of an organizat ion is the financial management
function.
Not only that its responsibilities cover all department of an enterprise. Its role determines the
success or fai lure of any organizat ion.
The purpose is to maximize the stakeholders wea lth or achie ve speci fic objecti ves.
Financia l management also involve planning and fund control in which strategies are
designed to ensures that funds are procured at the right time, at the right time, at minimum
cost, and used in most effective way and ultimately determines the impact of financi al
decisions on various interest groups
Financia l management can be defined by examining its purpose rather than its methods and
techniques.
It relates to the use of accounting Knowledge, economic models, mathematical rules, system
analysis, and behavioural sciences for the speci fic purpose of assisting management in its
functions of planning and control. It is a pract ice that ensure that limited financial resources
are efficiently planned and allocated within various contending alternati ves for optima l
results.
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MANAGEMENT PROFESSION
AL
ELEMENTS OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
FUNCTIONS OF FINANCE MANAGER
MANAGEMENT FUNCTI ONS
As a Figure Head
As a Leader

Financia l Accounting
Management Accounting
Law
Economics
Behavioural Science, and
Quantitati ve Methods
H. Mintzberg identif ied the fo llowing functions of managers in f inancial management.
Management Function s
Figure Head
Leader
Liaison:
a. monitor (Nerve centre)
b. Disseminator
c. Spokes person
He acts as the symb ol or representati ve of the organ ization on financia l matters
He attends relev ant meetings
Heads the local influential finance club
Represents t he CEO on financia l issues
Receives visitors
Keeps important d ocuments
The finance manager moti vates and encourages his subor dinates.
He interacts with subordinates and develop them;
He parti cipates in performance interview and selects training opportu nities for
subordinates.

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As a Liaison Officer
As a Monitor
As a Dis seminator
As a Spokes Person
Entrepreneur
Disturbance H andler
As a Resource Allocat or
He establ ishes and maintains a network of re lationship inside and outside firm.
Belonging to a professional body and meeting over lunch with people in other organization
helps the manager to perform the lia ison role .
He gathers information from the environment inside and outside the enterprise for decision-
making.
He may attend meeting with subordinates, scan job done or publications, participate in
committees.
He transmit re levant information rece ived to the sub ordinates.
He conduct s staff meeting, send memoran dum to staff mem bers, and meet informally w ith
staff members discuses current an d future progress of the firm.
He transmits information to the outsiders.
He oversea the preparation of annual reports, prepares and speaks at the professional meeting
plan.
He give relevant adv ice to management on financial matters.
The Finance manager acts as an initiator and a designer of control led change in the
organizat ion.
He identi fies investment op portunities thei r associated r isk profi les
He designs the job of subordinates, brings new technology to the organization.
Non-Routine problems m ust be an ticipated.
He deals with the problem that arises when operations breakdown, confl icts exists, loss of
markets, stock out experienced, and po or performance indicators persists.
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TAXATION
MGT
FINANCIAL
AUDIT
BUDG STOR FINANCI
AL
TREAS INTERN EXTER
COSTING
He is a major factor in resource a llocation of the organizat ion.
He controls the al locat ion of people, mone y, and time.
Programme sub ordinates work efforts and authorizing a ll significant decis ions. [Preparation
of a budget is major aspect of this role ].
The finance Manager frequently must negotiate with outsiders in matters affecting the
organizat ion finances.
A manager who hires a new Employee, negotiates work assignments or pay compensation to
that perso n, negotiates w ith banks, creditors etc per forms this role.
Accounting functions may be grouped under three main headings - Genera l, spec ific, and
adhoc.
Access to bo oks and records of the enterprise
Request for information and ex planation necessary for his duties
Carry out special invest igation
As a Negotiat or
PROFESS IONAL FUNCTIONS
ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS
Powers
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PROFESSION
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General Du ties
These are duties as sociated with the classical definition of accounting which include:
Specific Duties
Adhoc Duties
Treasury Duties
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Extraction and collect ion of data
Summarizing information
Analyzing, information and
Communication of informat ion
Interpreting information
These are duties relating to the classifications of accounting as a discipline and those holding
the position of Accoun tants in var ious organizat ions.
Maintenance of interna l control system
Maintenance of proper books of accounts
Collect ion of a ll revenue.
Ensure that m oney is expe nded for the purpose in which they are meant for
Prepare f inancial reports
Preparation of annual budget
Planning, or ganising, direct ing, control ling, staf fing
Monitor operational act ivities of business
Design of Accounting system
Determine investment op portunities
Investment appraisals
Valuat ion of securi ties
Sourcing for funds
Determine f inancial projections
Security and custo dy of security doc uments and books of accoun ts
Provide f inanci al advice to manage
Maintenance of adequate cash an d expenditure control
Determine product prices
Provide speci fic financi al statement:
Debtors/Creditors
Assets and Liabi lities
Revenue and Ex penses
Cash and Bank Balances
Cash flow
Preparation of transcr ipts
Receipts and disburseme nt of funds
Carry out all banking t ransactions
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Advice on investment op portunities
Ensure adequate internal control system
Codificat ion of transactions
Cost classif ication/Al locat ion
Cost apportionment/ab sorption
Budget Preparat ion
Store management
Determination of product prices
Performance appraisal
Classif icat ion of stores
Maintenance of proper books of accounts record s
Proper arrangement/clean liness of the stores
Prepare purchase requisit ion
Receipts and issuance of store items
Update the bin card/stock cards
Preparation of store rece ipts/issues vouchers
Responsible for loss of stores
Set system of internal control/accounting procedures, guide, etc.
Internal Audit
Review accounting system
Review internal control system
Examination of financ ial and other information
Review organizational pol icies
Ensure compliance with corporate poli cies
Conduct special investi gation
Given advi ce to management
Examination of accounting records and expression of opinion on true and fair view of
the financia l statements.
Business va luation
Preparation of pre-investment reports
Tax consultancy
Secretar ial duties
Management cons ultancy
Audit Planning
Management Account ant Roles in Financial Management
Store Keeper R oles in Financial Management
As an Auditor Roles in Financial Management
External Auditor R oles in Financial Management

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PROBLEMS OF FIN ANCE MANAGERS
Decision Making
Problem Of Budgeting
Problems Revenue
Expenditure Problems
Problem of Supervision
THE HUMAN ELEMENTS
Corruption :
In the public sector decision-making is very complex and sometimes based on political
considerations instead of econo mic impact and real ities of the dec ision outcome.
Gap between appr oval authority and o rganizat ion executing the budget.
Too much delay in budget approval.
Delays in release of budgetary provis ions.
Cash backing comes very l ate.
Lack of commitments.
Budget is regarded as annual ritua ls instead of action plan of the enterprise.
Balancing the budget is difficult as pol itical and economic policies of the state are not
consistent.
Where to get the mone y.
How to keep the mo ney,
Where to keep the mo ney,
How to util ise the money,
Over reliance on one s ource of revenue
Prudence
Transparency; and
Accountability
Most of the institutions supervising government establishments are not committed to their
responsibilities in terms, of compliance w ith the establ ish laws.
Laxity, inefficiency and ignorance of system set are evidence which charact erized
supervisory bo dies.
The misuse of public power for private and personal benefits. It manifest in various
dimensions:

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Accepting and g iven gratification
Fraudulent acquisition of property
Frustration of invest igation
Bribery of public of ficials, etc
Funds provided for a project may be diverted to private packets
Poor planning ,inabi lity to organize public resources, lack of direct ion, control and
inappropriate staff ing.
No yardstick for measurement of performance
Weak Internal control mechanism
Disregard to the rule of law
Diversion of public funds.
Wasteful spending,
Poor bu dgeting system
Political crisis, etc.
A finance manager work ing in such an environment is b ound to fail.
Financia l management determines the extent to which activities, programmes and project s or
development and growth are effect ively implemented. While a good financial management
ensures that targeted results are achieved given a limited financial resources. Poor financial
management result in wastages and poor growth in socia l economic deve lopment.
CONCLUSION
230
SESSSION XXVII
HUMAN BEHAVIOUR IN
ORGANIZATIONS
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HUMAN BEHAVI OUR IN ORGANI ZATIONS

.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
Prime Que stions
The Basis of Human Personality (Intrinsic)
I n an effort to guide and direct others,
the manager must first of all acquire an
understanding of the nature of hu man
behaviour
Dale Beach
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
analyse the reasons wh y people behave as they do;
explore the various means by which managers can stimulate and guide the conduct
and actions of mem bers of their organi zat ions; and
understa nd human behaviour at work
People are the most important resource in organization. They are versat ile and the only
active agent of production capable of thinking, planning, executing and achieving
organizat ion goals by using other passive factors of production.
Mutual benefit character izes the relationship between peo ple (workers) and organ izations that
employ them. The organizat ion has work to be done (productivity), whi le employees have
personal needs to be met.
People, human beings as individuals, are however very complex in thei r psychologica l make
up and when they interact with one another in groups and in large organizations, the
complexities mult iply.
Scientists still have a lot to learn about human beings but as a result of systematic
experiment, observation, and clinical studies, behavioura l scientist have developed some
insight into the nature and conditions of human behaviour in organizations.
Why do people act as they do?
What do they seek out of life?
Why do some have high levels of aspiration and others do not?
Are most hu man drives and wants consistent in organizat ions?
To understan d a person, we must be aware of how he thinks and feels about himself or
herself. This self concept of man is usually acquired during ones formati ve years as a ch ild.

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The image of self that an individual holds may not be a fully accurate representation, but he
will tend to behave in accordance with his own self image. His act ions are thus a function of
how he views himself . Even though a persons knowledge of himself may be vague, he will
still strive at all times to be true to his v iews of h imself, I am me concept.
No two peo ple are the same on earth, just as the finger prints experts have a lluded.
Beyond the more noticeable and obvious differences among people which include thei r
physical appearance, voice, intelligence, race, language and general habits, are the less
readi ly apparent differences which are emotional responses to various stimuli, motive ,
attitudes, and mo des of thought (Beach).
The Manger must therefore be perceptive and be eve r alert to the wor ld and personality of the
people he works with subordinates, peers and bosses, if he is to understand and influence
them.
People do not behave in a v acuum or for no reaso n
There is a reason or reasons for a person to behave as he does. Stimulus initiates
behaviour on the part of an indiv idual.
The cause for human behaviour constitutes an interaction between a stimulus e.g.
noise, a threat, a sm ile
People may not be uncooperative for the purpose of being perverse; there are causes
for such behaviour.
Managers must therefore learn to constantly dig beneath surface behaviour to inquire
of it causes. Better yet, create appropriate st imul i for positi ve responses.
Fundamentally, all human action has a cause, which itself is the consequence of the
combined effects of heredity and environment.
Human behaviour is goal seeking, people try to achieve objectives or goals which
when reached wil l satisfy the ir needs; e.g. food wi ll satisfy hunger need.
At the root, of hu man behaviour are s imply needs, wants, or motives.
It is against this back ground that many t heories of motivat ion were bui lt.
Frederick Taylor, in part, can be said to have stimulated and spearheaded the search for
theories when he viewed man in his scient ific management study as inherently lazy and
assume d he can be motivated only by financial incenti ves. Many people today still hold this
assumption to be true particula rly in deve loping countries l ike Nigeria.
Gradually, Theor ists learned that money would motivate employees to a certain point, but
then it wi ll loss value as an incenti ve.
Individual Differences Concept
Human Behaviour is C aused Extrinsic
Basis for Human Acti ons
Classical School (Mone y and Physical Surrounding s)

q
q
q
233
The Theor ists then focused attention on the physical environment of the workers. They
believed that the physical environment and monetary incentives were closely linked in the
sense that morale would be improved by pleasant physical facilities. This would lead to
greater production, which in turn would lead to greater pay with which to satisfy needs for
food, shelter, etc.
Subsequently, the concern with physical surroundings was responsible for the discovery of
the importance of human relations in the organizat ion. The famous Hawthorne studies at
Western Electric USA were directed at finding the optimum physical condit ions under
which assembly line workers could produce. Experiments in changing illumination levels and
other aspects of the work environment led to the discovery that the psychological factors
were more important to the workers than the physical condit ions in determining levels of
productivity.
The human relat ions approach to management, focuse d on t he social nature of mankind. This
requires the employer to create a work situation in which the individual feels that
management cares about him. This was suppo sed to lead to greate r productiv ity on the part of
the employees. Little attention was however given to the need for re-evaluat ing the wor k
process itself, rather, managers were suppo sed to become the friends of the workers and
manipulate them thro ugh human relations programs (paternal ism).
Again, workers often saw through managers whose interest was still that of increasing
productivity through psychological rather than monetary manipulation.
Although the human relations approach certainly helped to humanize the work situation, it
still focused on the individual as a part of the machinery of the organ ization.
For some time, leadership traits and styles were seen as the major concerns for gaining co-
operation of employees. Among the various leadership styles of autocratic, democratic ,
charismatic , and laissez-faire, it was concluded that the democratic style was most effect ive
over the long range, wh ile the laissez-faire leadership seemed ineffe ctive.
The human relations theorists were restr icted also in their studies by concentrating too much
on the individual as part of the organizat ion. It was then left to the organizational humanists,
typified by Chris Argyris, to go beyond the manipulative approaches of human relations and
identify the needs of the indiv idual that affect h is role as a member of organ ization.
Argyr is stated that organizat ions require individual act ions that conflict directly with the
needs of the mature human personality. Instead of fostering independe nce and creativity,
organizat ions require submissive and dependent workers who will do as they are told, and
that the incongruity between personality and organizat ion needs becomes greater the lower
one is in the organization hierarchy. He advocated the fostering of greater responsibil ity for
workers.
Human Relations
Leadership Styles
Individual Need s
234
In recent years many others have built on his approach, and exciting programs have thus been
introduced to capital ize on the abilities of workers long neglected by traditional approaches
(e.g. MBO).
The behav ioural approach stresses that human beings enjoy and need work as much as
recreat ion; therefore, ways should be found to permit employees to use their capacity to their
fullest in the work situation. The key to effect ive organization became what Douglas
McGregor called the Theory Y of organization, stressing the independence, creative ability,
intelligence and wi llingness to perform what is v iewed as useful tasks by employees.
Behavioural scientists also based their analysis on the beli ef that individuals have a hierarchy
of needs -physiological, safety, social, ego and self-actua lization, in that order. As each need
is met, it ceases to be a motiv ator, and the next higher one takes its p lace.
Frederick Herzber g suggested that most organizat ions actually do not build on those needs as
motivators; rather, they tend to focus on hygiene factors, which actually refer to physical
surroundings, status , and the like, which all members of an organizat ion expect anyway.
Basing his analysis on the hierarchy of human needs, Herzberg advocated that organizat ions
use positive growth factors as motivators because motivation comes only from within the
individual. Thus, people are motivated by their own achievement, recognit ion, increased
responsibility and the li kes.
In spite of the fact that different workers respond differently to any particular stimulus, and
that some motivating factors have only a temporary effect, there are a number of factors or
techniques that are general ly accepted as being of value in achieving some measure of
success in encouraging positi ve att itudes of workers in organ izations. These include.
An atmosphere of co-operation and trust generated between manageme nt and staff is
desirable . Perhaps it would be better described as mutual respect as the old autocratic style of
management is now resented b y most workers. A manager is no longer resp ected just because
he is a manager, but by the way he comports himself. Without relinquishing his open
authority, a manager must be seen to have concern about his staff and their needs, and must
nowada ys actively seek their co-operation in making decisions which affect them as
individuals. In other words, there must be generated, an atmosphere of participation, co-
operation and m utual respect.
Human beings have a need to be esteemed and the manager/administrator who realises this
and actively recognises his subordinates as people rather than working units is likely to be
successful in motivat ing them positi vely.
Recognition of the efforts of workers is also necessary, as employees like to feel that thei r
efforts are appreciated, particularly if some improveme nt in performance or some
Behavioural Appro ach
Practical Motiva tion Techniques
Atmosphere:
Recognition:
235
contribution outside the work requirements of the job has been achieved. Words of praise or
encouragement raise the morale of staff, but they must be justified. Mere flattery without a
sound basis will rather have the opposite effect to that intended.
Real ly linked with recognit ion, to many workers, status within their organizat ion is important
to them. To some, it must be open but to others, ordinary recognit ion of status is enough.
Status must however, carry with it commensurate responsibility and authority. Just naming a
worker X supervisor or Y manager/administrator without commensurate responsibi lity or
authority is like bestowing an empty title. It very soon turns sour. Not only does the worker
personally become dissatisf ied, the respect of other workers may be lost and this mutual
respect and regard between members of a work-force is of extreme importance.
Whether management accepts the view that there is this right or not, there is certainly a
strong case for involving work-people in the decision-making process and even, where
appropriate, encouraging them to show initiative in matters affect ing the organizat ion (team
working).
Full part icipat ion would imply formal acceptance of workers in management business either
through consultative committees or some other form of structured involvement. What most
motivates workers is to feel that they are thought of as human beings and not just names on a
payroll. Informa l discussions between managers/administrators and subordinates on matters
concerning work practices, welfare and the host of other problems affecting the work-force
are much appreciated and it builds morale and trust. Care must be taken, however, that
managers are seen to treat such involvement seriously because if they appear to pay only lip-
service to this pract ice then mistrust will very soon occur with disastrous results to any hope
of positive motivat ion.
Any form of financial reward, whether actual cash by way of an increase in pay or bonus or
by way of, say, a special hol iday award is an incentive and not a motivator as has been
pointed out previously. However, such rewards can be the basis for positive motivat ion in the
way that they are bestowe d. Thus, when such a reward is given it should be where possible,
publicised througho ut the organization by the most appropriate means. Promotions and bonus
earnings can be published in the staff journal, with reasons. Prizes for best performance
should be announced at meetings called for the purpose. In this way, all workers are made
aware that management appreciates the efforts of those successful enough to be rewarded and
will motivate them to try to do the same good jobs as the award winners. The successful
ones are also motivated to continue to give high performance.
Some work can be monotonous and boring and this militates against a positi ve att itude by
workers to their jobs. In other words, the worker may derive little sat isfact ion from his work.
Job satisfaction can however be improved and with it motivation, by the simple expedient of
making the work more interesting and requiring a greater application of thought and skill.
Status:
Involvement:
Rewards:
Job Satisfaction :
236
This can be done by increasing the job content while retaining the same type of work (job
enlargement). Anot her method is to extend the range of tasks that have to be performed by
individual workers. This is generally referred to as job enrichment. Both have been used in
practice by some of the major employers with a marked improvement in motivation and
morale.
We have discussed that people go to work in organizat ions with the purpose of achieving
their individual objecti ves (needs). The methods or motivat ion techniques for eliciting or
influencing them were a lso examined.
In the mind of management, how to increase workers productivity is clearly number one, and
there is not even a c lose number two.
In the Nigerian public service unfortunately, the issue is that, public servants are always
accused of non-performance in the discharge of thei r duties. Worse yet, they are said not to
exhibit the r ight att itude or behaviour desired.
On the other hand, the public servants are accusing the government of shoddy welfare
treatment and inability to provide the enabl ing environment for performance. If considered
closely, it can be seen that the issues involv ed are motiv ational for the most part.
The resolut ion therefore lies squarely in proper appreciat ion of human behaviour at work and
effect ive appl ication of the right motivat ion technique s presented in this paper, amongst
others. This is the cha llenge before you as managers in publi c service organ isations that are in
dire need of reforms, reb irth and rebranding.
CONCLUSION
237
SESSION XXVIII
PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND
CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
238
PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND CONTROL MANAGEMENT
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
The Scope of Procurement
At the end of this session, partic ipants wi ll be able to :
Examine Essence of Due Process Reforms in Procureme nt;
Highlight aspects of the Public Procurement Act;
Identify the l ink between Due Process and M&E; and
Examine the chal lenges fac ing execution of current reform in Procurement Process.
Procurement t herefore refe rs to the process b y which government, business
organizat ions and indiv iduals acquire goods, works and services to sat isfy their
respective needs.
It embraces not o nly the purchase of goo ds but also the hiring of contractors or
consultants to carry out services
In the process of growth an d development, different programmes and project s must be
undertaken. For such programme/pr ojects, there is the need for a large input of goods an d
services, which include surplus of materia ls, and equipment of varying descr iption as wel l as
a vast range of consultancy services.
All such goods and services need to be procured in the interest of project success. This is a
function of pu blic procurement and con trol management.
The following act ivities are cover ed by the sco pe of procure ment.
specif ication of the kind and quantity of goo ds or se rvices to be acquired;
invest igation of the market for supply and contacts with pote ntial suppl iers;
placing the order or contract, including negotiat ion of terms;
supervising delivery and performance;
taking necessary actions in the ev ent of non or inadeq uate performance;
payment; and
deal ing with disputes.

