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In this lab assignment you will use inferential tools available in Excel to compare the yield strength of two steel

alloys. You will estimate the strength of each alloy with a confidence interval and apply a test of significance

to see whether the observed mean yield strength exceeds the target value. Finally, you will compare the

mean yield strengths of the two steel alloys. One-sample and two-sample inferences will be applied to the

data. You will also discuss the assumptions necessary to make the inferences valid. It is recommended to

get familiar with the Lab 4 Instructions before you start working on the assignment.

Comparison of Yield Strength of Two Alloys

A manufacturer of metal rods used in construction must make reasonably certain that the rods satisfy some

strength specifications. If the strength requirement is not met, the production process is discontinued while

adjustments are made. One recognized way of monitoring production is to take a random sample of several

rods from each hour's production and to determine their average yield strength. When the production

process is operating properly, the mean yield strength depends on various factors that may change from

hour to hour. Random samples of size 30 will be taken every hour to determine any change in the value of

the mean.

The manufacturer has just developed two new alloys, ALLOY 1 and ALLOY 2 and would like to see which

of them has better strength qualities. In order to compare the yield strength of the two alloys, 30 rods made

of each alloy were randomly selected and subjected to the strength test. The yield strength of each rod in

the two groups was recorded.. After the strength test, the 30 rods made of ALLOY 2 were subjected to a

combination of high pressure and temperature and their strength values were determined again.

The data are available in the Excel file lab1.xls located on the STAT 235 Laboratories web site at

http://www.stat.ualberta.ca/statslabs/index.htm (click Stat 235 link and Data for Lab 4). The data are not to

be printed in your submission.

The following is a description of the variables in the data file:

Name of Variable Description of Variable

ALLOY 1 The yield strength of rods made of ALLOY 1,

ALLOY 2 The yield strength of rods made of ALLOY 2,

ALLOY 2 +TREATMENT The yield strength of ALLOY 2 rods subjected to high pressure &

temperature.

1. First you will obtain the summary statistics for each sample and you will obtain a confidence interval for

the mean strength of each alloy.

(a) Use the Descriptive Statistics tool to obtain the summary statistics and a 95% confidence interval

for the mean strength of each alloy. Paste the summary statistics into your report and report the

95% confidence intervals for each alloy. Use the summaries to compare the two alloys. Which of

the two alloys has better strength qualities? Explain briefly.

(b) According to the specifications, the mean strength of each alloy is required to exceed 64 ksi. Is

there any indication that the mean strength of either alloy is below the required threshold value of

64 ksi? Refer to the 95% confidence interval for each alloy to answer the question. Explain briefly.

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2. Do the data provide evidence that the mean strength of each alloy exceeds the threshold value of 64 ksi?

Now you will answer the question by carrying out the appropriate statistical tests.

(a) Carry out an appropriate test to check the above claimusing the data for each alloy. In particular, state

the null and alternative hypotheses in terms of the population parameters, obtain the value of the test

statistic, specify the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis, and obtain the p-value of

the test. What do you conclude? Notice that as there is no appropriate feature in Data Analysis to

carry out the test directly, you will have to calculate the value of the test statistic and the

corresponding p-value by entering appropriate formulas into Excel worksheet. Lab 4 Instructions may

be useful in this part.

(b) What are the assumptions about the distribution of strength required to make the tests in part (a) valid?

Would it be safe to use the inferential procedures even if some of the assumptions were violated?

Explain briefly. It is not required to verify the assumptions with Excel.

3. In this part you will compare the mean strength of ALLOY 1 and ALLOY 2 rods. Do the data provide

any evidence of a difference in the mean strengths of ALLOY 1 and ALLOY 2 rods?

(a) Answer the above question by carrying out the appropriate test in Data Analysis menu. Before you

choose an appropriate test, you might refer to the output in Question 1 to decide whether the test

with equal variances would be appropriate. State the hypotheses tested and the distribution of the

test statistic under the null hypothesis. Report the value of the test statistic provided by Excel, the

P-value, and your conclusion.

(b) What are the assumptions about the distribution of strength required to make the tests in part (a) valid?

Would it be safe to use the inferential procedures even if some of the assumptions were violated?

Explain briefly. It is not required to verify the assumptions with Excel.

4. The thirty ALLOY 2 rods were subjected to a combination of high pressure and temperature. In this

question you will estimate the effect of the treatment on the mean strength of the rods.

(a) Do the data provide evidence that the treatment increased the mean strength of the ALLOY 2

rods? Answer the question by carrying out an appropriate test in Excel. In particular, define the

null and alternative hypotheses; report the value of the test statistic and the p-value of the test

provided by the Excel output.

(b) Use the Descriptive Statistics feature in Data Analysis menu to obtain a 95% confidence interval

for the mean change in strength of ALLOY 2 rods after the treatment. You may create first a new

variable EFFECT defined as the difference in strengths ALLOY 2 +TREATMENT rods and

ALLOY 2 rods. Is the interval consistent with the outcome of the test in part (a)? Explain briefly.

(c) What are the assumptions necessary to make the test in part (a) and confidence interval in part (b)

valid? Explain briefly.

(d) Is the effect of the treatment independent of the initial strength of the rods? In order to answer the

question, obtain the plot of the variable EFFECT versus ALLOY 2 measurements. What do you

conclude?

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MARKING SCHEMA TO THE LAB 4 ASSIGNMENT

Proper Header and Appearance: 10 points

Question 1

(a) Summary statistics: 3 points

95% confidence interval for each alloy: 3 points each (6 points total)

Comparison and indicating the better alloy: 3 points

(b) 95% confidence intervals and the threshold value of 64 ksi: 2 points each alloy (4 points total)

Question 2

(a) Test for ALLOY 1: 6 points

In particular: hypotheses: 1, distribution: 1, test statistic value: 2, p-value: 1, conclusion: 1)

Test for ALLOY 2: 6 points

(b) Assumptions: 2 points

Validity of the inferences: 2 points

Large sample size and Central Limit Theorem effect: 2 points

Question 3

(a) Test to compare ALLOY 1 and ALLOY 2 strengths: 6 points

In particular: hypotheses: 2, distribution: 1, test statistic value: 1, p-value: 1, conclusion: 1.

(b) Assumptions: 2 points

Validity of the inferences: 2 points

Large sample size and Central Limit Theorem effect: 2 points

Question 4

(a) Test for the treatment effect: 6 points

In particular: hypotheses: 2, distribution: 1, test statistic value: 1, p-value: 1, conclusion: 1.

(b) 95% confidence interval for the treatment effect: 3 points

Consistency of the interval with the outcome of the test in part (a): 2 points

(c) Assumptions: 2 points

(d) Plot of effect vs. ALLOY 2 strengths: 6 points

Comments: 2 points

TOTAL = 77

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