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Rutherford Gold foil (alpha scattering) experiment

Ruther ford Gold foil (alpha scattering) experiment


To test Thomsons plum pudding model of the atom, Rutherford fired alpha particles (helium nuclei) at
a thin gold foil. Rutherford expected all the alpha particles to pass through undeflected if plum
pudding model was correct.
They following observations were made when alpha particles were fired at the thin gold foil:
- most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil undeflected
- a few alpha particles were deflected at small angles
- Very few alpha particles were found bouncing back almost through their path of incidence.
onclusions drawn by Rutherford experiment from the above observations.
Conclusions
! "n atom is mostly made up of large empty space
# The centre of an atom called the nucleus is very small.
$ The nucleus is massive
% The nucleus is positively charged.
- Rutherford described a particle with no overall charge as neutral doublet meaning a particle made up
of a positively charge proton and a negatively charge electron (&! '! ( ), *ero is the neutral doublet).
- +utting evidence so far collected about atomic structure and Rutherfords experiment together,
Rutherford suggested there was still an undiscovered particle in an atom similar to a proton but
carries no charge.
- ,n !-$#, .ames hadwic/ fired alpha particles at a beryllium foil /noc/ed out particles that had a
similar mass to that of protons but no electrical charge. hadwic/ then called these particles neutrons
which had earlier been predicted by Rutherford and called neutral doublet.
- Rutherford neutral doublet made scientists to thin/ that a neutron was a particle made by combining
an electron to a proton.
- ,nvestigations on the neutron showed that it was not made up of a proton and an electron. ,t was
rather a particle with no charge similar to a proton.
Summary:
' "im of Rutherford gold foil experiment was to verify the validity of the plum pudding model.
' Rutherford fired alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin gold foil and noticed most of the
alpha particles passed through straight with only a few bouncing bac/ or deflected.
' Rutherford predicted an undiscovered particle in an atom which he called neutral doublet
meaning 0made up of a proton and an electron1.
' ,n !-$#, .ames hadwic/ discovered the Rutherford predicted neutral doublet and named
it neutron
' ,nvestigations on the neutron showed that it was not made up of a proton and an electron.
,t was rather a particle with no charge similar to a proton.
Plenery
' 2hat name is given to Rutherfords experiment on the investigation of atomic structure3
' 2hat did you learn about Rutherfords gold foil experiment3
' 4ow many particles can then be present in an atom3
Assignment:
1. 2hat two names are used to describe Rutherfords experiment on the investigation of atomic structure3
2. 2rite down the observations made by Rutherford in his experiment on atomic structure
3. ,n your opinion, why did Rutherford conclude that:
(a) 5ost of the atom was an empty space
(b) The nucleus was small
(c) The nucleus was positively charged
4.