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SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION
This document is a tool to give assistance in developing a written Safety and Health
Management System (SHMS). A SHMS is also referred to as an Accident Prevention
Program. A written accident prevention program is a required part of fulfilling the
requirement in M!SHA "onstruction Safety Standard# Part $. %eneral &ules# &ule $$'
($) to have an Accident Prevention Program.
This document includes some sample language# notes# and additional resources to help
you prepare your written accident prevention program. (ach company should tailor
their own system and formulate safety procedures and rules applica)le to their own
wor* operations and wor* environments.
+ailure to develop a written construction safety and health management system specific
to your operation may result in a M!SHA violation.
,e)site lin*s are provided throughout this document to guide you to M!SHA
Standards and other resource documents.
,or*place in-uries are preventa)le. A SHMS is your )est defense against wor*place
in-uries.
An effective SHMS has five primary elements.
Management "ommitment and Planning#
(mployee nvolvement#
,or*site Analysis#
Ha/ard Prevention and "ontrol#
Safety and Health Training.
This systematic approach integrates occupational safety and health o)-ectives into the
company0s organi/ational structure.
The results of a system approach include.
An effective system supports the organi/ation0s philosophy.
Safety and health policies and goals are clearly communicated.
Accounta)ility for implementing the system is understood and accepted.
1ong2term solutions are implemented rather than one2time fi3es.
(valuation of results over time promotes continual improvement.
An effective system positively impacts the company0s )ottom line.
Be sure to assess your work operations and include safety and health information that
fits your specific needs, types of hazards, and the size and complexity of your business.
MIOSHA Safety and Health Standards
A good way to )egin the development of a SHMS is to determine which standards and
rules apply to the wor* )eing performed in your organi/ation. The chart )elow provides
lin*s to M!SHA standards.
All standards can )e found at www.michigan.gov4mioshastandards.
Standards Description Link
Construction
Safety
5sed for construction activities
including new installations#
upgrades and large scope
repairs.
Construction Safety Standards
Or www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards and
select onstruction.!
eneral Industry Typically used for wor* activity in
a manufacturing or other facility.
"onstruction Safety standards
may apply when wor* activities
are related to 6new7 construction
pro-ects.
eneral Industry Standards
Or www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards and
select "eneral #ndustry.!
Ad!inistrati"e Applies to all esta)lishments.
Ad!inistrati"e Rules
Or www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards and
select $dministrative %ules.!
Construction
Health
Health standards apply to all
construction activities. Some of
the more common include.
Ha/ard "ommunication# Silica#
1ead# As)estos# and &espirators.
Construction Health
Or www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards and
select onstruction.!
CONSTRUCTION SA#$T% & H$ALTH
MANA$M$NT S%ST$M
(ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM)
#OR
("ompany 8ame)
(Address)
(8ame of !wner4"(!)
TA'L$ O# CONT$NTS
Topic ...........................................................................................Page
Mana(e!ent Co!!it!ent and )lannin(.....................................9
Sample Safety and Health Policy.............................................9
Sample Safety and Health !)-ectives......................................:
;esignated Safety "oordinator.................................................:
Supervisor0s &esponsi)ility.......................................................'
Safety and Health "ommittee...................................................'
&esponding to Safety and Health ssues.................................'
$!ployee In"ol"e!ent...................................................................<
Safety and Health "ommittee...................................................<
Safety nspections.....................................................................<
Suggestion System...................................................................<
(mployee Participation.............................................................<
*orksite Analysis...........................................................................=
8ew (quipment# Processes# and +acility Ha/ard Analysis......=
>o) Safety Analysis...................................................................?
(mployee &eport of Ha/ards....................................................@
Accident4ncident nvestigation.................................................@
Ha+ard )re"ention and Control.....................................................A
>o) Site nspection..................................................................$B
Accident nvestigation.............................................................$$
Personal Protective (quipment...............................................$$
Policies# Procedures# Safety and Health &ules......................$9
Safety ;iscipline.....................................................................$'
(mergency Procedures..........................................................$<
1oc*out 4 Tagout Procedure....................................................$=
"onfined Space (ntry.............................................................$?
,ritten Ha/ard "ommunication Program...............................$@
+all Protection Program..........................................................$A
(lectrical Safety......................................................................9B
(3cavation Safety...................................................................9$
Safety and Health Trainin(...........................................................9:
Safety and Health ,or* !)servations....................................9'
Additional Resources to 'uild a Safety and
Health Mana(e!ent Syste!........................................................9<
Note to $!ployer, Ce sure to review your wor* operations and include safety
information that is relevant to each operation. 8ot all safety and health
standards are represented in the ta)le of contents a)ove.
