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Wonders of the World

Arup R Pal
What is a Wonder ?
 A “wonder” is something that we find amazing.
 We find these things amazing as these are mostly
Unique i.e. without a second piece on Earth.
 These things are amazing because these things
were built at a time when the technology was not
as developed as today.
 So we ask ourselves how could these things got
built in the first place ?
How many types of wonders are there ?
 There can be two types of Wonders
 Man Made Wonders and
 Natural wonders
 Also there can be wonders from different periods
in time e.g.
 Wonders of the ancient world
 Wonders from the Medieval world and
Wonders of the modern world
Types of Wonders
 Man-made wonders
 These wonders were
build by human
beings

 Natural wonders
 These are wonders
formed by Nature
Types of Wonders
 Wonders of the Ancient World

 Great Pyramid of Giza


 Hanging Gardens of Babylon
 Statue of Zeus at Olympia
 Temple of Artemis at
Ephesus
 Mausoleum of Maussollos at
Halicarnassus
 Colossus of Rhodes
 Lighthouse of Alexandria

 Except for the Pyramid of Giza


none of the wonders of the ancient
world exist now.
Types of Wonders
Wonders of the Mediaval
World

 Stonehenge
 Colosseum
 Catacombs of Kom el
Shoqafa
 Great Wall of China
 Porcelain Tower of
Nanjing
 Hagia Sophia
 Leaning Tower of Pisa
Wonders of the Ancient World
Why did they build the Wonders ?
 Different wonders were built for different purpose.
 But all the wonders show the amazing capabilities
in-terms of Knowledge of
 Science , engineering

 Architecture , astronomy

 Use of technology

 Mathematics, Geometry

 Art etc.
Types of Wonders
Seven Wonders of The
World
 Great Wall of China
 Petra
 Christ the Redeemer
 Machu Picchu
 Chichen Itza
 Roman Colosseum
 Taj Mahal

Great Pyramid ( Honorary


Candidate )
Wonders of the Modern World
What is the Great Wall of China ?
 The Great Wall of China is a Man-made wall built over

many centuries along the earlier Chinese empire.

 The Chinese were familiar with the techniques of wall-

building by the 8th century BC.

 Major part of the wall was built during the Ming

Dynasty.

 These walls were made mostly by stamping earth and

gravel between board frames. During later part bricks

and stone got used.


Why did they build the Great Wall of China ?

 The Great wall of China was


built to protect the Chinese
empire from enemy attacks.
 Comprehensive advanced
archaeological survey, has
concluded that the entire Great
Wall, with all of its branches,
stretches for 8,851.8 km.
What is Petra ?
• On the edge of the Arabian
Desert, Petra was the glittering
capital of the Nabataean empire
of King Aretas IV (9 B.C. to 40
A.D.).
• Masters of water technology, the
Nabataeans provided their city
with great tunnel constructions
and water chambers.
What is Petra ?
• A theater, modelled on Greek-
Roman prototypes, had space
for an audience of 4,000.
• Today, the Palace Tombs of
Petra, with the 42-meter-high
Hellenistic temple facade on
the El-Deir Monastery, are
impressive examples of Middle
Eastern culture.
What is Christ the Redeemer ?
• Christ the Redeemer is a statue of

Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro,


Brazil. It is considered the largest

art deco statue in the world

• The statue stands 39.6 metres


(130 ft) tall, including its 9.5 metre

(31 ft) pedestal, and 30 metres

(98 ft) wide.

• It weighs 635 tons (700 short tons).


Why was Christ the Redeemer built ?
• The statue of Christ the
Redeemer is a very important
symbol of Brazil's Catholicism.

• It is made of reinforced
concrete and soapstone.

• Construction took nine years,


from 1922 to 1931. The
monument was opened on
October 12, 1931
What is Machu Picchu ?
 Machu Picchu (pronounced Machu
Pikchu, "Old Peak",) is a pre-
Columbian Inca site located
2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level.

 It is situated on a mountain ridge


above the Urubamba Valley in Peru.

 Often referred to as "The Lost City of


the Incas", Machu Picchu is one of the
most familiar symbols of the Inca
Empire.
What is Machu Picchu ?
 The Incas started building it

around AD 1430 but abandoned as


an official site for the Inca rulers a

hundred years later at the time of

the Spanish conquest of the Inca


Empire.

 It was brought to international

attention in 1911 by Hiram


Bingham, an American historian.
What is Machu Picchu ?
 Since it was not plundered by the

Spanish, it is especially important as a

cultural site and is considered a sacred

place.

 Machu Picchu was built in the classical

Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls.

 Its primary buildings are the

Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and

the Room of the Three Windows.


What is Chichen Itza?
 Chichen Itza is a large pre-Columbian

archaeological site built by the Maya

civilization located in present-day

Mexico.

 Chichen Itza was a major regional focal

point in the northern Maya lowlands.

 Dominating the center of Chichén is the

Temple of Kukulkan (the Maya name

for Quetzalcoatl), often referred to as "El

Castillo" (the castle).


What is Chichen Itza?
 The Mayans succeeded in an almost

impossible mission with the completion

of their structures at Chichén Itzá. A

poetic combination of form, style,

function, religion, philosophy,

mathematics and geometry.

 A true symbiosis of all of their

intelligence and art in one location, to

be studied and admired by all that

visit.
What is the Roman Colosseum ?
 The Colosseum is one of the greatest

works of Roman Architecture and

Engineering.

 It could seat 50000 people and used for

Gladiatorial sports and public

spectacles.

 It has been estimated that about

500,000 people and over a million wild

animals died in the Colosseum games


What is the Roman Colosseum ?
• The Colosseum was built
in such a manner that
people could come in and
vacate it very quickly.
• In the Gladiatorial
sports, captured enemies,
soldiers and slaves were
made to fight each other
and animals.
What is Taj Mahal ?
 Taj Mahal was built by Mughal Emperor Shah

Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz

Mahal.

 The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example

of Mughal architecture, a style that combines

elements from Persian, Indian, and Islamic

architectural styles.

 It took around 22 years to build Taj Mahal at

an estimated cost of about Rs. 32 million at that

time.
What is Taj Mahal ?
 The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials

from all over India and Asia . Over 1,000

elephants were used to transport building

materials.

 The translucent white marble was brought from

Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade and

crystal from China. The turquoise was from Tibet

and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.

 In all, twenty eight types of precious and semi-

precious stones were inlaid into the white marble.


What is Taj Mahal ?
 The Taj Mahal is decorated in line with the Islamic
tradition.

 The decorative elements can be grouped into either


calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs.

 Throughout the complex, passages from the Qur'an are


used as decorative elements.

 The calligraphy was created by the Persian calligrapher


Abd ul-Haq, who came to India from Shiraz, Iran, in
1609.

 Higher panels are written in slightly larger script so


that they don’t appear smaller when looked from below.
Thanks