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General Model for Steady State Analysis of Three Phase Self Excited Induction Generator A. Alsalloum

General Model for Steady State Analysis of Three Phase Self Excited Induction Generator

A. Alsalloum

A.I. Alolah

EE Dept, College of Eng, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia alolah@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract: A model of a delta-connected three-phase self- excited induction generator (SEIG) feeding a delta-connected load is derived and presented. This model includes the core losses where the core resistance is modeled as a function of the magnetizing reactance. Furthermore, the magnetizing reactance nonlinearities has been included in the negative sequence equivalent circuit. The model is applicable to all kinds of loads with any degree of unbalance. The model for other connections of SEIG and load are also derived and listed. Furthermore, a generalized model for any type of connection of SEIG and/or load is presented. The SEIG performance has been computed for different unbalanced loading conditions. The simulation results are verified experimentally.

Keywords: induction generator, unbalance, stand alone, SEIG.

NOMENCLATURE

SYMBOLS:

a R, X, Z C, X C F, v V, I

Operator

Resistance, reactance, and impedance respectively. Excitation capacitance and its reactance. Per unit frequency and speed respectively. Voltage and current respectively.

1120

o

SUBSCRIPTS:

0, 1, 2

s, r

m

ab, bc, ca

an, bn, cn P, n

g Air gap quantity.

c

G, L

Zero, Positive, and negative sequence components respectively. Stator and rotor respectively.

Magnetizing quantity. Phases of the system. Phases of the Y system. Positive and negative, respectively.

Core quantity Generator and load respectively.

1. Introduction

Due to the increased emphasis on the energy issues and problems, concentration has been focused upon developing autonomous electric power supplies to be operated in remote and rural areas where electric services is unavailable from existing or nearby grids. These types of power sources can be used even in regions supplied by network grids in the event of power interruptions. Among such types that have received a notable attention and importance is the three-phase self-excited induction generator due to its numerous advantages such as simple design, robustness, and low installation and maintenance costs [1-5]. Experimental works and computer simulations have been extensively performed in order to model and analyze both steady state and transient performance of the

R.M. Hamouda EE Dept, College of Eng, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt rhamouda@ksu.edu.sa

SEIG under balanced operating conditions. However, the unbalanced operation of the SEIG has been given little attention despite its practical needs. There are two main methods to predict the steady state performance of the SEIG under balanced operating conditions. The first method is based on the generalized machine theory [5]. The second method is based on the analysis of the generalized per-phase equivalent circuit of the induction machine by applying either the loop impedance or the nodal admittance concept [7, 8]. Furthermore, other studies have concentrated only on the single-phase self-excited induction generator [9, 10] and its voltage regulation improvement [11]. Most of the previous studies have centralized mainly on modeling and analyzing the performance of SEIG under only balanced operating conditions and little attention has been given to analyze the performance of the SEIG under unbalanced conditions

[12]. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of SEIG under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions in the steady state are presented. A model of a delta- connected SEIG feeding a delta-connected load is derived in detail. The effect of the machine core losses is considered. Furthermore, the positive and negative sequence equivalent circuits are used to model the SEIG. The magnetizing reactance has been included in the negative sequence equivalent circuit as a variable. The final characteristic equation is reached by equating both the positive-sequence and negative-sequence voltages across the SEIG and the load. Finally, a general model for any type of connection of SEIG and/or load is presented. MathCAD® software has been used for simulation [13]. The obtained results are in good agreement with those recorded experimentally.

2. System Modeling

Fig.1 shows a -connected SEIG feeding a -connected load. This load may be defined as follows:

Z ab = Z Lab //X Cab ,

Z bc = Z Lbc //X Cbc ,

Z ca = Z Lca //X Cca ,

where, Z Lab =R Lab +jX Lab , Z Lbc =R Lbc +jX Lbc ,

Z Lca =R Lca +jX Lca

The

symmetrical

components

for

this

type

of

load

connection are obtained from [14]:

Ζ


Ζ

Ζ

1

1

a

= 3

1

1

0

1

  1

2

a

2

1

Z


Z

ab

bc

ca

2

a

a

Z

(1)

Fig. 1. ∆ -connected SEIG feeding a ∆ -connected load Since the load as well

Fig. 1. -connected SEIG feeding a -connected load

Since the load as well as the generator is connected in delta, hence, the phase and the line voltages of both the generator (V abG ) and the load (V abL ) are equal. The symmetrical components of the phase voltage (V ab ) at the load side are obtained from [14]:

V


  V

abL0

V abL1

abL2


 

Z

Z

  Z

=

0

Z

2

1 Z

0

2

Z

1

Z

Z

Z

0

 

1

2

I

I

  

abL0

abL1

I

abL2

(2)

(a)
(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. Sequence equivalent circuits of SEIG

(Y) Positive-sequence (b) Negative-sequence

(

1

Z

0

Z

p

α

7

Z

0

Z

+

1

α

2

Z

0

+

α

8

Z

2

2

α

3

Z

1

Z

2

)(

α

9

Z

0

Z

2

α

4

Z

0

+

α

10

Z

Z

n

1

+

2

α

5

)

=

0

2 +

It is known that for a -connected load, V abL0 = 0, so substituting in (2), yields:

I

( α

)(

Z

0

2

+

α

6

Z

1

Z

2

(11)

I abL0

=

- (Z

2

I

abL1

+

Z

0

Z

1

1

abL2

I

abL1

I

abL1

Z

+

+

) / Z

0

Z

2

0

Z

I

I

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

The resulting characteristic equation for any connection combination may be found by substituting the relevant constants from table 1. The derived model was tested against the machine with the parameters mentioned in appendix A.

TABLE 1

PARAMETERS OF CHARACTERISTICS EQUATION

SEIG-Load

α 1

α 2

α 3

α 4

α 5

α 6

α 7

α 8

α 9

α 10

-

-1

-1

1

-1

1

-1

-1

1

1

-1

Y – Y w/n

-1

-1

1

-1

1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Y – Y

1

1

0

-1

1

0

1

0

1

0

– Y

1

3

0

-1

3

0

3

0

3

0

Y-

3

1

-1

-3

1

-1

1

-1

1

-1

Also from (2),

V abL1

V abL2

=

=

Z

Z

1

2

I

abL0

I

abL0

+

+

abL2

abL2

From Fig. 2, the terminal voltages of the SEIG are:

V

p

V

n

/ F

/ F

=

=

- I

ab1

I

ab2

Z

Z

n

p

It can be shown that the sequence components of phase and line currents shown in Fig.1 are related as follows

[14]:

3. Results and Discussion

SEIG - Load

1. No Load Case

This is a balanced excitation at no load case. The results are shown in Fig.3. The solid line in all figures represents the simulation results while the dashed line represents the experimental recordings. The figure shows the variation of generator (load) phase voltage as well as the variation of line current against the excitation capacitance. The voltage as well as the current increase as the excitation capacitance increases as expected. In both curves, i.e. the phase voltage

n and the line current, there is a good agreement with

I

I

a1

a2

=

=

( 1 a ) I

ab1

(1- a

2

) I

ab2

(8)

(9)

Since self-excitation is assumed to occur, i.e., I a1 0 and using equations 3-9, yields:

A

1

A

2

where,

A

3

A

4

=

A

1

= (

Z

1

Z

2

Z

0

0

)

Z

0

Z

p

A

2

= Z

0

(

Z

1

Z

2

Z

)

+

( 1 0 )

Z

0 experimental readings.

A

3

=

Z

2

(

Z

1

2

Z

0

)

A

4

= (

Z

2

2

Z

0

)

Z

1

This characteristic equation is complex. Accordingly, both real and imaginary parts must equal to zero. Substituting the machine parameters, speed, and excitation capacitors values, yields two nonlinear equations with constant coefficients in F and X m . Solving iteratively to find the real roots of the equations that satisfy the constraints, the values of F and X m can be found. Hence, the performance of the generator may be determined. The derivation was repeated for other different connections of SEIG and/or load and a general formula is presented as:

2. Unbalanced Load Case

The simulation results for an unbalanced resistive load

that consists of R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = p.u., and R Lca = 2.6 p.u. are shown in Figs 4-5. The generator (load) phase voltages are slightly unbalanced as shown in Fig. 4. V ab is the highest reaching a value of 1.1 p.u. while V bc is the

lowest reaching a value of 1.05 p.u

variation of line currents with the excitation capacitance. The highest current is carried by line (c) reaching a value of 1.62 p.u. while the lowest current is carried by line (b) reaching a value of 1.3 p.u.