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239
BENEFITS OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND DUE PROCESS REGIME
APPRAISING THE DEFICIENCIES IN THE NIGERIAN PRO CUREMENT
PROCESS
PROCUREMENT, GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND THE NEW PROCUREMENT
ACT, 2007
Post 2001 Procurement System in Nigeria
The benefits of a good public procurement and due process are many. But the basic ones
include :
Promotion of competition
Opennes s and Transparenc y
Timeliness
Good Quality Ser vice, Purchases/Works
Competitive Terms and Price
Accounta bility and effect ive and eff icient use of resources.
In appraising the defic iencies in the Ni gerian procurement process before d ue process t he
following are noted:
Process was hap hazard, no o bservance of extant rules and guidel ines
ineffect ive Tender Boards.
High cost of government purchases.
Appli cat ion of select ive tendering rather
than compet itive tendering.
Low capacity and credib ility in the handling of contracts.
In the select ive tendering , officials determine who to inv ite.
No prequalif ication.
Most Min istries did not keep reg ister of contractors.
Limited use of Audit market survey and prices from Federal Ministry of Works
and Bureau of Statistics and adverts from Dai lies.
Rarely do T ender Boards and Procuremen t Officials negotiate downwards.
Patronage of ghost com panies.
At the inception of the new democratic dispensation priority was given to the establishment
of a new procurement order.
The process of obtaining supplies of goods and services especi ally for publ ic sector
organizat ions were done through competitive selection (or bidding ). In addition, clear and
open rules and regulations with optimum effectiveness in and of the item or
service become the focus of the new order.
To give effect to the new procu rement order, Four (4) fundamental ci rculars
were issued to reverse the ug ly trend to bring Transparency, Accountability and
probity to proc urement s ystem in Ni geria.
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v

price quality
240

v
v
v
v
v
v
Finance ci rcular No F15777 of 27th June, 200 1 on New Policy Guidel ines
on Procure ment and award of contract in Government
Ministries/parastatals
Treasury cir cular No A5 & B5/2001 of 30th October 20 01 on Due
process certif ication of contracts.
Treasury cir cular No A4 & B4/ 2002 on guidel ines for implementation on
due proces s certification of contacts
Treasury cir cular No. TRY/A4 & B4/2008 of 23
rd
Apr il, 2008 on guidelines
for release of fund (Appendix 1)
There are three approved thresh olds for the approval and award of federa l government
contract or procureme nt of government su pplies.
They are :
Contract below N1m
Contract ab ove N1m
Contract of N50 and above
Government co ntract are made in accordance w ith the ordinary law of contract, there must be
an and an and the intention of lega lity.
The enti re contract process must be transparent and be done in accordance with the
stipulated procurement Act.
No procureme nt should be ma de where there is no budgetary provision in the
affected f iscal year.
The purchasing off icer while deal ing with local purchases and indents of supplies of
contract below N1m must observe the extant financial regulations Governing
local purchase or job order, store requisit ions procedure by the DA in-charge
and proper documentation by t he store officers.
All local purchases of goods, works and services costing over N 1 Million must
be outstanding contract for public tender.
No contract mu st be awarded without passing through competitive tendering
process.
Any contract above N I Million not covered by d ue process certification shall be null
and void and no public fund sho uld be expen ded for suc h purpose.
The New Public procurement A ct of May 17 200 7
(Highlights of the guideli nes)
offer acceptance
241
v

For the second and third level contracts the tender process must be followed and
appropriate framework (compositio n) both for a Resident due Process Team
(RDPT) and BMPIU must be strictly fo llowed.
The present economic reform programme of the Federal Government on May 17, 2007 got a
boost with the passage of the Public Procurement Act by the Senate.
Restoring transparency
Accountability
Prudence in governance
Stipulates a ten-year ja il term without an o ption of fine for f raudulent contractors an d
their collaborators
Bureau of Public Procurement was established
It is charged with the task of restor ing sanity to the procurement s ystem.
The nat ional counci l on public procurement to be hea ded by the Finance Minister was
also establ ished
Other members include: AGF, SGF and HOSF
Consider, approve and amend the monetary and prior review thresholds for the
applicat ion of the provis ions of this Act by procuring entit ies;
Consider and approve policies on public procurement; and Receive and consider for
approval, the audited accounts of the Bureau for Public Procurement.
Formulate the general policies and guidel ines relating to public sector procuremen t
for the approval of the council .
Publish and explain the provis ions of this Act; supervise the implementation of
established procurement policies
Monitor the prices of tendered items and keep a national database of standard prices;
and publish the detai ls of major contracts in the procurement j ournal.
Maintain a national database of the particulars and classification and
categor ization of federal contractors and service prov iders;
Enforce the monetary a nd prior rev iew threshold set by the Cou ncil for the
applicat ion of the provis ion of this Act by the procuring entities
APPRAISING THE NEW PROCUREMENT A CT
Aims of the New Public Procurement Act
Functions of the Council
Functions of the Bureau f or Public Procurement
242

Issue a cert ificate of no objection for contracts awarded within the prior review
threshold for al l procurement within the prev iew of th is Act; and
Review and determine whether any procuring entity has violated any provision of this
Act.
The Bureau is also char ged with the power to debar any supplier, contractor or serv ice
provider that contravenes any provision of this Act, nullify the whole or any part of
any procurement proceeding or award that is in contravention of this Act; or
Direct the discontinue, stopp age, suspension or seizure of any paymen t from the
treasury or any ba nk account p urportedly paid or due un der any procureme nt
contract, activity or proceeding which has contravened or is likely to be in
contravention of any provision of this Act.
The office (BPIU) popularly called Due process office was establ ished in 2003 in the
Presidency.
To restore fiscal transparency, enforce strict compl iance to procurement rules and procedure,
promote efficiency in costing, pr ivatization and execu tion of bu dget expen diture.
To enforce str ict adherence to project planning and procure ment.
To introduce more h onest y, accountabil ity and transparency into pr ocuremen t process.
To establ ish and update pricing standards and benchmarks for a ll supplies to gove rnment.
To monitor the implementation of projects during execution with a vow to providing
information on performance, output and compliance with specification and target.
To ensure that only projects which have been budgeted for are admitted for execution.
Regulatory;
Certification;
Monitoring;
Training; and
Advisory functions
To regulate and set standards, including the enforcement of harmo nized bidding and
tender doc uments.
To formulate the general policies and guide lines related to public sector procurement.
To develop, update and maintain a related system wide database and technology.
THE NEW PUBLIC PRO CUREMENT A CTS AND DUE PRO CESS
The Office Operates in a:
Regulatory Functions are:
243

To undertake procureme nt research and survey in order to determine information


needs an d project costing.
To enforce professional ethics and sanction err ing officers and professionals.
The unit ce rtifies all Federal-wide procurement u nder the following guidelines:
Resident Due process Team Certification for projects below N 50 million.
Full Due Process Certi fication for projects above N50 m illion at var ious stages
such as contract award cert ificate and pa yment certif icate.
To superv ise the implementation of establ ished procurement policies.
To monitor the prices of tendered items.
To perform procurement audits.
To undertake the monitoring of capital projects that have exceeded 50% of contract
sum before release of further funds.
To docume nt all projects at award and completion stages and publish same in
designated journals.
To coordinate re levant tra ining programmes for institutional capac ity building.
To embark on regu lar public en lightenment programmes so as to sensitize various
stakeholders invo lved in procurement.
To interact with Government and parastatals offi cials, National Assembly,
members, co nsultants an d relevant professional bodies so as to educate them on all
aspects of the work of the Due Process Office.
The guidelines for implementation of Due Process Certification of Contract Prov ides
a plan for the implementation of the Capital Budget. In summar y the guidel ine
directs that:
Contracts below N1.0 million shall be approved by the Permanent Secretar y/Chief
Executive units.
Contracts over N1.0 m illion but below N50.0 million shall be approved b y a Resident
Due Process Team (RDPT)
The Certification Functions are:
The Monit oring Functions are:
Training and Advisory Functions are:
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244
Contracts above N50.0 million shall be processe d in accordance with Governmen t
guidelines and approved by t he Ministe rial Tender Board before being forwarded
to BMPIU to obtain a Due Process Certi ficate. When this cert ificate is obtained, the
project would be forwarded to the Federal Executive counci l for approval before an
award can be made.
The procedures for the Due Process Review include the provision of the following
requirements:
The project pol icy file
Tender returns
Tender e valuation report
Contract award letter and ag reement
Original contract bi lls of quantities (if any)
Contract drawings ( if any)
Other contract document s
Financial summary and statements
Progress reports
Variation request and variat ion orders ar ising
Interim va luat ion cert ificates
This enti re process flows w ith the fol lowing support p olicies to ensure an efficient,
responsible, and transparent and fraud free procurement regime:
Government depart ments should not embark on new project s when there is the
problem of funding the existing ones.
Procurement planning as a major instrument.
Project feasib ility and design as fundame ntal requirement.
Technically competent and integrity conscious offic ials in government departmen ts to
be in charge of procurement planning.
No select ive tendering a rrangements quali fy.
Unadvertised projects do not qualify.
The procedure natural ly include meetings with all parties to the transaction with the Due
Process Office setting out of draft report, organization of right of reply meetings and granting
or denial of cert ification.
The Tendering process covers the fo llowing areas:
Preparation of B id Document s
Specif ication and Scope of Work
Terms of Reference ( TOR)
Request for Prop osal (RFP)
Invitat ion for Bid (IFB) Documents (Bid Sol icitation)
Advertis ing and Transparency
Bid Evaluat ion and Co ntracting
TENDER PROCESS

245
Specificati on and Sc ope of Work
Terms of Refer ence ( TOR)
Background Informa tion
Objectives
Request For Proposal RFP) or Pre - Qualifica tion
Invitation f or Bid (IFB)

Describes c learly the items to be procured


Specify quantity
Specify qual ity (e. g. Brand name and s pecification to be detailed)
The terms of Reference w ill contain the fol lowing requi rement:
(i) Background information
(ii) The objecti ves of the p roject
(iii) Scope of work to be carr ied out
(iv) Inputs
(v) Expected o utput (Del iverable)
(vi) Minimum qualification
(vii) Reporting
(viii) Duration
(ix) Client responsibil ity
This describes what the contract is all about, where the money to finance the project comes
from.
These states what to be achieved at the end of the contract. It must be an improveme nt on the
background information
(
This is usually publ ished in at least 2 Nat ional Newspapers or in the Federal Tender
Journal for any contract above N 1 M illion
It is an invitation to contractors to ex press interest in rendering such serv ices.
It contains the fol lowing:
(i) Introduction/ preambles
(ii) Scope of work
(iii) Method of Application
(iv) Submission of pre - qual ification
Docume nts
(v) Date and place of submission.
It is a letter sent to contractors who have made a pre-quali ficat ion requirements. Asking the
company to forma lly bid for the contract.
246
The IFB will include the fol lowing:
(i) Letter of Inv itation
(ii) Instruction to co nsultants
(iii) Techni cal proposal
(iv) Financia l Proposal
(v) Terms of Reference
(vi) Standard forms of collection.
It is mandatory for a contract above N 1 Million to be advertised in Nat ional Newspaper or
Federal Tender Journal and at least 3 companies must have quoted before the contract can be
awarded.
The choice of the winning companies must be at arm length i.e. not related to the people
making the choice and satisfy a ll other conditions.
This involves:
Bid opening
Public opening of bid before representati ves of contractors Announcement of quoted
price at the bid opening venue .
Signing of the bid form by contractors representative.
The Wor ld Bank works to ensure that procurement in projects financed by the international
Banks is conducte d in accordance with Art icles of Agreement.
The articles requi re the bank to make arrangements to ens ure that loan proceeds are used only
for the purp ose for which it was obtained. The Bank gives equal importance to supporting the
management an d reform of pu blic procurement s ystems in borrower cou ntries.
Increasing the efficiency, fairness and transparency of the expenditure of public resources is
critical to sustainable deve lopment an d the reduction of p overty.
To provide all eligible prospective bidders with timely and adequate notification of a
borrowers req uirements and an eq ual opportunity to bid for the required goods an d works.
(i)
The bidding documents shall clearly state the type of contract to be entered
into and contained proposed contract provisions.
(ii) Notification and Advertis ing:
Advertisin g and Transpa rency
Bid Evaluation and Contracting
WORLD BANK STANDARD PRO CEDURE FOR PRO CUREMENT
Objective of the Guideline

Type and size of co ntracts:


247
Timely notificat ion of bidding opportunities is essentia l in competition
bidding. Invitation to pre -qualify or bid as the case may be shall be
advertised as speci fic procureme nt notices in at least one newspaper of
national circulation in the borrowers country and shall be given in suff icient
time to enable prospective bidders to obtain prequalif ication or bidding
document s and prepare and su bmit their responses.
(iii)
This is to ensure that invitation to bid are extended only to those who have
adequate capa bilities and resources.
Prequali fication shall be based entirely upon the capabil ity and resources of
prospective bidders to perform the parti cular contract sa tisfactori ly, taking into
account their:
(a) Experience and past performance o n simil ar contracts.
(b) Capabil ities with respect to personal equipment.
(iv
The scope of the contract and a clear statement of the requirements for
prequalification shal l be sent to those wh o responded to the invitat ion.
All appl icants who meet requirement shall qual ify to bid.
As soon as prequalif ication is completed, the bidding documents s hall be made
available to the qualif ied prospective bidders .
Verification of the information provided in the submission for prequalification
shall be confirmed at the time of award of contract and award may be denied
to a bidder that is judged to no longer have the capabil ity or resources to
successfully perform the contract.
(v)
The bidding docume nts shall furnish all information necessary for a
prospective bidder to prepare a bid for the goods and work to be provided.
The bid package includes the fol lowing:
(a) Invitat ion to bid
(b) Instructions to bid ders
(c) Form of bid, form of contract, conditions of contracts and general conditions.
(d) List of goods or bil l of quantiti es, del ivery t ime or schedule of completion.
(e) Basis for bid e valuation.
(f) If fees is char ged for the bidding docume nts, it shal l be reasonable.
Prequalifica tion of Bidders:
) Financial Position
Bidding Documents
248
Validity of Bids and Bid Security
Language
Other Bidding Requirements are:
CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINING REFORMS IN PROCUREMENT PRO CESS
Bidders shall be required to submit bids valid for a period specifi ed in the bidding document s
which shal l be suff icient to enable the borrower to complete the com parison and evaluation of
bids, review the recommendation of award with bank, and obtain all necessary approvals so
that the contract can be awarded.
It shal l be wr itten in one of the fol lowing languages. English, French or Spanish.
Clarity of bidding document
Standards
Use of brand names
Pricing and price adjustment
Transportation and insurance
Currency bid and c urrency conversion for bid comparison
Currency of pa yment
Terms and meth ods of payment
Performance security
Force majored
Applicab le law and settlement of disputes
Lack of suff icient Gu ide and Uni formity in Procurement Proces s.
Public reluctance at part icipating in public bidding where there is no adequate
measurable pre-determined yardstick to determine lowest evaluated bid.
Over-central ization of Due Process acti vities.
Low-level involvement of National Planning Commission in Due Process
Certification.
Extent of Economic Libera lization / Competition .
Due re gard for law and order
Protect ion of property rights
Sanctity of contracts
Respect for freedom and hu man rights
Low cost of business o peration
Avoidance of delay in Budget Process and in passage of

249
Appropriation B ill.
Openness in budget preparation, execution and reporting to ensure wider coverage
and maximum co mprehensiveness and accessibil ity.
Effect of fund sufficiency in timely completion of work Indifference of the BMPI to
schedule of payment.
Societa l values and in dividual att itude to accounta bility att itudinal change required
Relevance of Good Governance.
~ Peacefu l environment
~ Pol itical stabi lity
~ Strong judici ary for fa ir arbitration
~ Free flow of information
~ Government determination to fight corruption
Ministries/Parastata ls should not embark on new projects when there is problem of
funding existing ones.
Project feasibility and design should be completed before embarking on procurement and
award.
Only projects for which f unds have been previously appro priated should be implemented.
Projects where the procureme nts were not advertised, should not be undertaken.
Projects should only be embarked upon when adequate cash flow projections have been
done and agreed to.

