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# Calculation of basic wind velocity, v

b
:
c
dir
= 1.0 Directional factor; Section 4.2, Note 2 - Recommended value is 1.0
c
season
= 1.0 Season factor; Section 4.2, Note 3 - Recommended value is 1.0
v
bo
= 40.9 m/s Fundamental value of the basic wind velocity (3 sec gust: 50 year return period)
v
b
= 40.9 m/s Basic wind velocity; Section 4.2, (1)P Expression (4.1) [ v
b
= c
dir
* c
season
* v
bo
]
Calculation of basic velocity pressure, q
b
:

air
= 1.250
kg/m
3
Air density; Section 4.5, Note 2 - Recommended value is 1.25 kg/m
3
q
b
= 1.046 kPa Basic velocity pressure; Section 4.5, (1) Expression (4.10) [ q
b
= 1/2 *
air
* v
b
2
]
Terrain category: I Terrain category, Table 4.1
z
0
= 0.01 m Roughness length for terrain category I, Table 4.1
z
min
= 1 m Minimum height for terrain category I, Table 4.1
z = 5.0 m Height above ground
Terrain roughness:
z
0,ll
= 0.05 m Roughness length for terrain category II, Table 4.1
z
max
= 200 m Maximum height, Section 4.3.2
k
r
= 0.170 Terrain factor depending on z
0
; Section 4.3.2, Expression (4.5) [ k
r
= 0.19 * (z
0
/z
0,ll
)
0.07
]
c
r
= 1.05 Roughness factor; Section 4.3.2, Expression (4.4)
[ c
r
(z) = k
r
* ln(z/z
o
) for z
min
z z
max
and c
r
(z) = c
r
(z
min
) for z z
min
]
Terrain orography:
c
o
= 1.0 Orography factor; Section 4.3.1, recommended value is c
o
(z) = 1.0 (Note 1).
For other types of terrain see Section 4.3.3 & Annex A.3
Mean wind velocity, v
m
:
v
m
= 43.1 m/s Mean wind velocity; Section 4.4 (1), Expression (4.7) [ v
m
(z) = c
r
(z) * c
o
(z) * v
b
]
Wind turbulence:
k
l
= 1.0 Turbulence factor; Section 4.4 (1), recommended value is 1.0.
Other may be specified by the National Annex.
Calculation of peak velocity pressure, q
p
(Clause 4.5):
z q
p
(z)
m kPa
0 - - - - 2.345
5 0.161 1 1.055 2.243 2.345
5.5 0.158 1 1.071 2.259 2.362
10 0.145 1 1.173 2.361 2.468
20 0.132 1 1.290 2.479 2.591
25 0.128 1 1.328 2.516 2.631
30 0.125 1 1.359 2.547 2.663
35 0.123 1 1.385 2.574 2.691
40 0.121 1 1.408 2.596 2.714
45 0.119 1 1.428 2.616 2.735
50 0.117 1 1.446 2.634 2.754
Notes:
Turbulence intensity I
v
(z) = k
l
/c
o
(z) * ln(z/z
o
) for z
min
z z
max
and I
v
(z) = I
v
(z
min
) for z < z
min
I
v
(z) c
r
(z) c
e
(z)
(Calculation as per Eurocode 1: EN1991-1-4-2005)
c
o
(z)
Peak velocity pressure q
p
(z) = c
e
(z) * q
b
where c
e
(z) = [1+7*I
v
(z)] * c
r
(z) * c
o
(z)
Calculation of wind load for structural member (Clause 5.3):
c
s
c
d
= 1.0 Structural factor
c
f,0
= 2.0 Force coefficient of structural elements without free-end flow

## = 1.0 End-effect factor (Figure 7.36)

c
f
= 2.0 Force coefficient [ c
f
= c
f,o
x

]
Wind load acting the depth of the member, Fd:
l = 4.00 m Length of structural member
d = 0.30 m Depth of structural member
A
ref
= 1.20
m
2
Reference area [ Aref = l x d ]
Fd = #REF! kN Wind load acting on the depth of member [ F
d
= c
s
c
d
x c
f
x q
p
(ze) x A
ref
]
Fd
d
= #REF! kN/m Wind load per meter acting on the depth of member [ F
d
= c
s
c
d
x c
f
x q
p
(ze) x d ]
Wind load acting the width of the member, Fb:
l = 4.00 m Length of structural member
b = 0.25 m Width of structural member
A
ref
= 1.00
m
2
Reference area [ Aref = l x b ]
Fb = #REF! kN Wind load acting on the width of member [ F
d
= c
s
c
d
x c
f
x q
p
(ze) x A
ref
]
Fb
b
= #REF! kN/m Wind load per meter acting on the width of member [ F
d
= c
s
c
d
x c
f
x q
p
(ze) x b ]