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THE PHENOMENON OF GLOBALIZATION

Part 1

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Contents


Unit 1. The Concept of Globalization ...

p. 4
Unit 2. Anti-globalization movement ......................................................

p. 30
Appendix 1. Tapescripts

p. 51

Appendix 2. Word Lists ..

p. 54
Appendix 3. Functional Bank ..

p. 57
Appendix 4. Hints for Speaking Activity .

p. 62















4
Unit 1
The Concept of Globalization

Lead in
1. a. Work in groups and brainstorm what changes happened in the 20
century. What positive alterations appeared in different spheres of life?
What new fears emerged?
b. Now use the information discussed and fill in the table below. You can
add more points to the suggested ones.

Spheres of life Positive changes Negative changes Both
Politics Democracy is
hoped to provide
solutions for the
topical issues of life.
The Human Rights
Charter was adopted
by the UN.
Women gained
their rights.

Technology Atomic power and
technological know-
how are proliferated
worldwide.
Economy Interdependence
of markets of different
countries causes a
domino effect in
which any financial
crisis spreads all over
the world.

Environment Renewable sources
of energy are
becoming fastest-
growing.
People have
become
environmentally-
aware.
Electric-powered
cars amount to 1% of
all vehicle sales.

5
Military




Religion The society is
gradually moving
away from crusades,
schism and
intolerance toward
ecumenism

Law The scale and
impunity of banditry
is staggering.
Crime flourishes.
The law enforcing
system is in shambles.

Medicine Cloning has
brought a possibility
to cure fatal illnesses
but contradicts
religious dogmas.
Culture A big increment in
communication
flows is producing
big cultural changes.
American culture
has spread
throughout the world
because it has
incorporated foreign
styles and ideas.
Tourism The world has
become a global
village as you can
reach any place in
any time.
Outer space could
join the list of
destinations. By
2020, travelers with a
few hundred thousand
dollars to spare
probably will be able
to book a real flight to
outer space.

Education The growth of
knowledge in any
field is rapidly
outstripping any

6
individual's ability to
remain current.
Knowing how to
access information
rather than
memorizing
information is central
to coping with the
rapid change.
Most high school
kids are going to be
doing most of their
learning online.
Family A growing
reluctance to have
babies and the fast-
aging population are
the burning problems
facing the state.

Sport Sport unites
peoples: World Cup
soccer heads to South
Africa in 2010, the
Summer Olympics to
Brazil in 2016.
Around-the-world
road trips could
become the norm if
the NFL and NBA go
global.

Others






c. Work in groups. Discuss the following.
How have such changes influenced peoples mind and way of thinking?
What in your opinion made people closer and what drifted them apart?
What does the term global thinking mean?
2. Read an abstract from a life story told by Professor Anthony Giddens.
Think what world transformations such a vignette reflects.
7
A friend of mine studies village life in central Africa. A few years ago, she
paid her first visit to a remote area where she was to carry out her fieldwork. The
evening she got there, she was invited to a local home for an evening's
entertainment. She expected to find out about the traditional pastimes of this
isolated community. Instead, the evening turned out to be a viewing of Basic
Instinct on video. The film at that point hadn't even reached the cinemas in
London.
3. a. One of the most significant questions discussed nowadays is what the
notion globalization implies. Discuss in groups what globalization is. Which
word(s) best describes this phenomenon:

A: I suppose globalization means improvement because people nowadays seem to
enjoy the modern conveniences of the present-day world.
B: I partly agree with you. But there is one more crucial point. Globalization
brings new challenges to the society as
b. Read the following definitions and see if your ideas were correct. Which
definition is closer to your own ideas?
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity and integration in
the economic, social, technological, cultural, political and ecological spheres.
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the
people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by
international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This
8
process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on
economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in
societies around the world.
Globalization refers to the absence of the walls of matchboxes that
every country had. But with interdependence comes vulnerability and anxiety
since globalization can be seen as a force for exploitation of the developing
world, suppression of human rights, and increase of inequality, environmental
devastation and degradation.

Listening
4. a. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
Can globalization be viewed as a relatively new phenomenon or a
centuries-long process?
Why has it accelerated dramatically in recent years?
b. Work in groups. Using your general knowledge of history make a
chronological order of events that can be described as milestones of
globalization.
First of all,
Secondly,
c. The following words and phrases appear in the passage you are going to
hear. Explain their meaning in your own words. Then make up sentences
using them.
to track the expansion to accelerate circumnavigation a halt a bout to
enhance bi- and trilateral business agreements in pursuit of increasing
volume cross-border transactions to credit with to confine
d. Listen to a passage about the history of globalization. Match the columns
1-7 with a-g. Check whether your ideas were correct.

9
1. In its early forms globalization
existed
a. increasing global connectivity and
integration in different spheres.
2. Exploration of the world in the 16
th

century
b. when people traded through the
famous Silk Road across Central Asia.
3. The First Era of Globalization
stands for the period
c. after World War II when first
transnational corporations became
concerned in international trade.
4. Globalization in trade came into
force

d. helped to organise trade negotiation
rounds on a global scale.
5. Technological innovations

e. facilitated trading relations with
Europe.
6. The term globalization was first used
in economic context
f. in the 19th century characterized by
rapid growth in international trade and
investment.
7. Now globalization refers to g. when the volume of world trade
increased dramatically.

c. Discuss in groups.
Is it right to trace the continuity between contemporary trends of
globalization and earlier periods?
Reading
5. a. It has been stated that virtually every one of the 2822 academic papers
on globalization written in 2008 included its own definition. Why is there no
consensus on the definition of globalization?
b. Discuss in pairs whether the notion of globalization must be approached
from a multidisciplinary perspective. Then match items in the columns to get
an idea how representatives of different realms perceive the phenomenon of
globalization.
10
Economist celebration of diversity,
the convergence of social
preferences

Political
scientist
an epoch dominated by
global capitalism

Legislator

gradual erosion of state
sovereignty

Technical
professor
emergence of a global
market

Historian a virtual reality that has
made time and distance
irrelevant

Sociologist










GLOBALIZATION

creation of international
norms and regulations
through international
bodies

c. Does integration of human sciences allow understanding globalization in
all its dimensions? Discuss in pairs.
d. You will read an article about how the concept of globalization is
understood in contemporary social theory. Before reading it, can you guess
what features of globalization the contemporary social theory distinguishes?
Scan the text and see if your guesses were correct.
11
e. Now read the text. For questions 1-15 choose from the answers A-E. You
will need to choose the suggested items (A-E) more than once.
Globalization in Contemporary Social Theory
Since the mid-1980s, social theorists have moved beyond the relatively
underdeveloped character of previous reflections on the compression or
annihilation of space to offer a rigorous conception of globalization. Nonetheless,
a consensus about the basic rudiments of the concept of globalization appears
to be emerging.
First, contemporary analysts associate globalization with
deterritorialization, according to which a growing variety of social activities
takes place irrespective of the geographical location of participants. As Jan Aart
Scholte observes, global events can via telecommunication, digital computers,
audiovisual media, rocketry and the like occur almost simultaneously anywhere
and everywhere in the world (Scholte, 1996: 45). Globalization refers to
increased possibilities for action between and among people in situations where
latitudinal and longitudinal location seems immaterial to the social activity at
hand. Even though geographical location remains crucial for many undertakings
(for example, farming to satisfy the needs of a local market), deterritorialization
manifests itself in many social spheres. Business people on different continents
now engage in electronic commerce; television allows people situated anywhere
to observe the impact of terrible wars being waged far from the comfort of
their living rooms; academics make use of the latest video conferencing
equipment to organize seminars in which participants are located at disparate
geographical locations; the Internet allows people to communicate
instantaneously with each other notwithstanding vast geographical distances
separating them. Territory in the sense of a traditional sense of a geographically
identifiable location no longer constitutes the whole of social space in which
12
human activity takes places. In this initial sense of the term, globalization refers
to the spread of new forms of non-territorial social activity (Ruggie, 1993;
Scholte, 2000).
Second, recent theorists conceive of globalization as linked to the growth
of social interconnectedness across existing geographical and political
boundaries. In this view, deterritorialization is a crucial facet of globalization.
Since the vast majority of human activities is still tied to a concrete geographical
location, the more decisive facet of globalization concerns the manner in which
distant events and forces impact on local and regional endeavors (Tomlinson,
1999: 9). Globalization refers to processes of change which underpin a
transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and
expanding human activity across regions and continents (Held, McGrew,
Goldblatt, Perraton, 1999: 15). Globalization in this sense is a matter of degree
since any given social activity might influence events more or less faraway: even
though a growing number of activities seems intermeshed with events in distant
continents, certain human activities remain primarily local or regional in scope.
Also, the magnitude and impact of the activity might vary: geographically
removed events could have a relatively minimal or a far more extensive influence
on events at a particular locality.
Third, globalization must also include reference to the speed or velocity of
social activity. Deterritorialization and interconnectedness initially seem chiefly
spatial in nature. Yet it is easy to see how these spatial shifts are directly tied to
the acceleration of crucial forms of social activity. As the proliferation of high-
speed transportation, communication, and information technologies constitutes
the most immediate source for the blurring of geographical and territorial
boundaries, the compression of space presupposes rapid-fire forms of
technology; shifts in our experiences of territory depend on concomitant changes
in the temporality of human action. High-speed technology only represents the tip
13
of the iceberg, however. The linking together and expanding of social activities
across borders is predicated on the possibility of relatively fast flows and
movements of people, information, capital, and goods. High-speed technology
plays a pivotal role in the velocity of human affairs.
Fourth, most agree that globalization should be conceived as a relatively
long-term process. The triad of deterritorialization, interconnectedness, and social
acceleration hardly represents a sudden or recent event in contemporary social
life. At the same time, nineteenth-century thinkers captured at least some of its
core features; the compression of territoriality composed an important element
of their lived experience. Nonetheless, some contemporary theorists believe that
globalization has taken a particularly intense form in recent decades, as
innovations in communication, transportation, and information technologies (for
example, computerization) have generated stunning new possibilities for
simultaneity and instantaneousness (Harvey, 1989). While our nineteenth-
century predecessors understandably marveled at the railroad or the telegraph, a
comparatively vast array of social activities is now being transformed by
innovations that accelerate social activity and considerably deepen longstanding
trends towards deterritorialization and social interconnectedness. To be sure, the
impact of deterritorialization, social interconnectedness, and social acceleration
are by no means universal or uniform: migrant workers engaging in traditional
forms of low-wage agricultural labor in the fields of southern California, for
example, probably operate in a different spatial and temporal context than the
Internet entrepreneurs of San Francisco or Seattle. The impact of recent
technological innovations is profound, and even those who do not have a job
directly affected by the new technology are shaped by it in innumerable ways as
citizens and consumers (Eriksen, 2001: 16).
Fifth, globalization should be understood as a multi-pronged process,
since deterritorialization, social interconnectedness, and acceleration manifest
14
themselves in many different (economic, political, and cultural) arenas of social
activity. For example, it is evident that cross-border flows and exchanges, as well
as the emergence of directly transnational forms of production by means of which
a single commodity is manufactured simultaneously in distant corners of the
globe, are gaining in prominence (Castells, 1996). High-speed technologies and
organizational approaches are employed by transnationally operating firms, the
so-called global players, with great effectiveness. The emergence of around-
the-world, around-the-clock financial markets, where major cross-border
financial transactions are made in cyberspace at the blink of an eye, represents a
familiar example of the economic face of globalization. In political life,
globalization takes a distinct form. Transnational movements, in which activists
employ rapid-fire communication technologies to join forces across borders in
combating ills that seem correspondingly transnational in scope (for example, the
depletion of the ozone layer), offer an example of political globalization. Another
would be the tendency towards ambitious supranational forms of social and
economic lawmaking and regulation, where individual nation-states cooperate to
pursue regulation whose jurisdiction transcends national borders no less than the
cross-border economic processes that may undermine traditional modes of
nation state-based regulation. Political scientists typically describe the trend
towards ambitious forms of supranational organization (the European Union, for
example, or North America Free Trade Association) as important recent
manifestations of political globalization. The proliferation of supranational
organizations has been no less conflict-laden than economic globalization,
however. Critics insist that local, regional, and national forms of self-government
are being rapidly supplanted by insufficiently democratic forms of global
governance remote from the needs of ordinary citizens, whereas their defenders
describe new forms of supranational legal and political decision as indispensable
forerunners to more inclusive and advanced forms of self-government.
15
Although each facet of globalization is linked to the core components of
globalization described above, each consists of a complex and relatively
autonomous series of empirical developments.

