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# Simulation of a multiple-effect evaporator

Instructions
1. a. On the Tools menu, click Options, then click the Calculation tab and tick on the Iteration box. On Maximum iterations box write 1000
2. For a forward feed 2-effect evaporator
a. Insert parameter values in the yellow cells
b. Turn the "SWITCH" ON (set the value in the cell B9 (red cell) equal to 1)
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
in cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
in cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B34-B38)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or M19
and repeat steps 2a to 2f
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f
3. For a forward-feed 4-effect evaporator
a. Insert parameter values in the yellow cells
b. Turn the "SWITCH" ON (set the value in the cell B9 (red cell) equal to 1)
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
in the cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
in the cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B33-B37)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or L19 and/or N19
and/or Q19 and repeat steps 2a to 2f
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f
4. For a backward-feed 4-effect evaporator
a. Insert parameter values in the yellow cells
b. Turn the "SWITCH" ON (set the value in the cell B9 (red cell) equal to 1)
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
in the cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
in the cells B28 or B29 respectively and start again from 2b
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B33-B37)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or L19 and/or N19
and/or Q19 and repeat steps 2a to 2f
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f

1. a. On the Tools menu, click Options, then click the Calculation tab and tick on the Iteration box. On Maximum iterations box write 1000
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B34-B38)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or M19
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B33-B37)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or L19 and/or N19
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f
c. Iterate (by pressing F9) until "FINISH" or "ALARM" signal is shown in the control panel
d. If a signal to "REDUCE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, reduce the value of either T
s
or m
win
e. If a signal to "INCREASE T
s
or m
win
" is shown in the control panel, turn the SWITCH OFF, increase the value of either T
s
or m
win
f. When "FINISH" is shown in the control panel, read the results in the green cells (B33-B37)
g. If a solution can not be reached under any combination of T
s
and m
win
values, change the heat transfer area in the cells H19 and/or J19 and/or L19 and/or N19
h. To recalculate for different parameter values turn the "SWITCH" OFF (set the value in the cell B9 equal to 0) and repeat steps 2a to 2f
The following assumptions are used
1) The pressure drop in the vapour lines is neglected
2) The effect of superheating on the vapour enthalpy due to the BPE is neglected
3) The heat losses to the environment are taken into account. If cells B23 or B24 for Ulos and Ao
L
are set equal to 0, the heat losses are neglected
4) The condensate from each effect exits at the condensation temperature
5) The condenser is assumed to be a surface condenser
The following empirical relationships are used in the calculations
a) Heat capacity of liquid foods (equation of Dickerson), J/kg
o
C
where x
w
is the mass fraction of water content
b) Boiling Point Elevation,
o
C
where x
s
is the mass fraction of solids content
c) Heat capacity of liquid water, J/kg
o
C
where T is temperature in
o
C
d) Enthalpy of saturated steam and vapour, kJ/kg
where T is temperature in
o
C
e) Latent heat of vaporization of water, kJ/kg

where T is temperature in
o
C
f) Vapour pressure of liquid water, atm (Ref. 15)
where with T in Kelvin
w p
x 2508 1672 c + =
2
p
T 015 . 0 T 34 . 1 4211 c + =
2
v
T 0017 . 0 T 919 . 1 2501 H + =
T
16 . 273
= u
( ) | |
( )
( ) 2195983 . 2 1 10 10 x 42873 . 0 10 1 10 x 50474 . 1 log 02808 . 5 ) 1 ( 79586 . 10 p log
1 76955 . 4 3
1
1
29692 . 8
4
w
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ u + u =
u

2
T 0018 . 0 T 265 . 2 2501 =
3
s
2
s s
x 2 . 21 x 8 . 8 x 7 . 2 BPE + =
T
16 . 273
= u
3) The heat losses to the environment are taken into account. If cells B23 or B24 for Ulos and Ao
L
are set equal to 0, the heat losses are neglected
( ) | |
( )
( ) 2195983 . 2 1 10 10 x 42873 . 0 10 1 10 x 50474 . 1 log 02808 . 5 ) 1 ( 79586 . 10 p log
1 76955 . 4 3
1
1
29692 . 8
4
w
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ u + u =
u

## Forward-Feed 2-Effect Evaporator

Control panel
SWITCH= 1

FINISHED
0.000
Input data
Feed flow rate, m
f
= 10000 kg/h
Feed solids content, x
f
= 10%
Desired product solids content, X
spec
= 30%
Feed temperature, T
f
= 70
o
C
Temperature of the environment, T
e
= 20
o
C
Overall Heat transfer coeffic. for heat losses, U
los
= 0
W/m
2o
C
Outside Area of each effect of the evaporator, Ao
L
= 50
m
2
Cooling water temper. at the inlet of the cond., Tw
in
= 25
o
C
Control variables
Steam temperature, T
s
= 122
o
C
Mass flow rate of cooling water in the conden.,m
Win
= 38300 kg/h
Results
Concentrated product flow rate, m
p
= 3332 kg/h
Solids content at the outlet, x
p
= 30.0%
Steam consumption, m
s
= 3937 kg/h
Steam economy 1.7 kg/kg
Cooling water flow rate, m
Win
= 38300 kg/h
Parameters 1st EFFECT 2nd EFFECT CONDENSER
Heat transfer area (m
2
), A
80 80 Heat transf. area
Overall heat transfer coef. (W/m
2o
C), U
1800 1000 Overal heat transf. coef.
Liquid flow rate at the inlet (kg/s), m
i 2.778 1.878 Cooling water flow rate in
Solids content at the inlet, x
i 0.1 0.148 Cooling water temper. in
Liquid temperature at the inlet (
o
C), T
i 70 105.3 Water vapour temper. in
Boiling temperature (
o
C), T
b 105.3 79.8 Cooling water temp. out
Saturation temperature (
o
C), T
v 105.0 79.2 Condensation temperat.
Saturation pressure (atm), P 1.194 0.453 Water vapour pressure
Temperature drop (
o
C), 16.7 25.2
Boiling Point Elevation (
o
C), BPE
0.3 0.6
Heat capacity of liquid at inlet (J/kg
o
C), c
pi 3929 3809
Heat capacity of liquid at outlet(J/kg
o
C), c
po
3809 3427
Heat losses (W), q
L
0 0
Evaporation rate (kg/s), m
v
0.899 0.953
Liquid flow rate at the outlet (kg/s), m
o
1.878 0.925
Solids content at the outlet, x
o 0.148 0.300
Heating steam/vapour flow rate (kg /s), m
s 1.094 0.899
Heating steam/vapour temperature (
o
C), T
s 122 105.0
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c1
,T
c1 m
c2
,T
c2
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o1
, x
o1
,T
o1
T
b1
T
b2
m
v2
,T
v2
CONDENSER
50
m
2
2500
W/m
2o
C
10.639 kg/s
25
o
C
79.2
o
C
74.5
o
C
79.1
o
C
0.452 atm
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c1
,T
c1 m
c2
,T
c2
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o1
, x
o1
,T
o1
T
b1
T
b2
m
v2
,T
v2
Forward-Feed 4-Effect Evaporator
Control panel
SWITCH= 1
FINISHED
0.0000
Input data
Feed flow rate, m
f
= 20000 kg/h
Feed solids content, x
f
= 9%
Desired product solids content, X
spec
= 48%
Feed temperature, T
f
= 60
o
C
Temperature of the environment, T
e
= 20
o
C
Overall Heat transfer coeffic. for heat losses, U
los
= 0
W/m
2o
C
Outside Area of each effect of the evaporator, Ao
L
= 50
m
2
Cooling water temper. at the inlet of the cond., Tw
in
= 25
o
C
Control variables
Steam temperature, T
s
= 75
o
C
Mass flow rate of cooling water in the conden.,m
Win
= 530000 kg/h
Results
Concentrated product flow rate, m
p
= 3756 kg/h
Solids content at the outlet, x
p
= 47.9%
Steam consumption, m
s
= 4244 kg/h
Steam economy 3.8 kg/kg
Cooling water flow rate, m
Win
= 530000 kg/h
1st EFFECT 2nd EFFECT 3rd EFFECT 4th EFFECT
Heat transfer area (m
2
), A
270 270 270 270
Overall heat transfer coef. (W/m
2o
C), U
2200 1800 1300 506
Liquid flow rate at the inlet (kg/s), m
i 5.556 4.481 3.372 2.230
Solids content at the inlet, x
i 0.09 0.112 0.148 0.224
Liquid temperature at the inlet (
o
C), T
i 60 70.4 65.0 57.3
Boiling temperature (
o
C), T
b 70.4 65.0 57.3 37.1
Saturation temperature (
o
C), T
v 70.2 64.7 56.9 35.7
Saturation pressure (atm), P 0.310 0.244 0.170 0.058
Temperature drop (
o
C), 4.6 5.2 7.4 19.8
Boiling Point Elevation (
o
C), BPE
0.2 0.3 0.4 1.6
Heat capacity of liquid at inlet (J/kg
o
C), c
pi 3954 3900 3808 3618
Heat capacity of liquid at outlet(J/kg
o
C), c
po
3900 3808 3618 2979
Heat losses (W), q
L
0 0 0 0
Evaporation rate (kg/s), m
v
1.075 1.109 1.142 1.188
Liquid flow rate at the outlet (kg/s), m
o
4.481 3.372 2.230 1.042
Solids content at the outlet, x
o 0.112 0.148 0.224 0.479
Heating steam/vapour flow rate (kg /s), m
s 1.179 1.075 1.109 1.142
Heating steam/vapour temperature (
o
C), T
s 75 70.2 64.7 56.9
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
c2
,T
c2
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c1
,T
c1 m
c4
,T
c4
m
v3
,T
v3
m
c3
,T
c3
T
b4
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
o2
, x
o2
,T
o2
m
i3
, x
i3
, T
i3
m
i4
, x
i4
, T
i4
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o3
, x
o3
,T
o3
m
o1
, x
o1
,T
o1
m
v2
,T
v2
T
b3
T
b1
T
b2
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
v4
,T
v4
CONDENSER
Heat transf. area 150
m
2
Overal heat transf. coef. 2500
W/m
2o
C
Cooling water flow rate in 147.2 kg/s
Cooling water temper. in 25
o
C
Water vapour temper. in 35.7
o
C
Cooling water temp. out 29.7
o
C
Condensation temperat. 35.7
o
C
Water vapour pressure 0.058 atm
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
c2
,T
c2
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c1
,T
c1 m
c4
,T
c4
m
v3
,T
v3
m
c3
,T
c3
T
b4
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
o2
, x
o2
,T
o2
m
i3
, x
i3
, T
i3
m
i4
, x
i4
, T
i4
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o3
, x
o3
,T
o3
m
o1
, x
o1
,T
o1
m
v2
,T
v2
T
b3
T
b1
T
b2
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
v4
,T
v4
Backward-Feed 4-Effect Evaporator
Control panel
SWITCH= 1

FINISHED
0.000
Input data
Feed flow rate, m
f
= 20000 kg/h
Feed solids content, x
f
= 9%
Desired product solids content, X
spec
= 48%
Feed temperature, T
f
= 60
o
C
Temperature of the environment, T
e
= 20
o
C
Overall Heat transfer coeffic. for heat losses, U
los
= 0
W/m
2o
C
Outside Area of each effect of the evaporator, Ao
L
= 50
m
2
Cooling water temper. at the inlet of the cond., Tw
in
= 25
o
C
Control variables
Steam temperature, T
s
= 75
o
C
Mass flow rate of cooling water in the conden.,m
Win
= 220000 kg/h
Results
Concentrated product flow rate, m
p
= 3745 kg/h
Solids content at the outlet, x
p
= 48.1%
Steam consumption, m
s
= 4327 kg/h
Steam economy 3.8 kg/kg
Cooling water flow rate, m
Win
= 220000 kg/h
1st EFFECT 2nd EFFECT 3rd EFFECT 4th EFFECT
Heat transfer area (m
2
), A
270 270 270 270
Overall heat transfer coef. (W/m
2o
C), U
1214 1400 1270 1044
Liquid flow rate at the inlet (kg/s), m
i 2.202 3.312 4.350 5.556
Solids content at the inlet, x
i 0.227 0.151 0.115 0.090
Liquid temperature at the inlet (
o
C), T
i 57.7 49.6 40.5 60.0
Boiling temperature (
o
C), T
b 66.5 57.7 49.6 40.5
Saturation temperature (
o
C), T
v 64.9 57.2 49.3 40.3
Saturation pressure (atm), P 0.246 0.173 0.118 0.074
Temperature drop (
o
C), 8.5 7.2 7.7 8.8
Boiling Point Elevation (
o
C), BPE
1.6 0.4 0.3 0.2
Heat capacity of liquid at inlet (J/kg
o
C), c
pi 3611 3801 3892 3954
Heat capacity of liquid at outlet(J/kg
o
C), c
po
2974 3611 3801 3892
Heat losses (W), q
L
0 0 0 0
Evaporation rate (kg/s), m
v
1.162 1.110 1.037 1.206
Liquid flow rate at the outlet (kg/s), m
o
1.040 2.202 3.312 4.350
Solids content at the outlet, x
o 0.481 0.227 0.151 0.115
Heating steam/vapour flow rate (kg /s), m
s 1.202 1.162 1.110 1.037
Heating steam/vapour temperature (
o
C), T
s 75 64.9 57.2 49.3
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
c2
,T
c2
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
c1
,T
c1
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c4
,T
c4
m
c3
,T
c3
m
v3
,T
v3
T
b4
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
o2
, x
o2
,T
o2
m
i3
, x
i3
, T
i3
m
o4
, x
o4
, T
o4
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o3
, x
o3
,T
o3
m
i1
, x
i1
,T
i1
T
b3
T
b1
T
b2
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
v2
,T
v2
m
v4
,T
v4
CONDENSER
Heat transf. area 150
m
2
Overal heat transf. coef. 2500
W/m
2o
C
Cooling water flow rate in 61.1 kg/s
Cooling water temper. in 25
o
C
Water vapour temper. in 40.3
o
C
Cooling water temp. out 36.4
o
C
Condensation temperat. 40.2
o
C
Water vapour pressure 0.074 atm
m
i2
, x
i2
, T
i2
m
c2
,T
c2
m
f
, x
f
, T
f
m
s
,T
s
m
c1
,T
c1
m
v1
,T
v1
m
c4
,T
c4
m
c3
,T
c3
m
v3
,T
v3
T
b4
m
Win
T
win
m
Wout
T
wout
m
c
,T
c
m
o2
, x
o2
,T
o2
m
i3
, x
i3
, T
i3
m
o4
, x
o4
, T
o4
m
p
, x
p
,T
p
m
o3
, x
o3
,T
o3
m
i1
, x
i1
,T
i1
T
b3
T
b1
T
b2
steam/vapour/condensate cooling water liquid food
m
v2
,T
v2
m
v4
,T
v4