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SHELL DEEPWATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS INC.

SCHEDULE Q
SPECIFICATIONS FOR TOPSIDES
PIPING SYSTEMS
1998 EDITION
"These specifications are the confidential property of Shell Deepwater Development Systems Inc. (SDDS), and are
intended for the use of SDDS personnel and their designees only. The unauthorized use of these specifications is strictly
prohibited. Unauthorized use or distribution of these specifications shall be subject to penalties and damage
compensation to SDDS."
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FOREWORD
Schedule Q was developed under the direction of SDDS's Backbone/Standard Solutions Team, with input from
the engineering, drafting, construction, chemical, regulatory and producing operations communities.
The SDDS Catalog Team will be responsible for the maintenance and distribution of Schedule Q. Questions
or comments concerning these specifications should be directed to the Catalog Team Leader or the Schedule
Q Coordinator.
The need to issue project specific addenda is acknowledged. These revisions will be handled by the Project
Facilities Engineer and copied to the Catalog Team Leader and Schedule Q Coordinator.
Revisions in government regulations and industry codes and standards will be followed by the Catalog Team and
addenda to Schedule Q will be issued on an as-needed basis. Normally, these types of revisions will not affect
Schedule Q when it has been adopted for a specific project.
Miscellaneous changes will be handled by the Catalog Team and addenda will be issued on a periodic basis.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 GENERAL PAGE
1.1 Scope ...................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 Definitions................................................................................................................. 5
1.3 Applicable Documents ............................................................................................... 6
1.4 Documents Requiring Submittal .................................................................................. 7
1.5 Conflicts Between Specifications and Drawings............................................................ 7
1.6 Code Compliance...................................................................................................... 7
2.0 MATERIALS AND DESIGN
2.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................... 8
2.2 Mill Certificates, Markings and Component Data........................................................... 8
2.2.1 Mill Certificates
2.2.2 Markings
2.2.3 Contractor Furnished Components
2.3 Piping Systems......................................................................................................... 9
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Pipe
2.3.3 Tubing and Fittings
2.3.4 Fittings and Flanges
2.3.5 Flange Bolting
2.3.6 Branch Connections
2.3.7 Vents and Drains
2.3.8 Equipment Piping
2.3.9 Insulated Piping
2.3.10 Thread Sealant
2.3.11 API 5LX Grade Piping Systems
2.3.12 Low Temperature (to -50
o
F) Piping Systems
2.3.13 Impact Testing
2.4 Valves .................................................................................................................... 18
2.4.1 Acceptable Valve Lists
2.4.2 General Requirements
2.4.3 Ball Valves
2.4.4 Check Valves
2.4.5 Valves for Marine Piping Systems
2.4.6 Valves for Sour Service
2.4.7 Butterfly Valves
2.4.8 Three-Way Valves
2.4.9 Diaphragm Valves
2.5 Protection of Components ........................................................................................ 21
3.0 COATINGS......................................................................................................................... 21
4.0 HEAT INSULATION............................................................................................................. 21
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5.0 PIPE SUPPORTS
5.1 General Requirements .............................................................................................. 21
5.2 Support Design ........................................................................................................ 22
5.3 U-Bolts.................................................................................................................... 22
5.4 Pipe Shoes.............................................................................................................. 23
5.5 Copper-Nickel (Cu-Ni) Piping Systems ....................................................................... 23
5.6 Fiberglass (RTR) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Piping Systems ................................... 23
Appendices
1 Approved Pipe, Fitting, Flange, Bolting and Gasket Manufacturers
2 Branch Connection Schedules
3 Valve Notes and Description Codes
4 Industrial Piping Systems, Pressure / Temperature Ratings per ASME B31.3
5 Marine Piping Systems, Pressure / Temperature Ratings per ASME B31.1
6 Pipeline and Flowline Riser Piping Systems, Pressure / Temperature Ratings
7 HPV and LPD Details
8 Needle and Gauge Valve Descriptions
9 Piping Specification Class Descriptions
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1.0 GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
This Specification defines the material and design requirements for topsides piping systems.
Fabrication, welding, inspection and testing requirements are included in Schedule FF.
1.2 DEFINITIONS
The following definitions shall apply to this Specification:
a. "INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEMS" shall mean services and associated piping systems
within the jurisdiction of the United States Mineral Management Service. Industrial
services used for the topsides are listed in Appendix 9.
b. "MARINE PIPING SYSTEMS" shall mean services and associated piping systems within
the jurisdiction of the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Marine services used for the
topsides are listed in Appendix 9.
c. "COMPONENT" shall mean any part or parts of a module, skid, equipment, instruments,
piping system or pipe spools.
d. "AFC DRAWINGS" shall mean designated Approved-For-Construction drawings and
revisions thereof which show the systems in enough detail to allow material order and
construction.
e. "APPROVE", "APPROVAL", or "APPROVED" shall mean SDDS's written approval of a
plan, procedure, process, construction/fabrication method, technique, etc. submitted by
CONTRACTOR for REVIEW.
f. "CONTRACTOR" shall mean the responsible party(s) identified in the contract documents
or purchase order.
g. "NDE" shall mean nondestructive examination and may be visual, ultrasonic, radiographic,
magnetic particle, dye penetrant, hydrostatic testing, leak testing or any other testing
procedure the intent of which is to verify that the completed WORK meets the
requirements of the AFC DRAWINGS and SPECIFICATIONS without inflicting damage to
the tested system.
h. "P&ID" shall mean the Piping and Instrument Diagrams or Mechanical Flowsheets which
define the project mechanical design details.
i. REVIEW" shall mean SDDS's right, but not obligation, to comment on a plan, procedure,
etc. submitted by CONTRACTOR. CONTRACTOR may proceed with implementation of
the plan or procedure after submittal unless instructed otherwise by SDDS.
j. "SDDS" shall mean Shell Deepwater Development Systems Inc.
k. "SDDS REPRESENTATIVE" shall mean SDDS's designated on-site personnel responsible
for the WORK.
l. "SOUR SERVICE" shall mean a hydrocarbon service where the partial pressure of
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hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S) is greater than or equal to 0.05 psi.
m. "SPECIFICATIONS" shall mean all specifications which apply to the Topsides Piping
Systems either through contract documents, applicable industry standards, SDDS
standard specifications, or other applicable codes and government regulations.
n. "WORK" shall mean any portion of the materials, fabrication, installation, inspection
and testing of the Topsides Piping Systems.
o. The following terms used in this SPECIFICATION shall have specific meanings:
1. "Will" is used with an action by SDDS rather than CONTRACTOR.
2. "May" is used where alternatives are equally acceptable.
3. "Should" is used where a provision is preferred but not mandatory.
4. "Shall" is used where a provision is mandatory.
5. "Must" is used where a provision is a statutory requirement.
1.3 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
The following documents shall apply to this Specification:
a. ASME B31.1, Power Piping (except where superseded by items h. and i. below, for
MARINE PIPING SYSTEMS only) 1995 Edition with B31.3a-1996 Addenda and
B31.3b-1997 Addenda
b. ASME B31.3, Process Piping, 1996 Edition with B31.3a-1996 Addenda
c. ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas,
Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols, 1992 Edition
d. ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 1995 Edition
e. API 6A, Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment, 17th Edition, February 1, 1996
f. API RP 14E, Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems,
1991 Edition
g. 30 CFR, Chapter II, Part 250 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer
Continental Shelf, Subpart J - Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way, October, 1996
Edition
h. 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter I-A - Mobile Offshore Drilling Units; October, 1996
Edition
i. 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter F - Marine Engineering, Part 56 - Piping Systems and
Appurtenances; October, 1996 Edition
j. 49 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter D - Pipeline Safety, Part 192 - Transportation of Natural
and Other Gas by Pipeline; Minimum Federal Safety Standards; October, 1996 Edition
k. 49 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter D - Pipeline Safety, Part 195 - Transportation of
Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline, October, 1996 Edition
l. NACE MR-0175, Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field
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Equipment, 1993 Edition
m. Schedule FF, Specifications for Fabrication, Inspection and Testing of Piping Systems
n. Schedule J, Specifications for Heat Insulation
o. Schedule L, Specifications for Electronic and Pneumatic Instruments and Controls;
(applicable to tubing and fittings only).
p. Schedule P, Specifications for Coatings and Markings
1.4 DOCUMENTS REQUIRING SUBMITTAL
CONTRACTOR shall submit one copy of documentation as listed in Table 1.4 to the SDDS
REPRESENTATIVE.
TABLE 1.4
DOCUMENTS REQUIRING SUBMITTAL TO THE SDDS REPRESENTATIVE
DOCUMENT SUBMITTAL TIMING SDDS
ACTION
REFERENCE
Mill Certificates & Certificates
of Compliance
As received and prior
to cutting/fabrication
REVIEW 2.2.1
COMPONENT Model Nos.
and Descriptions
With bid or 4 weeks
prior to purchase
(whichever is earlier)
REVIEW 2.2.2
1.5 CONFLICTS BETWEEN SPECIFICATIONS AND DRAWINGS
CONTRACTOR shall notify the SDDS REPRESENTATIVE in the event of conflicts between
these SPECIFICATIONS, the AFC DRAWINGS or other applicable documents. SDDS will
provide a response in a timely manner.
1.6 CODE COMPLIANCE
Topsides piping systems shall be furnished, designed, constructed and tested in accordance
with the following codes and regulations, applicable sections of the ASME Code - Section VIII,
and with these SPECIFICATIONS.
a. INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEMS
1. ASME B31.3
2. API RP 14E
3. NACE MR-0175 for SOUR SERVICE
b. MARINE PIPING SYSTEMS
1. CFR Title 46, Subchapters F and I-A
2. ASME B31.1
c. Oil Export Pipeline Pig Launcher and Riser
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1. 49 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter D, Part 195
2. ASME B31.4
d. Gas Export Pipeline Pig Launcher and Riser
1. 49 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter D, Part 192
2. ASME B31.8
e. Incoming Flowline Risers and Receivers / Launchers
1. 30 CFR, Part 250, Subpart J
2. ASME B31.8
2.0 MATERIALS AND DESIGN
2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Materials shall be in accordance with applicable Piping Class Specifications and as specified
herein.
Materials for special services and alloys (other than carbon steel, P No. 1 materials) shall
conform to the requirements (hardness, impact strength, etc.) specified herein.
All materials shall be new and unused.
When the specified materials cannot be obtained, or if substitutions are necessary for other valid
reasons, substitutions may be permitted with SDDS APPROVAL.
2.2 MILL CERTIFICATES, MARKINGS AND COMPONENT DATA
2.2.1 Mill Certificates
Mill certificates signed by the mill testing laboratory shall be submitted for piping and
Certificates (or Letters) of Compliance for fittings as specified in Table 1.4. Certificates
(or Letters) of Compliance shall reference the material transfer receipts, material heat
or Serial Numbers. Third party, reformatted or other substitutes for original certificates
will not be accepted. The mill certificate shall show the results of testing required by
the material specification. This shall include impact test results when specified.