LESSONS LEARNT
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MODULE XXIX
COUNCIL MEMORANDUM
WRITING
251
COUNCIL MEMORANDUM WRITING
Learning Ob jectives
Introduction
Types of Council
Council Documents
Definition of Council Memo
Types of c ouncil memo
Sources of Memo
At the end of this mo dule, partic ipants wi ll be able to:
Define Council Memo;
Know different types of cou ncil;
Understand a doc ument s;
Identify sources of mem o; and
Explain format of a memo/note.
Lack of knowledge of the importance of Cou ncil Memo by civ il servants;
Decline in the standard of memo presented to Council facts, accuracy, clarity of
thought, etc.
Approval of memo faci litates project implemen tation;
Rejection of memo is an embarrassme nt to t he President/Hon. Minister.
Federal Executive Counci l - 5,147 CFRN
Council of State - 5,153 CFRN
Council Memo
Council Note
Agenda
Council Conclusions
Extract of Conclusions
Is to seek approval, ratification of directives of council for the purpose of implementation of
policies, laws, projects, etc.
Policy memo
Financia l memo
Legislative/Judic ial memo
Joint memo
President

252

MDAs
Heading
Ownership
Security Class ification
Code Nu mber
Date of Production
Copy Number
Name of Cou ncil
Author
Previous Reference ( if any)
Introduction
Body of Memo/N ote
Prayers
Authors Initials
Name of Min istry
Location of Min istry
Date Memo/Note was init iated by the author.
The minister must have g iven a wr itten di rect ive that a memo/n ote be put up.
Apply the basic technique s for clear writing, i.e. think clearly, assembly facts, arrange
points in logical sequence and com mit views to paper.
Study careful ly some previous memoranda and notes. The precedents adopted should
be modified to suit the present purp ose.
Where necessary, should conduct research by studying relevant pol icies, statutes,
files, books, reports, financia l regulations, public ser vice rules, etc.
Should be familiar with domestic and international polit ical, social, economic and
cultural problems and developments.
Paragraphing is important and should not be too short or too long. Essential ly, it
should convey a ful l argument or a set of re lated arguments. It should be re lated to the
subject matter and numbered in Arabic figures, i.e. 1, 2, 3, etc. The sub-paragraph
should be numbered in small Roman figures, i.e. (i), (ii), (iii), etc. or sma ll alphabets,
i.e. a, b, c, etc.
The memorandu m/Note should be in the format required by the Co uncil.
Avoid slangs, flowery language because they add no value to the Memo/Note. Also
avoid spel ling mistakes, and improper use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, interjections,
adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, question marks, punctuation rules, colon, semi-
colon, comma, full stop, dash, parenthese s, abbreviat ions, etc. note the use of present
tense, past tense, future tense, simple tense, etc.
Avoid verbosity but should give a succinct analysis of the subject matter, providing
various possible decision options open to Council.
Memorand um should be cleared, where necessary with the Ministry of Finance,
Establishment and Managemen t Services, Ministry of Justice, etc. Evidence of
clearance should be attached as An nex to the Memoran dum.
Format o f Memo/No te
Hints on Memo/Note Writing
253

