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ME 661 : Machining Science I

Instructor : Dr. S.K. Choudhury (choudhry@iitk.ac.in)

Northern Lab, Mfg. Sc. Lab., NL-A115

1. Introduction
Machining; Plastic Deformation, Tensile Test, Stress and Strain; Mechanism of Plastic
Deformation: Slips, defects, plastic deformation on atomic scale.

2. Machining Process
Types of machining processes; Chip formation; Orthogonal and Oblique Cutting; Types
of Chips; Build-up edge formation.

3. Tool Geometry
Reference planes; Tool specification: American System (ASA), continental or
Orthogonal System (ORS), International or Normal Rake system (NRS); Tool angle
relationships in ORS and ASA and NRS; Selection of Tool Angles; Multiple-point
cutting tools: twist drill, helical milling cutter.

4 . Mechanics of Metal Cutting
Merchant's Circle Diagram; Co-efficient of Friction: Determination of stress, strain and
strain rate; Measurement of shear angle; Thin Zone model: Lee and Shaffer's
Relationship; Thick Zone model: Okushima and Hitomi Analysis

5. Friction in Metal Cutting
Nature of sliding friction; Friction in Metal Cutting: Sticking and Sliding Zones,
Determination of mean angle of friction.

6. Mechanism of Oblique cutting
Normal Rake angle, velocity rake angle and effective rake angle; shear angles; velocity
relationship; Force relationships in oblique cutting.

7. Practical Machining Operations
Turning, shaping and planning, Slab milling, Drilling: Machining Parameters, force
magnitudes, power consumption, material removal rate, time per pass.

8. Measurement of cutting Forces
Basic methods of measurement: Axially Loaded members, Cantilever Beam, Rings and
Octagon, dynamometer requirements; machine tool dynamometers.

9. Tool Material, Tool Wear and Tool Life .
Types of tool wear; Mechanisms of wear: Abrasion, Adhesion and Diffusion.
Progressive tool wear: flank and crater wear. Tool Life: variables affecting tool life -
cutting conditions, tool geometry, Types of tool materials, fabrication of cutting inserts,
coatings, work material and cutting fluid; Machinability and their criteria.

10. Economic of Machining
Minimum Production Cost Criterion; Maximum Production Rate Criterion, and
Maximum Profit Rate Criterion. Restrictions on cutting conditions: maximum power
restriction, speed restriction, force and vibration restriction, surface finish restriction.

11. Thermal Aspects of Machining
Distinct regions of heat generation; Equations of Heat Flow: heat Flow due to
conduction, heat flow due to transportation, heat absorbed and heat generated; Average
Shear Plane temperature; Average Chip-tool interface Temperature; Experimental
determination of cutting temperatures.

12. Abrasive Machining Process
Introduction: Types of abrasive machining processes; Grinding; types and characteristics;
characteristics and specification of grinding wheels; Mechanics of Grinding Process;
Determination of chip length in Grinding; Size effect; Wheel wear; Thermal Analysis;
Honing and Lapping.


1. E.J .A. Armarego and R.H.Brown-The machining of Metals
2. G Boothroyd-Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine tools
3. A.Ghosh and Asok Mallik- Machining Science
4. G.K.Lal and S.K.Choudhury-Fundamental of Manufacturing Processes
5. M.C.Shaw-Metal Cuttting Principles

Course weightage:

1. Mid Semester Examination 40%
2. End semester examination 45%
3. Term Paper 10%
4. Overall Performance 5%


1. Trans. of ASME: J ournal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering.
2. International J ournal of Machine Tools and Manufacturing.
3. Annals of CIRP.
4. J ournal of Materials processing technology.
5. Precision Engineering.
6. International J ournal of Mechanical Sciences.
7. Proceedings, International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference.