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Maney Publishing

Original Written Sources for the History of Mediaeval Painting Techniques and Materials: A
List of Published Texts
Author(s): Salvador Muoz Vias
Source: Studies in Conservation, Vol. 43, No. 2 (1998), pp. 114-124
Published by: Maney Publishing on behalf of the International Institute for Conservation of
Historic and Artistic Works
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ORIGINAL WRITTEN SOURCES FOR THE HISTORY OF
MEDIAEVAL PAINTING
TECHNIQUES
AND MATERIALS: A
LIST OF PUBLISHED TEXTS
Salvador
Mufioz
Vifias
Summary--Original
written sources
for
the
history of
materials and
techniques of
mediaeval western art are
very important for
the scholar who wants to
carry
out research in this
field.
The author has selected and com-
mented on those which he considers the most
important among
those that have been
published:
the 'Lucca
manuscript',
the
De
coloribus
et
artibus
romanorum,
the
Mappae clavicula,
the
De clarea,
the Schedula
diversarum artium,
the
Breviloquium diversarum artium,
the Livro de como se
faqen
as cores,
the
Coloribus naturalia
exscripta et collecta, the Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive
pictorum,
the
De
col-
oribus
faciendis,
the De coloris diversis modis
tractatur,
the
De
diversis
coloribus,
the
Experimenta
de col-
oribus,
Jehan Le
Begue's recipes,
Jehan Le
Begue's
Tabula de vocabulis
sinonimis, Il libro
dell'arte,
the
Segretti per colori,
the
'Strasburg
manuscript',
the
'De
arte illuminandi',
the
'Gittingen
Model Book' and the
Ricepte
daffare
piu colori.
The editions
of
the
original
texts
containing
translations into
English, French,
German or Italian are listed in the article.
Introduction
There are two main sources that
provide
us with
original
information about the
techniques
and
materials of mediaeval art: the technical examina-
tion of the work
itself,
and the written sources
which date from the time the work was
produced.
The former allows us to know
precisely
which
materials were used in each
case,
and the latter
gives
a
general
idea of the technical
processes
used
by
artists and craftsmen at the time.
Epi-
stemologically,
the
study
of the written sources
pre-
cedes
experimental studies,
which are
necessary
to
obtain
precise
data. On the other
hand, analytical
results need to be
correctly interpreted,
and a sound
knowledge
of the
history
of
techniques
and materi-
als is
necessary
to achieve this.
Thus the
systematic gathering
of written sources
is a
complicated
but
rewarding
task. Several
impor-
tant efforts have been made in this direction. The
monumental work of Schlosser and the revisions
by
Kurz and other authors
[1]
do not deal with techni-
cal
subjects,
even
though
some valuable references
are included.
Thompson's
'Trial index to some
unpublished
sources for the
history
of mediaeval
craftsmanship'
is a remarkable effort in this direc-
tion
[2]. However,
its
practical utility
is somewhat
limited for the scholar or the conservator
because,
as the title
indicates,
it
only
contains references to
unpublished texts,
which are
rarely
accessible. More
recently,
Alexander has
compiled
an
interesting
list
of
published
written sources from
antiquity
to the
late nineteenth
century
that also includes a short
and useful
summary
of their contents
[3];
unfortu-
nately,
information about the editions is seldom
included.
Compilations
of
recipes according
to sub-
ject
have been
attempted (see,
for
instance,
those
by
Roosen-Runge [4]
or Brunello
[5]). However,
researchers
using
them are
necessarily
confined to
the
categories
chosen
by
the
authors,
which do not
always
coincide with their own interests. A
very
comprehensive
effort in this sense is that
by
Bordini,
who has made a
comprehensive
selection
of the most
important
sources from
antiquity
to the
nineteenth
century.
A short
commentary
is included
for each
source, along
with a list of the most
important
editions and some references to texts
where each source is mentioned or discussed
[6].
As
with
any
other
list,
the selection of sources
might
be
debatable,
and not
every
edition of each source
is
quoted.
This
present
article
may
be considered to be a
reasonably comprehensive
list of the most
impor-
tant western written sources for the
history
of tech-
niques
and materials of mediaeval and
early
Renaissance
painting,
as well as their editions. In
practice,
these editions are the actual source from
which most scholars draw information.
They
are
much more accessible than their
original
counter-
parts,
since
they
do not
require
extensive
palaeo-
graphical knowledge
and/or extended
trips
to the
archives where
they
are housed.
Many
editions also
include translations into modern
languages.
This article is divided into two sections: the first
Received March 1996
Received in revised
form
November 1997
114 Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124
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Original
written sources
for
mediaeval
painting techniques
and materials
section,
'The
sources',
lists the selected
original
texts in
chronological order,
with some comments
about the date of
composition,
contents and edi-
tions. The second
section,
'The
editions',
is
orga-
nized
by
editor's name and date of
publication.
The
bibliographic
information on the editions can be
found in this section of the
article,
where
they
are listed under the editor's name in
alphabetical
order.
The sources
The sources are listed
individually
and have been
arranged
in
chronological
order.
However,
it must
be taken into account
that,
as
many
of these texts
cannot be dated
precisely,
the
sequence
cannot be
determined
precisely
either.
Compositiones
variae: the 'Lucca
Manuscript'
The
only
known
copy
of the text is
presently kept
at the Biblioteca
Capitolare,
Lucca
(MS 490),
hence
its name. It is an
unsystematic
collection of
recipes,
written in
Italy
in the latter
part
of the
eighth
cen-
tury
or at the
beginning
of the ninth
century.
However, according
to
Burnam,
the Lucca
Manuscript
derives from a
Spanish
text
dating
from
725,
which in turn derives from an earlier manu-
script dating
from around
650;
the latter was
prob-
ably
a translation from even earlier Greek texts
(as
some of the
recipes clearly indicate).
This is
very
common in mediaeval
sources,
because the scribes
felt free to add commentaries or to make additions
or corrections to the text
they
were
working on,
or
simply
to
ignore
some
parts
of
it,
so that it is not
always easy
to
identify
the
original
core
(or author)
of the text.
Thus,
resemblances or connections
between different texts are often
found,
or
parts
of
one text embedded in another.
Many recipes
from
the
Compositiones
variae have been
copied
into
other
manuscripts throughout Europe (Johnson
has
found
up
to 78 other
manuscripts containing parts
of this
compilation [7, 8], including
the
Mappae
clavicula,
see
below).
The
recipes
in the Lucca
Manuscript
do not deal
only
with
painting;
other crafts are also described
(including mosaic, dyeing, building techniques
and
gilding).
This work is also known as
Compositiones
ad
tingenda musiva,
which is the title
given
to it
by
Muratori
(in 1739)
and
Hedfors (in 1932)
in their
editions. It has also been edited
by
Pellizzari
(1915)
and Burnam
(1920).
De coloribus et artibus romanorum
The De coloribus et artibus romanorum has been
attributed to 'Heraclius' or 'Eraclius', a writer who,
according
to
Ilg,
is fictitious
[9].
This work is
divided into three
parts.
The first and second
parts
are written in verse and can be considered the
nucleus of the work. Later additions in
prose
were
made to this
nucleus, forming
a third
part.
Its dat-
ing
is
complex;
Schlosser and
Giry
date the first
two books to the tenth
century [1, 10].
Schlosser
believes that these two books were written in
Italy,
while the third was
probably
a French addition
written in the thirteenth
century.
The De coloribus.. . is an
attempt
to recover
antique
technical traditions in a broad sense: for
example, dyes, ivory, gems
and
glass
are dealt with.
However,
the most
important part
of the text is
probably
the third book
(particularly chapters
XXIV to XLV and L to
LVIII),
where several
kinds of
tempera painting technique
are described.
The De coloribus ... was first
published
as a
part
of
Raspe's
Critical
Essay
on the Art
of
Oil
Painting
in 1781. This edition was made from a
partially
incomplete manuscript (several chapters
from the
third book are
missing)
from
Trinity College
Library, Cambridge,
now held at the British
Museum
(MS Egerton
840
A).
Merrifield's edition
of 1849 was based on a more
complete manuscript,
held at the
Bibliothbque
Nationale,
Paris.
Ilg
also
made a
transcription
of the De coloribus . . . which
appeared, along
with a German
translation,
in
1873. The first two books were edited
by Pellizzari
in 1915.
Finally, Roosen-Runge's Farbgebung
und
Technik
fraihmittelalterlicher
Buchmalerei was
pub-
lished in
1967, including
a German translation of
many
of the
recipes, along
with technical com-
ments.
Mappae
clavicula
The
original
text of the
Mappae
clavicula was writ-
ten in northern
Europe
in the ninth or tenth cen-
tury
and was
expanded by
several additions in the
twelfth
century.
It has
strong
links with the 'Lucca
Manuscript', incorporating many
of the same
recipes.
One of the
principal manuscripts (MS
Phillips 3715,
see
below)
was first
published by
Phillips
in 1847. More than a
century later,
in
1967,
many recipes
from this text were
annotated,
trans-
lated into
German,
and
published by
Roosen-
Runge.
In
1974,
Hawthorne and Smith
published
two of the texts from the
Mappae
clavicula in
English translation,
with a concordance of the
prin-
cipal manuscripts.
Although
there are two
manuscripts
which
may
be considered as the core of the
Mappae
clavicula
(the 'Phillips Manuscript' MS
Phillips 3715 in the
Corning Museum of Glass and MS 5614 in the
Bibliothbque
Nationale, Paris), most of the
Mappae
clavicula
recipes also
appear in other
manuscripts
Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124 115
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S. Mufioz Vihas
throughout Europe.
An
example
is a
Spanish
man-
uscript
known as the 'Codex
Matritensis',
which is
held
by
the Biblioteca de El Escorial and which was
published by
Burnam
(in 1912)
and Pirson
(in
1929).
It contains
recipes
from several
sources,
including
the
Compositiones
variae and no less than
70
paragraphs
from the
Mappae
clavicula.
De clarea
This short
manuscript
deals
mainly
with
manuscript
illumination. It also describes the use of
glair (egg
white)
as a
painting medium,
as well as how to
design
foliate decorations and other ornaments in
book illumination. The
only
known
manuscript
of
this text is
kept
in the
Burgerbibliothek
in Bern
(MS A.91.17)
and is
unfortunately incomplete.
It
was
published
for the first time
by Hagen
('Anonymus
Bernensis Oiber die Bindemittel und
das Coloriren von
Initialen')
as an
appendix
to
Ilg's
edition of
Theophilus's Schedula
in 1874
(pp. 375-400).
This edition contains some mistakes
in
transcription,
which were
partially
corrected in
Loumyer's
edition
(published
in
1908).
As a result
of these
editions,
the De clarea has come to be
known as the
'Anonymous
Bernensis'.
Thompson
also
published
this text in
1932;
in his intro-
duction he
agrees
with
Loumyer's dating
of the
manuscript
to the twelfth
century,
while
Hagen
thinks it was written no later than the eleventh
century.
A recent edition of the De clarea is that
by
Straub
(1964).
Schedula diversarum artium
Theophilus's
Schedula diversarum artium is
perhaps
the most
important
collection of technical data
about mediaeval arts and crafts as
practised
in
northern and central
Europe.
It is a
logically
struc-
tured work and not
just
a
juxtaposition
of
recipes
from diverse
origins.
This makes it
significantly
dif-
ferent from
many
other similar texts and
gives
it
special
value.
Theophilus
also seems to have been a
practising
artist
himself,
hence the
importance
of
his account.
There are several
manuscripts
of this text:
the oldest and most
complete
are those in Vienna
(National Bibliothek,
MS
2527), Wolfenbtittel
(Wolfenbiittel Herzogliche Bibliothek,
Gudeanus
Lat. 2'
69)
and London
(British Museum,
MS
Harley 3915).
Schedula diversarum artium is an
expression
that
appears
in the
preface
of the
Wolfenbfittel
manuscript. Lessing
named his tran-
scription
after this
expression,
and it became a
commonly used
designation
for this text. The
Schedula is also known as De diversis artibus, the
title of the Schedula
manuscript
in Vienna.
The text is divided into three books. The first
deals with miniature and mural
painting,
the second
with
glass techniques
and
painting
on
glass,
and the
third with
metal, gems,
and
ivory techniques.
The
date of
writing
has been
disputed: Lessing
dated it
to the ninth
century, Leiste, Raspe, Degering [11]
and Theobald to the
tenth,
Hendrie to the first half
of the
eleventh, Ilg
to the second half of the
eleventh or the first half of the twelfth
century [12],
Dodwell,
and Hawthorne and Smith
[13]
to the first
half of the twelfth
century,
Bourass6 to the second
third of the twelfth
century,
and Eastlake
[14],
Guichard
(in Escalopier's text)
and Texier
[15]
to
the latter
part
of the twelfth
century
or the thir-
teenth
century.
In this
connection,
it is
interesting
to note that some
manuscripts
of the Schedula have
later additions
(the
earliest is the seventeenth-cen-
tury
Vienna
manuscript)
that mention its author as
being 'Theophilus qui
est
Rugerus'.
This has led
some scholars to believe that
'Rugerus'
could be the
monk
Roger
von
Helmarshausen,
a craftsman and
metalworker who was active around 1100.* In addi-
tion to
this, palaeographers
have dated the
Wolfenbiittel and Vienna
manuscripts (the
oldest
known)
to the twelfth
century.
This
suggests
that
the text was
actually composed
at the
beginning
of
the twelfth
century.
The most recent studies
(those
by
Dodwell and
by
Hawthorne and
Smith)
also
support
this
opinion.
The
Schedula
has been
published many
times.
The work was
brought
to the attention of scholars
by Lessing
in
1774,
when he transcribed and
pub-
lished several
chapters
from a
copy
of the
Wolfenbittel manuscript. Morelli,
who had discov-
ered another
copy
of the
Schedula
in
Venice, pub-
lished some
parts
of it in the
catalogue
of the Nani
Library
at
roughly
the same time
(1776). Raspe,
who had found two further
manuscripts
in
Cambridge (Cambridge University Library
MS
1131 and British Museum MS
Egerton 840A,
for-
merly
in
Trinity College Library), published
the
Latin text of
Theophilus's
first book in 1781. In
1843
Escalopier published
a new
transcription,
which was based on
preceding
editions and on the
Cambridge University Library
MS
1131,
as well as
the Le
Begue Theophilus manuscript,
see
below).
Four
years later,
Hendrie
published
an edition
based on British Museum MS
Harley 3915,
which
he himself had discovered.
These last two editions
provided
the basis for
other
publications.
Bourass& translated Hendrie's
*Ilg,
Falke and
Frauberger
identified several works of
Roger
von
Helmarshausen,
such as a
gold
cross
(in
the
Kunstgewerbemuseum
in
Berlin),
a silver book
binding (in
the cathedral of
Treveris)
and two
portable altarpieces (in
the Franciscan church in Padeborn and in Padeborn
Cathedral);
see Schlosser [1].
116 Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124
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Original
written sources
for
mediaeval
painting techniques
and materials
transcription
into
French;
this translation was com-
pleted
and annotated
by
Blanc in 1980. Winston
translated
part
of
Escalopier's transcription (the
second book
only)
into
English
in 1847. Winston's
text was
reprinted
in
1867,
and a translation can
also be found in a
compilation
of
glassworking
techniques
made
by
Winbolt in 1933.
In
1876,
the French translation of the Schedula
by Bontemps
was
published.
In
addition,
there is an
anonymous
French translation
(published
in
1924)
which seems to be based on
Escalopier's work,
though
this is not
acknowledged.
On the other
hand, Ilg's
critical edition
(published
in
1874)
takes
into account
virtually every manuscript, transcrip-
tion,
translation and
study
available at that time
and includes a German translation.
In the twentieth
century,
Theobald
published
an
edition that focused on the technical matters
described in the second and third books. Dodwell's
excellent and well annotated edition of the Schedula
was
published
in 1961 with an
English translation,
Hawthorne and Smith's
English
edition two
years
later and
finally,
in
1987, Brepohl's
edition was
published
with a German translation.
Breviloquium
diversarum artium
Ilg suggested
that the monk
Theophilus
was the
author of the
Breviloquium
diversarum
artium,
another text on technical matters of arts and crafts
[9]. According
to
him,
diverse
fragments
of this text
were included in German
fifteenth-century printed
copies
of the Lumen
animae,
a work that
gathered
together
a wide
variety
of late mediaeval scientific
and
magical knowledge. Raspe, Ilg
and
Escalopier
included this text in their editions of the
Schedula,
because
they
believed that the
fragments
were actu-
ally
a
part
of the Schedula diversarum artium.
However,
as Dodwell has demonstrated in the
pref-
ace to his edition of the
Schedula, Theophilus's
authorship
of this text is
very
doubtful. In
any case,
this text contains much less information about the
techniques
of mediaeval arts and crafts than the
Schedula itself.
Livro de como se
fagen
as cores
The Livro de como se
faCen
as cores is contained in
MS De Rossi
945,
held at the Biblioteca
Palatina,
Parma. This is the
only
known
manuscript
of the
text. It is written in
Portuguese,
but
using
Hebrew
characters. Its
colophon
indicates that the
original
text was written
by
Abraham ben Judah Ibn
Hayyim
in
Loulk
(Portugal)
in
1262, although
as
Blondheim has
pointed out, the existing manuscript
may have been written later. It is devoted to the
making
of
pigments and aqueous binding media,
and to miniature painting techniques.
In 1928,
Blondheim
published
a
transcription (in
the
original
Hebrew
characters) along
with an
English
transla-
tion.*
De coloribus naturalia
exscripta
et collecta
The
manuscript Amplonius Quarto
189 in the
Erfurt Stadtbibliothek contains a short text entitled
De coloribus naturalia
exscripta
et
collecta,
which
describes the
making
and use of
pigments, primarily
for
manuscripts
and
paintings.
It is divided into 20
short
chapters
and was written in the late thirteenth
or the
beginning
of the fourteenth
century.
It shows
close connections with the Schedula and with the
De coloribus et artibus romanorum
(see above).
It
was
published by Thompson
in 1934 with an
English
translation.
Liber de coloribus
illuminatorum
sive
pictorum
This text is a
part
of the British Museum MS
Sloane 1754
(fol.
142v. to
149r.).
The Liber de col-
oribus ... was
probably compiled during
the last
part
of the fourteenth
century, perhaps by
a French
author,
and describes the
making
of
pigments
and
their use in miniature and easel
painting.
It was
derived from earlier
texts, including
for
example
the
third book of the De coloribus et artibus
romanorum;
it also bears some similarities to Pietro
de Sancto Audemaro's Liber de coloribus
faciendis
(see below).
It was
published by Thompson
in 1926
with an
English
translation.
The
manuscripts of
Jehan Le
Begue
The
manuscripts
of Le
Begue
consist of a number
of different late mediaeval texts
dealing
with art
and craft
techniques.
Le
Begue
was not their
author;
in 1431 he
copied
the different texts and
put
them
together
in a
single
codex with a
preface
and a
glossary composed by
himself.
Later,
that
codex became MS Lat. 6741 in the
Bibliothbque
Nationale,
Paris. The codex contains several
frag-
ments of the Schedula and was used
by
researchers
such as
Lessing,
Hendrie and
Escalopier
when
preparing
their editions of
Theophilus's
text
(see
above). Following up
these
references,
Merrifield
studied the codex and found that it contained sev-
eral other works of
great interest,
which she tran-
scribed and translated into
English.
These were
published
in her well-known
Original
Treatises dat-
ing from
the XIIth to the XVIIIth centuries on the
Art
of Painting
...
(London, 1849)
under the
gen-
eral name 'The
manuscripts
of Jehan Le
Begue'.
*A
transcription
to Roman characters was made
by
Fitzgerald
and
Taylor,
Todd Memorial Volumes-
Philological
Studies
I
(1930)
71-83.
Studies in Conservation 43
(1998) 114-124 117
This content downloaded from 193.136.124.200 on Tue, 30 Sep 2014 04:48:16 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
S. Mufioz Vifias
This book
(reprinted by
Dover in
1967)
continues
to be the most
widely
known source for the
study
of these texts
by
scholars around the
world;
for this
reason
they
are here
grouped
under Merrifield's
well-established
headings.
The
original
Le
Begue
codex includes some texts
which are not listed
here,
such as the above-men-
tioned
fragments
of the Schedula diversarum artium
and the entire De coloribus et artibus romanorum.
Here, they
are not discussed as a
part
of Le
Begue's
manuscripts
because
they
are known from other
documents,
not
primarily
from Le
Begue's
texts.
De coloribus
faciendis
De coloribus
faciendis
was written
by
Pietro de
Sancto Audemaro
(or
Pierre de Saint
Omer).
Little
is known about this
person;
for
philological
rea-
sons,
Merrifield
thought
he was resident in northern
France. She does not date the text but
quotes
Eastlake
[14],
who dated it to the thirteenth or
fourteenth
century.
The De coloribus
faciendis
is a
fairly comprehensive compilation
of some 60
recipes describing
the
making
of
pigments, along
with their
preparation
for artistic
purposes.
It offers
valuable information on
pigment cleaning
and
grinding techniques,
on
binding
media and on var-
nishes;
some information on
gilding
is also
included. Errors in Merrifield's
transcription,
which
is the
only
one
known,
have been corrected
by
Thompson [16].
De coloribus diversis modis tractatur
De coloribus diversis modis tractatur was written
by
Johannes Alcherius
(or Archerius,
or
Alcerius),
who
lived in the second half of the fourteenth
century
and the first
part
of the fifteenth
century. During
his travels around France and
Italy
he wrote down
recipes
on
painting
and
pigment preparation.
In
1398,
he wrote down the six
recipes
on miniature
painting
and
gilding
that
comprise
the De coloribus
diversis modis tractatur.
According
to his own
account,
this work was dictated
by
Jacob
Cona,
a
Flemish
painter
then
residing
in Paris. The text was
later corrected
by
Alcherius
himself,
who also
added some information he had
gathered
from
other sources.
De diversis coloribus
De diversis coloribus is a short
text-only four,
rather
detailed, recipes--describing
the
making
of
red lake
pigments,
some derivatives of
copper
ethanoate
(verdigris),
and
gilding techniques.
This
work was also written by Alcherius, this time from
the dictation of Antonio di Compendio,
an
elderly
and experienced
Italian miniature painter.
Its his-
tory
is very similar to that of De coloribus diversis
modis tractatur. It was written in 1398 and cor-
rected and
expanded
in 1411
(Alcherius
added a
recipe
for
making ink).
Experimenta
de coloribus
The
Experimenta
de coloribus is a collection of
recipes
which Alcherius
compiled
from several
sources while in
Italy
between 1409 and 1410.
Recipes 1
to 88 were taken from a book he had
borrowed from
Dionisio,
an Italian monk.
They
relate to the
making
of colours and
inks,
to
gilding
techniques
and to metalwork.
Recipes
100 to 116
were
copied
from a book lent to him
by
the
painter
Giovanni da Modena. These
recipes
describe the
making
of
pigments
and
dyes,
and some
gilding
techniques.
He also
gathered
oral information from
other
practising
artists
('Master Johannes,
a
Norman', 'Theodore,
a native of Flanders' and
'Michelino di
Vesuccio').
Back in
Paris,
in
1411,
Alcherius corrected the
recipes
where he
thought
it
necessary.
Since some of these
recipes
were written
in
Italian,
Le
Begue (who
did not read
Italian)
had
them translated into Latin.
Miscellaneous
recipes
In
1431,
Le
Begue
himself added 50
recipes
to
Alcherius's De diversis
coloribus, concerning
the
making
of
inks, pigments
and
glues
and on
gilding.
They
are written in French and bear no
heading;
there is
only
a short note
indicating
Le
Begue's
authorship.
Tabula de vocabulis sinonimis
According
to
Merrifield,
after
compiling
the above-
mentioned
texts,
Le
Begue
wrote a
dictionary
of
materials
employed
in
painting,
which
helps
in
understanding
the
meaning
of
many
of the terms
employed
in his
manuscript.
The text is in Latin
and has not been translated
by
Merrifield because
(according
to
her)
its difficulties render the transla-
tion
'impracticable'.
II libro dell'arte
Undoubtedly,
this is the best known source for the
history
of late mediaeval
painting techniques.
This
treatise was written in the
1390s,
or
early
in the fol-
lowing century, by
Cennino
Cennini,
with the
pur-
pose
of
offering
a
complete
overview of
painting
techniques
as he knew
them;
other arts are also
described in the text in less detail. Cennini himself
was a
painter
who had been trained under
Agnolo
Gaddi,
who in turn had worked with
Giotto,
and
could thus claim to be an heir to the tradition of
Giotto-as he does in his text. As a
consequence,
II
libro dell'arte reflects fourteenth-century painting
techniques
and materials. It must be remarked that,
unlike most other sources included here, II libro deli'
arte is a true treatise and not a mere
juxtaposition
118 Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124
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Original
written sources
for
mediaeval
painting techniques
and materials
of
recipes.
As the title
shows,
the
original
text was
written in
Italian,
not Latin.
Even
though
this text was known in the
Renaissance,
the first
printed
edition was
prepared
by
Tambroni in
1821,
from an
incomplete
manu-
script kept
at the Vatican
Library (MS
Ottoboniano
2974).
This edition was translated into
English by
Merrifield in
1844,
and into French
by
Mottez in 1858. A
new, expanded
edition was made
by
the latter's
son, Henry Mottez, published
in
Chartres in 1911 and
reprinted
in Paris in 1922.
The first critical
edition, by
Carlo and Gaetano
Milanesi, appeared
in 1859. It was based on two
manuscripts kept
in
Florence,
at the Laurenziana
Library (MS
78 P
23)
and at the Riccardiana
Library (MS 2190),
written in the fifteenth and six-
teenth centuries
respectively. Thus,
the Milanesi
could
appreciate
the evolution of some of the terms
and could
complete parts
that were
missing.
Several
translations were made from the Milanesi
edition;
Ilg
translated it into German in 1871 and
Herringham
translated it into
English
in 1899
(this
translation was
reprinted
in
1930).
In 1913 Simi made a detailed critical
edition,
reprinted
in 1943 with some additions and correc-
tions. Verkade's edition was
published
in
1916,
while
Thompson's
1932 edition contains an
English
translation
(reprinted
in 1960
by Dover).
In
1942,
Borradaile
published
a handbook for
tempera
painting
based
upon
Cennini's text. Recent editions
include
Tempesti (1975),
Brunello
(1982,
but based
on Simi's
text),
Serchi
(1991,
also based on Simi's
text)
and Deroche
(1991,
with comments and a
French
translation).
Segretti per
colori
Segretti per colori
was
compiled by
an unknown
author in the second
quarter
of the fifteenth cen-
tury.
It was written in Latin and
Italian,
and deals
with craft and
painting techniques.
Since the
only
known
original copy
of the text is MS Lat. 2861 in
the Biblioteca della
Universitai
di
Bologna,
it is also
known as the
'Bolognese Manuscript'.