Fig. 5 shows the

)

B. Y SEIG – Y Load without Neutral Connection The characteristic equation for this type of connection is as follows:

(Z

p

+

Z

0

)(Z

0

Z

n

)

(Z

1

Z

2

)

=

0

(12)

This model was solved for the test machine against an unbalanced load that consists of R Lan = 2.6 p.u., R Lbn = 8 p.u., and R Lcn = 4 p.u. The simulation results are shown in Figs 6-7. Fig.6 shows the load phase voltages where it is clear that these voltages are unbalanced due to the unbalance present in the load and are close to the experimental results. On the other hand, Fig. 7 shows the variation of line (phase) currents where it shows a good agreement with experimental readings.

C.

is:

Y SEIG – Y Load with Neutral Connection The characteristics equation for this type of connection

(Z

1 Z 0

2

Z

Z

p

(Z

2

2

Z

0

Z

1

Z

0

2

)(Z

0

Z

2

)(Z

0

Z

2

1

2

)

Z

0

Z

=

0

n

Z

1

Z

2

) (13)

The model was solved for a two excitation capacitors

and unbalanced load case. The two excitation capacitors are placed over phase (a) and phase (b). Furthermore, R Lan

The generator

= 1.8 p.u., R Lbn = 4 p.u., and R Lcn = 8 p.u

(load) phase voltages are unbalanced, as shown in Fig. 8,

V bn is the highest reaching a value of 1.1 p.u. while V cn is

The line (phase)

the lowest reaching a value of 0.92 p.u

currents vary almost linearly with the excitation capacitance as shown in Fig. 9. The highest current is

carried by line (a) reaching a value of 1.2 p.u. while the lowest current is carried by line (b) reaching a value of

The neutral current is somewhat high in this

The unbalance in

case; it reaches a value of 0.87 p.u

0.28 p.u

excitation capacitors lead to a higher degree of unbalance in the phase currents resulting in a higher neutral current.

D. Y SEIG - Load

The

characteristic

equation

for

this

configuration is as follows:

connection

2 2 ( 3Z + Z − Z Z )(Z Z 1 Z − 3Z
2
2
( 3Z
+ Z
Z Z
)(Z
Z
1 Z − 3Z
Z
0 Z
p
0
1 −
2
0
2
0
n
) (14)
2
2
(Z
Z 1 −
)(Z
Z 1 )
=
0
0
Z 2
0 Z
2
1.6
Phase voltage-experiment
Line current-experiment
1.4
Line current-Simulation
1.2
1
Phase voltage-Simulation
0.8
35
40
45
50
55
60
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 3. Variation of phase voltage and line current of unloaded SEIG.

1.1 V ab -Simulation V bc -Simulation 1 0.9 V ca -Simulation V ab -experiment
1.1
V ab -Simulation
V bc -Simulation
1
0.9
V ca -Simulation
V
ab -experiment
V
bc -experiment
V
ca -experiment
0.8
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 4. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = p.u., and R Lca = 2.6 p.u

1.8 I a -experiment I c -Simulation I b -experiment I c -experiment 1.4 I
1.8
I a -experiment
I
c -Simulation
I b -experiment
I c -experiment
1.4
I
b -Simulation
1
I
a -Simulation
0.6
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 5. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = p.u., and R Lca = 2.6 p.u

1.2 V cn -Simulation V bn -Simulation 1 V an -Simulation 0.8 V an -experiment
1.2
V cn -Simulation
V bn -Simulation
1
V an -Simulation
0.8
V
an -experiment
V
bn -experiment
V
cn -experiment
0.6
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 6. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, R Lan = 2.6 p.u., R Lbn = 8 p.u., and R Lcn = 4 p.u

1.2 I c -Simulation 1 I b -Simulation 0.8 I a -Simulation I a -experiment
1.2
I c -Simulation
1
I
b -Simulation
0.8
I a -Simulation
I a -experiment
0.6
I b -experiment
I c -experiment
0.4
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 7. SEIG output line (phase) currents for unbalanced load, R Lan = 2.6 p.u., R Lbn = 8 p.u., and R Lcn = 4 p.u

1.2 V bn -Simulation 1 V an -Simulation 0.8 V cn -Simulation V an -experiment
1.2
V
bn -Simulation
1
V
an -Simulation
0.8
V
cn -Simulation
V
an -experiment
0.6
V
bn -experiment
V
cn -experiment
0.4
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 8 .SEIG output phase voltages when it is excited by C a and C b only with unbalanced load, R Lan = 1.8 p.u., R Lbn = 4 p.u., and R Lcn = 8 p.u

This model was solved against an unbalanced - connected load that consists of R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = 8 p.u., and R Lca = p.u. The variation of generator phase voltages against excitation capacitance is shown in Fig. 10. The generator phase voltages are unbalanced. V bn is the highest among

phase voltages reaching a value of 1.15 p.u

of load phase voltages is shown in Fig. 11

The variation The load phase

voltages are unbalanced where V bc is the highest reaching a value of 2 p.u. and V ca is the lowest reaching a value of

The variation of line currents against excitation

capacitance is shown in Fig. 12. I a is the highest reaching a

value of 1.3 p.u. and I c is the lowest reaching a value of

Furthermore, the operating range of the SEIG

1.95 p.u

1.05 p.u

has been reduced to one-third.

E. SEIG - Y Load

The

characteristic

connection is as follows:

( Z

0

Z

p

+

3Z

0

2 )( 3Z

2

0

equation

Z

0

Z

n

)

that

( 9Z

0

2 Z

describes

1

Z

2

)

=

0

this

(15)

A single phase load case is presented here. The loads of

phase (b) and (c) are removed and the only load present is

a 2.6 p.u. resistive load connected to phase (a). The

variation of load phase voltages is shown in Fig. 13. The

figure shows that the load voltages are slightly unbalanced where V cn is the highest reaching a value of 0.65 p.u. and

V bn is the lowest reaching a value of 0.6 p.u

Fig. 14 shows the variation of line currents with excitation

capacitance. The currents are slightly unbalanced where I c

is the highest reaching a value of 1.35 p.u. and I b is the

lowest reaching a value of 1.25 p.u.

Furthermore,

4. Conclusion

A general model based on the sequence equivalent circuits of the SEIG and the sequence components of the three-phase load was developed. The performance of the SEIG was determined for No-load and unbalanced load for different SEIG and/or load connections. The operating conditions were found by solving the proposed model iteratively. The results are in good agreement with those reported experimentally. The model is generalized to cover more connection types. The characteristic equation of each type may be found by substituting the appropriate parameters in the general model.

APPENDIX A

Parameters of The Self-Excited Induction Generator:

The test machine was a three-phase, Y/, 460/265 V,

7.1/12.3 A, 60 HZ, induction machine with the following parameters: R s = 0.085, R r = 0.042, X s = 0.075, X r = 0.112, X u = 2.176 (all in p.u.), Z base = 37.406, base speed = 1800

rpm. The test machine was driven at base speed (v = 1).

Then a variable voltage at base frequency (F = 1) was

applied and X m was measured as a function of V g /F for

increasing voltages. The variation of V g /F with X m may be

approximated over the saturated region as follows:

V

g

/F

=

0.951X

51.777 X

3

m

+

6

m

8.286 X

50.176 X

2

m

+ 28.906 X

m

25.073X

m

m

5

4

+ 6.211

p.u.

Also the core resistance R c was measured experimentally and plotted against X m as shown in Fig. 15. This variation may be approximated by the following equation:

R (X = − 17.159X 2 + 33.372X m + 35.699 p.u. c m )
R
(X
= −
17.159X
2 +
33.372X
m + 35.699
p.u.
c
m )
m
1.4
I a -experiment
I
a -Simulation
I b -experiment
1.05
I c -experiment
I
c -Simulation
I
n -experiment
0.7
I
n -Simulation
0.35
I
b -Simulation
0
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 9. SEIG output line currents when it is excited by C a and C b only with unbalanced load, R Lan = 1.8 p.u., R Lbn = 4 p.u., and R Lcn = 8 p.u

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the Research Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) under the project No 26/426. This work would not have been completed without the financial support provided by SABIC which is gratefully acknowledged.

References

[1] Murthy, S., Malik, O., and Tandon, A., "Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEE Proc., pt. B, (129), No. 6, pp. 260-265, 1982.

[2] Bansal, R. C., Bhatti, T. S., and Kothari, D. P., “Induction generator for isolated hybrid power system applications: A review,” J. Inst. Eng., vol. 83, pp. 262–269, Mar. 2003.

[3] Quazene, I., and Mcpherson, G., "Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-102(8), pp. 2793-2797, 1983. [4] Raina, G., and Malik, O., "Wind Energy Conversion Using a Self- Excited Induction Generator", ibid., Power System Apparatus, Vol. PAS- 102(12), pp. 3933-3936, 1983. [5] Bansal, R. C., Bhatti, T. S., and Kothari, D. P., “A bibliographical survey on induction generators for application of nonconventional energy systems,”IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 433–439, Sep.

2003.

[6] Grantham, C., Sutanto, D., and Mismail, B., "Steady State and Transient Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEE Proc., pt. B, (136), No. 2, pp. 61-68, 1989.

1.2 V bn -Simulation V cn -Simulation 1.1 V an -Simulation 1 V an -experiment
1.2
V
bn -Simulation
V
cn -Simulation
1.1
V
an -Simulation
1
V
an -experiment
V
bn -experiment
V
cn -experiment
0.9
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF) Fig. 10. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = 8 p.u., and R Lca = p.u

2.1 V ab -Simulation V bc -Simulation 1.9 V ca -Simulation 1.7 V ab -experiment
2.1
V ab -Simulation
V bc -Simulation
1.9
V
ca -Simulation
1.7
V
ab -experiment
V
bc -experiment
V
ca -experiment
1.5
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 11. Load phase voltages for unbalanced load, R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = 8 p.u., and R Lca = p.u

1.4 1.2 I b -Simulation I a -Simulation 1 0.8 I a -experiment 0.6 I
1.4
1.2
I b -Simulation
I a -Simulation
1
0.8
I
a -experiment
0.6
I
c -Simulation
I
b -experiment
I
c -experiment
0.4
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 12. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, R Lab = 5.3 p.u., R Lbc = 8 p.u., and R Lca = p.u

[7] Malik, N., and Mazi, A., "Capacitance Requirements for Isolated Self- Excited Induction Generators", IEEE Trans., EC-2(1), pp. 62-69, 1987.

[8] Al-Jabri, A., and Alolah, A., "Capacitance Requirements for Isolated Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEE Proc., (137), pt. B, No. 3, pp. 154-159, 1990. [9] Singh, B., and Shilpakar, "Steady State Analysis of Single Phase Self- Excited Induction Generator", ibid., (146), No. 5, pp. 421-427, 1999.

[10] Al-Bahrani, A., and Malik, N., “Steady State Analysis and Performance Characteristics of a Three-Phase Induction Generator Self

Excited with a Single Capacitor”, IEEE Trans., EC-4(4), pp. 725-732,

1990.

0.7 V cn -Simulation 0.6 V bn -Simulation V an -Simulation 0.5 V an -experiment
0.7
V
cn -Simulation
0.6
V bn -Simulation
V an -Simulation
0.5
V
an -experiment
V
bn -experiment
V
cn -experiment
0.4
105
115
125
135
145
155
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF)

Fig. 13. Load phase voltages for unbalanced load, R Lan = 2.6 p.u., R Lbn = p.u., and R Lcn = p.u.

1.4 I c -Simulation 1.2 I b -Simulation 1 I a -Simulation 0.8 I a
1.4
I
c -Simulation
1.2
I b -Simulation
1
I
a -Simulation
0.8
I a -experiment
I b -experiment
I c -experiment
0.6
105
115
125
135
145
155
(p.u.)

Excitation capacitance - (µF) Fig. 14. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, R Lan = 2.6 p.u., R Lbn = p.u., and R Lcn = p.u

60 40 20 0 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 Core Resistance (R c )- (p.u.)
60
40
20
0
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
2.4
Core Resistance (R c )- (p.u.)

Magnetising Reactance (X m )- (p.u.)

Fig. 15. Core resistance R c as function of magnetizing reactance X m .

[11] Ojo, O., "Performance of Self-Excited Single Phase Induction Generators with Shunt, Short Shunt and Long Shunt Excitation Connections", IEEE Trans., EC-11(3), pp. 477-482, 1996.

[12] Idjdarene K., Rekioua D., Rekioua T., and Tounzi A., "Performance of an Isolated Induction Generator under Unbalanced Loads," IEEE Trans, Vol.EC-25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010.

[13] MathCAD® Package.

[14] C.F. Wagner, and R.D. Evans, Symmetrical Components, McGraw- Hill, Book, 1933.