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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 2 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

v°æ¨¡o: 1. Present perfect continuous tense †’ passive ™éÀ ᙫ ´÷®√a--L?


2 Passive verb
. †’ à tense ™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?subject, object
í∫’Jhç-îªúøç ᙫ?
ï¢√•’: 1. Perfect continuous
– öÀ.éÀ-®Ω-ù˝- π◊-´÷®˝, íÓ®Ωçôx
tenses (present, past and future) èπ◊
Passive voice ™‰ü¿’.
2. Active voice ™ verb à tense ™ Öçô’çüÓ, Passive ™ èπÿú≈
ÅüË tense ™ Öçô’ç-C/-Öç-ú≈L.
e.g.: Active: He waters the plants everyday.- verb - waters,
tense -present simple.
sentence passive: The plants are watered by him
v°æ¨¡o: 1) -O’®Ω’ passive forms exercise ™ Four ï¢√•’: 1) Four were killed and ten were injured
Ñ èπ◊
everyday. Verb - are watered - are + pp. Passive Ñ subject, the
™
plants. (sentence subject) Verb - are
-üËEo í∫’Jç* îÁ°æ¤hçüÓ, ÅC ü∆E were killed and ten injured in the acci- Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ •ü¿’©’, were È®çúø’ clauses èπÿ äéπõ‰
watered. (subject sentence
ûª®√yûª èπ◊ Åûªuçûª ´·êu-´’-®·† ´÷ô/- dent yesterday Four were
ÅE Éî√a®Ω’. (common) 鬕öÀd, four were killed and ten, injured
´÷-ô©’, verb). killed and ten were injured in the acci- Å--ØÌa. ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’, Å®·ûË ten °æéπ\-† comma Öçõ‰
dent yesterday ÅE Öçú≈L éπü∆? clear í¬ Öçô’çC. ´÷ö«x-úË-ô°æ¤púø’, ten °æéπ\†

v°æ¨¡o: 1. Past perfect, continuous, Future per- Did you bring my book yesterday? (last day
correct.
2) ÅüË ™„Ææ-Ø˛™ transformation principles (d)
™ shall be/ should be... ©èπ◊ + 1st RDW
comma ņ™‰ç éπü∆, Åçü¿’-éπE, ten Å-E é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Ç°œ,
injured Åçö«ç. 2) ÅçûË éπü∆? e.g.: You shall do
fect
ņç) – ÉD
í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. active Å®·ûË shall be/ should be... + pp it. (AV. verb: shall + 1st RDW) DEéÀ Passive
Have + pp/ has + pp - past action, time
2. Ø√ •’é˙ BÆæ’éÌî√a®√ Åçõ‰ Ñ ®ÓV Å®Ωnç™
DEo
passive ÅØ√o®Ω’. ÉC éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? Voice: It shall be done by you -Verb: shall be +
not stated (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† °æE, à ®ÓV/ á-°æ¤p-úø’
éÀçC-¢√-öÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´î√a? 3) What nonsense are you talking?; What done - shall be + pp (done) He
time
Å-E îÁ°æp-E) Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x ¢√-úø-û√ç. Ç Nüµ¿çí¬ éπü∆? Å™«Íí
Have you bought my book. should carry it (A.V.verb: should carry - should
Have you brought my book, correct. Past nonsense you are talking . ûËú≈ -à-N’-öÀ?
Did you bring (my) book last day - + 1st RDW). Passive: It should be carried
action, time stated 4) Were you, by any chance, in college last
Ñ È®çúÕç- (í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púø’ ïJ-TçD DEéÀ
by him. Verb: should be carried (should be +
yesterday, last year etc. evening? in the college
öÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L? Å™«Íí ûÁLÊ° °æü¿ç, ) Ææç-ü¿®Ωs¥- ņ-´î√a? 鬙‰ñ¸ carried - pp)- 3) What nonsense are
Did you bring my book yesterday? cor- The
§Òü¿’l† ïJ-T† ü∆E í∫’Jç* ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´÷ö«x-úø’- ¢Á’i-ûË ûÁL-ÆœçüË éπü∆? Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L éπü∆? ÆæÈ®j-†üË éπü∆?
èπ◊-ØË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ü∆Eo present perfect ™‰ü∆ simple you talking? correct. What nonsense you are
rect.
talking correct question form 4)
past üËEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?
– áØ˛.-°ç-ôߪ’u, °∂æ’ö¸-Íé-Ææ®˝ ÅØËC é¬ü¿’-éπü∆?
Has he given the money?
has he given? (Åûªúø’ Éî√aú≈?), Has he college college
Has he taken your book? }Correct. Because
ã Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ ¢√∞¡x í∫’-Jç-* -´÷-ö«x-úË-
taken? Åûªúø’ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oú≈?– Å-ØÌî√a? ô-°æ¤púø’,in college In the college
ÅØË ÅØ√L.
has given, has taken - refer to past actions, College college
ï¢√•’: 1. Past
ņç. éÀ Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç -™‰-E-¢√∞¡Ÿx ™ Ö†o-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
– G.îªçü¿’, ÆœJ-ÊÆúø’
time not stated. past in the college e.g.: My father was
perfect, continuous, Future
(á°æ¤púø’ ïJ-TçD ûÁ-L-ߪ’E
390
°æ¤úË Åçö«ç.
actions.) in the college yesterday to meet the principal.
perfect tenses †’ í∫’-Jç-* -î √-™«
N´-®Ωçí¬ §ƒûª lessons ™ îÁ§ƒpç, (´÷ father èπ◊ college ûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’-éπü∆?).
ZPHS, Ghatkesar Teacher

Y ou ar e mistaken
îª÷úøçúÕ. Å™«Íí O’®Ω’ ™ ņ’-
You go to school at 9.30/ You
2. Have you brought my book? – †’´¤y
éÓçúÕ. Å°æ¤púø’
attend school everyday. The school
Ø√ °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁî√a¢√? (ÉC correct) éπçõ‰ O’®Ω’ school
é¬ü¿’. áçü¿’-
èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ¢√∞¡Ÿx éπ†’éπ.

v°æ¨¡o: I. a) Please inform me the proper word for i) A teacher by profession, he makes
the following. 'A' is having a job. The emol- some money on the side by writing v°æ¨¡o: 1. English ™ formal, informal 3. È®çúø÷ Åçûª Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† sentences 鬴¤.
uments paid are not sufficient to meet stories. (´%Ah-Kû√u teacher Åûª†’. words ÖØ√o®· éπü∆? Åçõ‰ ÆæÈ®j† ¢√éπuç: Among those pens the one
both ends. So 'A' is doing another job, to éπü∑¿©’ ®√Æœ ´’J-éÌçûª Ææ秃-Cç--èπ◊ç- àN’öÀ? with the black refill is mine OR Among
have more salary to meet. - I am wishing ö«úø’.) 2. '´÷ô ûª°æp-úøç— – ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ those the pen with the black refill is mine.
some sentence and words, whether they ii) A teacher, writing stories is his à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? O’ sentences ™ mine among those ÅØËC
are correct or not? sideline (sideline = a job in addi-
tion to the main job)
3. The pen which has black ÆæÈ®j† word order é¬ü¿’. É™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ clarity
1. A second string to the bow. M.SURESAN î√-™« ´·êuç. Åçü¿’-éπE, Among those pens,
refill is mine among those.
2. A substitute job to meet the demand. iii) a) A second string to the bow: The correct
form of this expression is, a) Have more The pen that has black refill is mine among ´·ç-ü¿’çõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC.
3. Mercenary (Adj). -Ñ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ single word
then string to your bow; b) Have another/ those – OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®é˙d? ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ? 4. The pens that are blue in colour, correct.
or sentence
(The blue pens are mine/ mine are the
ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. more strings to your bow. 4 The pens that are blue in colour are mine.
.
ï¢√•’: I Hope you don't mind noting the fol-
– >.N. °æü∆t-´A, äçíÓ©’ The meaning of these expressions is, "to have The pens those are blue in colour are blue pens simple
Åçõ‰ Éçé¬ éπü∆?)
more than one plan, idea or skill you can use mine. - OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®é˙d? 5. È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰. Å®·ûË sentence *´®Ω ´*a-†-
lowing: We don't say: a) A is having a job, b) it you need to." It does not mean an addition- °æ¤púø’ 'depend upon' better. I depend on
5 Depend on, depend upon -
To meet both ends; but we say: a) A has a job, al job.
. ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ?
him - depend, sentence -´’üµ¿u™ ´*açC
b) To make both ends meet. 6
b) A substitute job means a job that you do
(@Nûªç í∫úÕ-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ . †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»´¤, †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ 鬕öÀd, on ¢√ú≈ç (upon ¢√úÕØ√ ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’).He
î√L-†çûª Ææ秃-Cç-îªôç) instead of the job that you are doing now, °æú≈f´¤. - is not to be depended upon - Ééπ\úø depend
II. a) Doing a second job for additional income not an additional job. You have mistak-
sentence *´®Ω ´*açC. 鬕öÀd depend upon
Ñ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
= Make (some, a little, etc) money on the c) Mercenary means doing anything just for en, You are mistaken
side the sake of money. The men who work for a
ÅE ®√ߪ’-´î√a? É™« ¢√úøôç better (on ¢√úÕØ√ ûª°æ¤p ™‰ü¿’).
7 Happy Sankranti to everybody.
6. †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»´¤ = You have made a
.
b) A job a person does in addition to their main goonda are mercenaries because they do Happy Sankranti everybody.
mistake. †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-°æ-ú≈f´¤ = You are mis-
– OöÀ™ àC
= a sideline. anything just for money.
taken. You have mistaken - Ñ sentence
éπÈ®é˙d?
v°æ¨¡o: éÀç-C-¢√é¬u-™x -¢Á·-ü¿-öÀ-C -O’ lesson -™ -É-*-aç-C. form; 2) the be form + the ... ing form; 3) The
be form + the past participle; 4) have/ has/
8. Enter the house, enter into the house ™ -àç -§Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’ -îËÆœç-D -îÁ°æp-ôç -™‰-ü¿’, sen-
´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ? tence °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’. You have mistaken him
had/ shall have/ will have, etc... + past par-
È®ç-úÓ -¢√éπuç èπÿ-ú≈ ÆæÈ®j-†-üË-Ø√? é¬éπ-§Ú-ûË éπÈ®é˙d
9. English vocabulary éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´’ç* for his brother - ÅûªE ûª´·túÕ-E /ņo†’ Åûª-
-¢√éπuç -ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ. ticiple; 5) The Doing Words and 6) shall,
1. If you study well. (If you are study well.) should, will, would etc + the 1st RDW.
°æ¤Ææhéπç Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ. -úÕí¬ §Ò®Ω-•-ú≈f´¤ †’´¤y. You have mistaken
2. He went to a movie last night. (He went You see that are (be form) + study (1 st
ï¢√•’: 1.Formal Åçõ‰ ã °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç îËÊÆ ÅE,
– Ç®˝.-P´, È®j™‰y-éÓ-úø÷®Ω’ ÅE ´C-™‰ÊÆh -ü∆Eo -á-™« §Ò®Ω-•-úÕçC ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’.
for a movie last night.) RDW) is not among the 6 forms of the verb. 7. Both are correct. Happy sankranthi to
3. Whom do you help? (Whom do you help be from
í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ: Doing Words
ûª®√yûª ´·êuçí¬ ´÷†´ Ææç•ç-üµ∆-™x. °ü¿l-¢√-∞¡}ûÓ, íÌ°æp everybody = v°æA ¢√Jéà džçü¿ Ææçvé¬çA.
to?) ¢√∞¡}ûÓ, ´’†èπ◊ -Åçûªí¬ °æJ-îª-ߪ’ç-™‰E ¢√∞¡}ûÓ– -á-™« Happy Sankranthi every body = (O’ áü¿’-
4. She came here to join a college. (She
®√ØË-®√´¤.
2. Went for a movie
-Åç-õ‰ -Å-™« -´÷-ö«x-úøç éπ-ü∆?(ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©ûÓØÓ, ņo-ü¿- ®Ω’í¬ Ö†o-¢√-∞¡}†’)every body ÅE °œL*
came here to join in a college.
ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. ´·t-©-ûÓØÓ -´÷-ö«x-úÕ-†-ô’x). î√-™« íı®Ω-´çí¬, ã °æü¿l¥-
5. To join a software institute. (To join in a 3. ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’. Help ûª®√yûª to preposition ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ¨¡Ÿ¶µº-Ææç-vé¬çA ûÁ-©°æôç.
®√ü¿’. (I help/ helped him Åçö«-¢Ë’ -é¬-F Aí¬ ¢√JûÓ ´÷ö«-x-úøû√ç. ¢√∞¡xûÓ ´u´-£æ«-JçîË B®Ω’ 8. äéπ v°æüË-¨¡ç-™ éÀ v°æ¢Ë-Pç-îªôç – Enter a place.
software institute.) èπÿú≈ äéπ °æü¿l¥-Aí¬ Öçô’çC. ÉC formal. äéπ offi-
6. How are you? (How you are?) I help/ helped to him ņç) ä°æpçü¿ç èπ◊ü¿’-®Ω’a-éÓ-´úøç, Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™éÀ Cí∫úøç
cer ûÓØÓ, ã °ü¿l ´uéÀh-ûÓØÓ ´’†ç formal í¬ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, enter into an agreement/ into
4. Join in ûª°æ¤p. Join a college correct.
Öçö«ç. ´’† friends ûÓ informal í¬ Öçö«ç.
ï¢√•’: 1. If you are study well - ÉC ûª°æ¤p-éπü∆? a conversation, etc.
– ñ„.G.Æœ. ê´’tç
5. ÉC èπÿú≈ -´·-ç-ü¿’ -¢√éπuç ™«í¬ØË. ´’† ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’™-ûÓ, ´·êuçí¬ ûª©’x-©ûÓ informal 9. Vocabulary
6. How you are? ÉC correct question form
Are study verb from
éπçô÷ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ -ÖçúË °æ¤Ææh-鬙‰
™«çöÀ
Please remember: The verb must be in
™‰ü¿’ éπü∆?
é¬ü¿’ í∫ü∆?(Question: Verb always before
í¬ Öçö«ç. îªü¿-´-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. O©-®·-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x English
2. Failing the word - fail your / his/ their word.
one of the 6 forms given here: 1) The be the subject)
îªü¿-´çúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm