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Training function & policies

HR and the Training Function:

The training function in human resources covers many bases. Training involves everything
from new employee orientation to leadership training for seasoned employees. According to
the Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM), training and development plays a
large role in the overall success of an organization. Hiring good people and training them to
be the best they can be, helps retain employees and creates a productive workforce.

o New employee orientation is an important part of the hiring process. It prepares the
employees for new roles, and acclimates them to the company. According to SHRM,
employees who go through an orientation process feel more connected to their job. The
focus and length of orientation sessions are often determined by the employees' positions in
the company. While hourly employees may be in orientation for one day, manager-level
employee orientation can last up to two weeks.
o Compliance training is highly recommended by the U.S. Department of Labor. This
encompasses workplace violence, sexual harassment, drug and alcohol, and safety in the
workplace. This training assures employees know how certain situations are handled.
Policies and procedures are outlined, and the consequences are clearly spelled out.
Offering this type of training puts employees on alert, and helps the company avoid costly
o Offering leadership training helps the workforce grow. It prepares employees for the
challenges of management, and begins the succession planning process. Succession
planning helps fill high-level positions by molding current employees. Retirement is
inevitable, and some positions are difficult to fill. Succession planning allows employees to
train for certain roles, and when the time comes, they can successfully fill the vacant
Career Planning
o Training and development also deals with employee career planning. Counseling
employees is an effective way to determine their career goals, and can help them remain a
part of the organization for years to come. Companies that offer career counseling show
they care about their employee's future. According to SHRM, career counseling is an
important component of succession planning.

o A large component of the HR training function is research. Skill development programs are
ever-changing. Conducting research should be an on-going training activity. It will assure
the programs are fresh and relevant. Assessing the needs of incumbent employees will
better shape them for future success. This, in turn, guarantees the success of the company.

Training and development is one of the key HR functions:
Most organizations look at training and development as an integral part of the human
resource development activity. The turn of the century has seen increased focus on the
same in organizations globally.
Training may be described as an Endeavour aimed to improve or develop additional
competency or skills in an employee on the job one currently holds in order to increase the
performance or productivity.
Technically training involves change in attitude, skills or knowledge of a person with the
resultant improvement in the behavior. For training to be effective it has to be a planned
activity conducted after a thorough need analysis and target at certain competencies, most
important it is to be conducted in a learning atmosphere.
While designing the training program it has to be kept in mind that both the individual goals
and organizational goals are kept in mind. Although it may not be entirely possible to ensure
a sync, but competencies are chosen in a way that a win-win is created for the employee
and the organization.
Typically organizations prepare their training calendars at the beginning of the financial year
where training needs are identified for the employees. This need identification called as
training need analysis is a part of the performance appraisal process. After need analysis
the number of training hours, along with the training intervention are decided and the same
is spread strategically over the next year.
Lots of time training is confused with development, both is different in certain respects yet
components of the same system. Development implies opportunities created to help
employees grow. It is more of long term or futuristic in nature as opposed to training, which
focus on the current job. It also is not limited to the job avenues in the current organization
but may focus on other development aspects also.
At Goodyear, for example, employees are expected to mandatorily attend training program
on presentation skills however they are also free to choose a course on perspectives in
leadership through literature. Whereas the presentation skills program helps them on job,
the literature based program may or may not help them directly.
Similarly many organizations choose certain employees preferentially for programs to
develop them for future positions. This is done on the basis of existing attitude, skills and
abilities, knowledge and performance of the employee. Most of the leadership programs
tend to be of this nature with a vision of creating and nurturing leaders for tomorrow.
The major difference between training and development therefore is that while training
focuses often on the current employee needs or competency gaps, development concerns
itself with preparing people for future assignments and responsibilities.
With technology creating more deskilled workers and with industrial workers being replaced
by knowledge workers, training and development is at the forefront of HRD. The onus is
now on the human development department to take a proactive leadership role in
responding to training and business needs.
Training centers in organizations:
Internal training offers employers and employees advantages that are not found when you
send an employee to an external training program or seminar. Training transfer occurs more
naturally and employees cement learning through training other employees. On-the-job
training that enhances employee skills and ensures her readiness for the next promotion, is
generally far superior to a public seminar.

Internal training and development leaps the huge barriers that encumber external training.
Internal training reflects a solid knowledge of the organizational culture. Internal training
uses real life examples, problems and challenges that participants encounter every day at
work. Successful internal training identifies the exact skills and knowledge that participants
need to succeed in their jobs. It also prepares employees for success in their next job.

Internal training is presented in the language and terminology that participants understand
and can relate to. Internal training develops the skills of employees and cements their own
knowledge of the topic. I am sure you are familiar with the old adage that the best ways to
make sure that an employee thoroughly understands a topic is to have the employee train
Tips About Internal Training for Employees
These tips will help you provide effective internal training and development for employees.
On-the-Job Training
Use the Performance Development Planning Process to lay out a plan for the internal
development of an employee. This is specific job-related training that results in a successful,
developing employee.

Internal, on-the-job training includes such activities as:
Invite the employee to contribute to department or company-wide decisions and
Provide the employee access to higher level, more strategic, meetings.
Provide more information by including the employee on specific mailing lists, in
company briefings, and in your confidence.
Enable the employee to establish goals, priorities, and measurements.
Assign the responsibility of teaching machine operation, quality standards,
production standards, and safety practices to employees who train new employees
or employees who are new to the work area.
Assign supervisory or team leader responsibilities, or function as an assistant lead
while learning.
Assign the employee to head up projects or teams, or function as an assistant lead
while learning.

Enable the employee to spend more time with his or her boss in a coaching
/mentoring relationship. Set goals for employee development as a team.
Provide the opportunity for the employee to cross-train in other roles and responsibilities.
Mentoring and Coaching
Mentoring, coaching, and field trips, both inside and outside the company, help employees
develop their skills and knowledge. Employees who "teach others" most effectively
incorporate the knowledge and skills themselves.
Assign the employee a formal mentor from within his or her work group. The more
experienced employee has the responsibility to help the employee learn the skills
necessary to succeed in their job.
Sponsor a "take an employee to work" day, as one of the clients did. Employees
applied to participate and spent the day learning about another job function within
the company.
Encourage employees to seek out informal mentors on their own in areas of needed
development and interest.
Internal Training Sessions
Internal training sessions and methods are effective. Especially if they offer employees new
skills and ideas, internal training, reading, and meeting can replace much external training in
organizations. Internal training is also cost effective and the training facilitator or resource
remains available daily to participants following the training session.
Offer an internal training session. The facilitator can be an employee or a
trainer or consultant with whom the organization has developed a relationship
over time. This ensures that the trainer is cognizant of the organizational
culture and needs.
Require employees to train other employees when they attend an external
training seminar or conference; they can share the information learned at a
seminar or training session.
Purchase relevant business books for employees. To compound the impact of
reading, sponsor an during which employees discuss a current book and
apply its concepts to your company.
Offer commonly-needed training and information on an Intranet, an internal
company website. This works effectively for new employee orientation and
gives new employees a source to check following the orientation, too.
Internal Training Summary
Internal training is a cost effective, encouraged, effective method for training employees.
Whether the training is provided on the job, from informal or formal coaches and mentors, or
in internal seminars, conferences, internal training has the potential to positively impact
employee learning and development. Give internal training a try. You will quickly recognize
the power of internal training as a tool for employee development.

Evolving training policy:
Please refer to the below mentioned points for drafting training policy:
1. Introduction: A companys training policy represents the commitment of its top
management to training, and is expressed in the rules and procedures which govern
or influence the standard and scope of training in the organization.
2. Purpose & Scope : Write objective of the trainings which will be imparted to the
3. Applicability: To who it applies
4. References & Definition: References of other policies or documents which might be
mentioned in the policy. Definition of the technical words used.
5. TNA - jot down the methods that will be used i for doing Training need analysis
6. Training Material: Mention from where all the training material or content will be
derived. Incase of internal content development, mention who will be approving the
content made. Mention about Training Curricula .i.e what all trainings will be
imparted whether soft skills, sales or technical or all.
7. Mode of delivery: Mention what till be the mode of delivery .i.e online, classroom or
on the job.
8. Costing
9. Documentation: What all kinds of reports & documents will be maintained and for
how long they'll be kept
10. Training feedback & evaluation: might inlcude any specific benchmark for trainers,
any assessment that might be conducted after the training to the judge the
participant's knowledge.
11. Training environment: what kind of seating arrangements will be there in the
training room, white baords or projector required
12. Tracking, Training, & Certification: how training imparted will be tracked(any
specific software will be used or not) or hard copies to be maintained, how
employees' performance will be tracked and will employees be given a certification
after the training or not.
13. Training Department Support System: Mention the responsibilities and
coordination required by the different departments, trainees and MGT
14. Checklist for training: Mention all the material that will be required. i.e. manual,
white board, markers, projector, computers, water bottles etc
15. Lastly: list of the forms that will be used in training. Like nomination form,
attendance form, training feedback form, etc.

Training Budget

Elements of a Good Training Budget

Planning a Comprehensive Training Budget
Budgeting for Training Needs
Prioritizing Training Needs
Using E-Learning to Maximize Your Training Budget

Budgeting for training does not mean using surplus money when its available. Instead, you
should build a separate line item for training into your yearly budget. A training budget
should include the following costs:
Initial communication about the training program
Training delivery (e.g. classes, video tutorials, e-learning, course fees)
Training materials (workbooks, videos)
Staff time (including replacement time)
Instructor fee
Travel, lodging or meal expenses required to participate
Ongoing training (upkeep)

Once approved, your training budget will need careful management to ensure that costs
stay on track. Unforeseen events can lead to changing costs. A specially trained staff
member might unexpectedly leave the company before their knowledge is passed on to
others. Training costs will increase if you need to rely on external resources.
Many large organizations commit to investing anywhere from two to five percent of salary
budgets back into training. While that may not be realistic for you, it's important to find a
number you feel your budget can absorb. Base the figure you'll use on your needs
Don't forget that employee commitment is necessary for training to succeed. One way to
ensure employees take the effort seriously is to have those getting specialized training to
share the cost. Employees who have made a personal investment in learning will be more
focused on completing the task.
If you are footing the bill, get employees to commit to working for you for a specified period
of time following the training's completion. Let them know you will require reimbursement if
they aren't able to fulfill the agreement.
It is also important to have full support for training efforts from senior people in your
organization. If they understand the long-term value of employee development, they should
be able to help by earmarking funds for training.
Training Schedules/Calendar:
At the end of every year most learning and development teams start the process of planning
for the upcoming year many start the process with a number of new and inexperienced
High level assessment
Assess your operation
Take the time to Benchmark
Plan and set the calendar
Obtain buy in
Change your organization
Moving forward
How to Design an Effective Training and Development Calendar
The question of how to design an effective training and development calendar keeps
coming up whenever HR managers are discussing implementation of training programs.
Chances are you already know that if a training and development program does not answer
real needs, then it cannot be effective no matter how well-organized the program is.
Effective training and development programs have the following elements:
Conduct A Needs Assessment
First, the design if these programs follow the completion of a needs assessment based on
strategic needs of the organization.
As we have pointed out, a program must emanate from the real needs of the organization
for it to be effective. This point stresses the need for you to hinge the training and
development objectives of the organization on real needs. As an HR Manager, it is one of
the crucial interventions you can shoulder in the areas of Employee Development.
Identifying the correct training needs will help you design the most effective training plan for
your employees too.
Identify The Most Efficient Training Method
Secondly, you must use the most efficient means to offer the program based on the learning
and development calendar. Some skills gaps require expert training such as what a
university or a capacity-building consultancy offers. In other cases, it may be possible to
carry out in-house training.
In either case, your role is to examine the relative benefits and costs of using each
approach. This is what should guide the decision making process. In addition to this aspect,
it may be possible to train an employee on certain aspects of their work by involving them in
a tutelage program with senior workers.
For instance, a front office worker can be trained on how to handle employees by observing
and participating as a trainee under an experienced worker. In this situation, actual
exposure to the work environment is a more effective training model compared to class or
lecture approaches. Hence calendaring training of such nature will be done accordingly.
Account for Company Operations
The third aspect you must have in mind when considering how to design an effective
training and development calendar as an HR manager is that an effective training and
development calendar does not disrupt the operations of the company.
In addition, it protects the workers from unnecessary disruptions.
If the training calls for an employee to be off duty, then you should arrange for their absence
and make it possible for them to attend the course. Otherwise, you can opt to run the course
during off-hours so that the operations of the company are not disrupted.
These factors point out why every organization needs a robust learning and development
architecture as you consider how to design an effective training and development calendar.
Tip for HR Manager
As an HR Manager, you can be really effective in HR Role if you customize the training
calendar of your organization for employees in different grades/levels and for different
business suited to their competencies and skills development agenda. Impressing upon
an Individual Development Plan will be really useful as this will help you immensely to
develop an effective training calendar that actually motivates employees towards employee
Training Methods include:

On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs.
Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or
discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and
laboratory training. Orientations are for new employees.
Your business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct
and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their
training process are more successful than those that do not. Most business owners
want to succeed, but do not engage in training designs that promise to improve their
chances of success. This is where we come in to help you acheive your goals, and
make your employees reach their potential.
Training Programs include:
1. harassment training
2. communication skills training
3. computer and technical skills training
4. management and leadership training
5. diversity training
6. safety training
7. conflict management
8. workplace wellness
9. supervisor skills development
10. team building skills training
In addition to the above training programs, we also offer customized training programs
specific to your industry. We have partners in all industries and can bring in experts to
make sure you get the best results.