MANA$M$NT COMMITM$NT AND )LANNIN
SAMPLE SAFETY AND HEALTH POLICY
("ompany 8ame) )elieves that no -o. or no task is !ore i!portant than /orker
health and safety0
f a -o) represents a potential safety or health threat# every effort will )e made to plan a
safe way to do the tas*.
(very procedure must )e a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures )y either
foremen or wor*ers will not )e tolerated.
f a wor*er o)serves any unsafe condition# which may pose a potential threat to their
health or safety# it is e3pected that employees will immediately correct the situation
when feasi)le or inform management. Management has the responsi)ility to ta*e
adequate precautions# comply with M!SHA standards# and assure the safety and
health of employees.
If a -o. cannot .e done safely it /ill not .e done0
Management will provide visi)le ongoing commitment# resources# and leadership to
assure the implementation of the SHMS. All employees will )e provided equally high
quality safety and health protection.
,e ac*nowledge the importance of creating a positive safety culture through employee
involvement and effective policies and procedures.
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
&ignature of Owner/hief 'xecutive Officer/(resident


8ote to employer. (ffective safety programs utili/e a SHMS that incorporates the
following five elements.
1. Management commitment and planning#
2. (mployee involvement#
3. ,or*site analysis#
4. Ha/ard prevention and control#
5. Safety and health training.
To learn more a)out these five components# ta*e a loo* at the M!SHA Safety and
Health Tool)o3.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/miosha, select $*+ ,opic #ndex! and ,oolbox.!
SAMPLE SAFETY AND HEALTH OBJECTIVES
("ompany 8ame) plans to achieve wor*er safety and health through the following.
1. ;esignate a qualified safety person to coordinate the program.
2. Plan for safety )efore each -o) and each new tas*# using a written >o) Safety
Analysis.
3. Ma*e regular -o) site safety inspections and conduct health monitoring.
'. +ollow safety procedures and rules.
5. Provide on2going safety training.
6. (nforce safety rules and use appropriate discipline.

SUPERVISORS RESPONSIBILITY
!ur supervisors0 play an important part in creating and maintaining safe and healthful
wor* practices# policies# and procedures. t is the supervisor0s responsi)ility to identify
potential ha/ards# identify methods to control or eliminate the ha/ards# ensure
employees engage in safe and healthful wor* practices# and ensure employees receive
safety and health training to do their wor*. Safety and health performance will )e part of
our supervisors0 evaluations.
(1ist other company2specific assigned safety and health supervisory responsi)ilities.)
SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
!ur management will ta*e an active role on the safety and health committee. At least
annually the safety and health committee will develop written safety and health goals
and trac* monthly progress. These goals will )e communicated to all employees. !ur
committee will )e comprised of management and hourly employees. Mem)ers will )e
((lected4Appointed4Eolunteer) and will serve on the committee for (1ength of Time).
RESPONDING TO SAFETY AND HEALTH ISSUES
!ur management will ta*e prompt consistent action when responding to safety and
health issues. They will demonstrate our management commitment to addressing safety
and health concerns and encourage employee participation. Management will respond
to employees0 reports of ha/ards or potential ha/ards and (;escri)e your company0s
system for employees to report ha/ards).
mmediate supervisors will review# investigate# and ta*e any necessary and appropriate
action on all employee reports of ha/ards or potential ha/ards. The employee reporting
the ha/ard or potential ha/ard will )e notified of the outcome. &eporting of ha/ards or
potential ha/ards will )e without fear of reprimand.
1
2
$M)LO%$$ IN1OL1$M$NT
SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
The purpose of our safety and health committee is to participate in the implementation
of the safety and health system at ("ompany 8ame).
!ur committee will )e comprised of management and employee representatives. !ur
committee will meet (Monthly4Fuarterly).
The committee will.
Have defined goals and o)-ectives.
Address safety and health issues.
&ecord and post minutes of the meetings.
nvolve employees in pro)lem solving.
;ocument action ta*en and post on the )ulletin )oards for all employees to
read and2or comment.
Have a formal agenda.
"ommittee mem)ers are. (1ist mem)ers)
SAFETY INSPECTIONS
!ur employees will participate in regular safety and health inspections
(;aily4,ee*ly4Monthly4Fuarterly) to help identify potentially ha/ardous conditions and
unsafe actions and initiate corrections. +indings will )e presented to (8ame4Title4Safety
and Health "ommittee) for review. "orrective action will )e implemented under the
direction of (8ame4Title) in a timely manner.
SUGGESTION SYSTEM
!ur employees are encouraged to ma*e safety and health suggestions to help improve
a process# prevent an accident# or to ma*e any improvement in the safety and health
system. The suggestion system will )e implemented )y (8ame4Title) who will )e
responsi)le for determining priority and the proper means of implementation. Safety
suggestions will )e shared with the safety and health committee for input. Suggestion
forms can )e placed in suggestion )o3es at (1ocation) or given directly to (8ame4Title).
EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION
!ur employees will )e given an opportunity to provide input regarding recommendations
on safety and health products# procedures# and training as it pertains to daily wor*
operations. +or e3ample# employees may )e given some responsi)ility to test out
products or conduct research to su)stantiate recommendations. (mployee input may )e
provided through the suggestion system# report of ha/ard# or through actions the safety
and health committee initiates. (mployees may participate in a variety of ways such asG
a trainer# inspector# or pro)lem solver.
3
*OR2SIT$ ANAL%SIS
,e will conduct a wor*site analysis# through systematic actions that provide information
as needed to recogni/e and understand the ha/ards and potential ha/ards of our
wor*place. 1isted )elow are types of wor*site analysis actions that can assist with
ma*ing an inventory of potential ha/ards in our wor*place.
$. >o) safety analysis.
9. "omprehensive ha/ard surveys (insurance inspections# M!SHA !n2site# etc.).
:. Ha/ard analysis of changes in the wor*place (new equipment# new processes).
'. &egular site safety and health inspections (employee and management).
<. (mployee report of ha/ards or potential ha/ards.
=. Accident and incident investigations with corrective actions and follow2up.
?. n-ury and illness trend analysis.
@. Personal protective equipment assessment.
A. (rgonomic analysis.
$B. Specific identification of confined spaces.
$$. dentification of energy sources for specific machines.
$9. "opies of written inspections and surveys )y. fire department# in2house as
required )y safety and health standards (e.g.# overhead crane inspections#
powered industrial truc* daily inspection# etc.).
NEW EQUIPMENT, PROCESSES, AND FACILITY HAZARD ANALYSIS
(8ame4Title) will analy/e new facilities# equipment# processes# and materials for ha/ards
and potential ha/ards. +indings will )e documented and plans developed to minimi/e or
design out the ha/ards.
4
JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS
("ompany 8ame) will utili/e -o) safety analysis to determine potential ha/ards and
identify methods to reduce e3posure to the ha/ards.
>o) Safety Analysis (>SA) is a method of planning for safety and health. There are
three parts to the >SA.
$. The first component of a >SA is )rea*ing down a -o) or tas* into the specific
steps it ta*es to complete the -o). Although this can )e done in small detail#
typically only the ma-or steps are listed. This often results in five to ten steps.
The steps are listed in chronological order# listing the first thing that must )e
done# then what comes ne3t# and so on.
9. The second component of a >SA is to list ha/ards that are involved in each step.
There may )e many ha/ards that get listed ne3t to some steps and may not )e
any associated with some steps.
:. The third step is to write down how each ha/ard will )e eliminated or controlled.
n other words# descri)e what needs to )e done in order to perform that tas*
safely.
Sa!ple 3SA #or!
>o) Title. Page. DD of >SA 8o. ;ate.
DD8ew
DD&evised
(quipment. Supervisor.
Analysis )y.
;epartment. Approved )y.
&equired Personal Protective (quipment (PP().
>o) Steps Potential Ha/ards &ecommended Safe >o) Procedures
Trainee(s) 8ame. Training ;ate.
Trainer(s) 8ame. Trainer(s) Signature.
+our2Step nstruction "ompletedH Prepare the ,or*erIIIITrainer(s) nitials
Present the !perationIIITrainer(s) nitials
Try !ut PerformanceIII.. Trainer(s) nitials
+ollow 5pIIIIIIII..Trainer(s) nitials
"omments.
8ote to employer. >o) safety analysis is often called different things. !ther names for it
include. -o) ha/ard analysis# -o) tas* analysis# tas* ha/ard analysis# and safety tas*
analysis. >o) ha/ard analysis ta*es place prior to starting new wor* activities.
A sample form and more detailed instruction is included in the M!SHA >o) Safety
Analysis )oo*let (SP J:9).
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and &( -./.!
EMPLOYEE REPORT OF HAZARDS
5
!ur employees play a *ey role in identifying# controlling# and reporting ha/ards that may
occur or already e3ist in the wor*place. (mployee reports of potential ha/ards can )e
an effective tool to trigger a closer loo* at a piece of equipment# operation# or how wor*
is )eing performed. &eports of potential ha/ards can also provide suggestions to
eliminate a ha/ard.
ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION
,e will conduct an investigation for all accidents4incidents and near misses. !ur
primary goal of conducting an investigation is to determine the 6root cause7 to prevent
the ris* of a future occurrence. nvestigation reports can help determine in-ury and
illness trends over time# so that patterns with common causes can )e identified and
prevented. nvestigations are not intended to place )lame.
Accidents and 6near2miss7 incidents will )e investigated )y (8ame4Title). The reports will
)e reviewed )y (8ame4Safety "ommittee) within (;ays4Hours) of an accident4incident.
CONTROL AND )R$1$NTION HA4ARD
6
!ur management will develop systems to prevent and control ha/ards. These include.
the esta)lishment of controls through engineering# wor* practice# personal protective
equipment# and4or administrative actionsG systems to trac* ha/ard correctionG preventive
maintenance systemsG emergency preparationG and medical program.
!ur written system will )e implemented to assure guards# house*eeping# and personal
protective equipment are provided and )eing used.
A written plan of action for the correction of ha/ards found in the wor*place will )e
implemented )y (8ame4Title). Actions will )e communicated to all employees.
A maintenance schedule for all vehicles and equipment will )e esta)lished )y
(8ame4Title). Maintenance logs will )e *ept to document wor* performed and repairs
scheduled or ordered.
&equired written programs such as. loc*out4tagout# respiratory protection# right to *now#
confined space# as)estos# )en/ene# lead# and for* lift permits will )e developed.
Through a team effort all employees at ("ompany 8ame) will ma*e 6safety chec*s7 a
part of routine wor* practices.
JOB SITE INSPECTIONS
("ompany 8ame) will conduct daily -o) site inspections. Ha/ards will )e documented#
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reviewed# and corrections will )e made in a timely manner. More detailed# written
inspections will )e conducted )y (8ame4Title) on a (,ee*ly4Monthly) )asis. The Safety
"oordinator or other designated safety person will tour each -o) site and o)serve
potential safety4health ha/ards# and develop a plan for safeguarding this companyKs
wor*ers which may include the following.
$. &emoving the ha/ard.
9. %uarding against the ha/ard as required )y M!SHA.
:. Providing personal protective equipment and enforcing its use.
'. Training wor*ers in safe wor* practices.
<. "oordinating protection of wor*ers through other contractors.
A record of all safety inspections and correctional steps will )e *ept.
8
8ote to employer. Some sample chec*lists for inspections can )e found at this
lin*.

Ha/ard Prevention and "ontrol
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/miosha, select $*+ ,opic #ndex,! ,oolbox,! and 0odule . * 1azard (revention
and ontrol.!
;uring your inspections# some of the important things to loo* for are the Top 9<
Serious Eiolations for "onstruction that M!SHA safety officers find.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and &( -22.!
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
All accidents resulting in in-ury or property damage will )e investigated. The purpose of
the investigation is 8!T to find fault# )ut to find the cause of the accident so similar
incidents can )e prevented in the future.
$. All accidents# no matter how minor must )e reported to the +oreman
immediately.
9. +oremen must report all accidents to the Safety "oordinator as soon as possi)le.
:. +oremen must complete an initial written accident investigation the day of the
accident# if possi)le.
'. All wor*ers involved in the accident or who witnessed the accident must
complete a written statement descri)ing the incident.
<. The Safety "oordinator will complete a thorough accident investigation to
determine root causes and corrective actions.
6. 8ear misses (situations where an accident almost happened) should )e reported.
"orrective action must )e ta*en to prevent the same situation from occurring
again with the potential for serious in-ury. +oremen should ma*e a note of near
misses and the corrective actions ta*en and report them to the Safety
"oordinator# so that the same corrections may )e made on all the company0s -o)
sites.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
$. Hard hats will )e worn on -o) sites at all times.
9. (ye protection will )e worn when there are potentials of ha/ards from flying
o)-ects or particles# chemicals# arcing# glare# or dust.
:. 1eather wor* )oots shall )e worn to protect from falling o)-ects# chemicals# or
stepping on sharp o)-ects. Safety toe footwear may )e necessary in some
instances. Athletic or canvas2type shoes shall not )e worn.
'. Protective gloves or clothing shall )e worn when required to protect against a
ha/ard.
'. Harnesses and lanyards shall )e utili/ed for fall protection as required.
9
8ote to employer. A good guide to personal protective equipment is availa)le
from M!SHA. t is written for general industry# )ut wor*s very well for
construction also. t is found at this lin*.
Personal Protective (quipment
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and &( -23.!
POLICIES, PROCEDURES, SAFETY AND HEALTH RULES
!ur management is responsi)le for implementing ma-or decisions# policies and safety
and health procedures. Specific safety and health procedures that are required )y
M!SHA will )e put in writing such as. loc*out# right to *now# fall protection# confined
space# respiratory program# etc. A copy of our written safety program will )e availa)le
on every -o)site# either in the -o)site trailer# the gang )o3# or with the foremen. The
required M!SHA posters will )e posted (1ocation).
("ompany 8ame) will inform and enforce the following safety rules.
All of our safety rules !ust .e o.eyed0 #ailure to do so /ill result in strict
disciplinary action0
$. ,ear appropriate clothing and use sun )loc* to prevent sun)urn.
9. ,atch where you are wal*ing. ;o not run. Leep your mind on your wor* at all
times.
:. The use of illegal drugs or alcohol or )eing under the influence during wor*ing
hours shall )e cause for termination. nform your supervisor if ta*ing strong
prescription drugs that warn against driving or using machinery.
'. ;o not distract the attention of fellow wor*ers or engage in horseplay. ;o not
engage in any act which would endanger another employee.
<. Leep your wor*ing area free from ru))ish and de)ris. A clean -o) is the start of a
safe -o).
=. ;o not use a compressor to )low dust or dirt from your clothes# hair# or hands.
?. &eport any fear of wal*ing at heights to your supervisor.
@. Lnow where fire e3tinguishers are located and how to use them.
A. 1ift correctly 2 with legs# not the )ac*. f the load is too heavy %(T H(1P. ;o
stretching e3ercises prior to wor* activities. Appro3imately twenty percent of all
construction related in-uries result from lifting materials.
$B. Leep )ac* at least $B0 from all power lines# further if high voltage.
$$. 8o)ody )ut the operator shall )e allowed to ride on equipment unless the
equipment is designed to carry a passenger.
$9. ;o not use power tools and equipment until you have )een properly instructed in
the safe wor* methods and )ecome authori/ed to use them.
$:. ;o not remove# displace# damage# or destroy any safety device or safeguard on
equipment or machinery.
$'. Carricade danger areas. %uard rails or perimeter ca)les may )e required. ;o
not enter an area which has )een )arricaded.
10
$<. f you must wor* around power shovels# truc*s# rough2terrain for*2lifts# do/ers# or
other heavy equipment# ma*e sure operators can always see you.
8ever wal* within the swing radius of equipment counterweights.
8ever stand ne3t to truc*s when load straps are )eing released.
Carricades are required for cranes.
High visi)ility vests may )e used to increase your visi)ility.
$=. 8ever oil# lu)ricate# or fuel equipment while it is running or in motion.
$?. Cefore servicing# repairing# or ad-usting any powered tool or piece of equipment#
disconnect it# loc* out the source of power# and tag it out.
$@. (3cavations over five feet deep must )e shored or sloped as required. Leep out
of trenches or cuts that are not properly shored or sloped. (3cavated material or
other de)ris shall not )e stored nearer than two feet from the edge of the
e3cavation. (3cavations less than < feet will require cave in protection where
conditions indicate possi)le side failure.
$A. Practice the following safety procedures when using ladders.
5se the Mfour to oneM rule when using a ladder. !ne foot of )ase for every
four feet of height.
Porta)le ladders in use shall )e equipped with safety feet unless the ladders
are tied# )loc*ed or otherwise secured. Step ladders shall not )e used as a
straight ladder.
1adders must e3tend three feet a)ove landing on roof for proper use.
;efective ladders must )e properly tagged and removed from service.
Leep ladder )ases free of de)ris# hoses# wires# materials# etc.
9B. Cuild scaffolds according to manufacturersK recommendations and M!SHA
"onstruction Safety Standard# Part $9# Scaffolding.
Scaffolds over $B0 must have guardrails on all open sides.
Scaffold plan*s shall )e properly lapped# cleated or otherwise secured to
prevent shifting.
9$. 5se ground fault circuit interrupters at all times with any temporary power supply.
5se only e3tension cords of the three2prong type.
99. +all protection is required at = feet or higher. $BBN tie2off means the harness and
lanyard are always connected to anchorage.
9:. 8ever throw anything Mover)oard.M Someone passing )elow may )e seriously
in-ured.
9'. !pen fires are prohi)ited.
9<. Lnow what emergency procedures have )een esta)lished for your -o) site.
(1ocation of emergency phone# first aid *it# stretcher location# fire e3tinguisher
locations# evacuation plan# etc.).
11
9=. 8ever enter a manhole# well# shaft# tunnel or other confined space which could
possi)ly have a ha/ardous atmosphere )ecause of lac* of o3ygen# or presence
of to3ic or flamma)le gas# or has a possi)ility of engulfment )y solids or liquids.
!nly a qualified person will test the confined area with an appropriate detector
)efore entry.
,ear the necessary personal protective equipment.
Provide ventilation )y )lowing fresh air into the confined space.
An attendant (hole2watch) may )e required to )e stationed at the entrance.
SAFETY DISCIPLINE
("ompany 8ame) has implemented the following four step disciplinary system when
safety rules are not followed or other unsafe actions endanger wor*ers.
+irst violation. !ral warningG notation for personnel file.
Second violation. ,ritten warningG copy for file or Personnel !ffice.
Third violation. ,ritten warningG one day suspension without pay.
+ourth violation. ,ritten warning and one2wee* suspension# or termination if
warranted.
Oero2tolerance Eiolations. Some safety violations are of such serious nature that there
will )e no warnings and termination may result. (3amples include.
(ntering ha/ardous confined spaces without following proper procedures#
+ailing to use fall protection equipment#
(ntering unsafe e3cavations.
Coth the employee and the supervisor allowing these unsafe acts may )e terminated.
A record will )e maintained of all disciplinary actions.
12
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
n case of an emergency on site the following procedures will )e instituted at each site.
$. Method of communication will )e determined at each site. telephone# radio# etc.
9. Post the following emergency telephone num)ers.
Police#
+ire#
Medical &esponse Team.
:. Post the -o) site address near the communication station.
'. Post names of first aid responders on site. +irst responders should o)tain all
required +irst Aid4"P& and Clood)orne (3posure training.
<. ;esignate person to direct emergency crews to site of emergency.
=. nstruct each employee if *nown harmful plants# reptiles# animals# insects# or
other environmental ha/ards are present# including.
The potential ha/ards#
How to avoid in-ury#
Applica)le first aid procedures to )e used in the event of in-ury.
13
8ote to employer. Some sites may require more detailed emergency planning.
A good guide to site emergency planning is availa)le from the Michigan ;epartment of
State Police. t is titled Site (mergency Planning ,or*)oo*.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/msp, select (ublications, 4orms, 5 &tatistics,! (ublications,! 'mergency
0anagement and 1omeland &ecurity (ublications,! and &ite 'mergency (lanning 6orkbook.!
Additional site emergency planning resource.
Clood)orne nfectious ;isease (3posure "ontrol
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and ', -7/.8.!
LOCKOUT / TAGOUT
Lockout 5 Ta(out assures that employees are protected from unintended machine
motion or unintended release of energy which could cause in-ury. This includes
electricity# water# steam# hydraulic# gravity# and many other sources of stored energy.
All sources of energy must )e shut off# de2energi/ed at the source# and loc*ed2out prior
to any employee )eginning wor* around or on the potential ha/ard.
14
8ote to employer. &eview the M!SHA 1oc*out 4 Tagout "ompliance %uide for
assistance in writing your program. The document was written for general industry#
however some of the information may )e helpful. Appendi3 A of that guide is a
sample 1oc*out 4 Tagout program that you may copy and modify for your program.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and &(- /9.!
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
8o employee shall enter confined spaces without authori/ation. A confined space
is defined as the following.
$. A space that is 8!T ;(S%8(; +!& "!8T85!5S employee
!""5PA8"P# and
9. s large enough and so configured that a person can )odily enter into and
perform assigned wor*# and
:. Has 1MT(; or &(ST&"T(; means for (8T&P or (QT.
"onfined spaces that may have a HAOA&;!5S ATM!SPH(&( require special
precautions. Ha/ardous atmospheres are those that may e3pose employees to
the ris* of death# incapacitation# impairment of a)ility to self rescue caused )y.
+lamma)le gas#
Air)orne com)usti)le dust#
Atmospheric o3ygen concentration )elow $A.< or a)ove 9:.<N#
A to3ic atmosphere or su)stance#
;anger of engulfment.
8ote to employer. A sample written program is availa)le from M!SHA. The
document is titled %uidelines for a Permit &equired "onfined Space (ntry
Program.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms! and
', -7..8.!
15
WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM
Ha/ard communication means ensuring that all wor*ers *now a)out the
chemicals that they wor* with and wor* around. !ften called 6&ight to Lnow#7 the
ha/ard communication program involves the following elements.
$. ,ritten ha/ard communication program.
9. Training on the chemicals this company uses.
:. 1a)eling. using properly la)eled containers.
'. Safety ;ata Sheets (S;S). S;S (formerly *nown as Material Safety ;ata
Sheets or MS;S) must )e readily availa)le onsite. ,or*ers must *now
where to find S;S and )e a)le to read and properly utili/e an S;S.
<. Posting signs to inform employees of the location of S;S and when new
chemicals are )rought on the -o) site.
=. nforming other contractors. f we use chemicals around other contractors#
it is our responsi)ility to inform other contractors of the ha/ards involved.
,e will ma*e every effort to *eep other contractors safe from the
chemicals we use. Typically# the general contractor onsite will need to
coordinate all chemical use of all contractors to maintain a safe wor*place.
8ote to employer. Pour written Ha/ard "ommunication program should outline
the specific details of the elements listed a)ove. M!SHA has a Sample Ha/ard
"ommunication Plan.
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &pecial (rograms! and ', -77.8.!
16
FALL PROTECTION PROGRAM
$. +all protection is required whenever wor*ing at si3 feet or a)ove.
9. +all protection will )e provided )y one or more of the following.
%uardrails#
Hole covers#
Safety nets#
Personal fall arrest system (harness and lanyard).
8ote to employer. To assist you in completing your fall protection program#
there are lin*s provided )elow to several fall protection documents availa)le
from M!SHA.
Highlights of the +all Protection Standard
"onstruction ndustry Threshold Heights &equiring +all Prevention4Protection
(quipment
+alls 2 5nprotected Sides# ,all !penings# and +loor Holes
+all Protection R %eneral nterpretations ("!M B'29)
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/miosha, select $*+ ,opic #ndex! and 4all (rotection.!
17
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
(lectrical safety involves two primary issues.
Powerlines#
Temporary and permanent electrical wiring and equipment.
To avoid electrical incidents# several )asic safety rules must )e followed.
$. Stay at least $B feet )ac* from powerlines# in A11 directions. Stay further
)ac* if voltages are greater than <B#BBB volts
9. ;o not store materials under powerlines.
:. Mar* powerlines on the -o) site with warning signs )elow.
'. 5se ground fault circuit interrupters (%+") whenever plugging into
temporary power or using an e3tension cord.
<. (3tension cords and trailing cords with missing ground prongs must )e
removed from service.
=. (3tension cords and trailing cords with cuts must )e removed from
service.
?. ;o not operate wet power tools.
@. Leep e3tension cords from )eing damaged in doorways or )eing run over.
A. Leep e3tension cords out of wet areas.
$B. 8ever wire anything yourself or attempt to ma*e electrical repairs. 1eave
that for an electrician.
$$. Assume all wires and electrical )o3es are live# unless you are certain they
are not.
$9. ;o not store any materials within : feet of electrical )o3es.
8ote to employer. M!SHA fact sheet regarding powerline safety.
(lectrical ncidents 2 "ontact with Power 1ines
Or go to www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications and select 0#O&1$ 4act &heets.!
18
ECAVATION SAFETY
Pre2-o) planning is vital to accident2free e3cavations and trenchingG safety cannot
)e improvised as wor* progresses.
The following concerns must )e addressed )y a qualified person.
$. (valuate soil conditions and select and construct appropriate protective
systems in accordance with M!SHA Part A# (3cavation# Trenching and
Shoring.
9. f the trench is <0 or deeper# you must use one of the following.
sloping of trench sides
)enching of trench sides
trench )o3es#
shoring#
:. f the trench is less than <0 )ut is ha/ardous due to soil or the nature of the
trench# then you must use protective systems.
'. Appropriate protective systems to prevent a cave2in may include.
<. nspect the site daily at the start of each shift# following a rainstorm# or
after any other ha/ard2increasing event.
=. "ontact MSS ;% to locate underground lines at least : days prior to
e3cavating.
?. Plan for traffic control when necessary. &efer to the Michigan Manual on
5niform Traffic "ontrol (MM5T") Part = (availa)le from the Michigan
;epartment of Transportation) for traffic control.
@. ;etermine pro3imity to structures that could affect choice of protective
systems. +or e3ample# ensure roads# sidewal*s# or )uildings are not too
close to allow the use of a trench)o3 or adequate sloping.
A. Test for low o3ygen# and ha/ardous gases and vapors# especially when
gasoline engine2driven equipment is running# or the dirt has )een
contaminated )y lea*ing lines or storage tan*s. +uel2powered equipment
produces car)on mono3ide in the e3haust and must not )e used without
adequate ventilation. Provide appropriate respiratory protection when
necessary.
$B. Provide safe access into and out of the e3cavation. f the e3cavation is '0
or greater# ensure a ladder is within 9<0 of wor*ers in the e3cavation.
$$. Provide appropriate protections if water accumulation is a pro)lem. ,ater
flow and accumulation must )e inspected and must )e controlled.
19
$9. Leep e3cavations open the minimum amount of time needed to complete
operations.
8ote to employer. M!SHA documents to assist you with compliance.
M!SHA +act Sheet. Trenching and (3cavation R Protective Systems
Or go to www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications and select 0#O&1$ 4act &heets.!
(3cavation )y the 8um)ers
Or go to www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications and select 0#O&1$ 4act &heets.!
Part A
Or go to www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards and select onstruction.!
20
SA#$T% AND H$ALTH TRAININ
("ompany 8ame) will provide training to assure the requirements of M!SHA
standards are met and continuously evaluate employee training needs to *eep
wor*ers safe and healthy on the -o).
$. 8ew (mployee !rientation. 8ew employees will receive training on the
company safety and health management system# safe wor* practices and
e3pectations# and specific safety and health training for the tas*s that they
will perform.
9. After inspecting a -o) site# (8ame4Title) will identify and evaluate all
potential ha/ards for potential of serious in-uries and pro)a)ility of an
accident. Actions will )e ta*en to minimi/e the ha/ards and protect the
wor*ers.
:. The Safety "oordinator or other designated site person will appraise the
s*ill and *nowledge level of e3posed wor*ers# and provide any needed
training.
'. ,here safety and health training is needed# appropriate training will )e
provided.
Ha/ards will )e identified.
8ecessary precautions will )e e3plained.
Training length and level of detail will )e determined )y the severity
of the ha/ards and the requirements of M!SHA.
<. &ecords will )e maintained for all training sessions with descriptions of
topics covered and names of wor*ers trained.
=. Tool)o3 Tal*s. Tool)o3 tal*s will )e conducted regularly (wee*ly4daily).
Topics covered will include.
The safe wor* practices necessary for that day0s wor*.
Any safety concerns wor*ers may have.
Crief refresher training on relevant safety topics (topics to )e provided
)y the Safety "oordinator).
21
SAFETY AND HEALTH WORK OBSERVATIONS
Safety and health wor* o)servations will )e performed periodically )y
supervisors or designated o)servers.
Safety and health wor* o)servations ensure. $) an employee has the *nowledge
to perform the wor* as trained# and 9) is actually performing their wor* tas*
safely. Specific o)servations or audits are especially critical for loc*out4tagout#
confined space# or where the ris* of e3posure is high. &esults will )e
documented and follow2up training will )e provided as needed. This process
helps assure safety and health training is effective.
8ote to (mployer. A listing of M!SHA required training related to construction
safety standards can )e found at this lin*.
"onstruction Safety Standards
Or go to www.michigan.gov/miosha, select &tandards and :egislation! and onstruction.!
22
ADDITIONAL R$SOURC$S TO 'UILD A SA#$T%
AND H$ALTH MANA$M$NT S%ST$M
The following is a list of other related documents. Cecause all )usinesses differ in
many aspects# each company should tailor their own system and formulate
safety and health procedures and rules applica)le to their own conditions and4or
wor* environments.
The following items can )e used separately or com)ined to help you develop and
implement a SHMS.
DDDDDD "(T J<?:B Model &espiratory Protection Program (&eplaced )y 5S;!1
!SHA Sample %espiratory (rotection (rogram;
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms!
and %espiratory (rotection.!
,his compliance guide can help you design your respirator program.
DDDDDD "(T Sample Perception Survey R MT 1evel !ne course materials from
6Clueprint for a Safety and Health Management System7
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mti.
,he use of perception surveys provides a means to measure leading
indicators of safety performance by providing a snapshot of the current
safety culture through the perception of your employees and managers.
DDDDDD SP J9 Safety and Health Management System %uidelines
Or go to) www.michigan.gov/mioshapublications, select &ample (lans and &pecial (rograms!
and &( -/.!
Through the M!SHA Training nstitute (MT)# there are numerous low2cost
training seminars throughout the state to help you learn more a)out M!SHA
standards and various elements of a SHMS. Eisit the M!SHA we)site to
determine which classes would )e )eneficial to you. !ther support services
provided )y M!SHA include the pu)lication li)rary# fact sheets# standard
interpretations# free ;E; loan li)rary# and consultation services.
M!SHA "(T consultants can provide assistance at no charge to help you
evaluate and )uild your SHMS.
///0!ichi(an0(o"5!iosha
67809::07;<=
23
Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Consultation Education & Training Division
7!" Harris Drive# $%O% &o' (")*(
+ansing# Michigan *,-"-.,*(
/or further information or to re0uest consultation# education and training services
call 1!72 (33.,"-
or
visit our 4e5site at 444%michigan%gov6miosha
1A&A is an equal opportunity employer4program.
Au3iliary aids# services and other reasona)le accommodations are availa)le upon request to individuals with disa)ilities.
Safety )ays>
+or every S$ invested in
wor*place safety and healthI
employers see a S' to S= return.
Cottom 1ine Cenefits
7 &educed a)senteeism
: 1ower turnover rates
9 Higher productivity
? %reater efficiency
6 ncreased quality
@ ;ecreased scrap4waste
8 ncreased employee morale
; Positive )rand image
= ;ecreased health care costs
7<
;ecreased wor*ers0
compensation costs