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8/16/2014

Solutions are homogeneous mixture that


is prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid, or
gas in another liquid and represents a
group of preparations in which a
molecules of solute or dissolved
substance are dispersed among those of
the solvent.

Advantages

Components:
Solute
Solvent
Other exipients

Disadvantages

Drug available immediately for absorption

Drug stability often reduced in solution.

Flexible dosing

Difficult to mask unpleasant taste

May be designed for any route of

Bulky, difficult to transport and prone to

administration
No need to shake container
Facilitates swallowing in difficult cases

container breakages

Technical accuracy needed to measure

dose on administration

Some drugs poorly soluble


Measuring device needed for administration

Classification based on concentration:


Saturated solution

Classification based on the site of


administration:

Unsaturated solution

Oral solution

Supersaturated Solution

Otic solution

Ophthalmic solution
Topical solution

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Classification based on composition:

Syrups

% strength
% w/w
%w/v
%v/v

Spirits
Aromatic waters

The strengths of solution may be


expressed in:

Classification based on the method of


preparation:

Ratio strength

Tinctures
Fluid extracts

Techniques used to increased dissolution


rate / preparation of solution:

are prepared by dissolving the solute in most of

the solvent, mixing until dissolved, then adding


sufficient solvent to bring the solution up to the
proper volume
The solvent may contain other ingredient to
stabilize or solubilize the active ingredient.
E.g. Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution USP
(Lime Water), Sodium Phosphates Oral Solution
USP, and Strong Iodine Solution USP

Application of heat / cold


Reducing particle size of solute
Utilizing a solubilizing agent
Subjecting the ingredients to rigorous

agitation

Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution USP


The solubility of Ca(OH)2 decreases with

increasing temperature. The official solution is


prepared at 25C
Solutions containing hydroxides react with the
CO2 in the atmosphere.
Ca(OH)2 + CO2

CaCO3 + H2O

Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution, therefore,

Simple solution

Strong Iodine Solution USP


1gram of iodine dissolves in 2950mL of water.

However, solutions of iodides dissolve large


quantities of iodine.

Strong Iodine Solution is used in the treatment of


iodide deficiency disorders such as endemic
goiter

should be preserved in well-filled, tight


containers, at a temperature not exceeding
25C.

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Solution by Chemical Reaction

Prepared by reacting two or more solutes


with each other in a suitable solvent.

Preparation No. 17 Calcium Hydroxide


Solution

Synonym/s: Lime water, Hydrated lime


Latin name/s: Aqua calcariae, Liquor calcis,

Liquor calci hydroxide

An example is Aluminum Subacetate


Topical Solution USP.

Use/s: Vehicle for calamine lotion and

astringent

Formulation:

Calcium hydroxide active


Purified water - solvent

Method of Preparation: Simple solution

Preparation No. 18 Strong Iodine Solution

Synonym/s: Lugols solution, Compound iodine

for bedridden patients, germicide for


instruments, skin cleanser prior to injection
and antiseptic
Formulation:

Iodine active
Potassium iodide solubilizing agent
Purified water solvent

Method of Preparation: Simple solution

Alcohol is also known as spirit of wine


and methylcarbinol
The different concentrations of alcohol
are:

95% Ethanol active


Purified water - solvent

*Easily stains surface and clothes

Concentrated alcohol
Dehydrated alcohol
Diluted alcohol
Rubbing alcohol

94.9 to 96%
99.5 %
49 %
70 %

Alcohol concentrations are computed


by alligation alternate method.

Preparation No. 19 70% Alcohol

Synonym/s: 70% Ethanol, Rubbing alcohol


Latin name/s: Spiritus vini rectificatus
Use/s: Rubefacient externally, soothing rub

solution, Aqueous solution of iodine


Latin name/s: Liquor iodi fortis, Solutio iodi aquosa
Use/s: Germicide, fungicide and indicated for
thyrotoxicosis
Formulation:

Method of Preparation: Simple solution

Aromatic waters
Aqueous acids
Douche
Enemas
Mouthwashes
Gargles
Juices
Nasal solutions
Otic solutions
Irrigation solutions

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These
are
clear,
saturated
solutions(unless otherwise specified) of
volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile
substances.

Components
Volatile/aromatic substances active
Water vehicle/solvent
Talc clarifying/distributing agent

Also known as medicated waters

Methods

Characteristics

Their odors and tastes are the same as


those of the drugs or volatile substances
from which they are prepared
They should be free from empyreumatic
[smoke-like] and other foreign odors

of Preparation

By Solution

By Distillation

By Direct Solution

The slowest, most expensive, most ancient but


the most satisfactory method
Cohobation is a redistillation process
Example: Strong Rose Water

2:1000
A method which saves time and dose not need a
special equipment
Example: Camphor water

By Alternate Method

Solution by intervention
15:1000
Most frequently employed, easiest and fastest method
of preparing aromatic waters
Example: Peppermint water and Cinnamon water

Other Methods
Use of soluble concentrates
Incorporation of solubilizing agents
Use of alcoholic solutions of volatile oils

Uses

Flavored vehicle
Perfumed vehicle

Examples:
Peppermint water USP
Stronger Rose Water USP

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Salting out
Principal problem encountered in

compounding prescriptions containing


aromatic waters.
Solution: water is permissible as replacement
when no other function is being served than
that of a vehicle

Preparation No. 14 Cinnamon Water

Synonym/s: Cassia water, Saigon cinnamon

water
Latin name/s: Aqua cinnamoni
Use/s: Vehicle, antiseptic and carminative
Formulation:

Cinnamon oil active


90% Ethanol solvent, preservative
Purified talc clarifying/distributing agent
Purified water - solvent

Method of Preparation: Alternate method

Are

solutions of acids and water


Classification of Inorganic Acids
Hydracids
Do not contain oxygen
Examples: HI, HBr, HCl, HF

Oxyacids
Contain oxygen
Examples: HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4

Preservation

Aromatic waters deteriorate with time as


seen by the production of turbid solutions
They should be stored in airtight, lightresistant container and should be
protected from light and excessive heat

Preparation

No. 15 Camphor Water

Synonym/s: Gum laurel water, Laurel


camphor water
Latin name/s: Aqua camphorae
Use/s: Vehicle for eye preparations
Formulation:
Camphor active
Purified water solvent

Method of Preparation: Direct solution

Concentration

of Acids

Expressed as percentage strength by


weight
Examples:
Hydrochloric acid 35 to 38%
Nitric acid - 67 to 71%
Sulfuric acid 94 to 98%

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These are aqueous solutions of acids of a


suitable
strength
for
internal
administration or for the manufacture of
other preparations.

The strengths of the official undiluted


acids are expressed as percentage in
weight (w/w), whereas the strengths of
the official diluted acids are expressed in
percent in volume (w/v)
Usual strength: 10%

Except Diluted Acetic Acid : 6%

To compute for the number of mL


required to make 100mL of diluted acid:
mL of diluted acid=

Medical Use/s of Diluted Acids:


Diluted Hcl
Tx of achlorhydria
ADR: irritation of the mucous membrane of the
mouth, damage of teeth enamel
Usual dose: 2 to 4mL, well-diluted with water.

strength of diluted acid x 100__


strength of undiluted acid x Sp.Gr

Sample problem:
Make 100ml of Diluted Hydrochloric acid USP

(10% w/v) using HCl that assays 37.5% HCl


(Sp. Gr. 1.18).

Preparation No. 16 Diluted Acetic Acid


Synonym/s: Vinegar
Latin name/s: Acidum aceticum dilutum
Use/s:

36-37% as pharmaceutical solvent


1% as surgical dressing, spermatocidal and vaginal
douche
5% for burn therapy
0.25% for irrigation

Formulation:

Acetic acid active


Purified water - solvent

Method of Preparation: Simple solution

Is an aqueous solution directed against a


part or into a cavity of the body.
It function as a cleansing or antiseptic
agent.

Eye douche used to remove foreign particles

and discharge form the eyes.

Pharyngeal douche are used to prepare the

interior of the throat for an operation and


cleanse it in suppurative conditions.
Nasal Douche
Vaginal Douche

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Usually dispensed in the form of powder


or tablet to be dissolve in specified
quantity of water (warm).
E.g. Dobells Solution tablet
Must be completely soluble in water
Boric acid may be used as a lubricant and

sodium chloride normally is used as a diluent

Storage: Airtight container

Gargles are aqueous solutions frequently


containing
antiseptics,
antibiotics,
and/or anesthetics used for treating the
pharynx and nasopharynx by forcing air
from the lungs through the gargle that is
held in the throat

Preparation

No. 22 Phenol Gargle

Synonym/s: Carbolic acid gargle


Latin name/s: Gargarism phenole

Vaginal douches

are the most common type of douche and are

used for cleansing the vagina and hygienic


purposes.
Components:

Antimicrobial agents : benzalkonium chloride,


parabens, chlorothymol
Anesthetics/ Antipruritics: Phenol and menthol
Astringents: Zinc sulfate and potassium alum
Surfactants: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Chemicals to alter pH : Sodium bicarbonate and
citric acid

DOs

in the administration

Gargles are diluted with 10 volumes of


warm water prior to use.
It should be labeled properly so that is
cannot be mistaken for preparations
intended for internal administration.

Are
aqueous,
pleasantly-flavored
solutions employed for their deodorant,
refreshing or antiseptic effect.

Use/s: Gargle
Formulation:
Phenol glycerin active
FDC Red #3 colorant
Purified water solvent

Method of Preparation: Simple solution

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Uses of mouthwashes
Therapeutic mouthwashes
formulated to reduce plaque, gingivitis, dental
caries, and stomatitis.

Cosmetic mouthwashes
formulated to reduce bad breath through the
use of antimicrobial and/or flavoring agents.

Humectants

These include glycerin and sorbitol may


form 5% to 20% of the mouthwash.
These agents increase the viscosity of the
preparation and provide a certain body or
mouth feel to the product.
They enhance the sweetness of the
product and, along with the ethanol,
improve the preservative qualities of the
product.

Flavors
Flavors are used in conjunction with alcohol
and humectants to overcome disagreeable
tastes, at the same time flavors must be safe
to use.
Common flavorants used:

Components:
Alcohols

Alcohol is often present in the range of 10% to


20%.
Functions
Enhances the flavor
Provides a certain sharpness to the taste
Aids in making the unpleasant taste of active
ingredients
Solubilizing agent for flavorants
Preservative

Surfactants
Used at a concentration of 0.1 to 0.5%
Functions
Solubilizing agent for flavors
Provides a foaming action

Examples
Polyoxyethyulene / Polyoxypropylene polymers
Sodium lauryl sulfate
Cetylpyridium chloride

Colorants
Used to enhance or to make the product
pleasing to the sight
FD&C colors

Peppermint
Spearmint
Cinnamon
Oil of wintergreen
Menthol

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Preparation No. 20 Alkaline Mouthwash

Synonym/s: Alkaline antiseptic solution, alkaline aromatic

solution
Latin name/s: Liquor aromaticus alkalinus, Liquor
antisepticus alkalinus
Use/s: Antibacterial mouthwash
Formulation:

Potassium bicarbonate active


Sodium borate active
Thymol flavor
Eucalyptol - flavor
Methyl salicylate - flavor
Alcohol preservative and solvent
Glycerin humectant
Purified water vehicle

Method of Preparation: Incorporation with agitation

Nasal solutions are usually aqueous


solutions designed to be administered to
the nasal passages in drops or sprays
May be dispensed in Emulsion or
Suspension form.
Advantages:

Rapid and efficient systemic absorption

A juice is prepared from fresh ripe fruit, is


aqueous in character, and is used in
making syrups that are employed as
vehicles.
Preserved with Benzoic acid and
allowed to stand at room temp. for
several days to destroy pectins by
enzymatic action.
E.g. Cherry juice USP, Tomato juice USP

Used for local effects


Ephedrine Sulfate Nasal Solution, USP
Naphazoline Hydrochloride Nasal Solution, USP

Used for systemic actions


Lypressin Nasal Solution USP
Oxytocin Nasal Solution USP

Avoid first pass metabolism by the liver

The patient should be advised that should


the solution become discolored or contain
precipitated matter, it must be discarded.

Referred to as ear or aural preparations.


Other otic preparations include
suspensions and ointments.
Ear preparations are usually placed in
the ear canal by drops or in small
amounts for the removal of excessive
cerumen (ear wax) or for the treatment
of ear infections, inflammation, or pain.

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These are sterile, non-pyrogenic solutions used


to wash or bathe surgical incisions, wounds, or
body tissues
Must meet stringent USP requirements for
sterility, total solids, and bacterial endotoxins.
These products may be prepared by dissolving
the active ingredient in Water for Injection.
They are packaged in single-dose containers,
preferably Type I or Type II glass, or suitable
plastic containers, and then sterilized

The main solvents used in these preparations include glycerin


or water
The viscous glycerin vehicle permits the drug to remain in
the ear for a long time.
Anhydrous glycerin, being hygroscopic, tends to remove
moisture from surrounding tissues, thus reducing swelling.
Viscous liquids such as glycerin or propylene glycol are
used either alone or in combination with a surfactant to
aid in the removal of cerumen (ear wax).
To provide sufficient time for aqueous preparations to act, it is
necessary for patients to remain on their side for a few
minutes so the drops do not run out of the ear.
Otic preparations are dispensed in a container that permits
the administration of drops

Irrigation solutions described in USP:


Irrigation solution

Acetic Irrigation

Use
for relief of internal cystitis

Glycine Irrigation

transurethral prostatic
resection

Ringers Irrigation

general irrigation

Neomycin and Polymyxin B


Sulfates Solution

Irrigation for infection

Sodium Chloride Irrigation

washing wounds

Extemporaneous formulations frequently


prepared using an isotonic solution of
sodium chloride (0.9%) as solvent.

Irrigation Solution in 0.9% NSS

Uses

Cefazolin or Gentamicin

Anti-infective irrigation

5-Fluororacil

For bladder irrigation

Alum, either potassium or


ammonium

For Bladder hemorrhage

Amphotericin in sterile water

Tx of localized infections on the


dermis, the bladder and Urinary
tract

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