The length of memo should not be more than 3 to 5 pages and other relevant
information should be attached as annex to the Memo/Note and should not be
indicated in the body of the Memo/Note.
Prayers are to be couched in short, cogent but full sentences, beginning with
functional verbs, e.g. note, agree, approve, etc. and a semi-colon inserted at the
end of each prayer.
There should be nexus between the body of the Memo/Note and the Prayers; and such
prayers sho uld be a syn opsis of the content of the Mem o/Note.
Provide previous reference where the subject of the Memorandum or Note has
previously been considered by Council. This is to facilitate cross-referencing and,
thereby, aid Council in taking decision on t he Memorand um or Note.
Financia l (contract) Memoranda sho uld indicate the fo llowing:
Scope of work;
Compliance with Due Process Guidel ines (Due Process Certificates); Do not
attach the Due Process Report to the Memorandum but the officials
accompa nying the Minister to Council Meet ing should take along with them
the Due Process Report and other details such as Bill of Quantities, to respond
to clar ifications need by C ouncil.
No objection Letter from the Ministry of Finance, or authenticated copy of
the Appro priation Act indicat ing budgetary provis ion for the project.
Completion period
Consultancy co ntracts sho uld be tied to the l ife-span of projects.
Procurement s hould be from man ufacturers or their acc redited a gents.
Tender ana lysis and eva luation should be highl ighted.
Projects in FCT to be clea red with FCDA.
Indication of the official estimates to allow for objective comparison with
contractors bids, i.e. to act as benchmark.
Though the contractor, the price and award process must be right but contracts
need not be awarded to the contractor with the best competitive bit. Need to
consider completion period, compete ncy, experience, etc.
The figures in par. 1 of Contract Memo and the last prayer of the Memo
should be the same. The figures in the last prayer should also be stated in
words.
Cross-check fi gure to identi fy any arithmetic error.
Could make provision for contingency but not for variation in the contract
sum. In exceptional cases, variation should be justified; the offshore
component should be paid at the prevai ling exchange rate at the time of
payment.
As part of due diligence, check if the companies (bidders) are registered with
the Corporate Affairs Commission.
Ensure the correctness of the preferred contractors name.
The cover ing letter conveying draft memo/no te to the Cabinet Secretariat,
should be signed by the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry, since he would
take responsibi lity for inadequacies in the docume nt.
It is in the interest of MDAs to respond promptly to requests made by the
Cabinet Secretariat for clarification in their draft memo/ note, for additional
annexure, or any other information or materials necessary for processing the
Memo/Note to Council. Where there is delay in MDAs response, the affected
Memo/Note wo uld be steppe d down or returned t o the concerned MDA.
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254
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Due to the nature and importance of Council Memoranda/Notes, their drafts
should be vetted by the Directors and Permanent Secretaries before their
presentation to the Minister for initialling.
Forward the policy file in which Memorandu m/Note was treated along with
the soft copy (flash disk) containing the Memo/Note and 160 copies of
annexure, to the Cabinet Secretariat for processing to the Federal Executive
Council (FEC). The number of Annexure for Council of State is 120 copies.
A good Memorandum or Note, in form and content, should aim at satisfying the Council by
complying with a ll the guidelines given in th is paper. The classic format must be preserved as
individual autho rs are not allowed to vary it. A Counci l Memorandum is like an advocates
brief before a judge and the Counsels plea either succeeds or fails. Thus, the success of a
Council Memorandum depends on its form and content. The specified skills required for
writing a draft Counci l Memorandu m and Note would be acquired faster by frequent
practice.
1. Ajulo S. B. The President -In-Council. The Re-birth of Democracy in a Great
Nation; (Rev ised, Second Edition);
2. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999;
3. Office of Estab lishment an d Management Services Civil Service Handbo ok.
4. The New Websters Dictionary of Eng lish Language.
CONCLUSION
References
255
FORMAT A COUNCIL MEMO
HEADING
THIS DOCUMENT IS THE PROPERTY OF THE FEDERAL EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
SECRET
EC(2009)
April, 2009 COPY NO________________
FEDERAL EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
Subject/Topic:......................................................................................
..............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................
Author...................................................................................................
Previous Ref: If applicable
..............................................................................................................
BODY
Para 1 - Purpose/aim of memorandum
Para 2 - Background information including the subject
matters relevant to the vision of Government, derivable benefits,
e.g. Democracy Dividend, Scope of Work, Cogent argument to prove
that the Memo is worth the attention of Council providing statistical
data, procedure leading to the recommended plan of action,
evidence of other stakeholders involvement and input, financial
provisions and sources. Evidence must be attached.
PRAYER
Summary of the body of the Memorandum in order of presentation
starting from paragraph 2.
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SESSION XXX
MINUTING AND MINUTES
WRITING
257
MINUTING AND MINUTES WRITING
Communication
Types of Communicati on
Means of Offici al Communication in the Civil Service
Minut ing
When Not to Minute
1.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary definit ion: the activity or process of
expressing ideas and fee lings or of g iving people information.
The three ma in aspects are :
the act that starts it,
the State or status of the act;
and the impact of the act.
2.
Verbal;
Non-verbal
3.
Letters
Reports
Circulars
Meetings
Minutes
Minuting
Drafts
Council Memo
Council Note etc.
4.
Minuting is communication in writing usual ly in files, between two or more officials.
It is normal ly used to consider and settle matters or to di rect what act ion may be taken
in a given circumstance.
5.
The matter can be cleared by discussion at a meeting, usually informal, or by
telephone. Telephone should not be used for secret or confidential matters;
The matter is routine in mature;
The matter could be re ferred to a more senior offi cer who is fami liar with the
background of the subject -matter;
It is str aight forward and no further information or guidance can useful ly be
added; and

258

The subject matter assume d technical or professiona l knowledg e which the


schedule off icer is not fami liar with. Thus, the matter should be ref erred to the
professional.
6.
Top left-hand side refer to the person to whom it is written by appointment;
Text of the Minute;
Signature or initials of the wr iter;
Type written or stamped name of the writer;
Post held by writer;
Date minute is wr itten.
7.
State brief ly the matter at issue;
State present position and facts affecting it, supporting the statement by reference to
previous papers;
Verify whether or not the report, or proposal or request accords with extant laws e.g.
Public Se rvice Rules, F inancial Regulat ions, Ci rculars etc. The relevant law/rules may
be quoted or a cop y of the d ocument ma y be attached;
Indicate any previous decisions which may be relevant to the point at issue, i.e.
precedents facts or arguments which may influence the action to be taken should be
highlighted; and
Suggest what action you pro pose should be taken (draft should be attached , e.g. Reply
to letter) .
8.
This is the records of Meet ings. It indicates matters discussed and decisions taken on
them.
9.
Council Conclusions
Standard Minutes
Executive Summary
10.
The part ies concerned;
Venue of the Meeting; and
Date and T ime.
A tabulated list of those present, absent and in attendance sometimes, absentee s
Forms and Content of a Minute
How to Build a Minute
Minutes of Meeting
Types of Minutes
Format and Fea tures of Minutes of Meeting
Heading:

259
are indicated, in the capacity they attended or should attend the meeting in
descending order of seniority i.e. Cha irman or member.
The main body of the Minutes:
The opening prayer;
Remarks by the Chairman or Presiding Officer; (welcoming of members,
purpose of meeting etc);
Matters on the Agenda that were discussed each with a suitable headin g;
decisions taken on them;
Matters postp oned, if any;
Closing Remarks (general comments b y the Chairman);
Closing (Venue, date and time of the next meeting, as the case may be).
11.
Avoid slipshod thinking i.e. thinking must not be obscure. Need for clarity of
thought and ex pression. Express y ourself in s imple and direct language;
Bad handwriting; i.e. to be e ligible otherwise should be ty pewritten;
Irrelevances;
Haste;
Inaccurate information;
Indecision;
Stylistic defects and bad grammar e.g . return back
12.
The need for good Communication skills in the Civil Service cannot be over
emphasized. This training programme will no doubt at least, awaken in us, the
importance of developing some of these Skills that will facilitate the dischar ge of our
responsibilities in the pursuit of serv ice excellence.
1. The New Websters Dictionary of the Eng lish Languag e.
2. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
3. Civil Service Handbo ok
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Faults to Guide Against in Minuting and Writing Minutes of Meeting
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES