\

c
c
+
c
c
= ,
t t
= (1)
The eddy viscosity
t
is derived from turbulent quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy
k and its dissipation rate . These quantities are themselves determined by solving scalar
transport equations (see below).
A typical shear stress and normal stress are given by


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
=
x
V
y
U
uv
t
k
x
U
u
t
3
2
2
2
c
c
=
From these the other stress components are easily deduced by inspection/cyclic permutation.
Most eddyviscosity models in generalpurpose CFD codes are of the 2equation type; (i.e.
scalartransport equations are solved for 2 turbulent scales). The commonest types are k and
k models, for which specifications are given below.
2.2 k Models
Eddy viscosity:
k
C
t
= (2)
Scalartransport equations (nonconservative form):
n dissipatio production diffusion
advection
change of rate
k
C P C
x x t
P
x
k
x t
k
k
i i
k
i
k
i
+
+
c
c
c
c
=
+
c
c
c
c
=
) ( )
(
D
D
) ( ) (
D
D
2
) (
1
) (
) ( ) (
(3)
The diffusivities of k and are related to the eddyviscosity:
) (
) (
) (
) (
t
k
t k
+ = + =
The rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass) is
j
i
j i
k
x
U
u u P
c
c
) (
(4)
In the standard k model (Launder and Spalding, 1974) the coefficients take the values
C
= 0.09, C
1
= 1.92, C
2
= 1.44,
(k)
= 1.0,
()
= 1.3 (5)
Advanced turbulence modelling 3 David Apsley
Other important variants include RNG k (Yakhot et al., 1992) and lowRe models such as
Launder and Sharma (1974), Lam and Bremhorst (1981), and Lien and Leschziner (1993).
Modifications are employed in lowRe models (see later) to incorporate effects of molecular
viscosity. Specifically, C
, C
1
and C
2
are multiplied by viscositydependent factors f
, f
1
and
f
2
respectively, and an additional source term S
()
may be required in the equation. The
damping factor f
is necessary because
t
y
3
as y 0, but k y
2
and ~ constant, so that
k
2
/ yields the wrong power of y.
Some models (notably Launder and Sharma, 1974) solve for the homogeneous dissipation
rate
~
which vanishes at solid boundaries and is related to by
2 2 / 1
) ( 2 ,
~
k D D V = + = (6)
This reflects the theoretical nearwall behaviour of (i.e.
2
/ 2 y k ~ ) in a form which
avoids using a geometric distance y explicitly.
2.3 k Models
(nominally equal to
k C
k
t
= (7)
Scalartransport equations:
)
( )
(
D
D
) ( ) (
D
D
2 ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( *
+
c
c
c
c
=
+
c
c
c
c
=
k
t i i
k
i
k
i
P
x x t
k P
x
k
x t
k
(8)
Again, the diffusivities of k and are related to the eddyviscosity:
) (
) (
) (
) (
t
k
t k
+ = + =
The original k model was that of Wilcox (1988a) where the coefficients take the values
100
9
*
= ,
9
5
= ,
40
3
= ,
(k)
= 2.0,
()
= 2.0 (9)
but in later versions of the model the coefficients become functions of /
2
k (see Wilcox,
1998).
Menter (1994) devised a shearstresstransport (SST) model. The model blends the k
model (which is allegedly superior in the nearwall region), with the k model (which is
less sensitive to the level of turbulence in the free stream) using walldistancedependent
blending functions. Transport equations are solved for k and , but this is an odd choice
Advanced turbulence modelling 4 David Apsley
because in a free flow with no wall boundaries (e.g. a jet) the model is simply a transformed
k model.
All models of k type suffer from a problematic wall boundary condition ( as y 0)
which is routinely fudged!
2.4 Behaviour of Linear EddyViscosity Models in Simple Shear
In simple shear flow the shear stress is
y
U
uv
t
c
c
=
The three normal stresses are predicted to be equal:
k w v u
3
2
2 2 2
= = =
whereas, in practice, there is considerable anisotropy; e.g. in the
loglaw region:
6 . 0 : 4 . 0 : 0 . 1 : :
2 2 2
~ w v u
Actually, in simple shear flows, this is not a problem, since only the gradient of the shear
stress uv plays a dynamicallysignificant role in the mean momentum balance. However,
it is a warning of more serious problems in complex flows.
u
v
U(y)
y
Advanced turbulence modelling 5 David Apsley
3. NonLinear EddyViscosity Models
3.1 General Form
The stressstrain relationship for linear eddyviscosity models gives for the deviatoric
Reynolds stress (i.e. subtracting the trace):


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
=
i
j
j
i
t ij j i
x
U
x
U
k u u
3
2
Dividing by k and writing /
2
k C
t
= gives


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
=
i
j
j
i
ij
j i
x
U
x
U k
C
k
u u
3
2
(10)
We define the LHS of (10) as the anisotropy tensor a
ij
, the dimensionless and traceless form
of the Reynolds stress:
ij
j i
ij
k
u u
a
3
2
(11)
For the RHS of (10), the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the meanvelocity gradient
are called the mean strain and mean vorticity tensors, respectively:
) (
2
1
, ) (
2
1
i
j
j
i
ij
i
j
j
i
ij
x
U
x
U
x
U
x
U
S
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
(12)
Their dimensionless forms, scaled by the turbulent timescale k/, are written in lower case:
ij ij ij ij
k
S
k
s
(13)
Then equation (10) can be written
ij ij
s C a
2 =
or,
s a
2C = (14)
Hence, for a linear eddyviscosity model the anisotropy tensor is proportional to the
dimensionless mean strain.
The main idea of nonlinear eddyviscosity models is to generalise this to a nonlinear
relationship between the anisotropy tensor and the mean strain and vorticity:
) , ( 2
s NL s a + = C (15)
Additional nonlinear components cannot be completely arbitrary, but must be symmetric and
traceless. For example, a quadratic NLEVM must be of the form
) } { ( ) ( ) } { (
2
2
3
1
2
3 2
2
3
1
2
1
I s s I s s
s a
+ + +
= C
(16)
where {.} denotes a trace and I is the identity matrix; i.e.
ii
M trace ) ( } { M M ,
ij ij
) ( I (17)
We shall see below that an appropriate choice of the coefficients
1
,
2
and
3
allows the
model to reproduce the correct anisotropy in simple shear.
Theory (based on the CayleyHamilton Theorem a matrix satisfies its own characteristic
equation) predicts that the most general possible relationship involves ten independent tensor
Advanced turbulence modelling 6 David Apsley
bases and includes terms up to the 5
th
power in s and :
) , (
10
1
s T a
=
= C (18)
where all T
2
2
s
>
u u u u
u
(19)
Advanced turbulence modelling 7 David Apsley
3.2 Cubic EddyViscosity Models
The preferred level of modelling in MACE is a cubic eddy viscosity model, which can be
written in the form
) ( ) } { } { ( } { } {
) } { ( ) ( ) } { (
2
2 2
4 3
2
2 2 2
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
3 2
2
3
1
2
1
s s I s s s s s s s
I s s I s s
s a
+
+ + +
= f C
(20)
Note the following properties (some of which will be developed further below and in the
Examples).
(i) A cubic stressstrain relationship is the minimum order with at least the same number
of independent coefficients as the anisotropy tensor (i.e. 5). In this case it will be
precisely 5 if we assume
3
= 0 (see (vi) below) and note that the
1
and
2
terms are
tensorially similar to the linear term (see (iv) below).
(ii) The first term on the RHS corresponds to a linear eddyviscosity model.
(iii) The various nonlinear terms evoke sensitivities to specific types of strain:
the quadratic (
1
,
2
,
3
) terms evoke sensitivity to anisotropy;
the cubic
1
and
2
terms evoke sensitivity to curvature;
the cubic
4
term evokes sensitivity to swirl.
(iv) The
1
and
2
terms are tensorially proportional to the linear term; however they (or
rather their difference) provide a sensitivity to curvature, so have been kept distinct.
(v) The
3
and
4
terms vanish in 2d incompressible flow.
(vi) Theory and experiment indicate that pure rotation generates no turbulence. This
implies that
3
should either be zero or tend to 0 in the limit 0 S .
As an example of such a model we cite the Craft et al. (1996) model in which coefficients are
functions of the meanstrain invariants and turbulent Reynolds number:
, ] )
400
( )
90
( exp[ 1
35 . 0 1
)] 36 . 0 exp( 1 [ 3 . 0
2
2 2 / 1
2 / 3
75 . 0
k
R
R R
f
e
C
t
t t
= =
+
=
(21)
where
) , max(
~
, 2 , 2 S
k
S S S
ij ij ij ij
= = = (22)
The coefficients of nonlinear terms are (in the present notation):
3 2 1
) 04 . 1 , 4 . 0 , 4 . 0 ( ) , , ( f C =
3
4 3 2 1
) 80 , 0 , 40 , 40 ( ) , , , ( f C = (23)
Nonlinearity is built into both tensor products and straindependent coefficients notably
C
~
is called the homogeneous dissipation rate, which vanishes at solid boundaries because of
the nearwall behaviour of k and (see later):
2
0
~ y k k ,
2
0
/ 2 ~ 2 ~ y k k
In this model, mean strain and vorticity are also nondimensionalised using
~
rather than .
Advanced turbulence modelling 8 David Apsley
3.3 General Properties of NonLinear EddyViscosity Models
(i) 2d Incompressible Flow
The nonlinear combinations of s and have particularly simple forms in 2d
incompressible flow. In such a flow:



.

\

=



.

\

=
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0 0
0
0
21
12
22 21
12 11
s s
s s
s
Incompressibility (
22 11
s s = ) and the symmetry and antisymmetry properties of s
ij
and
ij
(
12 21
s s = ,
12 21
= ) reduce these to



.

\

=



.

\

=
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0 0
0
0
12
12
11 12
12 11
s s
s s
s
From these we find



.

\




.

\

=



.

\

=



.

\

+ =
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
2
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
2
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
,
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
) (
11 12 12 12
2
12
2 2
12
2
11
2
s s
s s
s s
s
(24)
PROPERTY 1
In 2d incompressible flow:
2
2
2
1
2
2
12
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
12
2
11
2
} {
} { ) (
I I
I s I s
= =
= + = s s
(25)
where, I
2
= diag(1,1,0). In particular, taking tensor products of s
2
or
2
with matrices whose
third row and third column are all zero has the same effect as multiplication by the scalars
} {
2
2
1
s or } {
2
2
1
respectively.
PROPERTY 2
} {
) (
as = =
ij ij
k
s a
P
(26)
Moreover, in 2d incompressible flow the quadratic terms do not contribute to the production
of turbulent kinetic energy.
Proof.
) )( (
3
2
) (
ij ij ij ij
j
i
j i
k
S a k
x
U
u u P + + =
c
c
=
Advanced turbulence modelling 9 David Apsley
Now 0 ) (
3
2
= +
ij ij ij
a since the first factor is symmetric whilst the
ij
is antisymmetric.
Also, incompressibility implies 0 = =
ii ij ij
S S . Hence,
ij ij
k
S ka P =
) (
or
} {
) (
as = =
ij ij
k
s a
P
This is true for any incompressible flow, but, in the 2d case, multiplying (20) by s, taking
the trace and using the results (25) it is found that the contribution of the quadratic terms to
{as} is 0.
PROPERTY 3
In 2d incompressible flow the
3
 and
4
related terms of the nonlinear expansion (20)
vanish.
Proof. Substitute the results (25) for s
2
and
2
into (20).
(ii) Particular Types of Strain
The nonlinear constitutive relationship (20) allows the model to mimic the response of
turbulence to particular important types of strain.
PROPERTY 4
The quadratic terms yield turbulence anisotropy in simple shear:
6
) (
3
2
12
) 6 (
3
2
12
) 6 (
3
2
2
3 1
2
2
3 2 1
2
2
3 2 1
2
=
+ =
+ + =
k
w
k
v
k
u
where
y
U k
c
c
=
(27)
This may be deduced by
substituting the results (24) into
(20), noting that s
11
= 0, whilst
2
1
2
1
12 12
=
c
c
= =
y
U k
s
As an example the figure right
shows application of the Apsley
and Leschziner (1998) model to
computing the Reynolds stresses in
channel flow.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
y
+
uu+
vv+
ww+
uv+
Advanced turbulence modelling 10 David Apsley
PROPERTY 5
The
1
and
2
related cubic terms yield the correct sensitivity to curvature.
In curved shear flow,
c
s s
R
U
x
V
R
U
y
U
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
, , where R
c
is radius of curvature. From (24),
) ( 2 } { } {
2
12
2
12
2 2
+ s s
where


.

\

+
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
=
c
s s
c
s s
R
U
R
U
R
U
R
U
s
2
1
,
2
1
12 12
Hence,
c
s s
R
U
R
U k
c
c
+
2 2 2
)
( 2 } { } { s
Inspection of the production terms in the
stresstransport equations (Section 4)
shows that curvature is stabilising
(reducing turbulence) if U
s
increases in the
direction away from the centre of curvature
(cU
s
/cR > 0) and destabilising (increasing
turbulence) if U
s
decreases in the direction
away from the centre of curvature
(cU
s
/cR < 0). In the constitutive relation
(20) the response is correct if
1
and
2
are
both positive.
PROPERTY 6
In 3d flows, the
4
related term evokes the correct sensitivity to
swirl.
'stable' curvature
(reducing turbulence)
'unstable' curvature
(increasing turbulence)
U
W
Advanced turbulence modelling 11 David Apsley
4. Differential Stress Modelling
Differential stress models (aka Reynoldsstress transport models or secondorder closure)
solve separate scalartransport equations for each stress component. By writing a momentum
equation for the fluctuating u
i
component, multiplying by u
j
, adding a corresponding term
with i and j reversed and then adding we obtain (for a full derivation see the Appendix):
k
j
k
i
i
j
j
i
i j j i
k
i
k j
k
j
k i
k j i ik j jk i j i
k k
j i
k
k j i
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u p
f u f u
x
U
u u
x
U
u u
u u u u u p u u
x x
u u
x
U u u
t
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+ + +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2 ) (
) ( ) (
] ) (
1
) ( [ ) ( ) (
or, multiplying by :
) (
D
) ( D
ij ij ij ij
k
ijk j i
F P
x
d
t
u u
+ + +
c
c
=
(28)
Term Name and role Exact or Model
t
u u
j i
D
) ( D
RATE OF CHANGE
(time derivative + advection)
Transport with the mean flow.
EXACT
) ( ) (
j i k
k
j i
u u U
x
u u
t c
c
+
c
c
ij
P
PRODUCTION (mean strain)
Generation by meanvelocity
gradients.
EXACT
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P
c
c
c
c
F
ij
PRODUCTION (body forces)
Generation by body forces.
EXACT (usually)
i j j i ij
f u f u F +
ijk
d
DIFFUSION
Spatial redistribution.
MODEL
) ( )
(
j i
l
l k
s kl ijk
u u
x
u u k
C d
c
c
+ =
ij
u
PRESSURESTRAIN
Redistribution between
components.
MODEL
) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
w
ij ij ij ij
+ + =
) (
3
2
1
) 1 (
ij j i ij
k u u
k
C =
) (
3
1
2
) 2 (
ij kk ij ij
P P C =
n
ij
w
j i
w
ij
k i jk k j ik ij l k kl
w
ij
y
k C
f C u u
k
C
f n n n n n n
/
,
~
)
~
~
~
(
2 / 3 4 / 3
) 2 ( ) (
2
) (
1
2
3
2
3
) (
= + =
=
ij
c
DISSIPATION
Removal by viscosity
MODEL
ij ij
3
2
=
Advanced turbulence modelling 12 David Apsley
Typical values of the constants are:
3 . 0 , 5 . 0 , 6 . 0 , 8 . 1
) (
2
) (
1 2 1
= = = =
w w
C C C C (29)
The stresstransport equations must be supplemented by a means of specifying typically
by its own transport equation, or a transport equation for a related quantity such as .
The most significant term requiring modelling is the pressurestrain correlation. This term is
traceless (the sum of the diagonal terms 0
33 22 11
= + + ) and its accepted role is to
promote isotropy hence models for
) 1 (
ij
and
) 2 (
ij
. Near walls this isotropising tendency
must be overridden, necessitating a wallcorrection term
) (
w
ij
.
General Assessment of DSMs
For:
 Include more turbulence physics than eddyviscosity models.
 Advection and production terms (the energyin terms) are exact and do not need
modelling.
Against:
 Models are very complex and many important terms (particularly the redistribution
and dissipation terms) require modelling.
 Models are very expensive computationally (6 stresstransport equations in 3
dimensions) and tend to be numerically unstable (only the small molecular viscosity
contributes to any sort of gradient diffusion term).
DSMs of Interest
The nearest thing to a standard model is a highRe closure based on that of Launder et al.
(1975), with wallreflection terms from Gibson and Launder (1978).
Other models of interest include:
 Speziale et al. (1991) nonlinear
ij
formulation, eliminating wallcorrection terms;
 Craft (1998) lowRe DSM, attempting to eliminate walldependent parameters;
 Jakirli and Hanjali (1995) lowRe DSM admitting anisotropic dissipation;
 Wilcox (1988b) lowRe DSM, with rather than as additional turbulent scalar.
Advanced turbulence modelling 13 David Apsley
5. Implementation of Turbulence Models in CFD
5.1 Transport Equations
The implementation of a turbulence model in CFD requires:
(1) a means of specifying the turbulent stresses by either:
a constitutive relation (eddyviscosity models), or
individual transport equations (differential stress models);
(2) the solution of additional scalartransport equations.
Special Considerations for the Mean Flow Equations
 Only part of the stress is diffusive.
j i
u u represents a turbulent flux of U
i
momentum
in the x
j
direction. For linear or nonlinear eddyviscosity models only a part of this
can be treated implicitly as a diffusionlike term; e.g. for the U equation through a
face normal to the y direction:
source to d transferre
part
diffusive
t
terms linear non
x
V
y
U
uv ) ( ) ( +
c
c
+
c
c
=
The remainder of the flux is treated as part of the source term for that control volume.
Nevertheless, it is still treated in a conservative fashion; i.e. the mean momentum lost
by one cell is equal to that gained by the adjacent cell.
 The lack of a turbulent viscosity in differential stress models leads to numerical
instability. This can be addressed by the use of effective viscosities see below.
Special Considerations for the Turbulence Equations
 They are usually sourcedominated; i.e. the most significant terms are production,
redistribution and dissipation (this is sometimes invoked as an excuse to use a low
order advection scheme).
 Variables such as k and must be nonnegative. This demands:
care in discretising the source term (see below);
use of an unconditionallybounded advection scheme.
SourceTerm Linearisation For NonNegative Quantities
The general discretised scalartransport equation for a control volume centred on node P is
P P P
F
F F P P
s b a a  + =  
For stability one requires
0 s
P
s
To ensure nonnegative  one requires, in addition,
Advanced turbulence modelling 14 David Apsley
0 >
P
b
You should, by inspection of the k and transport equations (3), be able to identify how the
source term is linearised in this way.
If b
P
< 0 for a quantity such as k or which is always nonnegative (e.g. due to transfer of
nonlinear parts of the advection term or nondiffusive fluxes to the source term) then, to
ensure that the variable doesnt become negative, the source term should be rearranged as
0
*

+
P
P
P
P P
b
b
s s
(30)
where * denotes the current value of a variable.
5.2 Wall Boundary Conditions
At walls the noslip boundary condition applies, so that both mean and fluctuating velocities
vanish. At high Reynolds numbers this presents three problems:
 there are very large flow gradients;
 wallnormal fluctuations are suppressed (i.e., selectively damped);
 viscous and turbulent stresses are of comparable magnitude.
There are two main ways of handling this in turbulent flow:
 lowReynoldsnumber turbulence models
resolve the flow right up to the wall with a very fine grid and viscous
modifications to the turbulence equations;
 wall functions
use a coarser grid and assume theoretical profiles in the unresolved nearwall
region.
5.2.1 LowReynoldsNumber Turbulence Models
 Aim to resolve the flow right up to the boundary.
 Have to include effects of molecular viscosity in the coefficients of the eddyviscosity
formula and (or ) transport equations.
 Try to ensure the theoretical nearwall behaviour (see the Examples):
) 0 ( , constant ~
2
~ ,
3
2
2
y y
y
k
y k
t
(31)
 Full resolution of the flow requires the nearwall node to satisfy y
+
s 1, where
y u
y
+
, /
w
u = (32)
This can be very computationally demanding, particularly for highspeed flows.
Advanced turbulence modelling 15 David Apsley
5.2.2 HighReynoldsNumber Turbulence Models
 Bridge the nearwall region with wall
functions; i.e., assume profiles (based
on boundarylayer theory) between
nearwall node and boundary.
 OK if the equilibrium assumption is
reasonable (e.g. slowlydeveloping
boundary layers), but dodgy in highly
nonequilibrium regions (particularly
near impingement, separation or
reattachment points).
 The nearwall node should ideally (if seldom in practice) be placed in the loglaw
region (30 < y
+
< 150). This means that numerical meshes cannot be arbitrarily
refined close to solid boundaries.
In the finitevolume method, various quantities are required from the wallfunction approach.
Values may be fixed on the wall (w) itself or by forcing a value at the nearwall node (P).
Variable Wall boundary condition Required from wall function
Mean velocity (U,V,W) (relative) velocity =0 at the wall Wall shear stress
k,
j i
u u 0 = = k u u
j i
at the wall; zero flux
Cellaveraged production and
dissipation
P
fixed at nearwall node Value at the nearwall node
The means of deriving these quantities are set out below.
MeanVelocity Equation: Wall Shear Stress
Method 1
The friction velocity u
u
w
=
If the nearwall node lies in the logarithmic region then
, ) ln(
u y
y Ey
u
U
P
P P
P
= =
+ +
(33)
where subscript P denotes the nearwall node. Given the value of U
P
this could be solved
(iteratively) for u
ln(
/
0
0
P
P
w
y u
E
U u
= (34)
(If the turbulence were genuinely in equilibrium, then u
0
would equal u
y) limits:
)} ( , 0 max{
0
y y u
eff
+ = (35)
where y
is a matching height. Similar integration to that above (see the examples) leads to a
complete meanvelocity profile satisfying both linear viscous sublayer and loglaw limits:
> + +
s
=
+ + + + +
+ + +
2
0 0
)}, ( 1 ln{
1
,
y y y y y
y y y
u u
U
w
,
0
yu
y
+
(36)
where we note that y
+
is based on u
0
rather than the unknown u
=
+
y .
As far as the computational implementation is concerned the required output for a finite
volume calculation is the wall shear stress in terms of the mean velocity at the nearwall
node, y
p
, not vice versa. To this end, (36) is conveniently rearranged in terms of an effective
wall viscosity
eff,wall
such that
p
p
wall eff w
y
U
,
= (37)
where
>
+ +
s
=
+ +
+ + +
+
+ +
,
,
)} ( 1 ln{
1
, 1
y y
y y y
y
y y
P
P
P
P
wall eff
(38)
(The reason for using the form (37) is that the code will see the mean velocity gradient as
U
p
/y
p
.)
Advanced turbulence modelling 17 David Apsley
k Equation: CellAveraged Production and Dissipation
Because, in a finitevolume calculation, it represents the total production and dissipation for
the near wall cell the source term of the k transport equation requires cellaveraged values of
production P
(k)
and dissipation rate . These are derived by integrating assumed profiles for
these quantities:
>
c
c
s
=
c
c
) (
) (
0
y y
y
U
y y
y
U
uv P
t
k
where
t
=
eff
(39)
>
s
=
) (
) (
) (
3
0
y y
y y
u
y y
d
w
(40)
For smooth walls, the matching height y
and offset y
d
are given in wall units by (see Apsley,
2007):
4 . 27
=
+
y , 9 . 4 =
+
d
y
Integration over a cell (see the examples) leads to cell averages
)
`
+
+ =
(
]
(
+ +
+ +
+ +
) ( 1
) (
)] ( 1 ln[
) / (
d
0
2
0
) ( ) (
y
y
y
u
y P P
w k k
av
(41)
(
=
(
]
(
d d
d
av
y y
y
y y
y u
y
3
0
0
)
ln(
d
1
(42)
Equation: Boundary Condition on
P
is fixed from its assumed profile (equation (40)) at the nearwall node. A particular value
at a cell centre can be forced in a finitevolume calculation by modifying the source
coefficients:
P P P
b s ,
where is a large number (e.g. 10
30
). The matrix equations for that cell then become
P F F P P
a a ) ( =   +
or
P
P P
F F
P
a a
a
+
+
+

= 
Since is a large number this effectively forces 
P
to take the value
P
.
ReynoldsStress Equations
For the Reynolds stresses, one method is to fix the values at the nearwall node from the near
wall value of k and the structure functions k u u
j i
/ , the latter being derived from the
differential stresstransport equations on the assumption of local equilibrium. For the standard
model this gives (see the examples):
Advanced turbulence modelling 18 David Apsley
k
v
C C
C C C
k
uv
k
v
C
C
C
C C C C
k
w
k
v
C
C
C
C C C C
k
u
C C
C C C C
k
v
w
w
w w
w w
w
w
2
) (
1 2
3
1
2
) (
2 2
3
2
2
1
) (
1
1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
2
1
) (
1
1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
) (
1 1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
1
1
3
2
2 2
3
2
2
2 1
3
2


.

\

+
+
=
+


.

\
 + + +
=
+


.

\
 + +
=


.

\

+
+ +
=
(43)
With the values for C
1
, C
2
, etc. from the standard model this gives
255 . 0 , 654 . 0 , 248 . 0 , 098 . 1
2 2 2
=
= = =
k
uv
k
w
k
v
k
u
(44)
When the nearwall flow and wallnormal direction are not conveniently aligned in the x and
y directions respectively, the actual structure functions can be obtained by rotation. However,
for 3dimensional and separating/reattaching flow the floworiented coordinate system is not
fixed a priori and can swing round significantly between iterations if the mean velocity is
small, making convergence difficult to obtain. A second and now my preferred approach
(Apsley, 2007) is to use cellaveraged production and dissipation in the Reynoldsstress
equation in the same manner as the kequation.
5.3 Effective Viscosity for Differential Stress Models
DSMs contain no turbulent viscosity and have a reputation for numerical instability.
An artificial means of promoting stability is to add and subtract a gradientdiffusion term to
the turbulent flux:
) (
x
U
x
U
u u u u
c
c
c
c
+ = (45)
with the first part averaged between nodal values and the last part discretised across a cell
face and treated implicitly. (This is analogous to the RhieChow algorithm for pressure
velocity coupling in the momentum equations).
The simplest choice for the effective viscosity
is just
2
k
C
t
= = (46)
A better choice is to make use of a natural linkage between individual stresses and the
corresponding meanvelocity gradient which arise from the actual stresstransport equations.
Assuming that the stresstransport equations (with no body forces) are sourcedominated then
0 ~ +
ij ij ij
P
or, with the basic DSM (without wallreflection terms),
Advanced turbulence modelling 19 David Apsley
0 ) ( ) (
3
2
3
1
2 3
2
1
~
ij ij kk ij ij
j i
ij
P P C
k
u u
C P
Expand this, identifying the terms which contain only
u u or
x
U
c
c
as follows.
For the normal stresses
2
u :
0 ) (
3
2
2
2
1
= + P C u
k
C P
Hence,
) 2 (
) 1 (
) 1 (
1
2 3
2
1
2 3
2
2
+
c
c
= +
=
x
U
u
k
C
C
P
k
C
C
u
Similarly for the shear stresses
u u :
0
2 1
= + P C u u
k
C P
whence
) (
) 1 (
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
+
c
c
= +
=
x
U
u
k
C
C
P
k
C
C
u u
Hence, from the stresstransport equations,
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
=
x
U
u u
x
U
u
(47)
where the effective viscosities (both for the U
o
component of momentum) are:
1
,
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 3
2
u k
C
C u k
C
C


.

\

=


.

\

= (48)
Note that the effective viscosities are anisotropic, being linked to particular normal stresses.
A more detailed analysis can accommodate wallreflection terms in the pressurestrain model,
but the extra complexity is not justified.
Advanced turbulence modelling 20 David Apsley
References
Apsley, D.D., 2007, CFD calculation of turbulent flow with arbitrary wall roughness, Flow,
Turbulence and Combustion, 78, 153175.
Apsley, D.D. and Leschziner, M.A., 1998, A new lowReynoldsnumber nonlinear two
equation turbulence model for complex flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 19, 209222
Craft, T.J., 1998, Developments in a lowReynoldsnumber secondmoment closure and its
application to separating and reattaching flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 19, 541548.
Craft, T.J., Launder, B.E. and Suga, K., 1996, Development and application of a cubic eddy
viscosity model of turbulence, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 17, 108115.
Gatski, T.B. and Speziale, C.G., 1993, On explicit algebraic stress models for complex
turbulent flows, J. Fluid Mech., 254, 5978.
Gibson, M.M. and Launder, B.E., 1978, Ground effects on pressure fluctuations in the
atmospheric boundary layer, J. Fluid Mech., 86, 491511.
Hanjali, K., 1994, Advanced turbulence closure models: a view of current status and future
prospects, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 15, 178203.
Jakirli, S. and Hanjali, K., 1995, A secondmoment closure for nonequilibrium and
separating high and lowRenumber flows, Proc. 10th Symp. Turbulent Shear Flows,
Pennsylvania State University.
Lam, C.K.G. and Bremhorst, K.A., 1981, Modified form of the ke model for predicting wall
turbulence, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 103, 456460.
Launder, B.E., 1989, SecondMoment Closure and its use in modelling turbulent industrial
flows, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 9, 963985.
Launder, B.E., Reece, G.J. and Rodi, W., 1975, Progress in the development of a Reynolds
stress turbulence closure, J. Fluid Mech., 68, 537566.
Launder, B.E. and Sharma, B.I., 1974, Application of the energydissipation model of
turbulence to the calculation of flow near a spinning disc, Letters in Heat and Mass
Transfer, 1, 131138.
Launder, B.E. and Spalding, D.B., 1974, The numerical computation of turbulent flows,
Computer Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 3, 269289.
Lien, FS. and Leschziner, M.A., 1993, Secondmoment modelling of recirculating flow with
a nonorthogonal collocated finitevolume algorithm, in Turbulent Shear Flows 8
(Munich, 1991), SpringerVerlag.
Menter, F.R., 1994, Twoequation eddyviscosity turbulence models for engineering
applications, AIAA J., 32, 15981605.
Rubinstein, R. and Barton, J.M., 1990, Nonlinear Reynolds stress models and the
renormalisation group, Phys. Fluids A, 2, 14721476.
Speziale, C.G., 1987, On nonlinear Kl and K models of turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 178,
459475.
Speziale, C.G., Sarkar, S. and Gatski, T.B., 1991, Modelling the pressurestrain correlation of
turbulence: an invariant dynamical systems approach, J. Fluid Mech., 227, 245272.
Wilcox, D.C., 1988, Reassessment of the scaledetermining equation for advanced turbulence
models, AIAA J., 26, 12991310.
Wilcox, D.C., 1988, Multiscale model for turbulent flows, AIAA Journal, 26, 13111320.
Wilcox, D.C., 1998, Turbulence modelling for CFD, 2
nd
Edition, DCW Industries.
Yakhot, V., Orszag, S.A., Thangam, S., Gatski, T.B. and Speziale, C.G., 1992, Development
of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique, Phys. Fluids
A, 7, 1510.
Yoshizawa, A., 1987, Statistical analysis of the derivation of the Reynolds stress from its
eddyviscosity representation, Phys. Fluids, 27, 13771387.
Advanced turbulence modelling 21 David Apsley
Appendix: Derivation of the ReynoldsStress Transport Equations
(For Reference and HangoverCure Only!)
Restrict to constantdensity fluids for simplicity. f
i
are the components of problemdependent
body forces (buoyancy, Coriolis forces, ...). Use prime/overbar notation (e.g. u u u ' + = ) and
summation convention throughout.
Continuity
Instantaneous: 0 =
c
c
k
k
x
u
(A1)
Average: 0 =
c
c
k
k
x
u
(A2)
Subtract: 0 =
c
' c
k
k
x
u
(A3)
Result (I): Both mean and fluctuating quantities satisfy the incompressibility equation.
Momentum
Instantaneous:
i
k k
i
i k
i
k
i
f
x x
u
x
p
x
u
u
t
u
+
c c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
1
(A4)
Average:
i
k k
i
i k
i
k
k
i
k
i
f
x x
u
x
p
x
u
u
x
u
u
t
u
+
c c
c
+
c
c
=
c
' c
' +
c
c
+
c
c
2
1
(A5)
Rearrange:
i k i
k
i
k i
i
f u u
x
u
x x
p
t
u
+ ' '
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
= ) (
1
D
D
(A6)
(Note:
k
u' can be taken through the c/cx
k
derivative whenever required, due to the
incompressibility condition)
Result (II): Mean flow equation is the same as the instantaneous equation except for
additional apparent stresses
j i
u u ' ' .
Subtract:
i
k k
i
i k
i
k
k
i
k
k
i
k
k
i
k
i
f
x x
u
x
p
x
u
u
x
u
u
x
u
u
x
u
u
t
u
' +
c c
' c
+
c
' c
=
c
' c
'
c
' c
' +
c
c
' +
c
' c
+
c
' c
2
1
(A7)
i
Similarly j:
j
k k
j
j k
j
k
k
j
k
k
j
k
k
j
k
j
f
x x
u
x
p
x
u
u
x
u
u
x
u
u
x
u
u
t
u
' +
c c
' c
+
c
' c
=
c
' c
'
c
' c
' +
c
c
' +
c
' c
+
c
' c
2
1
(A7)
j
Form
i j j i
u u ) 7 A ( ) 7 A ( ' + ' :
Advanced turbulence modelling 22 David Apsley
) ( ) ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
i j j i
k k
i
j
k k
j
i
i
j
j
i
k j i
k k
i
k j
k
j
k i j i
k
k j i
f u f u
x x
u
u
x x
u
u
x
p
u
x
p
u
u u u
x x
u
u u
x
u
u u u u
x
u u u
t
' ' + ' ' +
c c
' c
' +
c c
' c
' +
c
' c
' +
c
' c
' =
' ' '
c
c
+
c
c
' ' +
c
c
' ' + ' '
c
c
+ ' '
c
c
Rewrite the pressure terms and rearrange:
k
j
k
i
i
j
j
i
i j j i
k
i
k j
k
j
k i
k j i ik j jk i j i
k k
j i
k
k j i
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u p
f u f u
x
u
u u
x
u
u u
u u u u u p u u
x x
u u
x
u u u
t
c
' c
c
' c
c
' c
+
c
' c '
+ ' ' + ' ' +
c
c
' ' +
c
c
' '
' ' ' ' + ' ' ' '
c
c
c
c
= ' '
c
c
+ ' '
c
c
2 ) (
) ( ) (
] ) (
1
) ( [ ) ( ) (
Result (III): Reynoldsstress transport equation:
ij ij ij ij
k
ijk
j i
F P
x
d
u u
t
) (
D
D
+ + +
c
c
= ' ' (A8)
where:
) ( ) ( ) (
D
D
j i
k
k j i j i
u u
x
u u u
t
u u
t
' '
c
c
+ ' '
c
c
= ' ' advection (by mean flow)
) (
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
u
u u
x
u
u u P
c
c
' ' +
c
c
' ' = production (by mean strain)
i j j i ij
f u f u F ' ' + ' ' = production (by body forces)
) (
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u p
c
' c
+
c
' c '
= pressurestrain correlation
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u
c
' c
c
' c
= 2 dissipation
k j i ik j jk i
k
j i
ijk
u u u u u p
x
u u
d ' ' ' ' + ' '
c
' ' c
= ) (
1
) (
diffusion
Contract (A8), then divide by 2. Change summation subscript k to i to minimise confusion.
Result (IV): turbulent kinetic energy equation:
D
D
) ( ) (
) (
+ +
c
c
=
k k
i
k
i
F P
x
d
t
k
(A9)
where:
j
i
j i
k
x
u
u u P
c
c
' ' =
) (
production (by mean strain)
i i
k
f u F ' ' =
) (
production (by body forces)
2
) (
j
i
x
u
c
' c
= dissipation
i j j i
i
k
i
u u u u p
x
k
d ' ' ' ' '
c
c
=
2
1
) (
1
diffusion
Advanced turbulence modelling 23 David Apsley
Examples
RANS Models  General
Q1.
(a) What is meant by a Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes solver?
(b) Describe the main principles of:
(i) eddyviscosity models;
(ii) nonlinear eddyviscosity models;
(iii) differential stress models;
(iv) largeeddy simulation.
Q2.
Write down the dimensions of ,
t
, k, and in terms of the fundamental physical
dimensions M (mass), L (length) and T (time). Hence, show that any expression for
t
in
terms of , k and must be of the form
2
k
constant
t
=
whilst any expression for
t
in terms of , k and must be of the form
k
constant
t
=
Summation Convention
Q3.
i
i
x
U
c
c
is shorthand for
3
3
2
2
1
1
x
U
x
U
x
U
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
or
z
W
y
V
x
U
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
. Expand the following.
(a)
t
U
i
D
D
(
k
i
k
i
x
U
U
t
U
c
c
+
c
c
= ) when i = 1 and when i = 2.
(b)
j
i
j i
k
x
U
u u P
c
c
=
) (
(c) ) (
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P
c
c
+
c
c
= when i = 1, j = 1 and when i = 1, j = 2.
(d) For a general matrix M, what quantities are represented by M
ii
, M
ij
M
ji
and M
ij
M
jk
M
ki
?
Q4.
What do the following quantities reduce to in a simple shear flow (in which cU/cy is the only
nonzero velocity component)?
(a) P
(k)
(use the definition in Question 3(b))
(b) P
ij
(for each combination of i and j; use the definition in Question 3(c))
(c)
2 / 1
) 2 (
ij ij
S S S =
(d)
2 / 1
) 2 (
ij ij
=
Advanced turbulence modelling 24 David Apsley
Production of Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Q5.
The rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass) is given by
j
i
j i
k
x
U
u u P
c
c
=
) (
Show that, in an incompressible flow:
(a) only the symmetric part S
ij
of the mean velocity gradient affects production;
(b) only the anisotropic part of the turbulent stress tensor
ij j i ij
k u u ka
3
2
= affects
production;
(c) with the eddyviscosity hypothesis, P
(k)
is greater than or equal to zero.
Linear EddyViscosity Models
Q6.
Twoequation turbulence models require the solution of two scalartransport equations,
typically for the turbulent kinetic energy k and a second dimensionallyindependent variable
 = k
m
n
, where is the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and m and n are
constants. These transport equations take the form:
) (
D
D
) ( ) (
+ V  V =
k k
P k
t
k
) (
2
) (
1
) (
) ( ) (
D
D

 

+

+  V  V =

S
k
C P C
t
k
where P
(k)
is the rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy.
(a) If the kinematic eddy viscosity
t
is given by
k
C
t
=
find an equivalent expression for
t
in terms of k and .
(b) Show that the transport equation for  can be transformed into a transport equation for
in the form
) (
2
) (
1
) (
) ( ) (
D
D
S
k
C P C
t
k
+ + V  V =
where
 
)
(
(
V

V
+

.

\
 V
+

.

\
 V
+ V  V +

=
 

) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
k
k
mn n n
k
k
m m k
k
m S
n
S
k
and find expressions for
()
, C
1
and C
2
.
(A personal view: if the transport equation for any second variable can always be
transformed into a transport equation for or vice versa then it seems that there is no
fundamental reason for preferring one particular pair of turbulence variables over any other.
Rather, there are pragmatic reasons for the choice, such as the ease of setting boundary
conditions or the relationship to measurable physical quantities.)
Advanced turbulence modelling 25 David Apsley
NonLinear EddyViscosity Models
Q7.
A quadratic stressstrain relationship can be written in the form
) } { ( ) ( ) } { (
2
2
3
1
2
3 2
2
3
1
2
1
I s s I s s
s a
+ + +
= C
where the anisotropy a, nondimensional meanstrain s and vorticity are defined by
ij
j i
ij
k
u u
a
3
2
,
ij ij ij ij
i
j
j
i
ij
i
j
j
i
ij
k
S
k
s
x
U
x
U
x
U
x
U
S
, ) (
2
1
, ) (
2
1
= =
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
Prove that with this model the nonzero stresses in a simple shear flow are given by
6
) (
3
2
12
) 6 (
3
2
12
) 6 (
3
2
2
3 1
2
2
3 2 1
2
2
3 2 1
2
=
+ =
+ + =
=
k
w
k
v
k
u
C
k
uv
where
y
U k
c
c
=
.
Q8.
Find similar results to those of Q7 for the cases of:
(a) plane strain ( 0 , =
c
c
=
c
c
W
x
U
y
V
)
(b) axisymmetric strain (
x
U
z
W
y
V
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
2
1
)
In each case, use
x
U k
c
c
=
.
Advanced turbulence modelling 26 David Apsley
Differerential Stress Models
Q9.
A basic differential stress model (DSM) for turbulence closure in wallbounded
incompressible fluid flow is given (in standard suffix notation) by
ij ij ij
k
ijk
j i
P
x
d
u u
t
) (
D
D
+ +
c
c
=
where
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P
c
c
c
c
) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
w
ij ij ij ij
+ + =
) (
3
2
1
) 1 (
ij
j i
ij
k
u u
C o c = u , ) (
3
1
2
) 2 (
ij kk ij ij
P P C o = u
n
ij
w
j i
w
ij
k i jk k j ik ij l k kl
w
ij
y
k C
f C
k
u u
C
f n n n n n n
/
,
~
, )
~
~
~
(
2 / 3 4 / 3
) 2 ( ) (
2
) (
1
2
3
2
3
) (
= + =
=
ij ij
co = c
3
2
d
ijk
is a diffusive flux, n
i
are the components of a unit wallnormal vector and y
n
is the
distance to the nearest wall. k is the turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass) and c is its
dissipation rate. C
1
, C
2
, C
1
(w)
and C
2
(w)
are model constants.
(a) What are the accepted physical roles of the terms denoted P
ij
, u
ij
and c
ij
?
(b) What is the purpose of the wall correction
) (
w
ij
and what is the value of f in an
equilibrium wall boundary layer?
(c) Write down expressions for all components of P
ij
, u
ij
and c
ij
in simple shear flow
(where cU
1
/cx
2
cU/cy is the only nonzero meanvelocity derivative). Assume that
n = (0,1,0).
(d) Show that, in an equilibrium turbulent flow (where 0 = c u +
ij ij ij
P ),
k
v
C C
C C C
k
uv
k
v
C
C
C
C C C C
k
w
k
v
C
C
C
C C C C
k
u
C C
C C C C
k
v
w
w
w w
w w
w
w
2
) (
1 2
3
1
2
) (
2 2
3
2
2
1
) (
1
1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
2
1
) (
1
1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
) (
1 1
2
) (
2 2 1
2
1
1
3
2
2 2
3
2
2
2 1
3
2


.

\

+
+
=
+


.

\
 + + +
=
+


.

\
 + +
=


.

\

+
+ +
=
Advanced turbulence modelling 27 David Apsley
Q10.
(a) In the transport equation for
j i
u u the production term is given in suffix notation by
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P
c
c
c
c
Write this out in full for P
11
, P
22
and P
12
.
(b) In a simple shear flow, cU/cy is the only nonzero meanvelocity gradient and the
production term simplifies dramatically. Write expressions for all P
ij
in this case.
(c) Give two reasons why the streamwise velocity variance
2
u tends to be larger than the
wallnormal component
2
v in flow along a plane wall y = 0.
Q11.
The NavierStokes equations for the instantaneous velocity in a constantdensity fluid may be
written
0 =  V u , u
u
2
1
D
D
V + V = p
t
.
Use these to derive the equation for turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass), k, in the form
D
D
) (
) (
+
c
c
=
k
j
k
j
P
x
d
t
k
,
where V  +
c
c
u
t t D
D
is the material derivative based on mean velocity. State carefully the
form of terms
) (k
j
d , P
(k)
and , and give their physical interpretation.
NearWall Behaviour
Q12.
By expanding the fluctuating velocities in the form
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
2
3 3 3
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
y c y b a w
y c y b a v
y c y b a u
show that + =
2 2
1
2
y b u and derive similar expressions for
2
v ,
2
w , uv , k and
t
.
Q13.
Use the turbulent kinetic energy equation and the nearwall behaviour of k from Q12 to show
that the nearwall behaviour of is
) 0 ( ~
2
~
2
y constant
y
k
(Note that this implies that some modification is required in the equation as y 0).
Advanced turbulence modelling 28 David Apsley
Wall Functions
Q14. (Cellaveraged production and dissipation)
An effective viscosity profile is given by
)} ( , 0 max{
0
y y u
eff
+ =
where y
> + +
s
=
+ + + + +
+ + +
2
0 0
)}, ( 1 ln{
1
,
y y y y y
y y y
u u
U
w
)
`
+
+ =
+ +
+ +
+ +
) ( 1
) (
)] ( 1 ln[
) / (
0
2
) (
y
y
y
u
P
w k
av
respectively, where
0
yu
y
+
and (assumed greater than y
>
s
=
) (
) (
) (
3
0
y y
y y
u
y y
d
w
where
w
is such as to make the profile continuous at y = y
=
d d
d
av
y y
y
y y
y u
3
0
)
ln(
Advanced turbulence modelling 29 David Apsley
Q15. (Rough and smooth walls)
A generalised form of the loglaw meanvelocity profile which satisfies both smooth and
roughwall limits can be written in wall units as
B
ck
y
U
s
+
+
=
+
+
+
)
1
ln(
1
(*)
where , B and c are constants and
u
U
U =
+
,
y u
y =
+
,
s
s
k u
k =
+
y is the distance from the wall, u
\

+ =
f
s
f
c
D
k
c Re
26 . 1
7 . 3
log 0 . 4
1
10
deduce values for , B and c.
(c) Show that (*) can also be written in the form
) (
~
ln
1
+ + +
+ =
s
k B y U (**)
and deduce the functional form of ) (
~
+
s
k B .
(d) In the fullyrough limit ( 1 >>
+
s
k ) (**) can be written as
k
s
B
k
y
U + =
+
ln
1
Use your answers to parts (b) and (c) to deduce a value for B
k
.