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The

Different
Faces of
Edinburgh
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Contents
Edinburghs Survival Guide 6-11
Edinburgh's History 12-15
Edinburgh for Newbies 16-39

Edinburgh for Art lovers 40-57
Edinburgh for Bookworms 58-71
Edinburgh for Shopaholics 73-83
Edinburgh for Nature addicts 84-97
Edinburgh for Thrill seekers 98-107
Edinburgh for Foodies 108-129
Edinburgh for Nightowls 130-137
Contribution 138-139
Introduction 4-5
Layout
Luisa Drees (Layout Design)
Vanessa Melching (Photos)
Editors
Hannah Frank
Kristine Heger
Caroline Wolfram
Miriam Zaunbrecher
Writers
Carlotta Casiraghi
Luisa Drees
Hannah Frank
Gina Gnther
Kristine Heger
Vanessa Melching
Dajana Schaffrath
Kristin Scholz
Teresa Simon
Caroline Wolfram
Miriam Zaunbrecher
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4 5
Scotland: the land of kilts, bag
pipes, green grass and whisky.
Edinburgh is the capital of this
green land, where all these
elements gather together to
make up the beloved Athens
of the North. But what lies
behind the stereotypes, the
kilts which hang haphazardly
out of shops, or the bekilted
bag pipe performers in the
streets?
Edinburgh may not be the
biggest capital in Europe, but
this little treasure is actually
the second largest city in
Scotland (with Glasgow being
the first). Approximately
450,000 people live here, with
the city becoming even more
crowded due to the influx of
tourists. The capital becomes
particularly packed during
the summer season, in which
artists gather from around the
world to attend the famous
Edinburgh Fringe Festival.
Edinburgh is considered to
be the heart of Scotland.
This is not only due to its
geographical location, but
also because the elements of
tradition, history and culture
co-exist together.
Edinburgh has not always been
the beautiful city it currently is.
If one was to take a time warp
back to the 18
th
century, they
would have to pay particular
attention when strolling
through the city streets. The
hygienic conditions were poor,
and with people living in such
overcrowded narrow spaces
(usually even with animals),
diseases such as the plague
were inevitable. The structure
of the Old Town is reminiscent
of this chaotic era; with its
randomly-placed Closes, stairs
and narrow streets.
Contrastingly, Edinburghs
New Town is fresh, ordered
and modern. It is the centre
of shopping, business
and transport, giving the
impression that the town never
sleeps. As in Stevensons
novel Doctor Jekyll and Mr
Hyde the two cities are as
deeply different as they are
similar.
Edinburgh and its different
faces...
One could not exist without
the other and both contribute
to the identity of Edinburgh.
Both are part of the UNESCO
world heritage, with the New
Town having been rewarded
for its well-structured and
contemporary design of its
streets.
Edinburgh is a metropolis
but its volcanic origin is still
evident. This is shown by its
hilly surroundings and majestic
nature, such as Arthurs Seat,
Salisbury Crags, and Calton
Hill.
The city also celebrates
its literary successes, with
Edinburgh inspiring famous
authors such as Sir Walter
Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson
and J.K. Rowling.
Visiting Edinburgh is a
captivating experience - even
when you arrive back home,
the city will never leave you
completely.
Hannah Frank &
Carlotta Casiraghi
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Survival Guide
Edinburghs
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8 9
Scotland
had its own king until 1603.
has an official motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (No one provokes
me with impunity).
has three officially recognised languages: English, Scottish and
Scottish Gaelic, with just 1% of the population using the latter.
has some 790 islands - 130 of which are inhabited.
is home to famous inventions like telephone, television and penicil-
lin.
has the highest population of redheads in the world (13% of the
population).
Edinburgh
...is the Scottish capital, but only the second largest city after
Glasgow.
...is the only capital worldwide whose main train station is named af-
ter a book (Waverley by Sir Walter Scott).
...its nickname Auld Reekie (Old Smoky) marks an era when the
citys buildings burnt a lot of wood and coal for heat.
...was built on seven hills, like Rome.
...was the first city in the world to have its own fire brigade.
...has a population of 450,000, but during August figures double be-
cause of the Edinburgh Festival.
...the Old and New Towns of the city have been designated a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.
...was designated the worlds first UNESCO City of Literature in 2004.
General Information
When visiting Scotland there are a few things that should not be for-
gotten:
- Call 999 or 112 in the case of an emergency.
- The national currency is the British Pound. 1 Pound = 100 Pence
- The UK follows the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). From the end of
March until Mid-October the Daylight Saving Time is in place (GMT +
1 hour)
- If youre not from the UK bring a travel adapter for the sockets.
- Dont forget that cars drive on the left side of the streets. Be careful
when crossing the road!
- When you get on the bus, bring the exact amount of money for the
bus fare. If you dont, you will not get any change.
- In most pubs there is a self-service system in place. Waiters will not
come to your table to take your order but you have to go to the bar
to do so.
- Although the UK uses the metric system for measurement, youll
sometimes come across inches, miles and pints.
1 inch = 2,54 cm 1 pint = 0,568 l
1 foot = 30,48 cm 1 mile = 1,61 km
1 pint = 0,568 l 1 pound = 453,95 g
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10 11
Do & Do not
Do Do not
Weather
dress like an onion
(The Scottish weather is
unpredictable!)
forget your umbrella and
other wet-weather gear
Locals
immerse yourself with
the locals (Scots are
friendly and helpful
people!)
call a Scot English
and confuse Scotland
with England in gen-
eral - never!
Tartan
do not ask locals what
is worn underneath the
kilt (Its simply not re-
garded funny)
call a kilt a skirt (To pre-
vent yourself from being
shown the difference, it is
better to say nothing at
all!)
Transport
flag the bus to stop it
(Otherwise it wont,
even if you stand
there!)
use trains between cities
all over Scotland (Buses
are much cheaper!)
queue at bus stops
and cashiers (Scots
are well trained in this.
Integrate yourself!)
drink alcohol on the
streets (It is a punishable
offence)
In the city
In the pub
try local drinks (ales,
ciders etc.) and food
(haggis, pies etc.)
talk about topics such as
politics and religion (Try it
and you will see why!)
Whisky
write whisky without
an e (Whiskey is the
Irish word)
try all the different whis-
ky types at once (You
wont be an expert in
one evening!)
Scottish Slang
The Scots have their own way of talking. Even for English natives it
can be quite difficult at times to understand everything they say.
Here are some important words you might come across during your
stay.
Aye - Yes
Bonnie - Beautiful
canny - Smart
Cullery - Kitchen
Hame - Home
Hunner - hundred
Hoachin - Very busy
Keek - a little look
Lassies and laddies - Girls and boys
Mair - More
Naw - No
Oot - Out
Skoosh - Lemonade or fizzy drink
Tattie - Potato
Wean - Child
Ye - You
Caroline Wolfram & Kristin Scholz
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Edinburghs
History
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14 15
A massive extinct volcano named
Castle Rock dominates the city
centre of Edinburgh today. This
volcanic rock is one of the reasons
why three Celtic tribes settle in this
area. In the 7
th
century the An-
glo-Saxons invade, with their King
Edwin destroying the small Celtic
settlement. Upon gaining victo-
ry, King Edwin builds a fortress on
Castle Rock which he christenes
Edwinesburgh.
7th century AD
In 1074, Malcom III Canmore, King of Scotland,
expands the fortress to a castle and uses it as
his royal residence. Since 1124, his son David
I helds court in Edinburgh and founds Augus-
tinians-Abbey Holyrood.
Due to the security provided by the Abbey and
the Castle, the city of Edinburgh is now able to
expand. The city develops between these two
buildings and its main street, The Royal Mile,
is build. Aristocrats, workers and craftsmen
live next to each other in overcrowded narrow
streets. Due to the limited space, the hous-
es are extremely tall, some even reaching up
to 15 levels. Edinburgh is granted municipal
rights in the 12
th
century. These new munic-
ipal (town) rights mean that Edinburgh is no
longer considered a village.
Around 1100
In 1450, a town wall is build around
the Old Town and Grassmarket.
James II, King of Scotland, de-
clares Edinburgh the new capital
city of Scotland in 1437. As a re-
sult, Edinburgh becomes larger and
more significant. 15,000 residents
live in Edinburgh in the year 1550.
15th Century
16th Century
In 1513, the Golden Age ends with the death of James IV, King of Scot-
land. After the Kings death, the 16
th
century is marked by religious
and political disturbances. The Reformation of the Scottish Catholic
Church splits the entire society. Calvinism becomes the new favoured
religion, and is promoted under the leadership of the influential politi-
cian John Knox.
Edinburgh is not only affected by the religious riots. To make this time
even more tumultuous, a huge fire breaks out, destroying the main
part of the city. During this time, King Henry VIII of England decides to
conduct a campaign against the capital of Scotland. His son has been
expected to marry Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, but she was able to
escape to France. As a result, the English troops consequently invade
Edinburgh.
Shortly after this, the Plague, or the Black Death torments the city.
Approximately 1000 people are killed during this era of merciless dis-
ease.
In 1603 James VI is coroneted King
of Scotland and England. He makes
the decision to relocate his court
to London. It was the first step to-
ward the Act of Union in 1707, when
Scotland united with England to form
Great Britain.
The 18th century promotes creativity
in Edinburgh. Due to the Union of
Parliaments funds go into artistic,
economical and scientific sections.
The University of Edinburgh develops
18th Century
In 1996 the City of Edinburgh
Council is established. Years later,
as a result of the 1999 referendum,
the Scottish Parliament is opened
by Queen Elizabeth I. During this
era, the historical Stone of Destiny
finally find its way back home. The
English people transport it from
Westminster Abbey back to Ed-
inburgh Castle. When visiting the
castle today, visitors are given the
opportunity to admire this glorified
stone.
into a centre of research. Adam
Smith, Robert Burns, Walter Scott
and Robert Louis Stevenson write
their famous texts inspired by the
City of Edinburgh.
Overpopulation becomes a serious
issue during this era. As a result, city
councillors decide to build a new
district on the foot of
Castle Rock. The construction of the
classical New Town begins in 1767
and is completed one generation
later.
Gina Gnther
21th Century
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Edinburgh for
Newbies
Arriving in Edinburgh can be quite overwhelming a city bursting with
possibilities, beauty and history demands a lot of attention. This section
helps you to keep calm in the midst of the typical sightseeing chaos, whilst
showing you all the places you need to see in order to get a great first im-
pression of Scotlands capital.
Dajana Schaffrath
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The Old Town
Cobbled streets lined with tall
medieval tenements and majestic
public buildings lead through one
of Edinburghs most charming,
authentic and historic areas- the
Old Town. Its main part stretch-
es over the long tail of an ex-
tinct volcano, a prime example
of medieval town growth. With
marshland to the South, plunging
cliffs on the West and a Loch to
the North, the city on the hill was
easily defendable in the Middle
Ages. Simultaneously it restrict-
ed the increasing population of
Scotlands capital to a narrow
space. Around 80.000 residents
lived on Castle Hill in the 17
th

century, leading to buildings
rising dangerously high, some
counting up to 16 storeys.
The underlying medieval fish-
bone architecture can still be
seen today. The High Street, built
to connect Edinburgh Castle and
Holyrood Palace, forms the wide
backbone of which small narrow
alleys, so called closes or wyn-
ds branch off. In the Middle Ages
these were crowded with people,
markets, cows and rats. The
closes were flooded with sewage
every day at 7am and 10pm, ac-
companied by the shout of Gardy
loo (French for Mind the water).
Nowadays Edinburgh has a work-
ing sewage system and clean
streets, so visitors dont have
to watch their step except when
passing close to the Heart of
Midlothian. Get lost in the lab-
yrinth of closes and admire the
architectural landscape reaching
from the 12
th
century Castle, to
the Gothic and Renaissance St
Giles to Gladstones Land from
the 17
th
century, right up until the
modern architecture of the Par-
liament. Many pubs and restau-
rants are waiting for visitors to
relax from a tour with a Baked
Potatoe, Haggis, or Whisky.
Vanessa Melching
The New Town
The New Town was built be-
tween 1765-1850. With no need
to stay inside the city walls, the
King decided to extend the city
and build a new quarter on the
other side of Nor Loch. Further-
more, the rich people needed an
escape from the overcrowded
Old Town, where people were
suffering from diseases since no
proper sewerage system existed.
As a safe trading path between
the Old Town and the New Town,
the North Bridge was built. Ad-
ditionally, the plan to drain the
Nor Loch was put into action. A
sewage system was built and the
Roman architecture was broad-
er, simpler and classical. The
architecture of the buildings re-
flects the Scottish Enlightenment.
During this time, people started
to question the Bible and think
more rationally. James Craig is
the designer of the new streets
that concentrate not only on bet-
ter living conditions, but also on
a good view of Edinburgh Castle.
Today the New Town is part of
the UNESCO world heritage,
because it is a masterpiece in
city planning. The New Town is
designed as a grid of streets. Its
main street, George Street, runs
from Charlotte Square to St. An-
drews Square, framed by Princ-
es Street, Queen Street, Thistle
Street and Rose Street. Each
Square was designed to have its
own church that would mirror one
other, but the landowner decid-
ed to use the land for his own
house, the Palladian, now hous-
ing the headquarters of the Royal
Bank of Scotland. As a result of
this decision, St. Andrews Church
was built on a site on George
Street. It is designed without any
corners so that the devil will be
unable to find a place to hide.
Kristine Heger
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