A Globalization as deterritorialization
B Globalization as social interconnectedness
C Globalization as velocity
D Globalization as a long-term process
E Globalization as a multi-pronged process

Which component of globalization presupposes that
1 the spread of telecommunication technology enables people witness
current events concurrently?

..
2 the way in which remote incidents influence local-level events is
more important in understanding globalization?

..
3 multinational corporations as well as political movements develop
their businesses due to technological innovations?

..
4 people are becoming engaged in various projects all over the world
no matter where they live?

..
5 globalization sets the pace of our life? ..
6 basic characteristics of globalization were discovered in the 19
th

century?

..
7 globalization should be viewed as a multifold phenomenon? ..
8 people collaborate and spread their endeavours all over the world? ..
9 increased foreign direct investments, trade and travel stem from
growing connectivity?

..
10 globalization in politics stands for the creation of a world body
which coordinates the relationships among nations and guarantees
the rights arising from social and economic globalization?


..
16
11 people can keep in touch due to electronic means of
communication?
..
12 the process of globalization has been advancing lately? ..
13 speedy technologies are of crucial importance in order to cover
distance?

..
14 the idea of the world government should be carefully thought out
since it is facing well-grounded criticism?

..
15 the impact of globalization at the regional level can fluctuate? ..

Vocabulary Practice
6. a. Match the words in columns A and B to form word combinations from
the text and give their Russian equivalents.
A B
a rigorous instantaneously
longitudinal impact
to communicate forerunner
a crucial role
to underpin changes
spatial process
a profound location
concomitant shifts
a pivotal ills
a multi-pronged facet
to combat conception
an indispensable a transformation

b. Now use some of these word combinations to complete the sentences
below.
17
1. The new policy will help businesses, which will play in
creating thousands of new jobs.
2. The spread of democracy, gaining human rights and other led
to a completely different way of thinking.
3. The UN should be seen as of the world government.
4. The government should work out of the proper role of various
social institutes.
5. This of the problem of migration from Arab countries to the
EU requires careful attention.
6. Antiterrorism appears to be with various means to combat
terrorists and establish security worldwide.
7. The political analysists say they expect the meeting to have on
the future of the country.

c. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word(s) from the list below. There is
one extra word which you dont need to use.
manifest, conflict-laden, proliferation, commodities, supplanted, undertaking,
disparate, transcend, endeavors, notwithstanding
1. The committee advised the government against such a risky in
attack on recession. (a difficult task)
2. In his speech the president stressed the benefits of investment in scientific
(serious attempts)
3. The results of the UN activities can themselves in confidence-
building measures, economic and social development and strengthening the rule
of law in developing countries. (to show clearly)
4. The results of the election were predictable; this fact he joined
the electoral campaign with enthusiasm. (in spite of smth)
5. The government increased prices on several basic like bread
and meat. (goods)
18
6. At the yesterdays meeting the parties discussed the issues like European
Union that party loyalty. (go beyond)
7. All operations in areas must include the use of force which is
considered valid under the charter of the United Nations. (full of serious
disagreements)
8. The nine republics are immensely in size, culture and wealth.
(different)
9. The idea that the international conference was unencumbered by controversy
soon was by the understanding that every national delegation
carried with it long-festering grievances and obsessions. (substituted)

d. Match the two parts of the sentences and fill in a necessary preposition.
The example is given.
1. The president emphasized his commitment
to a society based on equality for all citizens
irrespective
A. the success of
negotiations between age-old
enemies.
2. Political success is usually predicated B. model of leadership to be
the most appropriate for the
modern world
3. This political doctrine gains C. bureaucratic defects
caused a vexing political crisis
of the organization.
4. The political observers marveled D. ... the bad management of
the previous government.
5. The analysts still cant come to an agreement
and conceive
E. popularity each year.
6. Incompetence, inadequate financial
discipline intermeshed
F. their ethnic origin.
19
7. He argues that poverty in that region is
directly linked
G. leadership abilities.

He argues that poverty in that region is directly linked to the bad management of
the previous government.

e. Explain the highlighted words and phrases in the text in your own words.

Discussion
7. Discuss in groups.
Globalization is considered to be best understood as a concept that
transcends individual disciplines and also unites them. Do you agree with this
idea?
Is globalization a natural phenomenon or a project imposed on human
society without its choice?
Study two points of view on the concept of globalization below. Compare
them and decide which one you agree with more. Tell your partner.
The tendency to generalize identification to the whole world is called
universalism. This concept has existed since the dawn of time, as it emerged
since the very beginning of the existence of man, as humans were possessed by
an instinct to fathom the secrets of the world. This instinct was general amongst
all human-beings to such an extent that man can be described as a globe-trotter
by nature, who hates to be confined in one homeland without being able to move
around the world to discover it and draw lessons from this experience.
Globalization is defined as the internationalization of everything
related to different countries. For instance, in economics, internationalization
has been viewed as a process of increasing involvement of enterprises in
international markets.
20
Use of English
8. In most of the lines of this text there is an unnecessary word. For
questions 1-26, find the unnecessary words and write them on the lines
provided. If you think a line contains no unnecessary words, put a tick next
to it. There are two examples (0), (00).

Globalization is a process of an interaction and integration among the 0 an
people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process 00 V
driven by international trade and investment and aided by some 1
information technology. This is process has effects on the 2
environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic 3
development and prosperity, and on human and physical well-being 4
in such societies around the world. This current wave of globalization 5
has been driven by policies that have opened economies either 6
domestically and internationally. In the years since the WW II, and 7
especially during the past two decades, when many governments 8
have adopted free-market economic systems, which vastly increasing 9
their own productive potential and creating myriad new opportunities 10
as for international trade and investment. Governments also have 11
negotiated of dramatic reductions in barriers to commerce and 12
have established international agreements to promote trade in goods, 13
services, and investment. Taking an advantage of new opportunities 14
in foreign markets, all corporations have built foreign factories and 15
established production and marketing arrangements with foreign 16
partners. A next defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an 17
international industrial and financial or business structure. 18
Technology has been the other principal driver of globalization. 19
Advances in information technology, in particular, have very 20
21
dramatically transformed economic life. Information technologies 21
have been given all sorts of individual economic actors consumers, 22
investors, businesses valuable new tools for identifying them and 23
pursuing economic opportunities, including more faster and more 24
informed about analyses of economic trends around the world, easy 25
transfers of assets, and collaboration with far-flung partners. 26

Project Work
9. Globalization goes hand in hand with the rise of neoliberal ideology and
its set of postulates on advantages of liberation of market relations from
state regulation and even state boundaries. You should prepare
presentations on neoliberalism and its main postulates. Make use of different
sources of information. Make use of the following sites:
www.stwr.org//neoliberalism-and-economic-globalization.html
www.i3pep.org//2003/10/11/neoliberalism/

Speaking Activity
10. Get ready to discuss the question whether globalization is an inevitable
process at a round-table talk. Before it we should study its scenario. Read the
following scenario and the list of participants. Chose the part you are going
to play.


22
Is Globalization an Inevitable Process?
The scenario

Stage 1
Chairpersons introductory speech

Stage 2
Debating


Statement of position on the
1
st
problem


S1 S2 S3 S4 S5


Clarifying the position
Discussing



Conclusions on the 1
st

problem



Statement of position on the
2
nd
/3
d
/etc. problem


S1 S2 S3 S4 S5


Clarifying the position
Discussing



Conclusions on the 2
nd
/3
d

/etc. problem


Stage 3
Chairpersons concluding remarks

List of participants
Chairperson, multi-national corporation (MNC) representative,
clergyman, cosmopolitan, businessman, IT specialist, sociologist, statesman,
culture expert, historian, economist, specialist for foreign trade relations,
political analyst, atheist.
23
Study your role card and think of a number of arguments, examples
and illustrations to prove your stance. Get ready to defend it against
criticism. Make use of the conversational patterns given in Functional Bank.


















MNC representative
No doubt, the economic globalization is the most obvious
trend of current world economy. The world wide free trade,
financial market liberalization, deregulation, and privatization
made the world economy experienced unparalleled flourish in
last decade. Rapid development of international trade has
become the locomotive of world economic development.
International financial network developed so widely and
deeply that huge amount of money at the free flows between
countries. The speedy growth of international direct
investment shows diversification patterns. Multinational
corporations become more and more dominant force in the
world economy. The great changes made almost all
individuals and governments so delight that the bright union-
market will cover every corner of the world seems just ahead
of near future. Indeed, globalization is a phenomenon, but I
have to say the continued economic globalization in our
information society is just like the tides, sometimes in high
level, sometimes fade.


Clergyman

Cosmopolitan
A growing emphasis on
Spirit and Justice is on the
rise, and fundamentalism is
on the decline. Faith, with its
loyal prophets of education
and atheism, are growing
strong. Just as creeds
emerged from the spheres of
authority over a vast body
that could have cared less, we
see less emphasis on lists of
beliefs for inclusion. There is
less hierarchy, patriarchy, and
dogmatism. I am convinced
this new turn of the Spirit and
Justice will not be stopped. It
will be excommunicated,
slandered, oppressed, and
martyred, but it will not be
stopped.


Many show their concern
about the possibility of
weaker nations having
cultural standards imposed
upon them by the rich nations
due to the rich nations'
dominating economic power
and the flood of goods
imposed upon the market as a
result of increasingly severe
globalization. I personally
think that this concern is
rather groundless. I believe it
is impossible for cultures to
encroach upon each other. My
belief is based upon the
premise that cultural influence
takes place in a natural,
gradual and selective manner.
Moreover, the cultural vitality
24
of any country is the result of
a selective, natural process
which takes place over a long
period of time. Therefore,
cultural globalization
contributes to enhancing co-
operation and selection among
cultures, rather than
encroaching or bringing
pressure to bear upon the
cultural identity of any nation.




Businessman
There is no restraining globalization, even with the risk of
destabilizing local governments or cultures, because its driver
is the extended enterprise. The growth of a global supply
network is a business reality for many industries and products.
The new market priorities of speed to market, faster innovation
and product customization are forcing global supply networks
to collaborate and outsource traditional individual company
key components. There are companies succeeding in both
worlds of local knowledge and globalization. David Reid,
deputy chairman of the U.K.'s largest grocer, Tesco, says his
company's success rests on factors like cash, shareholder
confidence, local market understanding and the ability to add
value. Reid adds, "Global scale doesn't give you the right to go
into a country and make money." Local scale, not global scale,
is what is important. Business should develop plant scale to
serve a country, warehouse scale to serve a geographic cluster
of stores, and store scale to serve a city or community.
Globalization, therefore, is an inevitable process of change that
will be driven, for most companies, more by external events
than by individual business or industry efforts.


IT specialist

Sociologist

Globalization will be
inevitable if its opponents
ignore the key role
technology plays in this
process. The computer and
the superhighway are a case
in point. The computer has
been hailed as a localizing
influence, but these aspects of
computers are far outweighed
With the world increasingly
becoming a global village due
to technological advances,
people from different cultures,
religions, countries etc have
come to socially interact in
one way or the other. It is
common to find one being
found in a foreign country
either for business, school,
jobs etc. However, living in a
25
by the power this technology
gives to transnationals both in
unprecedented levels and
speed of data collection and
in nanosecond
communication to
subsidiaries and related
commercial enterprises
anywhere on earth. The more
we propogate technologies
and technocracies with global
reach, e.g., the giant trade
organizations, the more
globalization becomes
inevitable. Technologies that
require massive capital
investments, large scale
concentration of resources,
complex bureaucracies, and
military and scientific elites
will favor globalization and
destroy local control and
autonomy.
foreign country sometimes
has its own problems. In some
countries or societies, a
foreigner might not be
completely welcome. Whether
he/she is a labour migrant,
investor, asylum seeker,
student etc, the penalty one
gets for leaving his/her own
country is at least an exposure
to elements of xenophobia.



Statesman
Globalization is a competitive adventure, and in competition
one must develop competitive defense strategies through either
internal and international trade public policies favorable to you
or through competitive comparative advantage in innovation
and entrepreneurship. Because globalization is a competitive
adventure, it will always be lopsided as in winners and losers.
All the five fingers are not equal but they work in unisome to
perform an activity because they are not in competition with
each other. Countries must prepare themselves for the 21st
century global trade competition. The Chinese are where they
are today because of the reform they took twenty years ago,
especially in the science and math education, and you know
what, they are doing same in business school education in the
21st century because they realized that they need more
business school trained managers to help manage their
industrial growth. On agriculture, I do not see problem with
any country subsidizing its agricultural industry in other to
feed its citizens. I also do not believe in competitive
agricultural food export unless the exporting country will
process the finished goods or foods to the liking of the
importing consumer countries. This where consumer
patriotism comes in, but you know us (consumption prone
third economy), we will buy that foreign made yugort and
cheese before the local made. We will also import foreign
26
farmers while in our backyard there is a Federal University
with a Faculty of Agriculture that is deteriorating. Good
intentions bad implementation strategy. For Nigerians not to
feel as losers in year 2020, this is the time we must buy into
the entrepreneurial leadership mindset.


Culture expert

Historian
Things have changed over
time only because people are
being introduced more and
more to new things that are
not apart of their normal way
of living. The steady
transitions from the usage of
the telephone, radio systems,
and the television, to
computers, the Internet, cable
TV, and cellular phones has
drastically changed the ways
and lifestyles of many
countries all over the world.
The more goods that travel to
places other than where they
were produced, the more
ideas travel from place to
place. The more people that
move from one place to
another, the more various
cultures will begin to alter
and form new styles of living.
There are examples that show
how some countries are
becoming westernized and
how the United States has
accommodated some of their
American-oriented
businesses. Over 20% of the
world's population speaks
English. In India, there are
some McDonalds restaurants
that serve mutton in the place
of beef to accommodate the
meals of the most orthodox
Hindu. These examples prove
that the more a country
becomes involved with other
countries, and share their
different aspects and way of


One could argue that
globalization begins with the
dawn of history. The
literature, however, has
tended to date the start of
globalization more recently in
the experience of the West. At
one end of the spectrum,
historians have noted the
importance of the first go
around of the Earth in 1519-
21. World-system theorists
maintain that the expansion of
European capitalism in the
16th century marks the start of
globalization. Some economic
historians point to the turn of
the century as the peak of
international trade and
investment before the shake
of World War I and the Great
Depression threw the world
into spiraling protectionism.
Some say that globalization
"took off" between 1875 and
1925 with the time-zoning of
the world and the
establishment of the
international dateline; the
near-global adoption of the
Gregorian calendar and the
adjustable seven-day week;
and the establishment of
international telegraphic and
signaling codes. Students of
social movements for the
abolition of slavery, woman
suffrage, or the prohibition of
female circumcision argue
that the emergence of
contemporary transnational
27
life, the more both countries
will adapt and adhere to each
other's ways.
advocacy networks can be
traced back to the second half
of the 19th century.



Economist
If there's one thing everyone knows these days, whether
they're happy about it or not, it's that we live in a "global"
economy. This fact is taken as so obvious that anyone who
disputes it is regarded as not so much wrong as simply
ignorant -- not even worth arguing with. So it may come as a
shock to many that, in reality, the cliche that we live in a
borderless global economy does not survive serious
examination. The easiest hard number is this: Because the U.S.
is roughly 25 percent of the world economy, a truly borderless
world would imply that imports and exports would each make
up 75 percent of our economy, since we purchase and sale
transactions would be distributed around the world. This
would entail a total trade level (imports plus exports) of 150
percent of GDP. Instead, our total trade level is 29 percent:
imports are 17 percent and exports 12 percent. So our
economy is nowhere near borderless.


Specialist for foreign
trade relations

Political analyst
Globalization is an
inevitable process. The world
is becoming more
homogenous, and distinctions
between national markets are
not only fading but, for some
products, will disappear
altogether. A major reason
many feel globalization is
irreversible is the depth of its
networks. With production
and financial networks so
intertwined the cost of
stepping back could be
immense. This is the case
because disentangling the
networks that have formed
would necessitate
restructuring many of the
industrial linkages that have
formed over the last few
decades. The unintended
consequences of breaking
There has never been
anything inevitable about the
globalization of the world
economy by the powerful, and
there isn't today. But, since
the colonial era, the dominant
engine of the process of
economic globalization has
been violence and coercion.
From the European conquest
of the Americas to the
evolution of the trans-Atlantic
slave trade, it has been
violence that has driven
globalization, not immutable
laws of economic existence.
In the post-World War II era
the United States has
dominated the world economy
and violence has continued to
play a central role in the
economic globalization
process. Countries that have
28
linkages are likely to be
significant.
sought to develop
independently, outside the
framework of the United
States-led internationalized
economy, have often found
themselves militarily attacked,
directly or indirectly, by
forces under the control of the
United States.


Atheist
History inarguably shows that a societys rise of education
corresponds to a rise in atheism. Even when atheism does not
dominate, a rise in intellect still threatens the clergy-class
because the lay become aware of problems in the faith. People
learn, and then they doubt. There doubts can no longer be
assuaged with pompous assurances from a cleric, because the
doubter can google the question on his mind and know more
about it in a short 10 minutes than the cleric learned in 5 years
of grad school. So at best, education threatens the religious
establishment, if not religion itself. Likewise, the educated can
doubt the postulates of dominant religions aimed at promoting
globalization. Tolerance, religious cooperation and even
integration are not irreversible processes but just projects
developed by the rich and powerful for their selfish gains.


Chairperson

Stage 1
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I now declare open the round table devoted to the subject of
globalization and whether it is an inevitable process.
On behalf of the University allow me to express our great
appreciation for your presence here today and for the
contributions you are ready to make to the coming discussion.
The questions to be debated today are highly controversial and
allow for a variety of opinions. The attacks on globalization
are many and come from various angles showing negative
sides of this phenomenon; its public defenders are numerous
and convincing, trying to prove its benefits. Yet, all those who
assembled here today feel that the young generation needs to
know the answers. The questions are as follows:
1. What is globalization?
2. What changes does it bring?
3. Is this process inevitable?
I propose a time limit on statement of position of two minutes
and one minute for all ther speakers during the debate.
Is that agreed? Thank you.
Stage 2

29
Will participants please identify themselves clearly to the
Chair if they wish to speak or ask a question.
I call Mr. ...
Mr. ..., thank you for that stimulating speech.
I now welcome Mr. ... Mr. ..., you have the floor.

ay I remind the participants to identify themselves clearly to
the Chair if they wish to ask a question or make an objection.
Does anyone else wish to speak?

We can't all speak at once; Mr.... Would you like to speak
first?
I shall have to call you to order, Mr. ...

Now let me summarize the points of view on the
first/second/third problem expressed by the participants.
According to the majority of the opinions , though we
should mention
Stage 3
To sum up our discussion today, it seems we all agreed that...
The discussion revealed that We weighed the pros and cons
of Consequently, we took a closer look at
Basing on the discussion we have had and the facts and
arguments youve presented to us today, Id like to point out
that
I declare the discussion closed. Thank you, Ladies and Gentle-
men.













30
Unit 2
Anti-globalization movement

Lead in
1. a. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
Why is globalization considered to be deeply controversial? What is meant
by Globalization is a world of immense promise but also of complexity and
difficulties?
What does the idea Globalization is a double-edged sword stand for?
2. Look at the statements below. Which one do you agree with more? Tell
your partner.
1. The term globalization has acquired considerable emotive force. Some
view it as a process that is beneficiala key to future world economic
development and also inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with hostility,
even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations,
threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress.
2. Globalization by itself is morally neutral. It can be good or bad,
depending on the kind of content we give to it. (Czech President Vaclav Havel,
August 2000)
3. a. Potential risks associated with globalization are revealed in its
economic, political, cultural, social and other dimensions. Match the reasons
and consequences of the costs globalization brings.

Reasons

1 Trade liberalisation makes industries more competitive on the world market.

2 Trade increases and travel is facilitated. People can move freely both for business and
pleasure due to the erosion of political borders.

3

Countries become increasingly interdependent. Connectivity and mutual assistance
provide for easier cooperation.

31
4 Globalization fosters competition which in its turn promotes efficiency and productivity.
Faster economic growth enables countries to improve living standards and reduce
poverty.

5 The proliferation of technological know-how and the capacity to manufacture modern
weapons significantly increases the security worldwide. More and more states have the
technical skills to research nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

6 In the age of transnational politics democracy is considered to be the touchstone of
legitimacy. Promotion of democracy and norms for global governance in the framework
of globalization must be the responsibility of political and financial elites.

7
Globalization complements the peoples identities and specificities in order to make of
the world of tomorrow both a unified and diversified place to live.

8

Global telecommunications infrastructure develops and transborder data flow is greater.
Such technologies as the Internet, communication satellites, submarine fiber optic cable,
and wireless telephones are used worldwide.


Consequences

A Democratic deficit is another contradiction of globalization. Globalization promotes the
interests of the worlds most powerful players. Some transnational corporations have
revenues that exceed the gross domestic product of middle size industrial nations.

B Indigenous and national culture and languages can be eroded by the modern globalised
culture. An undeclared war is currently waged worldwide for the protection of national
identity. Lots of countries are aware of such threats, based on their attachment to the
principles of homeland, borders, nationalism, the flag, the national anthem, history and
national sovereignty. These countries fear is also nurtured by their pride of their nations
role and concern to see themselves swallowed by globalization.

C Modern communications spread an awareness of the differences between countries and
increase the demand for migration to richer countries. Richer countries tighten the barriers
against migrant workers, xenophobic fears increase and people smugglers exploit vulnerable
people.

D Human, animal and plant diseases, like HIV/AIDS, SARS and bird flu spread across borders
at higher speed than ever before. Cigarettes and tobacco have been introduced to developing
countries, with major adverse health and financial costs associated with them.

E It is only transnational corporations that benefit since local companies can not afford to
undertake necessary economic restructuring and reform and are excluded from the new
world economy.

F Terrorists and drug traffickers can use the same speedy communications and information
technology as everybody else.
32
G Globalised competition can force a race to the bottom in wage rates and labour standards. It
can also foster a brain drain of skilled workers, where highly educated and qualified
professionals, such as doctors, engineers and IT specialists, migrate to developed countries to
benefit from the higher wages and greater career and lifestyle prospects. This creates severe
skilled labour shortages in developing countries.

H The phenomenon of domino effect makes countries more vulnerable to economic problems.
Recession in American economy spread to European and Asian markets.


b. Using your general knowledge and the information given above, explain
why opponents of globalization connect it with the following negative
characteristics.
ambiguous phenomenon threat to future prospects inequality ruthless
competition globalization of poverty squandering of the States wealth and
resources fears of xenophobia erosion of all national historical heritage brain
drain
4. a. Not only has the word globalization amplified over the last few years,
but the term anti-globalization has also appeared and is still growing.
Choose from the suggested options the protest grounds which have led to the
development of anti-globalization, then complete the spidergram and explain
your choice.

influx of people low labour standards privatized industries
child labor conservationism weak labor unions
lawlessness juvenile delinquency third world
obligation
rise of bureaucracy spread of capitalism high divorce rate
exploitation of foreign
impoverished workers
fiscal austerity programs violation of animal
rights

33



d. Work in groups. Discuss the following.
Why is anti-globalization considered to be an umbrella term for a
collection of diverse protest grounds?
Why is there no consensus on the definition of the term anti-
globalization?

Listening
5. a. You are going to listen to an abstract about the anti-globalization
movement. Before listening study two opposing points of view on the origin
of the anti-globalization movement and say which one you agree with.
Many theorists trace the lineage of the movement through a 500-year
history of resistance against European colonialism and U.S. imperialism.
Other commentators see the anti-globalization movement as
continuous with the anti-Vietnam war mobilizations of the 1960s and 1970s, with
worldwide uprisings in 1968, and with protests against structural adjustment in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s.
b. Read the information about the milestones of the anti-globalization
movement and comment on the role the events played in the development of
the movement.
34
The uprising of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) in
Chiapas, Mexico on January 1, 1994 was a symbolically significant moment of
origin for the movement. On the same day that the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect, the Zapatistas launched a two-week
campaign of armed clashes with the Mexican military. Their effort subsequently
became a nonviolent movement for land reform and indigenous rights. As a rebel
army seeking not to claim state power but to create spaces of autonomy and
direct democracy, the EZLN both paid homage to earlier models of national
liberation struggle and transformed them. Their example became an influential
one for the nascent globalization movement.
In the 1999 Battle of Seattle, which served as a prototype for many
future protests, an estimated 75,000 activists organized a confrontational
demonstration against the meetings of the WTO. While the labor movement led a
mass march on the organizations Ministerial meetings, student, anarchist, and
militant environmentalist affinity groups formed a nonviolent human blockade
around the convention center, preventing trade ministers from holding the
opening session of the meetings. Ultimately, the Seattle round of trade
negotiations deadlocked when developing nations, bolstered by grassroots
resistance, rejected U.S. and European demands. The week delivered a lasting
setback to the WTO and represented a turning point for neoliberal advocates, who
adopted a defensive posture in subsequent negotiations and in their public
justifications of the free trade agenda.
c. The following words and phrases appear in the passage you are going to
hear. Explain their meaning in your own words. Choose five words or
phrases and make up sentences using them.
to combat to advocate to be marginalized mainstream media an adherent
a faction to be aligned indigenous people to perceive
35
d. Now listen to the recording. For questions 1-10, fill in the gaps with the
missing information.
The anti-globalization movement appeared as an effort to counter the
negative aspects of the current process of globalization such as 1

of the countries of the third world which stems from the rapid spread of
multinational corporations. The participants of the movement further
2 ideals and make an 3 the interests of

ordinary people from the consequences of globalization.
The terminology of anti-globalization movement varies greatly and the
adherents of the movement make use of such mottos as
4 and 5 .

Anti-globalists represent an opposition to the sphere of business since the
interests of the owners of big and prosperous corporations are 6

with those of ordinary people.
As the followers of the movement treat the concept of globalization
dissimilarly, the movement is considered to 7 . Some of

them completely disagree with the development of the process of globalization
while others collaborate with different kinds of social and political movements. A
number of participants accept internationalization of markets in case they are
8 and democratic. They consider neoliberalism to be

9 and act against those who promote it.

The anti-globalization movement is joined by 10

movements, though the most active opponents of globalization do not accept
them as a part of anti-globalization struggle.

e. Discuss in groups.
The term anti-globalization movement has more often been imposed
by movement critics and by the media than used for self-identification. Why do
36
activists prefer such terms as the global justice movement, alter-
globalization, global resistance movement, etc.?

Reading
6. a. Anti-globalization is also called globalization from below. What do
you think the term implies? How is it related to the notion globalization
from above? Read the abstracts below and see whether your ideas were
correct.
In case of globalization from above, the rich and powerful, and
consequently the most competent and qualified, have shaped globalization in the
interest of their nations and the whole world. They introduce large-scale
programms which are sometimes enacted despite the opposition of many
elements of organized labor, minorities, liberals, religious, and environmental
groups. Globalization from above is implemented by the authority of the state
which may be dictatorial though far-sighted and serving the interests of people
and the earth in the long run.
Globalization from below provides a framework for uniting into a
common, grassroots struggle. The movement wants to democratize globalization
by making governments and corporations accountable to people instead of elites.
It is believed to be able to transform the world by leading people to withdraw
their consent from dominant social relationships, which will prevent the
reproduction of the social order, and thus create a situation in which the
movement can impose different, more just norms upon society as a whole.
b. Which of these movements do you believe to be more powerful and
effective? Are they adversarial or can they be compatible?
7. a. The followers of the globalization from below principle target
primarily big business, i.e. multinational corporations, and their corporate
power. Allegations of exploitive labour and human-rights abuses reach back
37
to the mid-1990s, when a number of corporations producing major brand
name products, such as Nike sneakers, Gap jeans, and Starbucks coffee,
were accused of promoting self interests at the expense of workers and host
countries. Below are some principles of one of the largest international coffee
and coffeehouse chains Starbucks Corporation. Study the principles and fill
in the gaps with the words given.
bargaining unlawfully retail long-term commitment communities
competitors global-scale premium consuming bolsters exploited reduce
thriving fiscal corporate citizen

1. Starbucks is committed to 1) in good faith with union representatives.

2. The company has always paid 2) prices, and even with prices at
historical lows, Starbucks paid an average of US$ 1.20 per pound in 3)
year 2001. This is the lowest average cost per pound that Starbucks
has paid in its 30-year history. Consequently, foreign coffee bean pickers
have no reason to feel 4) .

3. As a successful and growing 5) business and brand, Starbucks is
largely engaged in social investments and commitments worldwide. As a
global company, Starbucks is dedicated to continuing its role as a responsible,
respectful and caring 6) in all the regions and countries that it
touches.

4. Children should not be 7) employed as laborers. The company has a
8) to promote adherence to fair and equitable labor standards for
people who grow, harvest and process coffee while improving the basic levels
of health, social and education services in the 9) where coffee
workers live.

5. The company has been looking for ways to 10) , reuse, and recycle,
including participating in the organic movement with its organically certified
coffee.

6. In 1990 there were approximately 200 coffeehouses in the US, and Starbucks
had 50. Today, there are over 12,000, and Starbucks has less than 4,000. So,
it couldnt drive out local coffee shop 11) from the market. Starbucks
and others have grown in proportion to the total market growth. The entire
38
industry is 12) ; the market has increased. Starbucks has been credited
with increasing the size of the specialty coffee industry.

7. As a 13) company, Starbucks promotes democracy since it links
people by 14) the same product and makes them equal in
opportunities.

8. Importantly Starbucks like many other multinational companies 15)
peace as countries are unlikely to enter conflict with trading partners.


Anti-globalization protestors act against Starbucks Corporation since they
believe its activities are anti-social and unfair. Match each principle of
Starbucks to the following anti-globalists accusations. There are two extra
points which you dont need to use.

A. Starbucks is engaged in socially oppressive activities.
B. Starbucks promotes insecurity due to unequal position of countries in the
world arena.
C. Starbucks uses exploitative labour practices and child labour.
D. Starbucks resists efforts to unionize or is involved in union-busting.
E. Starbucks depletes old-growth and rain forests.
F. Starbucks underpays foreign coffee bean pickers.
G. Starbucks invades mass media space by branding advertisements.
H. Starbucks business practice laws and competition practices are unfair.
I. Starbucks harms the environment and uses unsafe pesticides, bio-engineering
agriculture crops etc.
J. Starbucks threatens the spread of democracy colluding with violent and
repressive regimes.
b. Work in groups. Brainstorm the methods anti-globalists use to alter the
situation and continue the list given below. Then rank the methods
according to their efficiency.

39
Protest leaflets
Picketing
Strikes
Riots
Nonviolent blockades
Civil disobedience
Demonstrations
Remonstration campaigns
What reaction do these methods beget in response?
c. Read an abstract below and say why the state uses violence against
peaceful protestors.
I stopped in the crowds to see what was going on, but everyone was
running past me, knocking into me, away from the police I suddenly saw what
looked like something out of star wars, a huge grey tank thing, driving straight at
the crowds, and right behind this huge thing were cops in armored vehicles. I
started running.
It is possible to persevere amid the savage cruelty that the system imposes on
those who resist?
d. Do you share the point of view that violence from above causes
violence from below? Study a given example and say whether anti-
globalists similar brutal actions help them achieve their goals?
The Genoa Group of Eight Summit protest from July 18 to July 22, 2001
was one of the bloodiest protests in Western Europes recent history, as
evidenced by the wounding of hundreds of policemen and civilians forced to lock
themselves inside of their homes and the death of a young Genoese anarchist
named Carlo Giuliani who was shot in the face while trying to throw a fire
extinguisher on a police car during two days of violence and rioting by fringe
groups supported by the nonchalance of more consistent and peaceful masses of
40
protesters, and the hospitalisation of several of those peaceful demonstrators just
mentioned. Police have subsequently been accused of brutality, torture and
interference with the non-violent protests as a collateral damage provoked by the
clash between the law enforcement ranks themselves and the more violent and
brutal fringes of protesters, who repeatedly hid themselves amongst peaceful
protesters of all ages and backgrounds. Several hundred peaceful demonstrators,
rioters, and police were injured and hundreds were arrested during the days
surrounding the G8 meeting; most of those arrested have been charged with some
form of criminal association under Italys anti-mafia and anti-terrorist laws.
e. Do you agree that militant rage is a positive contribution to the movement
against global capital? Can we justify the tactics and ideas of the anti-
globalization movements most militant sector, which were often blamed as
the source of the police terror?
8. a. You are going to read the text about core features and activities of the
anti-globalization movement. Before reading it, discuss whether the urge to
destroy can be a creative urge. Scan the text to see if you were right.
b. Read the text. Ten sentences have been removed. Choose which of the
sentences (A-J) fit into the gaps (1-10).

The Anti-Globalization Movement Defined

Mark Engler, with research assistance by Kate Griffiths

Anti-globalization Movement is a disputed term referring to the
international social movement network that gained widespread media attention
after protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Seattle, WA in late
November and early December 1999. Varied communities
organizing against the local and national consequences of neoliberal policies,
especially in the global South, connect their actions with this wider effort.
41
While opposing neoliberalism, the anti-globalization movement advocates
participatory democracy, seeking to increase popular control of political and
economic life in the face of increasingly powerful corporations, unaccountable
global financial institutions, and U.S. hegemony. These tend to
emphasize grassroots participation, cooperative decision-making, and
horizontalism over hierarchy. Rather than promoting a single model for social
reorganization, anti-globalization activists defend diversity and, adopting a
slogan of the Mexican Zapatistas, envision a world in which many worlds fit.
Many activists reject the label anti-globalization movement, arguing that
the term falsely implies a stance of isolationism. Participants rally
under the slogan No One Is Illegal and advocate the elimination of national
boundaries altogether.
Movement constituents include trade unionists, environmentalists,
anarchists, land rights and indigenous rights activists, organizations promoting
human rights and sustainable development, opponents of privatization, and anti-
sweatshop campaigners.
Internationally, the movement has held protests outside meetings of
institutions such as the WTO, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World
Bank, the World Economic Forum, and the Group of Eight (G8) heavily
industrialized nations. The forum provides a space for local and
national social movements to network, strategize for future action, and assert an
identity as a unified international movement. The WSF has been institutionalized
as a regular event and is organized by a committee of representatives from
prominent civil society groups throughout the world.
For over a decade, globalization movement groups like the Jubilee coalition
have vigorously campaigned for debt relief for poor countries.
Ultimately, the G8 agreed to an accord canceling debts owed by 18 of the worlds
poorest countries to the IMF, the World Bank, and the African Development
Bank.
42
Continued protests outside of international financial institutions serve as
only the most highly publicized manifestations of a much broader body of action
taking place at the local and national levels.
By bringing together groups with diverse complaints about the
international deliberations, these organizations have helped disparate movements
make common cause and have strengthened transnational coalitions of activists.
For example, resistance to the WTO has united labor unionists who argue that the
organization is depressing wages and lowering protections for workers, farmers
in the global South who protest agribusiness dominance in international markets,
food safety advocates concerned about the spread of genetically modified foods,
environmentalists who contend that current free trade agreements weaken local
protections for the natural world, indigenous rights activists defending cultural
diversity, and anti-capitalists who see the institution as a mechanism of corporate
expansion.
Although some constituent groups, especially within labor and non-
governmental organizations, maintain more traditional leadership structures, the
globalization movement as a whole claims no formal leaders.
A lack of official spokespeople, agreed-upon manifestos, or overarching
organizational structures means that many ideological and strategic issues within
the movement remain unresolved. In general, globalization
movement organizations represent groups based in civil society, rather than
traditional communist, socialist, or social democratic parties. Activists have long
debated how the movement should interact with state power, and this discussion
has intensified with the rise of progressive governments in Latin America.
The anti-globalization movement has been heavily criticized for being
incoherent and inoperative. Critics assert that institutions such as the WTO,
World Bank, and the IMF remain intact, countries continue to broker free trade
pacts, and multinational corporations extend their reach. Pressure
43
from civil society, in addition to a series of regional financial crises, has gone far
in discrediting the long-dominant Washington Consensus in trade and
development policy, and the future of neoliberalism is now in question. Whatever
its final legacy, the globalization movement will remain historically noteworthy
for its contribution to revitalizing the international left in the post-Cold War era.


A Diverse constituencies disagree about whether existing international financial
institutions should be reformed or abolished, whether tactics such as property
destruction should be deployed in international protests, and whether
capitalism itself is responsible for global problems.
B Advocates, however, point to debt relief, expanding fair trade and anti-
sweatshop agreements, the scuttling of the Free Trade Area of the Americas
(FTAA), a curtailed WTO agenda, local victories against privatization, and
the rise of anti-neoliberal governments in Latin America as evidence of the
movements impact.
C Nevertheless, the financial institutions promoting corporate globalization
have provided critical rallying points for the movement.
D Including diverse constituencies with a range of ideological orientations, the
global movement is broadly critical of the policies of economic
neoliberalism, or corporate globalization, that has guided international trade
and development since the closing decades of the 20th century.
E Protests and cultural events in July 2005 pressured G8 leaders meeting in
Gleneagles, Scotland to act on this demand.
F These groups charge that the policies of corporate globalization have
exacerbated global poverty and increased inequality.
G A focus on democracy is reflected in many of the movement's organizational
structures.
44
H A hallmark of the movement is its use of advanced communications and
Internet technology to unite activists across borders.
I Its own annual gathering, the World Social Forumn (WSF), serves as a site
for activist networking and transnational strategizing.
J In the absence of official spokespeople, well-known writers or intellectuals are
often called upon to represent the movement in public forums.

Vocabulary Practice
9. a. Match the words from the text to their meaning.
A B
1. a network a. a formal or official agreement
2. a constituency b. a typical quality
3. a stance c. a factory with poor conditions
4. a hallmark d. a supportive group
5. an accord e. an interconnected system
6. a sweatshop f. an attitude towards something

b. Now use these words to complete the sentences below.
1. Although proponents of say that consumer demand
for the lowest prices controls worker wages and conditions, they are
just fooling themselves.
2. The global of environmental compliance and enforcement
practitioners is dedicated to raising awareness of environmental problems and
strengthening capacity to implement and enforce environmental requirements.
3. His talks convened fifteen clan-based factions and produced a rushed and
vaguely-worded that sparked tensions between the UN and some
armed groups.
45
4. The Coalition government had a plan to change sizes of by the
number of people on the electoral register, rather than actual population size or
people eligible to vote.
5. Corruption, political scandals, hideous crimes have become the of
politics across the globe.
6. The Congress has agreed to reconsider its on the armed struggle.

c. Fill in the appropriate word from the list below. Use the word only once.
Then give Russian equivalents to the word combinations you have made up
and use them in your own sentences.
to broker to depress to rally
to deploy to extend to gain
to assert to guide to exacerbate

1. under the slogan 6. an identity
2. international trade 7. somebodys reach
3. wages 8. tactics
4. ... global poverty 9. widespread media
5. free trade pacts attention

d. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text. The first letter of each word
has been given.

1. The Prime minister e the possibility of establishing direct diplomatic
relations in the future. (to imagine)
2. After hours of d, the members of the Parliament came to a decision
to mandate that all immigrants send their children to state schools. (long and
careful consideration)
46
3. The government c that a binding political settlement between the
opposite parties would be achieved in short time. (to state)
4. The explosion proved that terrorists threat of s the peace conference
was far more serious. (end or destruction of something)
5. His policy was criticized for an i set of objectives and incompetence
in conducting full inquiries. (confused and unclear)
6. The United Nations brokered a peace in Mogadishu at the end of March, which
was the most n event in the region. (remarkable and significant)
7. Mass media covered NATO plans to c the number of troops being
sent to the region. (to reduce or limit)
8. The o question seems to be what happens when the US pulls out?
(including or affecting everything)
9. The decision of the meeting was to mandate the prohibition and e of
chemical weapons. (removal and destruction)
10. The police v denied that excessive force against demonstrators had
been used. (strongly and energetically)

e. Explain the highlighted words and phrases in the text in your own words.

Discussion
10. Discuss in groups.
Can such a variety of anti-globalization groups improve the situation
or there should be one powerful organization with a well-thought program?
Which of the following statements do you think best describes the
essence of the anti-globalization movement:
1. The anti-globalization movement is linked to a broader revolutionary project
due to its orientation not toward the existing political structures but rather to the
fight for a complete change of human community.
47
2. The anti-globalization movement offers a reform of the current state of things
by mobilizing existing formal democratic channels of protest, seeking national
legislation, mounting judicial challenges, mobilizing international agencies,
boycotting and protesting.

Use of English
11. Fill the gaps using one word. There is an example.

If you 0) were to ask why people agree with the antiglobalist
movement, the answer would be simple and clear: they dont like the
international order that is quickly 1) shape. Although science and
technology have reached an unprecedented level of achievement, enabling people
to solve problems they were unable to solve in the past, there is 2) grief
in the world now than 3) before. Meanwhile, the worlds leaders are busy
playing political games and pretending that 4) is alright; national
governments have finally become the ordinary commissaries of todays economic
forces.
Moreover, there are 5) new political ideas on the horizon which are
capable 6) changing the life of mankind for the better. Thus far, only
ideas of a fundamentalist nature have been sprouting 7) weeds and
religious fanaticism is 8) the rise.
It has 9) fashionable these days to speak of democracy. And many
actions, including the actual use of force, are justified 10) the need to
defend democracy or ensure the triumph of democratic ideals, but so 11) ..
genuine democracy has not 12) achieved. It is impossible to speak of
democracy in earnest 13) real power is not in the hands of governments
elected by their citizens, but 14) in the hands of transnational monopolies
which no one has elected. Yet, naive citizens continue to believe that they can
change everything by merely 15) a vote.
48
It is true that in those countries 16) abide by formal principles of
democracy, voters can change their government, remove their president 17) .
power and elect another leader and another government. 18) we are
unable to influence 19) very real economic powers which actually
determine the conditions of our lives. We are not only unable to remove these
powers, we are not even permitted to approach them; they are completely 20).......
our reach.
In the 21) of these challenges, the pendulum of public sentiment has
obviously swung 22) the antiglobalist coalition because it gives hope for
peoples disillusionment by 23) important issues and questions which
civilization must 24) if it is to survive and develop in a normal way.

Project Work
12. One of the most active actors of anti-globalization movement is non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) whose aim is to protect human rights
and further democratic principles. You should prepare presentations on the
role NGOs play in protesting against globalization. Make use of different
sources of information. Make use of the following sites:
www.alternet.org/globalization/11478/
www.mg.co.za/.../2006-12-23-are-antiglobalisation-ngos-plans-short-on-detail

Speaking Activity
13. Despite the fact that anti-globalization movement activists claim to strive
against unfair sides of globalization, the attitude to the movement can
sometimes be ambivalent. Anti-globalists are believed to threaten well-being
of a nation, hamper political regulatory processes, aggravate international
relations, impede integration, etc. Consider possible opinions and take part
in a role play Conflicting interests.
49
Three groups take part in the negotiations. Divide into three groups:
the representatives of local administration, the activists of anti-globalization
movement and the multi-national corporation managers. Choose speakers in
each group. The rest of the group support the speakers, help to develop the
general strategy of the negotiations, prepare basic questions for the
opponents, and work out possible ways of compromise. The main aim of the
negotiations is to come to an agreement. During the negotiations use the
conversation patterns given in Functional Bank.
Each group has its own introductory situation and characteristic
features of their position. Study your stance.

Introductory situation for the representatives of
local administration

Historical part of the city with unique architecture and the
touch of medieval magic suffered in the violent hurricane
which outbroke in the region several days ago. The local
administration is not ready to tackle the problem of restoring
the buildings and return the city its previous image as the local
budget is battered and allocations are limited. The only way
out is to accept the proposal made by the MNC representatives
who promise to do repair works but in their turn want to open
the outlet of their company in hi-tech style which would not
correspond to the bewitching atmosphere of this part of the
city and spoil the enchanting surroundings. Besides the
delegates of anti-globalization movement actively remonstrate
against the MNC project by organizing protest marches and
spreading inciting leaflets. They offer some solutions to the
problem but they are not serious. You decide to organize
negotiations between the MNC proxies and the activists of
anti-globalization movement to come to a certain agreement.

Introductory situation for the activists of anti-
globalization movement
Historical part of the city with unique architecture and the
touch of medieval magic suffered in the violent hurricane
which outbroke in the region several days ago. The local
administration is not ready to tackle the problem of restoring
the buildings and return the city its previous image as the local
budget is battered and allocations are limited. You are


50
outraged with the administrations decision to sell the
historic part of the city to MNC which wants to open there a
modern shop in a hi-tech style, which would ruin the whole
atmosphere of the place. You undertake an attempt to collect
money from the citizens but it is still not enough. You offer
voluntary help in repair works but unfortunately it is
insufficient. You try hard to prevent MNC from spoiling the
enchanting surroundings and organize protest marches, spread
inciting leaflets clarifying the real incentives of MNC aid. The
local authorities have invited you to negotiations with the
representatives of multi-national corporation to come to a
certain agreement.





.

Introductory situation for the multi-national
corporation managers
Historical part of the city with unique architecture and the
touch of medieval magic suffered in the violent hurricane
which outbroke in the region several days ago. The local
administration is not ready to tackle the problem of restoring
the buildings and return the city its previous image as the local
budget is battered and allocations are limited. You have
always been attracted to open an outlet in this part of the city
as it promises to be highly profitable because throngs of
people always wander around and the place seems to be
alluring to tourists. You are ready to act as sponsors and offer
the local authorities to restore the buildings but claim to have
advantages in setting up your modern shop in a hi-tech style,
which is your visiting card. However, anti-globalist protestors
throw a spanner in the works arguing that such shop would not
correspond to the bewitching atmosphere of this part of the
city and spoil the enchanting surroundings. They organize
protest marches and spread inciting leaflets. The local
authorities have invited you to negotiations with the
representatives of anti-globalization movement to come to a
certain agreement


51
Appendix 1
Tapescripts
Unit 1
Globalization is viewed as a centuries-long process, tracking the expansion
of human population and the growth of civilization that has accelerated
dramatically in the past 70 years.
Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire, the
Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty, when the silk road started in China,
reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued towards Rome.
The first great expansion of European capitalism took place in the 16th
century, following the first circumnavigation of the earth in 1519 to 1521.
The late nineteenth century is characterised by the rapid growth of
international trade between the European imperial powers, the European colonies,
and the United States and is called the first era of globalization. This was brought
to a halt by the First World War and the bout of anti-free trade protectionism that
led to the Great Depression in 1930.
The end of the Second World War brought another great expansion of
capitalism with the development of multinational companies interested in
producing and selling in the domestic markets of nations around the world. Air
travel and the development of international communications enhanced the
progress of international business. Besides, the development of the Internet and
major advances in technology have made it possible to organize business on a
global scale with greater facility than ever before. Thus lots of bi- and trilateral
business agreements have been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs
and barriers to trade.
The term "globalization" has often been linked to the growing economic
interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety
of cross-border transactions, free international capital flows and integration of
52
financial markets. Globalization is considered to have been the result of planning
by economists, business interests and politicians who recognized that declining
international economic integration would lead to certain losses. Thus economists
are usually credited with globalizations first use in an economic context.
Nowadays globalization is not confined only to the flows of money. It has
the potential to take many diverse forms and can be defined as the worldwide
integration of cultural, political, religious, and social systems.

Unit 2
The anti-globalization movement developed in the late twentieth century
to combat the globalization of corporate economic activity and all exploitation of
developing nations that could result from such activity. Those in the anti-
globalization movement generally try to promote awareness for human rights
organizations, advocate socialist or social democratic alternatives to capitalist
economics and seek to protect the public interest from what they believe to be the
damaging effects of globalization.
In preference to anti-globalization, participants may use the positive
terms global justice or fair-trade movement, Global Justice and Solidarity
Movement, Movement of Movements or simply The Movement, and use slogans
like globalize justice and globalize liberation.
Anti-globalizationists sometimes consider themselves to be marginalized
by mainstream media and governments because of their strongly anti-business
views. It is a well-known fact that most media across the world is owned by
wealthy individuals or large corporations, who are believed by anti-globalization
activists to have conflicting interests with the rest of society.
Although adherents of the movement often work together, the movement
itself is heterogeneous and includes understandings of the globalization process,
which are diverse and even opposing, alternative visions, strategies and tactics.
53
Some factions of the movement reject globalization as such, but the
overwhelming majority of its participants are aligned with movements of
indigenous people, human rights organizations, green movements, or such non-
capitalist political movements as socialism, anarchism, and communism. Some
activists in the movement have objected not to capitalism or international markets
as such but rather to what they claim to be the non-transparent and undemocratic
mechanisms of capitalism, and the negative consequences of unregulated
globalization. They are especially opposed to globalization abuse called
neoliberalism, and international institutions that are perceived to promote
neoliberalism, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development and the World Trade
Organization and free trade treaties like the North American Free Trade
Agreement, Free Trade Area of the Americas, the Multilateral Agreement on
Investments and the General Agreement on Trade in Services.
It is also worth noting that many nationalist movements, such as the
French National Front, are also against globalization. However, they are not part
of the anti-globalization movement as such, and they are usually rejected by anti-
globalization activists. The overwhelming majority of the anti-globalization
movement tends to adopt left-wing approaches.











54
Appendix 2

Word Lists

Unit 1

accelerate dramatically
adopt a charter
alteration
amount to
anxiety
at the blink of an eye
banditry
be linked to
bi-/trilateral agreement
blurred boundaries
bout
burning problem
celebration of diversity
circumnavigation
collaborate
combat ills
come into force
commodity
conceive of
concept
concomitant changes
concurrently
confine
conflict-laden
contemporary trend
convergence
core feature
credit with
cross-border transaction
crucial point
crusade
decisive
defining feature
degradation
deterritorialization
disparate
domino effect
ecumenism
emerge
endeavor
enhance
entrepreneur
environmental devastation
environmentally-aware
erosion of state
sovereignty
exploitation
extensive influence
facet
far-flung
fast-aging population
fathom
flourish
fluctuate
forerunner
gain in prominence
global capitalism
global governance
global player
global thinking
global village
halt
homogenization
impact
improvement
impunity
in pursuit of
in scope
in shambles
incorporate
increase of inequality
increasing global
connectivity
increasing volume
increment
indispensable forerunner
instantaneously
instantaneousness
insufficient
integration
interconnectedness
interdependence
intermesh with
intolerance
irrespective of
latitudinal
law enforcing system
long-festering grievances
longitudinal location
magnitude
manifest oneself
marvel at
milestone
mode
multidisciplinary
perspective
multifold
multi-pronged
myriad
nation state-based
regulation
neoliberal ideology
neoliberalism
on a global scale
outstrip
pivotal role
predecessor
predicate on
principal driver
productive potential
profound impact
proliferate
proliferation
rapid growth
rapid-fire forms of
technology
realm
reluctance
rigorous conception
schism
shrinking of the world
spatial shifts
staggering
stem from
supplant
suppression of human
rights
supranational
topical issue
55
trace the continuity
track the expansion
trade negotiation rounds
transcend
transfer of assets
transform
transnational corporation
transnationally operating
firm
undermine
underpin a transformation
undertaking
unencumbered by
controversy
valid
vast array of
velocity
vulnerability
wage war
well-grounded criticism
witness





Unit 2


abide by
abolish
accountable to
adherent
advanced communications
adversarial
adverse
advocate
alter
alter-globalization
ambiguous
amplify
anti-capitalist
anti-globalization
movement
anti-social
anti-sweatshop
campaigner
at the expense of
attachment to
average
awareness of
bargaining
be aligned
be committed to
be dedicated to
be marginalized
be swallowed by
globalization
beget
benefit
bolster
boycotting
brain drain
brutal
child labor
civil disobedience
clash
collude
combat
community
compatible
competition
competitive
competitor
complement
complexity
connectivity
conservationism
constituency
consume
corporate citizen
corporate globalization
corporate power
curtail
debt relief
deeply controversial
defending cultural
diversity
deliberation
democratic deficit
demonstration
disillusionment
diverse
diversify
dominance
double-edged sword
economic force
economic growth
economic recession
efficiency
elimination of boundaries
elite
emotive force
equitable
erode
erosion of historical
heritage
erosion of political
borders
exacerbate poverty
exceed
exploit
exploitative labour
practices
facilitate
faction
fair trade
far-sighted
fiscal
fiscal austerity program
foster
foster
framework
free trade
further
global financial
institutions
global justice movement
56
global resistance
movement
globalised competition
globalization of poverty
global-scale
grassroots
gross domestic product
hallmark
harm the environment
heavily criticized
heavily industrialized
nation
hegemony
hold protests
hostility
human-rights abuses
identity
impose
impoverished
in its turn
in the face of
in the long run
incoherent
indigenous culture
indigenous people
indigenous rights
inequality
inevitable
influx of people
inoperative
interact
invade
irreversible
laborer
labour standards
large-scale
launch a campaign
lawlessness
lifestyle prospects
living standards
long-term commitment
low labour standards
mainstream media
milestone
militant rage
mobilize international
agencies
motto
mount judicial challenges
mutual assistance
national sovereignty
non-governmental
organization
nonviolent blockade
nonviolent movement
nurture
participatory democracy
people smuggler
perceive
persevere
picketing
premium
privatized industry
productivity
proliferation of
technological know-how
promote
protection of national
identity
protest ground
protest leaflet
provide for
rally
rallying point
rapid spread
reach an unprecedented
level
reach back to
reduce
reduce poverty
remonstration campaign
repressive regime
restructuring
retail
revenue
revolutionary project
riot
rise of bureaucracy
ruthless competition
savage cruelty
seek national legislation

severe shortage
socially oppressive
activities
speedy communications
spread of capitalism
spread of democracy
sprout
squandering of the States
wealth and resources
stance of isolationism
stem from
strike
subsequently
sustainable development
target multinational
corporations
third world obligation
threat to future prospects
threaten
thriving
thwart
tighten the barrier
touchstone
trace the lineage
trade liberalization
trade unionist
transborder data flow
transnational corporation
transnational monopoly
triumph of democratic
ideals
turning point
umbrella term
unaccountable
undertake
unfair
unify
union representative
union-busting.
unlawfully
uprising
urge
violation of animal rights
vulnerable people
weak labor union
xenophobic fears







57
Appendix 3

Functional Bank
Suggesting
Would you be interested in ?
I thought perhaps you might like to ?
What if ?
Imagine if you had to then you would almost certainly need to
Should you find yourself in a situation where then you would have to
Supposing you then you must
Have you ever toyed with the idea of ?
Would you ever consider ?
Do you think you would ever ?
If I were you
If I were in your shoes, Id
Itd be/Its a good idea to
Hadnt you better
Youd better
I believe we ought to
It might be an idea to
Have you ever though about/considered

Explaining your point of view
The main reason is
A key factor is
Its clearly/mostly down to
Its partly/largely/entirely due to
I think has a lot to do with
I find really predictable/corny (inf.)/uninteresting/tedious/depressing.
I find much more moving/entertaining/enjoyable/powerful/charming/
insightful/amusing/thought-provoking.
For example, if you then you would need to
I firmly believe that is vitally important because
In my opinion, is of lesser importance to because

Agreeing and giving reasons
Thats very true, because
Right, especially if
Positively, because
Youre absolutely right. For example, when
Thats true. Maybe we should
Sounds perfect.

Partially agreeing
In a way youre right, but I think it all depends on
Im not sure I totally agree, because
58
I see what you mean, but on the other hand
Theres a lot in what youre saying. However
I see what youre getting at, but
Well, you have a point but
Thats easier said than done.
That sounds like a good idea, but
Thats all very well, but

Disagreeing
Im not sure that would work.
No, Im afraid that wouldnt be appropriate.
I dont think Id fancy (sth, doing sth) .
However, might sound like a good idea.
You cant be serious!
The flip side of the problem is that .

Expressing your points of view
Im inclined to believe
I firmly believe
Its my firm belief that ... Theres no way I would ever
Some are alright, but generally I prefer .
I dont mind but I much prefer
I cant stand .
has been more far-reaching (in its effects) than
As far as (usefulness) is concerned,
Theres not much to choose between and as far as is concerned.
To tell you the truth, Id prefer
On balance, Id rather think of
Given the choice, Id sooner than
doesnt really hold my interest. Id much rather
Im afraid isnt my cup of tea (inf.). I prefer
It is a curious paradox that .
Theres no doubt that
Its undoubtful that .
It might be advisable (not) to
Ive never thought of that.

Asking someone to justify their point of view
What makes you say that?
Are you certain about it?
Whats your feeling (about)?
Whats your reaction (to)?
What are your thoughts?
Why do you think that?
Do you really think so?
Have you taken into account?
I was wondering if youd thought of?
Wouldnt it be a good idea to?
Has it occurred to you that?
59
Could you be a little more precise
Im sorry but could you explain it in a little more detail
Would you care to elaborate on that?

Interrupting
If I could just say something
Could I just cut in here.
Excuse me but
Im sorry to interrupt, but
May I interrupt you for a moment?
I dont want to interrupt but
If I may interrupt you for a moment, Id like to
Making final decision
There is no doubt that is the most .
Its hard to choose, but I believe is probably the most .
In terms of , might be the most , as
Surely is the most because
They are all in different ways, but if we have to choose, Id say
is obviously the most
This is definitely the best we can (do).

Discussing the cause of a problem
Its clearly/mostly down to
It is not so much a result of but rather of
Its partly/largely/entirely due to
I believe plays a great/small part as well.
I think has a lot to do with it.
In my view, is/are responsible for
A key factor is
The main reason is
I feel that is/are to blame.
The obvious culprit in this case is
I feel that is/are to blame.
can be a stepping-stone to .

Discussing the result of a problem
This (often/invariably/directly) leads to/ causes/brings about
As a result,/consequence,
Inevitably,

Suggesting solutions
We/the government must/should
One way forward would be to
I feel there is something to be said for
A lot can be achieved by
If we/the government (dont) then
would (greatly) alleviate the situation.
60
The only way to deal with that would be
Without wouldnt be able to cope in a situation where
A lot can be achieved by
Perhaps it would be better if

Taking the floor
If no one objects, Id like to say a few words.
Could I come in at this moment?
I have a point to make here.
Excuse me, Mr. Chairman, may I say something please?
With the Chairs permission, Id like to take up the point about

Preventing an interruption
With your permission, Id rather finish what I was saying.
With respect, Id like to finish the point I was making
If you would allow me to continue
If you would be so kind as to let me finish

Commenting and challenging
I dont think you fully appreciate the fact that
I wonder if that view is justified in the light of
It would be in your own interest to
May I just draw your attention to the fact that
Excuse me, but I think its relevant to add that
Before you go any further, may I point out
I wonder if I could comment on that last point?
I wonder if this view is justified in the light of
I dont think you fully appreciate the fact that
It would be in your own interest to
I would be inclined to if I were you.

Expressing your views emphatically
I particularly want to emphasize the fact that
It is essential to realize that
This issue is highly significant.
I feel this is a vital issue.
I consider the point of the utmost importance.

Coming back to a point
As I was saying
Coming back to what I was saying
Perhaps I could resume
If I may just go back to the point I was making

Offering a compromise
We are prepared to on condition that
I think we could provided that
We are ready to on the understanding that
We are more than willing to as long as
61
Accepting a compromise
I think that would be perfectly acceptable.
We see no objection to that.
That seems to be a reasonable compromise.
To meet you halfway on this, I think we could agree to your condition.

Rejecting a compromise
We are not entirely convinced that this is a viable solution to the problem.
You leave us with little alternative but to
In that case, we should very reluctantly have to
You put us in a difficult position.

Playing for time
That is a difficult question to answer.
You have raised an important point there.
Im sure you will appreciate how complicated this matter is.

Saying nothing
Im afraid I dont have enough information at my disposal to answer that.
Im afraid Im not in a position to comment on that yet.
I dont think we have enough time at our disposal to consider all the consequences of this
particular decision.
62
Appendix 4

Hints for Speaking Activity

General Rules of Communication
- avoid general phrases;
- make sure your arguments are hard on the target;
- use your ability to listen;
- be active in communication;
- be brief in your remarks;
- exercise constructive criticism;
- be polite and do not insult your opponents.

How to prove your point of view during the debates
To give grounds of your viewpoint in relation to the theme of debates, you should
answer these questions:
- why do you agree with the theme?
- what arguments can we give to support (oppose) the theme?
- what main problems does the theme contain?
- what examples to prove your opinion can be given?
- what can be said in refuting the opposing point of view?

How to make your statement of position successful
- greeting the audience;
- introducing the team and its representatives;
- putting forward the guideline;
- giving arguments;
- making conclusions;
- expressing gratitude for the attention.
63
Detailed Assessment Criteria of Participants

Speakers of the For-team Speakers of the Against-
team
riterion S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3
Content
Profundity
Completeness
Concreteness
Preciseness
Deliberateness
Rational usage of time
Topicality
Problem competence
Answers to the questions
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Flexibility
Structuredness
Logicality
Intercourse culture
Expressiveness of the speech
Wide range of lexical means
64
Question formulating
Courteous manners of the speakers

List of Assessment of Participants

Topic
of
debate

Data Speakers of the For-team
S1
S2
S3
Speakers of the Against-team
S1
S2
S3
Spea
ker
Task
achievement
Structure
of the
speech
General
culture
Total Spea
ker
Task
achievement
Structure
of the
speech
General
culture
Total
S1 S1
S2 S2
S3

S3
Result

Result

The best speaker: The best speaker:




























THE PHENOMENON OF GLOBALIZATION
Part 1

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