2.2.2 Markings
All COMPONENTS shall be clearly marked or stamped with data sufficient for
identification.
COMPONENTS conforming to an ASTM or ASME specifications shall be identified in
accordance with that specification.
Valves shall be marked per ASME B16.34 and provided with a tag per Appendix 3.
Improper identification is justification for rejection of a COMPONENT.
2.2.3 CONTRACTOR Furnished COMPONENTS
CONTRACTOR shall submit the manufacturer's model designations for the
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CONTRACTOR furnished COMPONENTS, including documentation that verifies the
design pressure rating, maximum service temperature and compliance with NACE MR-
0175 when appropriate.
2.3 PIPING SYSTEMS
2.3.1 General Requirements
Materials shall be in accordance with the Piping Specification Classes listed in
Appendix 9 and as described below.
Pipe, valves, flanges, fittings, etc. used for SOUR SERVICE shall be in accordance
with ASME B31.3 and NACE MR-0175. The hardness of COMPONENTS (including
welds, heat-affected zones and parent metal) shall not exceed the value permitted by
NACE MR-0175 and defined in ASTM A370 (typically HRC 22).
Approved manufacturers for pipe, fittings, flanges, bolting, gaskets, spacer rings and
pads are listed in Appendix 1.
The identification of "severe cyclic conditions" (as defined in ASME B31.3, paragraph
300.2), and its impact on the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of the affected
piping system, shall be the responsibility of the design engineers.
The following Piping Specification Classes are generic and may have to be revised and
issued in a project specific form when piping components are selected. The project
specific form is an aid to communications with drafting and construction.
a. Class "GPL" - Gas Export Pipeline Pig Launcher and Riser
b. Class "IFJ" - Incoming Flowline Risers and Receivers/Launchers
c. Class "IFT" - Incoming Flowline Risers and Receivers/Launchers
d. Class "OPL" - Oil Export Pipeline Pig Launcher and Riser
e. Class "T" - Process Hydrocarbons, H. P. Mud, H. P. Cement, Frac and Pac
f. Class "T1" - Process Hydrocarbons, Well Equalization, Well Depressuring, H.P.
Mud, Frac and Pac
g. Class "TT" - Process Hydrocarbons (Sour Service)
2.3.2 Pipe
Piping smaller than -inch nominal size shall not be used unless APPROVED by
SDDS.
Pipe nipples are sections of pipe 12 inches or less in length. All-threaded nipples shall
not be used.
The yield strength of ASTM A106 Grade B pipe in SOUR SERVICE shall not exceed 50
ksi. This requirement may be waived by the SDDS REPRESENTATIVE if the pipe
hardness does not exceed HRC 22 and the yield strength does not exceed 75 ksi.
A sufficient number of flanged connections shall be provided in socket weld piping to
permit disconnection of items such as pumps, exchangers, instruments, control
isolating valves, etc.
Piping shall be located so as not to present overhead or tripping hazards. Minimum
clear headroom for the bottom of overhead pipe, tray and supports shall be 7'-0".
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Threaded piping systems shall be isolated from welded piping systems in hydrocarbon
service by socket weld or flanged valves.
The outside diameter of fiberglass pipe may be larger than carbon steel piping per
ASME B36.10 (i.e. Bondstrand - 10" and larger sizes; Fiberbond - 14" and larger
sizes). Piping design (clearances, U-bolts, etc.) shall accommodate the larger pipe
diameters.
In cases where ASTM A106 Grade B is not available, API 5L Grade B seamless may
be substituted subject to SDDS's APPROVAL, provided at least one of the following
conditions applies:
a. May be used in all services, provided the mill analysis data show the manganese
plus sulfur to carbon ratio (Mn + S)/C to be above 3.5 to 1. Specimens taken from
each heat to be used shall meet the Charpy "V" Notch minimum energy absorption
requirement of 15 ft/lbs at 40
o
F. Tests to be conducted as described in ASTM
A370 specification.
b. May be used in non-pressured (open drain) and non-critical (fresh water, instrument
air and atmospheric vent) services, provided such lines are not located on or
directly connected to skids containing reciprocating equipment (compressors,
engines or pumps).
c. Fabricator to label all API 5L pipe with a paint system or inside marker tag, and
material traceability and identification method shall be APPROVED by SDDS.
2.3.3 Tubing and Fittings
Tubing and fittings may be used in 1" and smaller sizes when APPROVED by SDDS.
Tubing used in pressure piping applications, i.e. hydraulics, high pressure gases, utility
service stations, etc.; shall be in accordance with these specifications.
Tubing used in instrument service shall be in accordance with Schedule L.
All tubing shall be of domestic origin, unless specified or APPROVED otherwise by
SDDS, and per ASTM A269 Grade TP316; annealed; seamless or welded and drawn.
Table 2.3.3.1 provides pressure ratings for this tubing per ASME B31.3, Equation
304.1.2 (3c) (Lame' Method); for -20
o
F to 300
o
F. The table includes pressure ratings
for straight tubing and tubing installed with minimum 4D and 6D bends, along with
temperature derating factors for 300
o
F through 1000
o
F.
When selecting the tubing wall thickness, the thinning of the wall at the outside of a
bend must also be considered. This thinning can be approximated by multiplying the
selected wall thickness by the ratio R/(R+r), where R is the radius of the bend and r is
the outside radius of the tubing (OD/2). Derating factors for wall thinning shall be 0.888
for 4D bends and 0.923 for 6D bends.
Only the sizes and wall thicknesses in Table 2.3.3.1 may be used with compression
fittings, unless APPROVED otherwise by SDDS.
Tubing fittings shall be Parker A-Lok or Swagelok, with 316 SS bodies, nuts and
ferrules. The pressure ratings of the fittings may be less than a corresponding tubing
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size, and should be checked for each pressure piping application.
When tubing is used in pressure piping applications, the size, grade, wall thickness,
construction (seamless or welded and drawn), minimum bend radius and fitting
descriptions shall be specified on the P&ID's.
Coned and threaded 316 SS tubing and fittings may be used in high pressure
applications when specified by SDDS. Tubing installation shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions. Tubing systems by Autoclave and Butech are
acceptable.
Tubing for use in SOUR SERVICE shall conform to the requirements of NACE MR-
0175, unless specified or APPROVED otherwise by SDDS.
The installation and testing of tubing in pressure piping applications shall be in
accordance with Schedule FF, Section 6.6.
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TABLE 2.3.3.1
ASTM A269 GRADE TP316 TUBING -150
O
F TO 300
O
F
PRESSURE RATING, PSIG (NOTE 4)
TUBING
OD
TUBING
WALL
NO BENDS
(NOTE 1)
4D BEND RADIUS
(NOTE 2)
6D BEND RADIUS
(NOTE 2)
TEMPERATURE
DE-RATING FACTORS
W&D SEAMLESS W&D SEAMLESS W&D SEAMLESS TEMP.,
0
F FACTOR
1/4" 0.035" 4,150 5,190 3,680 4,600 3,830 4,780 UP TO 300 1,000
1/4" 0.049" 6,010 7,520 5,330 6,670 5,540 6,930 400 0.965
1/4" 0.065" 8,220 10,270 7,290 9,110 7,570 9,470 500 0.895
3/8" 0.035" 2,700 3,370 2,390 2,990 2,480 3,100 600 0.850
3/8" 0.049" 3,880 4,850 3,440 4,300 3,570 4,470 650 0.835
3/8" 0.065" 5,290 6,610 4,690 5,870 4,880 6,100 700 0.815
1/2" 0.049" 3,030 3,790 2,690 3,360 2,800 3,500 750 0.805
1/2" 0.065" 4,120 5,150 3,660 4,570 3,800 4,750 800 0.795
3/4" 0.065" 2,670 3,330 2,370 2,960 2,460 3,070 850 0.785
1" 0.065" 1,970 2,460 1,750 2,190 1,810 2,270 900 0.775
1" 0.083" 2,550 3,190 2,260 2,830 2,350 2,940 950 0.770
1,000 0.77
NOTES:
1. No bends implies the use of fittings to change directions.
2. 4D and 6D bends are4 and 6 times the tube OD respectively, i.e, use 1" bend radius for 4D on 1/4" tubing.
3. W & D pressure ratings assume single butt weld tubing with a 0.80 quality factor.
4. The pressure rating of the tubing fittigs may be the limiting factor when determining the pressure rating of a system.
5. Pressure ratings above 1000
O
F shall be reviewed on a case by case basis.
ABOVE 1,000 (NOTE 5)
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2.3.4 Fittings and Flanges
45
o
and 90
o
ells shall be long radius (1 1/2 R) unless identified and detailed otherwise
on AFC drawings. If short radius weld ells are used, they shall be derated to 80% of
the calculated allowable working pressure if subject to pulsations.
The pressure ratings of swages and bull plugs shall conform to that of pipe, including
thread allowances for threaded ends. Swages may be specified with dual ratings, i.e.
2" S/80 BLE x 1/2" S/160 TSE.
Carbon steel, stainless steel and copper-nickel flanges shall have serrated spiral finish
facing.
Flanges which mate to flat faced flanges shall be flat faced and installed with full faced
gaskets, except in Pipe Class "MR" (uses o-ring seals) or where noted otherwise on
AFC DRAWINGS.
A spacer ring (fills the gap created by the raised face flange) shall be used when
installing a copper-nickel, fiberglass, PVC or iron flange (materials subject to
unacceptable deformation or breakage) to a raised face flange. The spacer ring
material shall not be of a dissimilar metal.
Swivel flanges shall have sufficient clearance between the hub and flange to allow
coating as described in Section 3.0, without inhibiting the ability to rotate the flange on
the hub.
Mitered joints will be permitted only with SDDS APPROVAL. Joint design, service,
location, etc. shall be detailed in a submittal to the SDDS REPRESENTATIVE.
Flange bolt holes shall straddle the piping horizontal and vertical centerlines (two-
holed).
Eccentric reducers installed with the flat side up shall be used when line size
reductions are required for pump suction connections.
Bleed rings will be permitted only with SDDS APPROVAL or when detailed on the AFC
DRAWINGS.
2.3.5 Flange Bolting
Stud lengths shall have a minimum of one thread and a maximum of three threads
exposed beyond the nuts. Stud lengths shall be adjusted accordingly for use of
washers or flange-type pipe supports. Cut studs shall not be used.
Heavy hex bolts (cap screws) shall be used for bolting of lug type butterfly valves.
CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for selecting bolt lengths.
Flange bolting shall be cadmium plated except as noted below. Cadmium plating shall
be in accordance with ASTM B766, Class 8 (0.0003" plating thickness), Type II (with
a supplementary yellow chromate treatment).
Bolting shall be 316 SS for Piping Classes "MSS", "SS" and "SSB." 316 SS bolting
may also be used in Piping Class "MR" when bolting flange to flange, but not when
bolting to the Al-Br valves.
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Bolting shall be silicon bronze for Piping Classes "P", "UF", "V", "MR", "MV" and
"MVB" unless specified otherwise.
Bolting shall be cadmium plated for Piping Classes "G", "MGA", "H" and "PVC." The
cadmium plating shall be in accordance with ASTM B766, Class 25 (1 mil plating
thickness), Type II (with a supplementary green chromate treatment - green is used to
distinguish the 1 mil cadmium plated bolting from the 0.3 mil yellow cad plated bolting).
The nuts shall be tapped oversize to provide a Class 2 fit for the stud and nut
assembly.
Bolting shall be Fluoropolymer coated for Piping Classes "I" and "SP." The
Fluoropolymer coating process shall conform to the following requirements:
a. Material storage, handling, safety precautions and preparations shall be in
accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations.
b. Remove oil, grease, mill scale and other surface contaminants.
c. Solvent rinse
d. Zinc plate (approximately 0.3 mil)
e. Zinc-phosphate or manganese-phosphate conversion coating
f. Chromic acid dip (optional)
g. Apply Xylan primer (optional).
h. Apply Xylan 1014 solvent based polymer coating(s).
i. Cure coating system.
The total coating thickness shall be in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 mils. Nut threads shall
be coated, and the nuts shall be tapped over-size to provide a Class 2 fit for the stud
and nut assembly.
2.3.6 Branch Connections
Branch connections shall be in accordance with Appendix 2 or as specified in the
Piping Class Specification. Welded branch fittings shall not be located on a weld joint.
Stub-in branch connections may be used for atmospheric vents, open drains, gray
water and black water services (atmospheric operating pressures) when APPROVED
by SDDS or detailed on the AFC DRAWINGS.
Where couplings are used for branch connections, they shall be attached to the pipe
wall with a full penetration groove weld (bevel the pipe wall).
2.3.7 Vents and Drains
Drain connections and valves shall be provided at all low spots in lines. Also, vent
connections and valves shall be provided at all high spots where gas may be trapped.
In addition, sample, vent and drain valves shall be installed where indicated on SDDS's
drawings.
Sample, vent and drain valves shall be 1/2" minimum pipe size and shall be furnished
and installed in accordance with appropriate vent and drain details.
2.3.8 Equipment Piping
Pump suction and discharge headers shall not be "dummy-legged" to the next support
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beam. Headers shall be extended to the next support beam and closed with a blind
flange. Weld caps may be used if no future piping tie-ins are expected.
Temporary start-up cone or basket-type strainers (screens) shall be provided in suction
lines to mechanical equipment, including, but not necessarily limited to, pumps,
compressors, and mechanical meters, and shall be located as close as possible to the
inlet flanges. Such strainers shall have a minimum of 100% (200% if possible) of line
flow area with 1/8" diameter maximum size perforations, unless otherwise specified by
SDDS.
In lines designed to carry sand-laden fluids at erosive velocities, and in lines from the
wellheads to the production manifold, all turns shall be made with a tee and butt weld
bull plug assembly or target tee (flow-tee) to minimize sand erosion.
Block valves and bypass valves shall be provided at control valves where shown on the
AFC DRAWINGS. Spools shall be provided to permit removing a control valve without
removing isolating block valves. A drain valve shall be provided to drain liquids trapped
between isolating valves. Bypass valves around control valve stations shall be globe
valves unless noted otherwise on the AFC DRAWINGS.
2.3.9 Insulated Piping
Insulated piping shall have support slide shoes in accordance with Section 5.2. Guides
and anchors shall be installed as shown on the AFC DRAWINGS.
2.3.10 Thread Sealant
Instruments, valves, hex nipples, thermowells, etc., made of stainless steel which
screw into carbon steel couplings shall be installed with Teflon tape. Stainless steel
items, such as bleed valves, drain valves or plugs, that screw into other stainless steel
threads, shall be installed with Teflon paste to prevent galling of threads. Teflon tape
and Swagelok "Blue Goop" may be used in lieu of teflon paste.
Teflon tape or liquid teflon shall be used for all carbon steel, copper-nickel, copper,
brass and monel threaded connections.
2.3.11 API 5L X Grade Piping System
Components used in API 5L X Grade piping shall be in accordance with the following
requirements:
a. Flanges may be per ASTM A694 or MSS SP 44 using the appropriate material
grade (F42 through F70). ASTM A105 flanges with a yield strength to match the
pipe may be used if APPROVED by SDDS. When ASTM A105 materials are
specified, the purchase order shall state the matching pipe wall thickness and
grade and the required design working pressure.
b. Butt weld fittings shall be seamless per ASTM A860 or MSS SP 75 using the
appropriate material grade (WPHY-42 through WPHY-70).
c. Butt weld branch connections, other than tees, shall match the material
requirements of the branch. ASTM A105 or A694 are acceptable as specified under
flanges. Tees shall be appropriate material compatible with the run pipe (see (b)
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above).
2.3.12 Low Temperature Piping Systems
Piping Classes "ALT" and "BLT" are provided for piping systems with minimum
operating temperatures to -50 F, while Piping Classes "SS" and "SSB" are provided for
piping systems with a minimum operating temperature to -325 F. These low
temperature conditions may occur in high pressure relief, flare and blowdown systems.
Piping flexibility shall be a consideration when designing the piping layouts due to
contraction at the lower operating temperature.
2.3.13 Impact Testing
a. ASME B31.3, Chapter III - Materials
The 1994 addenda to ASME B31.3-1993 replaced the -20 F minimum temperature
for P-No. 1 materials in Appendix A with Figure 323.2.2, Minimum Temperatures
Without Impact Testing for Carbon Steel Materials. Curves define the Design
Minimum Temperatures (DMT) as a function of the wall thickness. If the DMT and
wall thickness are on or above the curve, impact testing is not required, but if below
the curve, impact testing of base materials is required. Tabulated values from the
curves with notes are provided below.
Design
Minimum
Temperature
Curve B 1)(2)
Nominal Wall
Thickness - inches
Curve A (1)(3)
Nominal Wall
Thickness inches
-20 F 0.54 (3)
-10 F 0.57 (3)
0 F 0.63 (3)
10 F 0.72 (3)
15 F 0.75 0.40
20 F 0.81 0.46
25 F 0.88 0.48
30 F 0.97 0.53
35 F 1.07 0.56
40 F 1.17 0.60
45 F 1.29 0.64
50 F 1.42 0.70

Notes:
1. Wall thicknesses which exceed the listed value for the design minimum
temperature require impact testing in accordance with ASME B31.3, Chapter
III - Materials.
2. Curve B is applicable to P-No. 1 materials, including ASTM A106 Grades B
and C and ASTM A234 Grades WPB and WPC. Curve B is also applicable
to API 5L X Grades if normalized or quenched and tempered.
3. Curve A is applicable to S-No. 1 materials, including API 5L Grades X-52,
56 and X60, except as noted above. Curve A requires impact testing for all
temperatures less than 15 F.
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The above criteria for impact testing is not applicable to ASTM A105 forgings
(flanges, socket weld fittings, etc.), and ASTM A193 B7 and A194 2H bolting, for
which ASME B31.3 lists DMT's of -20 F, -40 F and -50 F respectively.
The temperature limits and associated impact test requirements for materials not
listed in ASME B31.3 shall be determined in accordance with ASME B31.3
paragraph 323.2.3.
The DMT may be revised by SDDS to conform with the requirements of ASME
B31.3, paragraph 301.3.1 which states, "The design minimum temperature is the
lowest component temperature expected in service." Revisions to the DMT shall
be the responsibility of the design engineer and shall be identified with a note on
the line number on the P&ID as illustrated below. A delimiter may also be
necessary on the P&ID to identify the extent of the revised DMT.
16" PL-0423-120-E / PNM (50 F DMT - See Note 4)
4. Impact testing not required for a DMT of 50 F on the 16" S/120 pipe and
fittings, wall thickness = 1.218".
b. ASME B31.3, Chapter IX - High Pressure Piping
Piping Specification Classes "T" and "TT" conform to the requirements of ASME
B31.3, Chapter IX - High Pressure Piping, which requires all materials be impact
tested in accordance with paragraph K323.3, Impact Testing Methods and
Acceptance Criteria.
c. 49 CFR, Parts 192 and 195, and 30 CFR, Part 250
Piping Specification Classes "GPL" and "OPL" conform to the requirements of 49
CFR, Parts 192 and 195 respectively, and "IFJ" and "IFT" to 30 CFR Part 250.
These regulations do not specify impact testing for listed materials beyond that
required by the applicable material specification.
The design engineer shall be responsible for determining if impact testing of base
materials is required.
2.4 VALVES
2.4.1 Acceptable Valve Lists
Acceptable Valve Lists are provided with (or referenced in) the Piping Specification
Classes, while the Valve Code Descriptions and General Notes are listed in
Appendix 3.
Valve model numbers listed in the Acceptable Valve Lists are updated per the
manufacturer's latest published information. In the event that a valve model number
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is found to be incorrect, or is no longer manufactured, or specific details (e.g., SS
trim) regarding the valve can no longer be furnished, CONTRACTOR shall notify
SDDS's REPRESENTATIVE to resolve the matter.
When a specific valve type is called out on AFC DRAWINGS, that valve shall be
furnished in lieu of those listed in the Acceptable Valve Lists.
2.4.2 General Requirements
Steel valves shall be in accordance ASME B16.10 and ASME B16.34, including
applicable working and hydrotest pressures. Working pressures per API 6D (which
are currently lower than in ASME B16.34) are not acceptable.
Flanged end valves shall have cast-on or forged flanges unless specified or
APPROVED otherwise by SDDS.
Open-ended threaded valves shall be provided with 316 SS hex head plugs.
Open-ended socket weld valves shall be threaded at the open end and provided with
a removable 316 SS hex head plug, or shall have an integral forged or welded nipple
threaded and capped at the exposed end.
Open-ended flanged valves shall be provided with blind flanges. When indicated on
the P&ID's, blind flanges shall be drilled, tapped and provided with a -inch needle
valve and 316 SS hex head plug.
2.4.3 Ball Valves
Ball valves 1-1/2" and smaller shall have 316 SS balls and stems unless specified
otherwise. All 1/2" and 3/4" threaded ball valves shall have a full open port with 316 SS
body and trim unless specified otherwise.
Ball valves 2" and larger shall generally be provided with electroless nickel-plated,
chrome-plated, or 304 or 316 SS balls and stems. 316 stainless balls and stems shall
be provided for severe corrosive service conditions (i.e., produced water, injection
seawater (upstream of deoxygenator) and saltwater service).
Ball valves shall generally be trunnion mounted in larger sizes, especially in high
pressure services, and in services where extremely low differential pressures may be
encountered. As a guide, ball valves larger than 4" bore size in ASME/ANSI Classes
150 and 300, larger than 1-1/2" bore size in ASME/ANSI Class 900 and higher classes
shall generally be trunnion mounted. Floating ball and floating-type, non-lubricated plug
valves may be considered for sizes outside this guideline, provided that the required
operating torque is acceptable for the application and that expected differential
pressures will be high enough to insure an effective seal.
Unless specified otherwise, ball valves shall be provided with a handwheel or manual
gear operators as listed below. In general, manual gear operators are used when
breakaway torques exceed 5000 inch-pounds:
Pressure Class Valve Bore
ASME/ANSI Class 150 8" and larger
ASME/ANSI Class 300 and 600 6" and larger
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ASME/ANSI Class 900 4" and larger
ASME/ANSI Class 1500 3" and larger
API 5000 psig 3" and larger
ASME/ANSI Class 2500 3" and larger
Socket weld ball valves shall not be used unless specified otherwise by SDDS.
Only full-open, conduit-type valves shall be used in sphere/pig launching and receiving
service. Orbit valves shall not be used, as a sphere may stop in the valve due to
significant flow paths in the valve body cavity.
2.4.4 Check Valves
Check valves shall be horizontal swing type, unless specified otherwise by SDDS.
Piston check valves shall be used with reciprocating compressors, centrifugal
compressors and high volume reciprocating pumps.
Piston check or tilting disk swing check valves shall be used with multi-stage
centrifugal pumps (oil pipeline and waterflood injection).
All full bodied check valves 1" and larger shall be furnished with bolted bonnets, and
bonnets shall be 1/2" NPT tap with plug. Clapper stops shall not be attached by
means of this bonnet tap.
All check valves in hydrocarbon service shall have bolted bonnets. Threaded bonnets
shall not be used unless specified or APPROVED otherwise by SDDS.
Check valves installed beneath relief valves (PSV) shall have the appropriate 1/2"
MNPT x 1/4" FNPT needle/test valve installed in the bonnet with a Cajon 1/2" SS-A
adaptor.
2.4.5 Valves for MARINE PIPING SYSTEMS
Valves in MARINE PIPING SYSTEMS must meet USCG requirements for acceptable
materials, valve construction and connections, etc., as related to the designated piping
service and referenced USCG piping classification. Valves employing resilient material
shall be divided into three categories as described below.
Positive shutoff valves (designated Category "P" by SDDS) are valves which are of
steel, ductile cast iron or a ductile, nonferrous alloy having a melting point above
1700
o
F. Valves shall have fire resistant packing, and metal-to-metal seating or
resilient seating that allows essentially no leakage after removal of resilient seating
material at full rated pressure [less than 10 ml/hr. (.34 fluid oz./hr.) of liquid or 3
liters/hr. (.11 std CF/hr.)of gas per inch nominal size.]
Category "A" valves are those valves employing a resilient material that would
provide effective closure of the line and would not allow appreciable leakage from
the valve if the resilient material were damaged or destroyed. The closed valve must
pass less than the greater of five percent or 15% divided by the Square Root of the
Nominal Pipe Size of its fully open flow rate through the line after complete removal
of all resilient seating material or equivalent and testing at full-rated pressure.
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Category "B" valves are those valves employing resilient material that would not
provide effective closure of the line or would permit appreciable leakage from the
valve if the resilient material were damaged or destroyed. These valves contain
resilient seating or packing material, nonmetallic composition discs or similar
components and have not passed one of the above tests.
2.4.6 Valves for SOUR SERVICE
Additional requirements for valves in SOUR SERVICE include the following
a. Body and Bonnet
Acceptable materials shall be in accordance with ASTM A105, A216 Grade WCB,
A350 Grades LF1 and LF2 or A352 Grade LCB.
AISI 400 series stainless steel shall not be used.
b. Bolting
Body to bonnet bolting and internal bolting shall comply with Section 6 of NACE
MR-0175.
No bolting materials with yield strengths greater than 115,000 psi shall be used.
c. Internal Trim
AISI 400 Series stainless steel and precipitation hardened martensitic stainless
steel such as 17-4 PH and AISI 4340 shall not be ACCEPTABLE. Other materials
listed in NACE MR-0175 shall be ACCEPTABLE if within the hardness limits
designated therein.
Valves shall be tagged by the manufacturer to indicate compliance with NACE MR-
0175.
2.4.7 Butterfly Valves
Elastomer lined butterfly valves shall be installed without gaskets when recommended
by the valve manufacturer.
2.4.8 Three-Way Valves
Three-way valves shall be specified on the AFC DRAWINGS or data sheets.
Acceptable manufacturers include Tufline (Figure Nos. 037/037EG), Jamesbury (Figure
Nos. AM150/DM150) and Rockwell-Nordstrom (Figure Nos. 27XXX).
2.4.9 Diaphragm Valve
Diaphragm valves shall be specified on the AFC DRAWINGS or data sheets.
Acceptable valves are ITT Engineered Valves, No. 2435-903-T (2" -4") and 2435-3-T (6"
and 8").
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2.5 PROTECTION OF COMPONENTS
CONTRACTOR shall supply and maintain protective seals which shall cover openings or ports
of COMPONENTS. At no time shall these COMPONENTS be placed into a position so as to
allow foreign matter (such as blasting material, metal shavings, coatings spray, rust, mud,
scale, rags, etc.) to contaminate their interior or damage the COMPONENT. The completed
COMPONENTS shall be shipped with openings properly covered. Acceptable protective seals
or covers shall be in order of preference: (1) manufacturer's supplied seals, (2) plywood or metal
plates attached with cadmium plated bolts or SS (stainless steel) wire or (3) equivalent plastic
plugs.
3.0 COATINGS
Coatings shall be applied to piping systems and equipment in accordance with Schedule P, Coatings
and Markings Specifications. This shall include carbon steel flange bolt holes and the flange face not
in contact with the gasket or process media.
Exposed threads in galvanized threaded piping shall be brush blasted, then coated with 1 coat of
Carboline 858 or SDDS APPROVED equal. Any other damaged galvanizing shall be protected in the
same manner. All "rough spots" shall be feathered first.
4.0 HEAT INSULATION
Heat insulation for heat conservation (HC) and personnel protection (PP) shall be applied to piping
systems and equipment as shown on the P&ID's and AFC DRAWINGS. The materials and installation
shall be in accordance with Schedule J, Specifications for Heat Insulation.
5.0 PIPE SUPPORTS
5.1 General Requirements
Piping shall be supported as necessary to prevent sagging, mechanical stresses and vibration.
Holes in pipe supports for bolts and clamps shall be drilled or punched, and deburred or ground
smooth. Pipe support surfaces (including bolt holes) shall be coated. Location and spacing
of supports shall be provided in project specific documents.
Welded attachments (lugs, dummy legs, etc.) to piping systems for use as pipe supports shall
not be used without prior SDDS APPROVAL.
Flange supports shall not be used unless APPROVED otherwise by SDDS due to fabrication
and assembly problems.
Piping (except when supported on pipe shoes) shall be fastened to pipe supports with the
appropriate size, hot-dip galvanized U-bolts, and installed with hot-dip galvanized, heavy hex
nuts, unless noted otherwise in project "tie" specifications and/or on the AFC DRAWINGS. U-
bolts shall be in accordance with the standard U-bolt details on the AFC DRAWINGS and as
described below.
Piping in areas subject to significant mechanical vibration or line pressure pulsations, including
piping on reciprocating compressors, engine or pump skids and reciprocating pumps, shall be
fastened to rigid pipe supports with bolted pipe clamps in lieu of U-bolts. A 1/8" thick liner and
pad shall be provided between the pipe, support and clamp.
A 1/8" thick neoprene pad (use Teflon for copper-nickel and copper piping) shall be provided
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between pipe and support surface, covering the full width of the pipe support and entire contact
surface between pipe and support. Neoprene with an adhesive backing may be used, otherwise
the pad shall not be glued to the support surface unless noted on the AFC DRAWINGS.
5.2 Support Design
The design of pipe (and tray) support structures shall be based on all concurrently acting loads
transmitted into the supports. These loads include weight effects (dead and live loads), wind
effects, thermal effects (expansion and contraction), dynamic effects (flow rate changes, water
hammer, etc.), vibration effects, and the effects of support and equipment movements.
The effects of support and equipment movements may become critical on topsides modules if
primary and secondary steel deflections between the fabrication yard and after installation vary
substantially. A project specific Pipe Support Design Basis and Strategy which identifies the
appropriate load conditions and structural deflections shall be formulated by the design
engineer. This strategy may also be applicable to constructability issues.
Strategies which can be used for reducing pipe stresses and reaction loads in the pipe supports
and equipment include the following:
1. Not using u-bolts.
2. Designing flexibility into the piping system by using offsets and/or loops
3. Making pipe welds after final deflections.
5.3 U-Bolts
All u-bolts and nuts shall be hot-dip galvanized per ASTM A153 (or A123) with a minimum
coating thickness of 3 mils. All nuts shall be heavy hex.
U-bolts, except for fiberglass piping systems, shall be coated with a seamless, vulcanized, UV
resistant, 1/16" thick polyolefin material.
U-bolts for fiberglass piping systems do not require the polyolefin material coating.
Double nuts (4 per u-bolt) shall be installed on all steel and stainless steel piping systems.
Nuts shall be installed to snug the pipe to the support and secure the u-bolt to the pipe support.
Triple nuts (6 per u-bolt) shall be installed on all copper-nickel, copper and non-metallic piping
systems. Single nuts shall be installed on the top surface of the pipe support to position the
u-bolt inside surface slightly above the pipe (do not snug). Double nuts shall be installed to
secure the u-bolt to the pipe support.
Thread lengths on u-bolts with triple nuts shall be sufficient to install one nut on the top surface
of the pipe support when installed as described above.
The outside diameter of fiberglass pipe may be larger than carbon steel piping (i.e. Bondstrand
- 10" and larger sizes; Fiberbond 14" and larger sizes). U-bolts and spacing of U-bolt holes in
pipe supports shall accommodate these larger pipe diameters.
5.4 Pipe Shoes
Piping insulated for heat conservation shall have support slide shoes, guides and stops as
detailed on the AFC DRAWINGS . Pipe shoes may be omitted for operating temperatures less
than 180?F when APPROVED by SDDS.
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Pipe shoes, guides and stops are not required on piping insulated for personnel protection
unless detailed otherwise on the AFC DRAWINGS.
A 1/8" thick teflon pad is not required between pipe shoes and supports, except for exhaust
piping. The teflon shall be glued to the support with a suitable adhesive paste.
5.5 Copper-Nickel (Cu-Ni) Piping Systems
Pipe supports for copper-nickel piping systems shall have special design and placement
considerations to account for copper-nickel's high coefficient of expansion. Piping supports
shall have Teflon pads (or liners) or other suitable material to prevent chafing damage to the
piping. Where piping may be submerged, pipe supports shall be insulated from the piping to
prevent galvanic corrosion.
Copper-nickel piping shall not be in direct contact with steel structures or steel pipe supports
except in the special case of bulkhead penetrations which will be detailed on AFC DRAWINGS.
5.6 Fiberglass (RTR) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Piping Systems
Supports and spacing for fiberglass and PVC piping systems shall be in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.