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1aw Crushers

Jaw crushers are probably the most easily recognised crushers in any quarry operation. They are also
probably the oldest style oI mechanical crusher, neglecting spalling hammers and stamp batteries.

Jaw crushers generally consist oI a heavy-duty steel 'box, Iitted with a Iixed vertical crushing 'jaw at
one end and a moving 'jaw opposing it, with a method oI transIerring motion to the moving jaw. The
moving jaw swings towards and away Irom the Iixed jaw, creating a squeezing action (compression) on
the rock. The opening between the Iixed and moving jaws tapers vertically Irom wide at the top to narrow
at the bottom, thus gradually reducing the size oI the rock as it moves down through the 'crushing
chamber. The jaw plates can be Ilat, ribbed, corrugated or a combination oI these, although corrugated
jaw plates are now most commonly used in quarrying operations.

Flat Jaw ProIile Ribbed Jaw ProIile Corrugated Jaw ProIile

In today`s quarrying operations there are two styles oI jaw crushers that are generally employed; single
toggle and double toggle (or Blake) crushers. Over the years there have been other designs oI jaw
crushers, notably the horizontal pitman style and the Dodge machine. It is rare to Iind either oI these
machines today, as the crushers were limited in their ability to crusher hard materials at economical rates
due to Iairly ineIIicient transIer oI crushing Iorces to the jaw plates.

Horizontal Pitman Jaw Crusher Dodge Jaw Crusher

The double toggle Blake machine is considered the original design oI jaw crusher. It was designed in 1857
by Eli Whitney Blake aIter he was appointed to supervise the 'macadamising oI city streets in Westville,
Massachusetts. He decided that the then-current method oI breaking stone Ior this application was
ineIIicient, and, being an inventor oI some note, developed his Blake Stone-breaker. His design, with some
comparatively minor improvements, can still be seen in mines and quarries all over the world today.

Double Toggle (Blake) Jaw Crusher

In the double toggle machine the moving jaw (swing jaw) is pivoted at the top on the concentric swing-jaw


shaIt Iitted with plain bushes, either in the Irame oI the crusher or in the swing jaw. A reciprocating action
is imparted to the swing jaw through the toggles, one either side oI, and actuated by, the pitman, which is
mounted to an eccentric shaIt, generally with roller bearings. The eccentric shaIt generally has two
Ilywheels Iitted, depending on the design oI the machine. The swing jaw is held against the toggles by
tension rods and springs. Adjustment oI crusher setting is achieved by moving the toggle block (against
the back oI the mainIrame) and adding or removing shims as required. The toggles are the overload
protection devices Ior the machine, being designed to Iail in the event oI a crusher overload, thus
protecting the main crusher components.

A later development oI the Blake design is the single toggle jaw crusher. These machines were originally
called Roll Jaw Breakers due to the rolling crushing action imparted to the rock. They diIIer Irom the
Blake design in that the pitman and the swing jaw are incorporated in the same component, removing the
necessity Ior the second toggle plate and the swing jaw shaIt, and providing a generally lighter machine
Ior an equivalent size. Improvements in technology and subsequent design changes are allowing these
machines to become more eIIicient than the double toggle type.

Single Toggle Jaw Crusher

Due to the diIIerent design oI the single toggle crusher the moving jaw has an elliptical pattern to the
stroke, as opposed to the direct reciprocating action oI the double toggle machine. It was generally
accepted that this elliptical motion means a shorter jaw plate liIe when compared to an equivalent double
toggle machine, but improvements in jaw plate technology, including the design oI reversible jaw plates,
have largely negated this advantage. It has also been Iound that the combined grinding and compression
action oI the single toggle machine enhances the crushing capability.

Crushing Actions

Most quarries today operate single toggle crushers as their primary crusher. They have a major cost,
weight and size advantage over equivalent double toggle machines, and generally require less motor


power. However double toggle crushers still have their place, particularly in very hard and/or abrasive
materials. The largest jaw crushers in common use today will achieve in the order oI 800 t/h.

When selecting a jaw crusher, consideration should be given to the Iollowing points:

Maximum Ieed size should be no greater than 80 oI the 'gape (smaller dimension oI the Ieed
The operating setting oI the crusher (closed side setting) is the smallest dimension between the
Iixed jaw plate and the moving jaw plate, measured plate to plate (Ilat jaws) or tip to valley
(ribbed or corrugated jaws).
Maximum product size will generally be about 1.5 times the closed side setting oI the machine.
However, iI the Ieed is a particularly slabby material this may not be the case!
AIter crushing, 50- 60 oI the product will pass the closed side setting.
Reduction ratio oI jaw crushers is generally around 6:1
The primary crusher should be selected to exceed the average capacity oI the plant, as primary
Ieed to a plant is generally oI a cyclical nature, relying on trucks or loaders in most cases.
Jaw crushers operate at their maximum eIIiciency when all Ieed smaller than the closed side
setting is removed to bypass the jaw crusher.
Jaw crushers should be selected based on maximum Ieed size, not required capacity. Putting too
Iine a Ieed into a jaw crusher will overload the machine, leading to possible equipment Iailure.

Jaw crushers are robust items oI equipment and can be Iound in virtually all quarry operations. They are
comparatively easy to maintain and, provided they are not abused and are regularly serviced, will give a
long and generally trouble-Iree liIe.

Author: Peter Mayo - Index Industrial Brokers
Enquiries: Greg Bondar IQA National Executive OIIicer

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The inIormation in this publication is intended Ior use by the members oI IQA and those who have requested the publication and
who are the authorised recipients.
The views and inIormation contained herein is based on research and/or experience and the author, IQA and its directors, oIIicers
and employees are not liable, without limitation, Ior any consequences incurred, or any loss or damage suIIered by an organisation
or by any other person as a result oI their reliance on the inIormation contained in this publication or other documents or resulting
in their implementation or use oI other inIormation and, to the maximum extent permitted by law, exclude all liability (including
negligence) in respect oI the publication and related documents.

The Institute oI Quarrying Australia (IQA)
PO Box 51 Blakehurst NSW 2221
Ph: 61 2 9546 2257 and Fax: 61 2 9546 8852