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# Pemrosesan Citra Page 1 of 3

## Copyright JTEUS, 2005 D:\My Documents\JTEUS\Citra\BookOrg\Modul4 ImAve\Modul4.doc

By Nemuel Daniel Pah 14/11/05
Module 4
Image Averaging

Class
Image enhancement/Restoration

Description
Two or more images are averaged, pixel by pixel. The resulting pixel is the
average of the corresponding pixels in the input images.

Application
To reduce random noise. Stationary object will appear unchanged while
random noise will appear with less brightness.
To combine images.

Implementation

2
) , ( ) , (
) , (
2 1
y x I y x I
y x O
+
=

Manual Calculation

Image 1 Image 2
1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1
1 1 5 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1
1 1 22 22 22 1 1 1 5 1 22 22 22 1 1 1
1 1 22 22 22 1 1 1 1 1 22 22 22 1 1 1
1 1 22 22 22 1 5 1 1 1 22 22 22 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 5 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1
1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1

Output (Average) image
1 1 1 1 3 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 3 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 22 22
1 1 22 22
1 1 22
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 3 1

Complete the empty pixels in the output image. Observe how the averaging
can attenuate the effect of random noise (with intensity 5).
Pemrosesan Citra Page 2 of 3
Copyright JTEUS, 2005 D:\My Documents\JTEUS\Citra\BookOrg\Modul4 ImAve\Modul4.doc
By Nemuel Daniel Pah 14/11/05
Example
Input images:

The average image is:

Observe how image averaging can remove random noises.

Matlab Script
The above example was created using the following script:

Bd=double(B);
Cd=double(C);
Dd=double(D);
Pemrosesan Citra Page 3 of 3
Copyright JTEUS, 2005 D:\My Documents\JTEUS\Citra\BookOrg\Modul4 ImAve\Modul4.doc
By Nemuel Daniel Pah 14/11/05

ImOut=uint8(ImOut);

figure(1);
imshow(A);

figure(2);
imshow(B);

figure(3);
imshow(C);

figure(4);
imshow(D);

figure(5);
imshow(ImOut);

Exercise
1. Refer to Matlab manual to understand each line in the above script.
2. Apply image averaging to determine the time imA.jpg, imB.jpg, imC.jpb,
and imD.jpg were taken.
3. Exercise image averaging with your own images.

Files Provided
Modul4.doc (this file)
Modul4.m
im5.jpg
im6.jpg
im7.jpg
im8.jpg
imA.jpg
imB.jpg
imC.jpg
imD.jpg

other files
buatgambar.m to create images using webcam
vfm.dll and vfm.m to access webcam using Matlab6

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