This is a
well-ordered collection of
recipes relating
to several
crafts, including painting, dyeing,
ceramics and
mosaics. The
making
of
pigments,
binders and var-
nishes and the
preparation
of
grounds
for
painting
are described in some detail. It was
published by
Merrifield
(in 1849)
and
by
Guerrini and Ricci
(in
1887).
The
'Strasburg Manuscript'
The
'Strasburg Manuscript'
is one of the oldest
known texts on
painting techniques written in
German. The
manuscript
was
originally kept at the
Strassburger Stadtbibliothek (hence the name
given
to the
text).
In
1870,
there was a fire in the
library
and the
manuscript
was
destroyed. Fortunately,
Eastlake,
who had been
studying
the
text,
had
pre-
viously
made a
copy
of
it,
now in the National
Gallery,
London. It is from this
copy
that the con-
tents of the text are known.
The
manuscript
can be divided into three
parts:
the first is based
upon
the instructions
given
to the
author
by
Heinrich von
Ltubeck
and describes sev-
eral
ways
to
grind
and
prepare
a
large variety
of
pigments.
The second
part
is based
upon
the
instructions
given by
Andreas von Colmar about
miniature
painting techniques.
The third
part
tells
how to
prepare
and
apply
colours and
varnishes,
and how to
gild;
it
is, apparently, incomplete.
According
to
Eastlake,
the
Strasburg Manuscript
was written in the first
quarter
of the fourteenth
century. Later, Berger
dated it to the fifteenth cen-
tury.
Both authors
published part
or all of the
manuscript;
Eastlake included an
English
transla-
tion of the section on oil
painting
and
gilding
in his
Materials
for
a
History of
Oil
Painting (published
in
1847). Berger's
edition was included in
Quellen
und
Technik der
Fresko-, Oel-,
und
Tempera-Malerei.
In
1966,
Viola and Rosamund Borradaile
published
a
transcription
of the text
along
with an
English
translation;
this
transcription
also includes some
notes.
De arte illuminandi
De arte illuminandi is an
anonymous
treatise
dating
from the fourteenth
century
which is written in
Latin.
Only
one
copy
of this text is known to
exist,
in the Biblioteca Nazionale di
Napoli (MS
XII.E.27).
It has no title and was named De arte
illuminandi
by
its first
editor,
a name that has
become well-established. De arte illuminandi
describes the technical
processes
of miniature
paint-
ing
with
great precision. However,
it also contains
important
information about the
making
of
pig-
ments and media that are common to all
painting
techniques.
The text is
apparently contemporary
with that of
Cennini,
and has similar
aims;
like II
libro dell'arte this text is a
true, logically
structured
treatise and is intended to be a
complete
reference.
The
manuscript
was discovered in 1872
by
Caravita and was first
published
in 1877
by
Salazaro,
who included Italian and French transla-
tions. Between 1885 and
1886, Lecoy
de la Marche
published
three articles on De arte illuminandi and a
transcription
of the
text, correcting
some details
from Salazaro's edition. Four
years later,
in
1890,
he
published the articles and the
transcription
in a
single volume.
In the twentieth century, Guareschi
published the
text with some comments of his own in 1905,
Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124 119
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
S. Munioz Viflas
Thompson
and Hamilton
published
an
English
translation of
Lecoy
de la Marche's
transcription
with technical notes in
1933,
Brunello
published
a
transcription
and Italian translation in 1975 and
Guerreri
published
a facsimile edition with a
transliteration into modern Italian in 1979. The
Brunello edition includes
many
technical notes and
a
study
of late mediaeval miniature
painting
tech-
niques.
'Gdttingen
Model Book'
The
'Gbttingen
Model Book' is a small volume
kept
at the
Niedersichsische
Staats- und
Universitdits Bibliothek, in
Gbttingen.
It was writ-
ten and
painted
in
Germany
in the middle
part
of
the fifteenth
century.
It is
unique
in that it contains
both written instructions for the
making
and use of
colours in
manuscript
illumination and
painted
examples, showing
decorative motifs in several
stages
of
development.
Even
though
the
Gbttingen
Model Book is devoted to
geometrical
and floriate
decorative
painting, many
of its instructions can be
applied
to
figurative painting.
A facsimile of the
book,
a
transcription
of the
original
old German
text,
and an
English
translation were
published by
Lehmann-Haupt
in 1972.
Ricepte daffare piu colori
The short
Ricepte daffare piu colori
('recipes
for
making many colours')
are contained in MS
1.11.19
in the Biblioteca di Siena. It was written
by
Ambruogio
di Ser Pietro da
Siena, apparently
a
practising
scribe and
illuminator,
between 13
April
and 18 June
1462,
as the
explicit
informs us. This
text was
published by Thompson
in 1933.
The editions
The editions are listed
by
editor in
alphabetical
order.
ANON.,
Traite des diverses
arts, par Thdophile pretre
et
moine,
Emile Paul
Freres,
Paris
(1924).
BERGER, E., Quellen
und Technik der Fresko-, Oel-,
und
Tempera-Malerei, Georg Callwey,
Munich
(1912).
BLANC, A.,
Essai sur divers
arts.
en trois
livres,
Picard,
Paris
(1980).
BLONDHEIM, D.S.,
'An old
Portuguese
work on
manuscript illumination',
The Jewish
Quarterly
Review 19
(1928-29)
79-135.
BONTEMPS, G., Theophili presbyteri
et monachi.
Diversarum artium schedula Liber secundus.
Translatore
Giorgio Bontemps. Deuxidme
livre
de l'essai sur divers arts
par Theophile, pretre
et
moine,
traduit
par Georges Bontemps,
Paris
(1876).
BORRADAILE, V.,
The Student's
Cennini;
A
Handbook
for Tempera Painters,
The
Dolphin
Press, Brighton (1942).
BORRADAILE, V.,
and
BORRADAILE, R.,
The
Strasburg Manuscript.
A Mediaeval Painters'
Handbook,
Transatlantic
Arts,
New York
(1966).
BOURASSt, J.J.,
'Essai sur divers
arts,
en trois
livres,
par Th6ophile, pretre
et moine...avec traduc-
tion et notes' in
MIGNE, J.P.,
Dictionnaire
d'archeologie sacree,
Paris
(1851)
columns
729-1014 and 1141-1146.
BREPOHL, E., Theophilus Presbyter
und
die mittel-
alterliche Goldschmiedekunst, Leipzig (1987).
BRUNELLO, F.,
De arte illuminandi e altri trattati
sulla tecnica della miniatura
medievale, Neri
Pozza,
Vicenza
(1975).
BRUNELLO, F.,
Il
libro
dell'arte,
Neri
Pozza,
Vicenza
(1982).
BURNAM, J., 'Recipes
from Codex Matritensis
A16
(ahora 19)', University of
Cincinnati
Studies,
2nd series, VIII, 1 (1912).
BURNAM, J.,
A
Classical
Technology edited from
Codex Lucensis 490, R.G. Badger-The
Gorham
Press,
Boston
(1920).
DEROCHE, C.,
Le livre de
l'art, Berger-Levrault,
Paris
(1991).
DODWELL, C.R., Theophilus.
The Various Arts.
Theophilus.
De Diversis Artibus. Translated
from
the Latin with Introduction and Notes
by C.R. Dodwell,
Thomas
Nelson,
London
(1961); reprint:
Clarendon
Press,
Oxford
(1986).
ESCALOPIER, C., Theophili presbyteri
et
monachi
libri
III. Seu diversarum artium
schedula,
Fermin
Didot
Frbres,
Paris
(1843).
GUARESCHI, I.,
'Osservazioni sul "De arte illumi-
nandi"' in Atti della Reale Accademia delle
Scienze
di Torino
(1904-05)
663-690.
GUERRERI, G.,
'I1l
facsimile del "De arte illumi-
nandi"' in La miniatura italiana in eta
Romanica e Gotica. Atti del I
Congresso
di isto-
ria
della miniatura italiana.
Appendice,
Leo S.
Olschki,
Florence
(1979).
GUERRINI, 0.,
and
Ricci, C., II
libro dei colori.
Segretti
del sec.
XV, Romagnoli dall'Acqua,
Bologna (1887).
HAWTHORNE, J.G.,
and
SMITH, C.S.,
On Divers
Arts. The Treatise
of Theophilus, University
of
Chicago Press, Chicago (1963); reprint: Dover,
New York
(1979).
HAWTHORNE, J.G., and SMITH, C.S.,
'The
"Mappae
clavicula": a little key to the world of mediae-
val
techniques', Transactions of the American
Philosophical Society,
New Series 64 (1974)
3-122.
120 Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124
This content downloaded from 193.136.124.200 on Tue, 30 Sep 2014 04:48:16 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Original
written sources
for
mediaeval
painting techniques
and materials
HEDFORS, H., Compositiones
ad
tingenda musiva,
Almqvist
&
Wiskells, Uppsala (1932).
HENDRIE, R., Theophili, qui
et
[sic] Rugerus, presby-
teri et monachi libri
III,
De diversis artibus: seu
Diversarum artium
schedula,
John
Murray,
London
(1847).
HERRINGHAM, C.J.,
The Book
of
the Art
of
Cennino
Cennini, Allen,
London
(1899).
ILG, A.,
Cennino Cennini da Colle Valdelsa,
das
Buch von der
Kunst,
oder Tractat der Malerei.
Obersetzung
mit
Einleitung,
W.
Braunmiiller,
Vienna
(1871).
ILG, A., Heraclius,
von den Farben und Kunsten der
Romer.
Originaltext
und
Obersetzung,
W.
Braunmtiller,
Vienna
(1873); reprint:
0.
Zeller,
Osnabrtick (1970).
ILG, A., Theophilus presbyter
Schedula diversarum
artium,
W.
Braunmifller,
Vienna
(1874).
LECOY DE LA
MARCHE, A.,
'L'art d'enluminier.
Manuel
technique
du
quatorzieme siecle',
Gazette des Beaux-Arts XXII
(1885) 422-429;
XXIII
(1886) 54-61;
XXIII
(1886)
144-153.
LECOY DE LA
MARCHE, A.,
'L'art d'enluminier.
Trait6 Italien du XIVe siecle...Lu dans les
seances des 15 et 22
juillet, 1886',
Memoire de
la
Socikte
des
Antiquaires
de France XLVII
(1886)
248-286.
LECOY DE LA
MARCHE, A.,
L'art
d'enluminier,
Paris
(1890).
LEHMANN-HAUPT, H.,
The
Gittingen
Model Book.
A Facsimile Edition and Translation
of
a
Fifteenth-century
Illuminator's Manual,
Uni-
versity
of Missouri
Press,
Columbia
(1972).
LEISTE, C.,
Zur Geschichte und Litteratur aus den
Schdtzen der
Herzoglichen
Bibliothek
zu
Wolfenbiittel, VI,
Brunswick
(1781).
LESSING, G.E.,
Von Alter der Olmalerei aus dem
Theophilus Presbyter,
Brunswick
(1774).
(Several reprints exist, including
that
published
by Leiste, above.)
LOUMYER, G.,
Un traite de
peinture
du
moyen-dge:
l'Anonymus Bernensis,
Publik
d'apris
le MS de
la
Bibliotheque
de
Berne,
Gustave
Grunau,
Bern
(1908).
MERRIFIELD, M.P.,
A Treatise on
Painting,
written
by
Cennino Cennini in the
year 1437,
and
first
published
in Italian in
1821,
with Introduction
and Notes
by Signor Tambroni,
E.
Lumley,
London
(1844).
MERRIFIELD, M.P., Original
Treatises
dating from
the XIIth to the XVIIIth centuries on the Art
of
Painting,
in
Oil, Miniature, Mosaic,
and on
Glass; of Gilding, Dyeing,
and the
Preparation
of
Colours and Artificial Gems; preceded by
a
general Introduction;
with Translations,
Prefaces,
and Notes, John Murray, London
(1849); reprint: Dover, New York (1967).
MILANESI, C.,
and
MILANESI, G., II
libro dell'arte o
trattato della
pittura
di Cennino Cennini da
Colle
Valdelsa;
di nuovo
pubblicato
con multe
correzione e
coll'aggiunta
di
pitu capitoli
tratti
dai codici
fiorentini,
Le
Monnier,
Florence
(1859).
MORELLI, J.,
Codices
Manuscripti
Latini Bibliotecae
Nanianae,
A.
Zattas,
Venice
(1776).
MOTTEZ, V.,
Le livre de l'art ou traite de la
peinture
par
Cennino Cennini traduit
par
Victor Mottez,
mis en
lumidre
pour
la
premiere fois
avec des
notes
par
le Chevalier G.
Tambroni,
Paris
(1858); reprint:
F. de
Nobele,
Paris
(1978).
MURATORI, L.A.,
'Dissertatio
Vigesimoquarta.
De
artibus Italicorum
post
inclinationem Romani
Imperii'
in
Antiquitates
Italicae medii aevi
II,
Milan
(1739)
columns 365-388.
PELLIZZARI, A.,
I trattati attorno alle arte
figurative
in Italia e nella
penisola
Iberica dalla antichita
classica al
Rinascimento,
Editrice
Perrella,
Naples (1915).
PHILLIPS, T.,
'Letter addressed to Albert
Way, Esq.,
Director, communicating
a
transcript
of a
manuscript
treatise on the
preparation
of
pig-
ments and on various
processes
of the decora-
tive arts
practised during
the Middle
Ages
written in the twelfth
century
and entitled
"Mappae Clavicula"', Archaeologia
XXXII
(1847)
183-244.
PIRSON, J.,
'Mittellateinische
Sammlungen
techni-
scher
Rezepte'
in
Festschrift far
Eduard
Wechssler,
Jena
(1929).
RASPE, J.,
A Critical
Essay
on the Art
of
Oil
Painting,
H.
Goldney/T. Cadell,
London
(1781).
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und Technik
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Deutsche
Kunstverlag,
Munich/Berlin
(1967).
SALAZARO, D.,
L'arte della miniatura nel secolo
XIV. Codice della biblioteca nazionale di
Napoli
messo a
stampa per
cura di Demetrio
Salazaro,
Raffaele
Caiccavo
Editore, Naples (1877).
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dell'arte,
Le
Monnier,
Florence
(1991).
SIMI, R.,
Cennino Cennini da Colle di Valdelsa.
II
libro dell'arte. Edizione riveduta e corretta sui
codici, Carabba,
Florence
(1913); reprint:
Marzzoco,
Florence
(1943).
STRAUB, R.E.,
'Der Traktat de Clarea in der
Burgerbibliothek
Bern: Eine
Anleitung
fUr
Buchmalerei aus dem Hochmittelalter' in
Jahresbericht des Schweizerisches Institut
far
Kunstwissenschaft (1964)
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TAMBRONI, G., Di Cennino Cennini Trattato della
pittura. Messo in luce la prima volta con anno-
tazioni del Cavaliere
Giuseppe Tambroni,
Salviucci, Rome (1821).
Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124 121
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
S.
Mudhoz
Vifias
TEMPESTI, F.,
Il
libro
dell'arte, Longanesi,
Milan
(1975).
THEOBALD, W.,
Technik des Kunsthandwerks im
zehnten Jahrhundert des
Theophilus Presbyter
Diversarum artium
schedula, in auswahl neu her-
ausgegeben,
abersetz und
eridutert,
V.D.I.
Verlag,
Berlin
(1933).
THOMPSON, D.V.,
"'Liber de coloribus illuminato-
rum sive
pictorum"
from Sloane Ms. no.
1754',
Speculum I (1926)
281-307.
THOMPSON, D.V.,
'The "De clarea" of the
so-called
"Anonymous Bernensis"',
Technical
Studies in the Field
of
the Fine Arts I
(1932)
2-25.
THOMPSON, D.V.,
Cennino d'Andrea Cennini da
Colle di Val d'Elsa.
Il
libro
dell'arte,
Yale
University Press,
New Haven
(1932).
THOMPSON, D.V.,
The
Craftsman's Handbook,
Yale
University Press,
New Haven
(1933); reprint:
Dover,
New York
(1954).
THOMPSON, D.V.,
'The
"Ricepte
daffare
piu colori"
of
Ambruogio
di Ser Pietro da
Siena',
Archeion
XV
(1933)
339-347.
THOMPSON, D.V.,
"'De
coloribus,
naturalia
exscripta
et collecta" from
Erfurt, Stadtbiicherei,
Ms.
Amplonius Quarto
189
(XIII-XIV century)',
Technical Studies in the Field
of
the Fine Arts
III
(1934)
133-145.
THOMPSON, D.V.,
'The "Liber
magistri
Petri de
Sancto Audemaro de coloribus
faciendis"',
Technical Studies in the Field
of
the Fine Arts
IV
(1936)
28-33.
THOMPSON, D.V.,
and
HAMILTON, G.H.,
An
Anonymous Fourteenth-century
Treatise:
De
Arte Illuminandi. The
Technique of Manuscript
Illumination,
Yale
University Press,
New
Haven
(1933).
VERKADE, W.,
Das Cennino Cennini
Handbiichlein
der Kunst
neuiibersetzt
und
herausgegeben,
Heitz, Strasburg (1916).
WINBOLT, S.E.,
Wealden
Glass,
the
Surrey-Sussex
Glass
Industry (1226-1615), Cambridge (1933).
WINSTON, C.S.,
'A translation of the second book
of the "Diversarum artium schedula
Theophili
Presbyteri
et
Monachi",
with notes' in An
Inquiry
into the
Difference of Style
Observable
in Ancient Glass
Paintings, Especially
in
England,
J.H.
Parker,
Oxford
(1847).
Conclusion
There
are,
of
course,
other written sources which
contain information that could be of interest for the
history
of western mediaeval
painting techniques
and
materials,
as well as
many
short notes and references
of a miscellaneous nature scattered
throughout
other
mediaeval documents.
Many
of these
have, however,
not been
published;
others are versions
of,
or
(unac-
knowledged) quotations from,
the
published
sources
listed above. This article includes those which
are,
in
the
opinion
of the
author,
the most
important pub-
lished sources. As
such,
the list cannot be considered
definitive,
but it
may prove helpful
to those who
require
an introduction to the
original
written
sources on mediaeval
painting techniques.
Acknowledgements
This article is the result of the collection of biblio-
graphical
information from studies on art tech-
niques
and materials which have been carried out in
the last 10
years.
The author would like to
express
his sincere
gratitude
to the Generalitat
Valenciana,
to
Bancaixa,
to the
Fulbright Commission,
and to
the Universidad
Polit6cnica
de Valencia and its
Conservation
Department,
for the
support given
to
these studies. The author would also like to thank
many people
in
many places (librarians, colleagues,
friends)
who have
helped compile
this list of
sources and editions in
many
different
ways. They
are too numerous to mention here
individually,
but
the staff of the Straus Center for Conservation of
Harvard
University
and of the Harvard
University
Fine Arts
Library, particularly Eugene Farrell,
Amy Snodgrass, Henry Lee, Abby
Smith and Tom
Betchelder,
deserve
special
thanks for their kindness
and
generosity.
References
1
SCHLOSSER, J.,
La literatura artistica. Manual
de
fuentes
de la historia de la historia moderna
del arte. 3e
edici6n
puesta
al dia
por
Otto
Kurz;
con adiciones de Antonio Bonet
Correa,
Caitedra,
Madrid
(1976);
first German edi-
tion: Vienna
(1924).
2
THOMPSON, D.V.,
'Trial index to some
unpub-
lished sources for the
history
of mediaeval
craftsmanship', Speculum
10
(1935)
410-431.
3
ALEXANDER, S.M.,
'Towards a
history
of art
materials-a
survey
of
published
technical
literature in the
arts', supplements
to Art and
Archeology
Technical Abstracts 7
(1969) III,
121-161;
7
(1969) IV, 199-216;
8
(1970) I,
153-178.
4
ROOSEN-RUNGE, H., Farbgebung
und Technik
Frahmittelalterlicher
Buchmalerei,
Deutsche
Kunstverlag,
Munich/Berlin
(1967).
5
BRUNELLO, F.,
De arte illuminandi e altri trat-
tati sulla tecnica della miniatura
medievale,
Neri Pozza
Editrice,
Vicenza
(1975).
122 Studies in Conservation 43
(1998)
114-124
This content downloaded from 193.136.124.200 on Tue, 30 Sep 2014 04:48:16 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Original
written sources
for
mediaeval
painting techniques
and materials
6
BORDINI, S.,
Materia e
imagen.
