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FKKKSA

FILTRATION
- Pressure difference is set up that causes the fluid to flow
- fluid flow through small holes of a screen/cloth
- retains the large solid particles as a separate phase (porous cake)
- passes the clear filtrate
- Separation of solids from liquids by passing a suspension
through a permeable medium which retains the particles
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FKKKSA
DISTILLATION
2 methods of distillation:
eg. Ethanol-water:
vapour phase = higher conc. of ethanol
liquid phase = higher conc. of water
separation of different components in a liquid solution
involved producing a vapour from a liquid
by heating the liquid in a vessel
! rectification/fractional/distillation with reflux part of the vapour is
condensed & returned as liquid back to the vessel
! all of the vapour is removed or is condensed as product
FKKKSA
ABSORPTION
eg. absorbing NH
3
from air using liquid water,
Acetone from air using liquid water
liquid solvent phase is immiscible in the gas phase
separating a solute/pollutant (A) or several solutes from a gas phase
by contacting the gas with a liquid solvent phase
solute is removed from a liquid by contacting it with a gas
STRIPPING/DESORPTION
FKKKSA
removing large amount of liquid by boiling off some of the liquid
EVAPORATION
vapour removed as top product
concentrated solution as bottom product
(a) Falling-film evaporator (b) Climbing-film evaporator
FKKKSA
DRYING
removal of relatively small amount of water or organic liquids
final processing step before packaging
freeze-dried for biological & pharmaceutical materials
as a preservative technique esp. food
2 methods of drying:
1. batch - material put into dryer & drying proceeds for a given period of time
2. continuous - material continously added to dryer & continously removed
FKKKSA
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION/SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Separation of two miscible liquids using another liquid (solvent)
Eg. Vitamin A and D (solute) from fish oil (inert liquid) using liquid
propene (solvent)
raffinate is the exit residual stream containing
little solute
extract is the exit solvent rich stream containing
the desired extracted solute
lighter liquid flows upward while the heavier
liquid flows downward
Two immiscible fluids, usually one light and one
heavy fluid, flowing continuously in opposite
directions are brought together and allowed to
separate
FKKKSA
SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION/LEACHING
Separation of solutes from solid using liquid solvent
Eg. Soya milk (solute) from soya bean (inert solid) using water (liquid
solvent)
Leaching of toxic materials into groundwater is a major health concern
In the metal industry - leaching of copper salts from ground ores
using sulfuric acid or ammoniacal solutions