Fuentes sobre
las ticnicas de la
pintura,
Ediciones del
Serbal,
Barcelona
(1995);
first edition:
Materia e
imagine.
Fonti sulle techniche della
pittura,
Leonardo-Del Luca
Editori,
Rome
(1991).
7
JOHNSON, R.P.,
'The
"Compositiones
ad tin-
genda"',
Technical Studies in the Field
of
the
Fine Arts III (1934-35)
221-228.
8
JOHNSON, R.P., Compositiones
variae
from
Codex 490 Biblioteca
Capitolare,
Lucca,
Italy:
An
Introductory Study, University
of
Illinois
Press,
Urbana
(1939).
9
ILG, A., Heraclius,
von den Farben und Kunsten
der Romer.
Originaltext
und
Ubersetzung,
W.
Braunmiiller,
Vienna
(1873).
10
GIRY, A.,
'Notice sur un trait6 du
moyen age
intitul6 "De coloribus et artibus romano-
rum"' in
Bibliotheque
des hautes etudes
(1878)
209-227.
11
DEGERING, H., 'Theophilus qui
et
Rugerus'
in
Westfdlische
Studien Alois
Bimer gedwidmet,
Leipzig (1928)
248-262.
12
ILG, A., Theophilus presbyter
Schedula diver-
sarum
artium,
W.
Braunmiilller,
Vienna
(1874).
13
HAWTHORNE, J.G.,
and
SMITH, C.S.,
On Divers
Arts. The Treatise
of Theophilus, University
of
Chicago Press, Chicago (1963).
14
EASTLAKE, C.L.,
Methods and Materials
of
Painting of
the Great Schools and
Masters,
2
vols,
London
(1847); reprinted by
Dover
Publications
Inc.,
New York
(1960).
15
TEXIER, A.,
Dictionnaire
d'orfivrerie,
Paris
(1856).
16
THOMPSON, D.V.,
'The "Liber
magistri
Petri de
Sancto Audemaro de coloribus
faciendis"',
Technical Studies in the Field
of
the Fine Arts
IV
(1936)
28-33.
Author
SALVADOR MuISUOZ
VIrlAS
is titular
professor
of the
conservation
department
of the Universidad
Politecnica de
Valencia;
before
joining
the UPV in
1989,
he worked as conservator in the Historical
Library
of the Universidad de Valencia-Estudi
General. He holds
degrees
in fine arts from the
UPV and in art
history
from the Universidad de
Valencia-Estudi General. He received his doctorate
in fine arts in 1991. His main field of work is the
history
and identification of
painting techniques
and
materials. Address: Departamento
de Conservacion
y
Restauracion,
Universidad Politecnica de
Valencia,
Camino de Vera
14,
46022
Valencia, Spain.
Resume--Les
sources ecrites
originales
relatives a l'histoire des
techniques
et
matiriaux
anciens de l'Occident
medikval
sont tres
importantes pour
les etudiants
qui
veulent mener des recherches dans ce domaine. L'auteur
a selectionne et commente
celles
qu'il
considere comme les
plus importantes parmi
toutes celles
qui
ont
ite
publikes:
le 'manuscrit de Lucca', De coloribus et artibus romanorum,
Mappae
clavicula,
De
Clarea,
Schedula
diversarum artium, Breviloquium
diversarum
artium,
Livro de como se
faCen
as cores,
Coloribus naturalia
exscripta
et
collecta,
Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive
pictorum,
De coloribus
faciendis,
De
coloris
diver-
sis modis traciatur,
De diversis coloribus, Experimenta
de
coloribus,
les recettes de Jehan
Begue,
Tabula de
vocabulis sinonimis, II
libro
dell'arte, Segretti per
colori du meme
auteur,
le 'manuscrit de
Strasbourg',
De
arte
illuminandi, Gdttingen
model
book,
et
Ricepte daffare piu colori.
L'article
presente
une liste des editions
du
texte
original
avec des traductions en
anglais,
franCais,
allemand et italien.
Zusammenfassung-Quellenschriften
zur Geschichte der Materialien und Techniken in der mittelalterlichen
Kunst sind
far Forschung
und
Wissenschaft
von unschdtzbarem Wert. In der
vorliegenden
Arbeit hat der
Verfasser
aus den bekannten
Quellenschriften diejenigen ausgewdhlt
und
kommentiert,
die er
far
die bedeu-
tendsten hdlt: das
Lucca-Manuskript,
De Coloribus
Et
Artibus
Romanorum,
die
Mappae
Clavicula, De
Clarea,
Schedula Diversarum Artium, Breviloquium
Diversarum Artium,
das Livro De Como Se
Fagen
As
Cores, Coloribus Naturalia
Exscripta Et Collecta,
das Liber De Coloribus Illuminatorum Sive
Pictorum,
De
Coloribus Faciendis,
De
Coloris
Diversis Modis
Tractatur,
De Diversis
Coloribus, Experimenta
De
Coloribus,
die
Rezepte
von Jehan Le
Begue,
seine Tabula De Vocabulis
Sinonimis,
II
Libro
Dell'Arte, Segretti
Per
Colori,
das
StrafJburger Manuskript,
De Arte
Illuminandi,
das
Gittinger
Modellbuch und die
Ricepe Daffare
Piu
Colori.
Der
Verfasser
listet die
Ausgaben
der
Originaltexte auf,
die
Ubersetzungen
in
Englisch,
Franzdsisch,
Deutsch oder Italienisch enthalten.
Resumen-Las
fuentes originales
escritas sobre la historia de los materiales
y tecnicas
del arte del medievo
occidental son
muy importantes para
los
especialistas que
intentan llevar a cabo
investigaci6n
en este
campo.
El autor ha selecionado
y
comentado
aquellas que
ha considerado mds
importantes
entre las
que
han sido
pub-
licadas: el 'Manuscrito de
Lucca',
el De coloribus et artibus
romanorum,
el
Mappae
clavicula,
el De
clarea,
el
Studies in Conservation 43
(1998) 114-124 123
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
S. Mufioz Viiias
De
coloribus
diversarum
artium, el Breviloquium
diversarum
artium, el
Livro de como se
faCen
as colores, el
De
coloribus naturalia excripta
et
collecta, el
Liber de
coloribus illuminatorum
sive
pictorum, el
De
coloribus
faciendis, el
De
coloris
diversis modis tractatur, el De diversis
coloribus,
el
Experimenta
de
coloribus,
las re-
cetas de Le
Begue,
la Tabula de vocabulis sinonimis de Jehan Le
Begue, II
libro
dell'arte,
el
Segretti per
colori,
el 'Manuscrito de
Estrasburgo',
el De arte
illuminandi,
el 'Libro de
modelos Gittingen'y el Ricepte
daffare piu colori. En este
articulo
se
presenta
una
lista
de
las
ediciones de
los
textos
originales
conteniendo
las traducciones al
inglMs, frances, aleman o italiano.
124 Studies in Conservation 43 (1998) 114-124
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